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Our Lady of Fatima University

Research and Development Center

Pathophysiology
The term hemorrhoid is usually related to the symptoms caused by hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are present in healthy individuals. In fact, hemorrhoidal columns exist in utero. When these vascular cushions produce symptoms, they are referred to as hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids generally cause symptoms when they become enlarged, inflamed, thrombosed, or prolapsed.Most symptoms arise from enlarged internal hemorrhoids. Abnormal swelling of the anal cushions causes dilatation and engorgement of the arteriovenous plexuses. This leads to stretching of the suspensory muscles and eventual prolapse of rectal tissue through the anal canal. The engorged anal mucosa is easily traumatized, leading to rectal bleeding that is typically bright red due to high blood oxygen content within the arteriovenous anastomoses. Prolapse leads to soiling and mucus discharge (triggering pruritus) and predisposes to incarceration and strangulation.Although many patients and clinicians believe that hemorrhoids are caused by chronic constipation, prolonged sitting, and vigorous straining, little evidence to support a causative link exists. Some of these potential etiologies are briefly discussed below. (Scott C Thornton)
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Our Lady of Fatima University


Research and Development Center

Case Study: Internal Hemmorhoid


Submitted By: (BSN 3y3-12C) Pescadera, Karen Mae Ramos, Sheedy Reyes, Gillian Santiago, Emmarie Jane Santos, Cydny Dior Serrano, Prezts Sierra, Testa Ayla Sta Maria, Jennilyn Valeros, Crissant Verayo, John Rheinel

Submitted to: Mrs. Maria Sheila Mujemulta

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