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" "The Theory "The Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition." "Models of the Principal Music Forms. (Royal Wurttemburg Professor) Author of "The Material used in Musical Composition." etc. SCHIRMER ." "Applied Counterpoint" "Lessons in Music Form.EXERCISES IN ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT BY PERCY GOETSCHIUS." "Exercises in MelodyWriting. Doc." Mus. Fifth Edition NEW YORK G. and Practice of Tone-Relations.

SCHIRMER J1946 . By G.Copyright. 1910.

Dedicated to Sfomfe Samroarij IN CORDIAL RECOGNITION OF HIS SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO MUSICAL EDUCATION IN AMERICA .

.

it In the author's mind as in Counterpoint. It represents a course in Harmony. and thus gradually arrive at four-part harmony.PREFACE. and also to a constantly strength- ening belief that the most rational. February. though a general knowledge of the chords will facili- tate the study of this book. and its acquisition will fully prepare the student to undertake the subsequent tasks in homophonic and polyphonic composition. The present volume is intended its title and expected to cover more ground than quite as implies. all an extensive Dreraratory knowledge Harmony is necessary. will have developed naturally into " Counter- point ". much owes its inception to the author's often expressed conviction that these two courses of study cannot be separated. of For not at this reason. from that to three." The full four-part texture. New York. and is therefore recommended. Such general familiarity may be gained by the study of Part II of of my " Material. quickest and best way to acquire a thorough knowledge of the chords and their uses (the recognized purpose of the study of Harmony) is to begin with one part. to pass from that to full two. THE AUTHOR." or Chapters III to XXX my " Tone-Relations. 1910. as system- atized in these chapters. when approached itself in this way. .

.

Exercise 5 23 Chapter VI. Major Mode Fundamental Intervals. Exercise 7 Rhythmic Diversity. continued. PAGE Introduction Chapter i Tee Single Melodic I. Mode Corresponding ir 15 Exercise 3 Chapter IV. Rhythm. or Shifted Rhythm. Wider Leaps Exceptional Progressions. Stepwise Progressions and Nar5 7 Exercise Chapter LT. and the Minor 8 11 Exercise 2 Chapter HI. Rests 51 Exercise 11 56 57 62 as Amplified Chapter XEL Four Notes to each Beat Four Notes to each Beat. 24 28 Exercize 6 Chapter VII.TABLE OF CONTENTS. Two and Three 47 50 Notes to each Beat Exercise 10 Chapter XL The Tle. vii Exercise 12 Chapter XJH. The Association op Two Melodic Lines. Two Notes to each Beat 29 36 Chapter VUL Modulations Exercise 8 37 41 43 Chapter IX. Three Notes to each Beat Syncopation. Chapter X. Exercise 9 46 Ties. row Leaps i Line. Forms 63 Exercise 13 67 . Minor Mode Exceptional Intervals Exercise 4 15 20 22 Chapter V. Fundamental Intervals.

Altered Scale96 99 Chapter XIX. Four-part Counterpoint (Analysis) 138 145 Exercise 25 Chapter XXVI. and Secondary Chords. Three 114 121 Exercise 21 Chapter XXH. Amplified Exercise 24 Harmony. Three-part Counterpoint 106 113 Exercise 20 Chapter XXI. Melody Harmonization with Pri83 91 mary Chords Exercise 16 Chapter XVII. Motive-Development. Sequences 92 94 Exercise 17 Chapter XVLII. Four 146 149 Appendix 151 .V1H Chapter XIV. The Small Invention. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Diversity of Rhythmic Movement in the Two Parts 67 72 Exercise 14 Chapter XV. Diatonic and Chromatic. Sequences Modulation Contrapuntal Primary 122 Exercise 22 126 126 131 Chapter XXHI. Parts Motive-Development. Steps Exercise 18 Modulation. Simple and ioi 105 Chapter XX. The Small Invention. Exercise 23 Chapter XXIV. Melody Harmonization. The Small Invention Exercise 15 73 81 Chapter XVI. Three-part Harmony. Three Parts. Imitation. Secondary Chords. Four Parts. Parts Exercise 26 Motive-Development. Simple and 132 137 Chapter XXV. Contrapuntal Amplified Exercise 19 Harmony. Four-part Harmony.

Music. i. than any other art-creation lines are visible the difference being that in the drawing the in and constant. . theoretically considered." it As several tone-lines are usually being traced simultaneously. rising. in lateral order. a succession of i . in solid bodies of tone. the tones i.: EXERCISES IN ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT INTRODUCTION. V) tones. The process by which agreement is assured is commonly known # * different as " Harmony. or harmony. or successively. directly analogous to the linear impressions conveyed by a picpoising. melody (Ex. or harmonize with each other. follows that several corresponding melodies may. known as Chords and second. falling. It more nearly resembles a . usually or melodies. pal. we shall For example. it is evident that they should agree. The same i. is not apprehended that of single tones. Ex 1. appear together. or an architectural drawing. most prominent line. arranged suc- cessively. while is music they are audible and in motion. each separate tone of which in may be a point some tone-line (Ex. are inclined to regard music merely as a series of chords. ." columns. it ii i J f n this defini- It is of the utmost importance that the music student should adopt and cultivate the habit of apprehending music according to tion. however. in vertical or simultaneously. Tone-line. The separate tones are the points through which the lines are intended. # Tones are associated in two ways : First. consists altogether of Lines of tone. curves and angles. The popular name for such a tone-line is " Melody. and which is drawn and the impression which by the intelligent listener. describing movements. in strands of tone which call Tone-lines. a). — ture or drawing. give a tone-line or a. arranged ver- give a chord-body. and generally do. or The term Melody. and the ordinary hearer. Chord. but of continuous Lines of tones. picture. The beginner. c-e-g. is applied specifically to the princi- When this a number of tone-lines are intonated together. as a System of Lines. tically.

is a delineation an image of sounding and moving lines. but continuously chord to chord. as Ex. 2 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. and tone-groups. or associated melodies. from a Beethoven In this passage. — their indefinable sensuous or spiritual attributes. Music is " tone-lines " and the quality of the several lines determines the quality of the composition the vitality of the lines equals the life in the music . The " music " lies in its melodies. the true purpose and significance of the whole tone-association is missed. — the fundamental . tone-lines. not ver- through the separate chord-forms. their ities which enter into these lines. traced. therefore. Sonata. and even . though certainly guided by his ver- chords. for the present. and to associate mentally only those tones that are sounded together (simultaneously. The object of the chords lines is. tical — from let us take a passage. sense of harmony or concord. . was quite as surely impelled to trace a good. correct as far as it i. . effective tone-line in each separate part or register Lowermost line. distinctly : lodious.. simply. from the numerous qualtheir directions. and the degree of harmony which governs the association of the lines fixes the euphonious standard of the composition. all goes. must be so. fact must be grasped that it is these lines which create the musical impression. because the only evidence of Life in music lies in the motions which interlink the tones in flowing lines and these lines are. for the harmonic basis of music is unques- tionably the chord. But it is an imperfect view. Quite aside. — me- Next higher Ulle. to fix (approximately) the points through which the run and unless these lines are grasped and traced. a)< This is surely a natural view. — unless the This hearer can associate mentally the tones that follow each other. their speed. . — its pleasurable effect upon the natural To tically illustrate more fully what is meant by apprehending music as a (laterally) fabric of tone-strands. the master. rhythm (freedom and variety of changing motions). their spaces. the only tangible element in the art of tone. at random. The real musical picture then.

4. of course. # # presentation. first of all . S'^hrtj r r I the hearer should distinctly trace the following five lines Ex. The follows : total result. 2. J' . Sometimes the line is continuous in sound (legato). Through the following convenient (and customary) method and its corresponding performance on the pianoforte — : of nota- Chopin. In the latter case. The tone-lines differ greatly in their length. obtained by weaving these four different strands of it tone into one compact body (as — came from Beethoven's hand) is as ^ The music proceeded self n and life ^m ^ it- out of the chords. He should sensuous im- apprehend each line separately. but the " Music " and meaning in the Lines of tone. i^M ff^F ^rsfr>— SB Uppermost line. The above musical image (Ex. which is very common. £- 4- N—netc. and in the manner of their Some lines are long. the inner ear of the listener traces the complete line across the silent gaps. just as the eye traces a dotted line as readily as an unbroken one. tion. ^rrfhnrc fr f ^y^ "Mr s Next lower line. Ex. and the total pression should be gained by mentally combining these lines. others are often very brief. The chords were the means. of the musical thought. and again it may be intermittent (staccato). 3 ) should therefore appeal manifests its finished beauty to the finer sense of the listener in the forms noted in Ex.: INTROD UCTION. the lines were the object.

37 of Mendelssohn's " Songs without Words. four. dent of each other to present really different melodic Briefly defined Melody is a succession. add melody to or more tone-lines indepen- that agree with each other harmonically and yet are sufficiently lines. or continuous is line. or in the earliest cises. without tracing such tone-lines. Next lower *&= a *=tt in the m — a.t . — or to enable the student to to obtain an association of two. and so familiar to the student (in church choirs or choral societies) as the soalto. on independent staves). themselves. one single prominent line (the " tune " proper. in a hymn-tune. of necessity. Harmony a succession of chords or vertical columns of tones in their simultaneous presentation. this principle of simultaneous melodies is present in It is impossible to every grade. tenor and bass. for example. melodies. much preference is given to the uppermost of these (the soprano). here and there. only . as." In others. Lowermost -=!-=»- I works. connect exer- chords. Next lower.. the entire bulk may be divided into distinct melodies. as if. finally. of single tones. In many. and many passages in stringquartets. that the other singers scarcely realize. or symphonic scores (where the lines are written separately.: ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. . SSSe ffi The as student should carefully examine brief passages from the masterits S many # fr f|Hf^ I line. shown above examples. single extra tones. or brief little lines. in the uppermost part) seems to be distinctly melodious. longer melodies. in No. — # * To some extent. at least two independent lines are discernible in a few. that they too are intoning " melodies " quite as surely as the soprano. as for instance. — known in vocal writing. As a rule. harmony In four-voice harmony there are prano. even the simplest. the bulk is very uneven. as in the Inventions and Fugues of Bach. of music. In cases. three. with a view to resolving the given bulk into component lines. is The object of contrapuntal practice melody. # * * Counterpoint is one of the technical processes of music writing. which harmonize Counterpoint is the harmonious association of individually perfect. but independent. had been inserted among the more important.

in this necessarily condensed form. or with any other examples in this book that are given as specimens of correct. 5. The first consung or played sideration. is associated melodies. Rule 1. x. and these the beginner must carefully observe and follow. to state of the condi- which enter into the process of perfect melodic formation.J^t^n all with those shown in Ex. line.: : Par. must produce a satisfactory melodic impression. rational. tions given. — 4. congruous. itself. is the fundamental principle of good melodic movement. LINE. a process which is But a few general rules may be ultimately subtle. that is. 5 CHAPTER I. sensible melody. let him compare the following Ex fan r^ 2. which violates the natural conditions of Melody (smooth. the correctness of each separate melodic independently of the other. in a general sense. THE SINGLE MELODIC 1. instinct Probably the most vital law of melody is that which is grounded in the relations and interactions of the primary harmonies of the key. the that is. the first point to be mastered by the student of har3. 6. Should the student harbor any doubt of the existence of laws that govern Melody. as follows . and no doubt partly incalculable. THE SINGLE MELODIC LINE. alone. In good counterpoint. 2. Each line. or of the possibility of distinguishing good melodies from inferior ones with scientific accuracy. by Probably the latter condition is the most important. is — reasonably accor- and each melody good. or counterpoint. is harmonious. not possible. as far as is possible without monotony. He must acquire the ability to judge the quality of a melodic line. until his and experience shall enable him to control the finer and finest movements. association dant. and to avoid any tone-progression which is unnatural. The natural or inherent bent of certain Scale-steps must be These tendencies are respected. Therefore. Counterpoint is. for the beginner. mony. or others. and which determines the direction of certain Scale-steps. well-balanced and interesting tone-succession). It is J i ^.

as here shown. may pass on up to 5. move in any direction. — 5 and 2) have no such tendencies. i fundamental rule there is 1 one important exception step 9. 8. by 7. the progressions 8-7-6-5. and are that is. 6 6 i -*—* l ^mit :?^£ 4 j/» * 1 I . of course.: : : : ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. free as far as direction is con- cerned. Step 6 moves to step 5. direction. Par. %. 5-6-7-8 and 3-4-5 are good. generally. preceded by may pass on up to step In other words. pass on down to step 6 preceded by 5. their active tendencies are gratified. — in the proper direction. Thus (C major) r\ : a |0O a a 1. i& =t =F^ I free to The other scale-steps (1. and Step 4 moves to step 3. ing it (so to speak. and . if from the other along the scale. as a rule. 4 Thus (C major) Ex. When the active tones of the scale move one step. movement is finished. for each active step to move two steps at once. a a * o V 8 ' 3 * 4 -*—* 6 7 . f Ex. they are " resolved " that is. step 6. Thus. will The natural tendency of each active move along the scale in the opposite "pushing" it) may be overcome. in C major 7. To it this Rule so that 2. only . when less decisive movement is desired. by approach. to leap a third. The 7th step of the scale moves (naturally) upward. The 6th and 4th steps of the scale both move (naturally) downward. step 7 and step 4. their in other words. These are called the Active scale-steps. But it is always correct. Their movement extends. 3. step preceded by step 8. one step that is Step 7 moves to step 8. side. or. For example. 3. may . though wider movements in the proper direction are possible.

Exs. the simpler kinds of measure. At no point should the melody leap more than a third. Any Use tone all may be repeated. 6-7-6. All wider 3. or of different lengths. 9). 22 and 23. ing to the following directions 8. The notes uniform rhythmic value. (from \ to g). z. may be of The length of the melodies is optional.: : Par. 21. in all the major keys. At present. Use chiefly the regular resolutions of the active steps. hitherto. i EXERCISE The Scale-line. until the next lesson. 6. for the present. 1 j j j 11 and Narrow Leaps. Observe that the successions 7-6-7. Therefore. lesson is I. he is required to write a very large number of original melodies. anywhere. See par. 7 and skips must be deferred 4. 10. 10. justified in this Thus (C major): Ex. 10. closing with the keynote. and should therefore be avoided. as shown in But do not neglect the irregular movements (Ex. THE SINGLE MELODIC LINE. only in major. 1 . have left this most important work unaccomplished). strictly accordstudent's mind. 5. illustration For . See pars. fundamental melodic movements The aim upon the of this first to impress these and habituate him to them (m case his studies. but it is advisable to write in the regu- lar forms of four or eight measures. and 5-4-51 cannot be manner. 20.

in either direction. leaps. C major . The is principal consideration is as follows Rule 3. V.: : : : : ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. The "good " chords are the primary triads . in either direction major. i 13. II.^m " VI III f I IV 7 : etc. Ex. I IV The following at present are unnatural. Inferior. But all wider leaps are generally hazardous. ~tst 1 etc. I. on scale-steps III. when both tones belong to the same good chord. Par. also the II. whether narrow or wide. Rule 4. Any wide skip natural. CHAPTER 11. 12. though more rare also the chords of the Dominant-7th all and Dominant-gth. VI III The C following wide leaps are therefore good. Ex. Thus. and require specific limitations. are also strictly subject to this rule All the tones must belong to the same good chord. I IV II V V7 V9 etc. WIDER LEAPS. in C Good Chords. 14. and permissible. is always good. and must be avoided. The leap of a third (called a narrow leap). C major. t. 1ST -!S>- I IV y7 y9 m Rare. used in the first les- son. 12. The chords on major steps VI and and subordi- nate dissonant chords. Ex. Two or more leaps in the same direction. IV . are too inferior to afford justification for wide Thus. xi. 13.

5 . i IE 16. — and give the " add impression of a complete tone-body. the gressions of Ex. Notice. t-°CP"- =t srrrna Thus : etc. Ex. All the faulty promade good by altering the direction. Thus: All good. according to Rule 3. J U-g ££ S J 1_ # : Ex. reached with a leap in the same direction. 18. and judges each leap separately. is.fcE& is £§^£ re- 17. 15. 17. WIDER LEAPS. . 16. but the next does not belong to that (same) chord. Ex. This rule applies only to successive skips The moment the direction changes. — up. always remain in the ear. g) represents the I. The above measures sound thus i 15. ear ceases to " add up " the tones." so to speak. particularly. This is distinctly shown . The leaping tones. turns.: Par. that this not obligatory when the chord in Ex. a. All good. < pr-r If J r l lffj . maitis unchanged. 16 can therefore be in the same direction.E^EE| V7 IV- I £1 v ' i* The C following are faulty major. i^ m± Note. arranged in such a manner. — changes Rule 5- After a wide leap (beyond a third). the first skip (c to tone. In the first group. the melody usually its direction. Ex.

:

;

IO

ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.
It is generally better

Par. 18.

to tum, however, after a wide leap, even in the

and

it is

usually quite necessary

when

the chord changes,

same chord
»

as seen in Ex. 16 (all

rectified in

Ex.

17).

Exceptions do occur, however; see Ex. 20.

any width may be made towards (or opposite That is, the resoluof an active scale-step. tion of step 7 being upward, any leap down to it is correct. And, similarly, any skip may be made up to steps 6 and 4. In each case, the
18.

Rule

6.

A skip of

to) the resolving

movement

melody, in turning after the leap, properly resolves the active step.
following

The

movements are
to step
7.

all

good (C major)

:

Down
Ex. 19.

I w
Up
to step
6.

N. B.

i P
Up

6
to step 4.

N. B.

IE I
In the measures marked N.
are perfectly good.
B.,

i
an exception to a part of Ex. 14 is seen, skips When properly resolved, these progressions

apparently representing inferior chords.

6,

— up

19.

If a

wide skip

is

to 7, or

down

to 6 or 4,

the melody cannot turn,
resolved.

made, along a good chord-line, contrary to Rule an exception is unavoidable. Either after the wide leap, or the active tone cannot be

Thus

Ex.

20

i 3^
?

v*? ?

p
i
?

m^m).
It is usually better to respect

the fundamental law (Rule
1
,

1),

active step properly.
in the

Therefore, groups

3 and 5 are better than groups

and resolve the 2, 4 and 6,

above example.

20.

Rule

7-

The

repetition of a tone, or the octave-leap, is always

good:

Par. ai.

WIDER LEAPS.

II

Ex.

21.
21.

E:
Uniform rhythm
But
it

a
is

always safe, and generally predominates in a

melody.
less value

incurs monotony, and, therefore, notes of various time-

values are effective.

At

least occasionally, a note of greater value, or of

than the prescribed beat, should be used.
8.

and always good, when the and the shorter (lighter) ones upon unaccented beats or fractions of beats. Thus, in regular rhythm:
22.
is

Rule

The rhythm

regular,

longer (heavier) tones appear upon the accented (heavier) beats,

Ex.

22.

gl
23.

^n
4=

& £^B
— the rhythm

+-*l

\=x
light beats, or

If the

order

is

reversed,

if

heavy notes occupy
is

and the result by recurrence, that is, by being repeated in the next measure, or some other corresponding measure. Thus (both from Schubert )
light notes

occupy heavy beats,
Still,

irregular,

doubtful.

irregular

rhythms may always be

rectified

:

23,

^^
Irreg.-

§|

iIrreg.-

i=a
Recurrence.

EE
Recurrence.

EXERCISE
Wider
Write, as before, a very large
material of this chapter.

2.

Leaps.
of original melodies,

number

employing the
i,

Review the

directions given in Exercise

and follow

all

but No.

3.

CHAPTER
24.

III.

EXCEPTIONAL PROGRESSIONS. MINOR MODE.
After thorough exercise of the basic principles of melodic movewill better

ment, the student

understand certain less regular

traits that

may appear in tone-lines.

These, though peculiar, and rare,

may be fully

:

:

;

12
justified

ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.
by the circumstances that attend them.
;

Par. as.

A

noted below, and should be thoroughly tested
with the voice
;

first at

few are specially the piano then
;

then with the eye

;

always with close mental application

and unceasing reference
always be
25.

to the keynote,

— of which
7

the mental ear

must

distinctly conscious.

First,

with reference to scale-step
2.

(C major)

1.

Good.

Good.

3.

Good.

Ex.

24.

I PNE
6.

S
4.
? ?

5-

?

III

Good.

7.

??

8.

??

9.

??

10.

(?)

t
11.

m
??
?

i
? ? ?

12.

Good.

13.

14.

Good.

15.

Good.

i IE
7

i

*
Group 4
is better,

7 J* 4

III

r-fi
7

a^f—fl
;

Explanation.
step
8.
is

G roups

1

,

2

and 3 are good, because step

passes soon up into

not good, because the skip represents an inferior chord

is similar,

but worse.

Group

5 is doubtful,
first

group 13 because step 7 does not reach step 8 at all

group 6

because the

three tones represent the Dom.-7th chord, and the

Groups 7 to 10 are all doubtful, because step 7 makes an extreme leap in the wrong direction group 10 is the least objectionable, because step 7 recovers itself and ascends to step 8. Group 1 1 is parresolution of the last one (step 4) satisfies the ear.
;

poor and should be avoided it may, it is true, occur in the line of the Dom.-7 th chord but step 7 leaps in the wrong direction it is an awkward leap (augmented fourth), and, landing on step 4, it cannot recover itself. Group 12, on the contrary, is all right, see Ex. 19, group 13. Group 14 is considered good, see Ex. 19, group 2. Group 15 appears to violate par. 10; it is permissible, however, because the succession 7-6-7 appears as embellishment only, and not as essential melodic movement.
ticularly
; ;

;

26.

Second, with reference to scale-step 6
1.

Good.

2.

Good.

3.

Good.

4.

? ?

5.

Good.

Ex.

25.

£ W*->

x
a
7.

1
???
8.

.6.

Good.

(?)

9.

??

10.

??

4.

J

J

J

f

I

VI

VI

the second Also the agreement of b and b. No. 3 t=F . 19. and 3 are good. Good. Group 7 contains too many irregularities. ±e* 10. No. Thus. or in — generally some other closely corresponding For example Beethoven. . ment of the tones in uniform or similar groups or figures. like group 5. a figure (usually a half-measure. n. m is 1 Explanation. effective. 4. 28. Good. or two measures in length) may be reproduced as form. for the reasons given in Ex. ? 5- ? Ex. b. comprehensible and significant melody. measure See also Ex. 1. both tendencies are satisfied. ? ? ? Good. Also the general is a sequence of the first. Group 4 poor. group 15. Good. like Ex. 11. Groups 4 and 5 are doubtful. with reference to scale-step 4 Good. Good. 26. sequence. whole measure. Group 10 is very poor. Good. 2. Groups is 2 enough. and Ex. EXCEPTIONAL PROGRESSIONS. Group 7 is too irregular. agreement being by no means necessary. 14. 13. b. 12. 24. I W Explanation. 3. Groups 13 and 14 seem to be adjusted by the resolution of step 7. 14. 13. 13. group 8 is better. One of the most vital traits (possibly the supreme one) the arrange- of good. Observe the similarity of formation in the two figures marked a . Ps^B . Groups 11 and 12 are justified by Ex. Ex. Group 9 has the bad leap from 7 to 3 see Ex. ?? i . 13 15. because step 6 reaches step 5 soon group 6 is good and in group 5. Ss Good. f? P^ ^ 6. because step 4 is not resolved — 27. 8. *=?* . Good. repetition. Ex. 27. S 9. which review. 23. 24. Rule 9. exact resemblance between figures a and b. because step 4 ascends and does not return to step 3 compare groups 2 and 6. Group 15 is right. 7. 21 . Third. 2. and for similar reasons. some corresponding rhythmic group. Good. Also the slight intentional differences.: — : Par. No. Groups 9 and 10 represent an inferior chord. 24.

if perfectly distinct. >" 1 the poor progressions 7-6-7 and 5-4-5 are both justified by being first In No. |H ¥ 31. from 6 to awkward interval (augmented second) which Thus. . EE e il ?M *! V l » i & SEE L J 1. That the rules which govern C major also govern C minor (not A minor). from 6 to 7. minor. of delineation). it is is. in the so-called " harmonic " or true form of the minor scale C Ex. 3. Every rule given above applies to minor precisely as to major. Ex.: : : 14 29. — with one Rule 7. is often a sufficient excuse for certain irregularities of progression. the 3rd and 6th scale-steps of the C minor corresponds to C major. is $ L5 ZJ * I selves. and reversed. single exception. as sequences of the very first one. But they must be avoided if the minor ( scale to be " melodious " singable). 30. gives rise in minor to an better to avoid. a blameless figure). justified These progressions. are. but has e-ftat and a-flat. 29. In No. 3. For example Ex. by lowering latter. and from 7 to 6. instead of e and a. 29 with C major. as follows 10. ?? ?? 29. 2. in themby Rule 2. Ex. In No. Such syntactic agreement (uniformity Par. 28. which is a sequences of the measure (which to 7 is is movement from 4 up good justified — perfectly figure. i $ 2. the scale of Comp. the awkward by the repetition of the first figure. The movement from step 7 to 6. The harmonic minor scale is derived from the major. 9. THE MINOR MODE. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. several poor successions are palliated.

raise the 6th scale-step.Par. The remedy is simple. group in passing lower the jth (in the scale-step. in the All these original melodies may be used coming lessons. applying the principles of this chapter. IS 32. This results good singable intervals. examine very carefully the melodies given in Exercises 4. Otherwise. . ' Exceptional Movements. 8 7-6556+78 8^767 is 6 7 6 / See Ex. Also write a very large number of original melodies. a. 5. (in the group 8-7-6-5 in only). The contrapuntal structure — the : association of melodies is — is generally obtained in the following manner some single melody adopted . Thus : C Ex. transposing . 6. Namely. for the latter. CHAPTER IV. as necessary and important in music as consonance. and so forth. then with the eye always with close mental application). and very common. LINES. which naturally governs the association of meloThe condition of consonance should prevail not to the exclusion of dissonance (as will be seen in a later lesson). 3a. minor. First review every one of the given to examples that is in C major. and changes the harmonic form to the so-called " melodic " form of the minor scale. Then transpose every original melody of Exercises I and 2 to the corre- sponding minor mode (that of the same keynote'). and consists in so " altering " the active step as to remove the unmelodious augmented interval. c. then with the voice. each one C minor (first at the piano. But consonance should predominate sufficiently to create the impression of " harmonious agreement 34. to 7 in passing up from 6 5-6-7-8 only). absolutely valid EXERCISE 3. b. '' as the ruling condition. down from 7 to 6 by an accidental and . THE MINOR MODE. every melodic condition in major for minor. Before doing this. in major and minor. \ SO. in its proper place and proportion. 42. THE ASSOCIATION OF TWO MELODIC 33. and the Minor Mode. /Exceptional. is precisely principle The dies is that of harmonious agreement. as stated.

will properly counter- And so forth. for will blend or har- monize consonantly with it. J: r r r r r Given m r : 5=J r r it 1 be- low If C is given as upper tone. at once. it must this its never be forgotten that. associated melodies are to be of equal value and melody another upon an equal first To tone-line is added. and making each thus alternately dependent upon the other. perfect. I determining which of any and the task of the beginner consists simply in the three is the best at the moment. C is given.: : . . 35. for example. i6 as leading part ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. letting each in turn suggest the next melodic move to be made. 31. or " against. major and minor the and If. not tion or evolution 35. i N iJ nH^ r o R a -J— r^ r These three single point of contact. its third or A. the Sixth. however. from within. It is quite as correct. as basis or principal melody (though footing). 1 6th. point its it. 3rd. " harmonious " intervals. are the Third (or tenth). either F. major and minor . in true counterpoint. the significance. a tone is chosen that In other words. obtained. Ex. m r . B. those that are invariably 36. Rule 1. This is what the composer no doubt unconsciously does. its sixth or C. tone for tone. or C may be added to and the same rule applies to all other tones. Octave octave. in keeping with the simple regulations of harmonious union. either A. E. as lower tone. ultimately. If D is given. For illustration 8th. by careful adjustment of each of successive tones to each successive tone of the melody. 4 37. to create both melodies together. The student will use both processes. so that the agree. intervals are unquestionably permissible at . with the former. o 32. : . Thus Given » a Ex. new melody which results will The new melody is therefore in a by deducit peculiar sense a product out of the original one." a given complete melody) for the present. 10th. Par. we may add to it either E. of course. or D. but should adopt the former (working with. — in a sense. The consonant and therefore acceptable for the union of two melodies. (or unison). but by adjustment to from without. each tone of the given melody.

This choice depends partly upon the melodic movement. for it 38. and between octave and unison. 169 to 176. depends merely upon the key. 38. Octave. — — 39. and therefore this cannot be called an association of different melodies. 39. 41. the rhythmic form of the two associated melody. see the author's pars. See Ex. I m 40. The 8ve and unison exert no positive influence on the harmony. of the association harmony absolute. the VI. for by this process nothing more has been obtained than an exact duplication of the given melody. Whether the major or minor form of the The between 3rd and 3rd. . the added melody with the one that was given. or " counterpoint. Note may i. The 6th above (and 3rd below) will represent the Subdominant chord. 6th. the given one and the added one. i. :£1- 1 -<s>- IV rules of IV (VI) o " o Tone-Rela- Note. hereafter be dropped altogether. or. have its companion. 44). 6th. 3rd. and therefore takes care of itself.Par. Note will 2. ioth. & . ± W3l the h^ is -L r The agreement of complete r r ^i r is Added melody. must be remembered that each part. But it also depends partly upon the underlying harmonic result. For illustration of this harmonic distinction : — If the tone C is given. Ex. possibly. No new melody has been produced. and be- come therefore Thus: 3rd. each separate note in the given part part. Unis. In the first lessons. 34. ioth. solely a question of melodic preference. or 6th is to be chosen. lines will exactly (or nearly) correspond that is." in the added An occasional excep- tion to this adopted rhythmic scheme may be permitted for good melodic reasons. 33. If the interval 8 (octave) is is applied to each successive tone of a : given melody. the 3rd above (and 6th below) will produce the Tonic harmony." Or glance at good chord-succession. e. But the student perceives at once that here some vital condition is wanting. for the implied chord-successions must also be natural and rational. the result as follows Given melody. because they are identical. Ex. must describe a faultless melodic line (see par. For the tions. THE ASSOCIATION OF TWO MELODIC LINES. either in the upper or the lower melody (in C major). distinction ioth.

ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. r? it I 8 XEx. as a rule. this reason necessary to play or sing the added melody. X IE I A f series of tones is 5_4 -5*- 35. as applied melody . one an almost exact duplication and therefore practically the same melodic product. 7 is it is But even here. The is evidently to be achieved by a sensible in- terchange of these three different consonant intervals. Such a applied to Ex. Rule 2. • EfEEfE ?r ? I 1 T e. is used with each of the given tones. despite the fact that each separate interval consonant.636. but never throughout the en- and. 1 case. the folflection of the given precisely the same lowing rule must be observed 43. In order to secure the independence of the added mel- ody. See also Ex. reveals several obvious errors in the is added melody.: : : : i8 42. the interval of the 8ve must be limited to single points. after the contrapuntal union is has been effected. Applied to the following ones. must be dictated by the rules of is correct melodic For itself. re- but little more. The interval of the 3rd (and also may appear best result consecutively. . by test. to the above given 8 Thus. but the harmonious association of independent and individually perfect melodies. U -4 e 4- 4- 4- I 37. The choice of contrapuntal interval (whether the 3rd. 43. sung or played together. 6th. Thus Ex. The result is Par. than a tone-line. and not be used twice in immediate succession. more ample if the interval 3. and that the two melodies. Rule 3. artless multiplication of one and the same melodic line. it wholly satisfactory. or the interval 6. I m 'fff 1 i r r r f r 1 44. or unison) progression. form a harmonious union A Ex. that of the 6th) tire phrase. f=f . 36. 10th. though a new evident that the added melody r f produced in each all. 8ve. 40. 36. merely As true counterpoint is to be no such shifted to other steps of the scale. after . not oftener than three (or four) times in direct succession. .

And. with the same given melody tee Ex. Par. given the following major melody 38 - VW 4 I ) * « 1 the following counterpoints may be added J-r-* Ex. and observe how completely the added parts differ from each other and he may be sure that these are not the only acceptable solutions. simple as should already afford the student a very clear conception of the principle of melody-association. placing the upper lower. jp^i 8 6 6 •"Tl 6 6 L 6 1 1 J 8 1. mentally. re 3 I 1SE" ft: ^ part. Each added part should be played. 40. . than here written. 19 45. a. conceive their association. and an appreciaHe should compare these three given tion of its value as a technical exercise.: : ^ : . r-r^^g C^l j-*- part. FFf it is. their effect together.— slowly and thought— he — he must transpose them (by finger and by eye) to G minor. After doing very thoroughly. 45. t : K Given Given I pp O 10 8 J 1 part. and the student must endeavor to solutions. first alone by itself then the two melodies must be studied together. that is. . this finally. sung (and conceived mentally. and obtain a perfectly clear impression of their union. or counterpoint. below. by eye. above. a few inferior and faulty versions. ' part an octave 46. Given part. below. Further. Furthermore. as usual). copy it out. 39. THE ASSOCIATION OF TWO MELODIC LINES. Ex. fully. must invert each one of them . ^s 6-^3 Given tTT f= I This brief example. and the lower part an octave higher. "rrr^-f trr .

where it is written. Par. 43. and defeats the purpose of the union of lines. I J J . — Invert both awkward lead- of 47.j i 10 10 duplication. At the beginning of the added part uses the octave three times in succession. par. rr-rrrr J^ 4^ 1 r^ mI i J J i j 3C Given melody. 39. j j r [ r 8 r 8 first S 'r 6 | 'a xO k^J tj ^6 d is ny . . version e. because of the ing of the added part. Major Mode. corresponding rhythm. In manipulating a complete sentence. The use of two each of the following given major melodies. is Then the given melody is to be used as lower if written (or two octaves differs lower. 39. but more objectionable. For ex- ample : Given melody. is to be added. an octave lower than where it with an and counterpointed above. Explanation. part. or upon a separate staff (with bass clef. end with the octave of the tonic however. 47- i A i . 1 111 l££ tf^" i ' . And. . according to the above preferable. part. it is desirable that the two parts should not begin with the same beat. as seen in Ex.i 5± m To staves is r r-r V r r { r J i JnN-rJ J J r irrrr EXERCISE 4. as a rule. — added part that was seen in reasonably from the preceding solution. Two-Part Counterpoint with Fundamental Intervals. in the interest of greater in- dependence. as before. j j . 41.j 3 inferior.20 Given ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. This may be done on the same staff (as in Ex. it is well to (the keynote in both parts) this. faulty. in obvious disregard of the laws of melody. 39). b and c). in and as shown in Ex. See Rule 2. as it permits greater freedom. a second part rules. g m 4T lj~ J ^-i-HJ J J . The given melody is to be used first as upper part. which results in exactly similar melodic progressions It is like parallel 3rds and 6ths in principle. is not imperative. 43. The half of version because the long succession of (parallel) 3rds gives the added part the effect of mere The same objection partly attends the parallel lines (in 6ths) further on. — as Ex. Ex. Several different versions of the added part should be made in every case. these versions. The rest of version e is all poor counterpoint. necessary). and the counterpoint added below.

— Par. -P $ F 4=t: f 0- i 3E -#=• r^mr^M^=^ g m I 3SE 4. fc^^^algg^ BlScCT: . a & (2 &— P^^^^P^i i|fe IS mW £ -# #—•—=—» ^^ 55 ^-fr — i o^q^ga ^t ^ H« i te Ptrmr # ^m ~2 | r i f J J. 21 m -a •- 1. 47- • THE ASSOCIATION 0* TWO MELODIC • * i LINES.b 1 •- pzj^^E^zpc j=t &- J =1 s) u.

in minor. 50. and the 6th step must be raised 5-6-7-8- the ascending succession 49. to guard the melodic progressions more carefully. added See the Note following Ex. t 1 1 1 *—*p=±$t^=t may m* mm : Its contrapuntal manipulation Given part. 43. all rules of melodic movement in the major mode are valid for minor. 31 and rule of par. 30. above. in minor.22 12. carefully. in major. =F5 i m ^y m "^_ 3 s a (e> a e a 8 s I a ' a a 10 . to which the student may refer. paragraphs 30. with no other modification than that they are applied somewhat more strictly in minor (as far as the movements of the active steps are concerned). 6th and 8th) for the counteris point of a given melody It is precisely the same in both modes. As stated in par. that. and to be sure that each part. the 7 th step must be lowered in in the descending succession 8-7-6-5 . is a perfectly accep- table melodic line. — designing the melodies to write a number of together (as duets). 42. alone. 52. 32. The choice of fundamental intervals (3rd. after conscientiously completing his is own versions. Par. and observe the Review. simply necessary. CHAPTER 48. Further. f^e . result thus Ex. THE MINOR MODE. a n. 32. all the rules given in Chap. ferf= iW -(=- I ** solution of £ Melody 4 will 4: ^i 1 [A be found in the Appendix.48. IV for the contrapuntal as- sociation of two melodies. the student counterpoint. apply without exception to minor also. V. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Given the following minor melody : Ex.] original melodies with Besides these.

of measure 3 in version a. - ^ 8 ^ & 8 3 1 &=E +-*- 8386633383 -1 6 3 8 Prf^pf^r^ This should be the limit. Manipulate the following minor melodies. but are everywhere melodically correct. as long as the melodies are separately At the beginning given part.— Par. and diverges farther from the given part (at one point. exactly according to the directions given in Exercise 4 1. the two lines are over two octaves apart). 23 W^ vr m o6eea3 m mim -*-+ 36 §33 Given ^=^? f X3: part. 50. below. EXERCISE 5. Two-Part Counterpoint with Fundamental Intervals. In one instance only. r ^#a s • a I s •=*§F4^f=f=F S: tEt * J . Compare the three different added parts. & ** ±±X±J=?*= 3 68 _ 3 3 c Given part. above. The added parts all move with considerable eedom. This is entirely defensible. : — ^^=^l^j T^rr 2. THE MINOR MODE. in the third measure. ^ . there are four successive 3rds (in version i). Vt-I— -B-*-r-fi- ^ 4 & f1 f—f- m Explanation. Minor Mode. perfect. $ -*-*JH *iH — l a. carefully. : *=* $ft j 0=t &-f-f=fc:*= :j & §^S§ gsf^ -?-»-+ \* \ f^=gg3BPPB m \- . one note counterpoints two of the In version c the added part has a wider range than usual..

And should never appear form (as perfect fourth).: 24 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. While the 3rd. mostly of a mildly dissonant character. 51. These secondary intervals. composing See Note to Ex. and major seconds. For example . perfect fifth is The very rare. T» *- Par. CHAPTER VI. are the perfect fifth. as before. and should be used only ( when it it represents the Dominant chord in inverted — possibly. there are a few other intervals. Greater freedom of melodic progression may often be obtained by a few judicious exceptions to the above fundamental rule of harmonious contrapuntal association. EXCEPTIONAL INTERVALS. or minor sevenths. when used in moderation. gm s ^F=^ I i i&s=e i&t && ias P -zt gb^rt^ *** -&Melody 1 & i B. 51. the certain 53. occur only singly. or diminished fifth. number of original melodies with counterpoint. Rule 4. and must at times constitute the real basis of the contrapuntal union of parts. of somewhat exceptional character. augmented fourth.] Also write. therefore. 6th and 8ve are undeniably all the most reliable. [A solution of will be found in the Appendix. the Tonic chord). 52. — not successively. more rarely. 52. It can. greatly im- prove the effect. a the two farts together. which. without in the least impairing the general harmonious or consonant character of the sentence as a whole.

further. placing the upper part. Observe." into a a smaller one. r -J- TTrf in : > r and/ in Invert this example ." to Or. 54. copy it out. In Major. that the augmented interval generally strives larger interval .: Par. . Observe that these intervals are used C major. 4 I fairly of The augmented 4th. m t b. the diminished 5th. they occur only in the chord the Dom. the augmented fourth and diminished appear in exactly the same way. 3: ± . and its inversion. 44. 46. an octave and the lower part an octave higher. example indicate where the chord remains unchanged. in the chord of the Dom. 55. Do this. For example Ex. T justifies r=^ -1 i r Note — a circumstance which always the diminished 5th. are common. fifth In minor. EXCEPTIONAL INTERVALS. and always good. withoutfail. i»r 54. observe simply that the correct resolution of each of these active steps takes care of the melodies. Ex. that lower. nearly every irregularity. 45. and it will illustrate the treatment of Do this. 56. For further illustration : Ex. Invert this example. than here written. is.-7th. —the counterpointing the tones b 7th and 4th scale-steps. as union of steps 4 and 7. at steps 4 and 7. without fail. and that the diminished one draws " inward. i&-• I —•- ±^SSTJi r rrrrm -a>-=- ±M « S '• 25 Poor. i Ftt w -7 j 1 r J 1 ^ r >__— » r r f r i £S^^ The slurs in this this fact well. " outward. as before.-7th.

as before. .J. M^wi\)rn±~*H^^*s^ +¥ 'cr y rii* i££V4&h \ 4+ a- 4. 57. Also write it out in C minor. of moves downward one step but it may remain where it is and it may make a leap (usually downward) when the chord remains unchanged. 48. The minor 7th. almost everything depends upon the proper resolution of the active (4th) step. But they also appear (though more rarely) in the union of steps 6 and possibly also in the union of step 3 and the raised 6th step in minor . the lower tone course. are rare. This statement but not sufficiently explicit. As usual. 32).. they may occur as the Dom. Ex. in the II 7 57. As sults usual. j -0 j .M-J. Observe that the interval of a 7th draws " inward. Invert this example. 2. n |JJ JJ j^|jJ JjJjlly I > rT -p-T. alike) steps 1 and 2. They should be limited to the union of steps 4 and 5. 58. t rif r 7 7 | | - ." as a rule. the melodic resolutions must be respected. as 2nd. and its inversion. 55 will be observed. though very rarely indeed. 1 ' i rJ'rV ' 1 — ' ' r 7 r 8 r r r r a v V ^ J-t-J .: r : 26 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. whereby the re- noted in par. inis correct. 47. the upper (When .) This tone. 7 th. as part of the chord of Possibly. J^J • .j-j . J-J • j ." and the terval of the 2nd " outward. — the chord-seventh.+ s- v v 11 11 major 2nd. — generally is. . J J . the chord-seventh. jfA . J. For illustration (C major and C minor. P»r. Thus (C major and C minor) : Ex.y±. Thus (C minor) Ex. inverted. -*= i 7 a a r • $ 1 Good. stated thus: The whole matter may be is In the interval of a tone a chord-seventh. JLU . i J ' Uj 7 e .-7th. (par. the lower tone a chord-root. the .J r 7 .

Rule 5. For general illustration : Given the following major melody Ex. the illustration of the treatment of the interval of a 2nd. account for the apparent violations of the Invert this example for this. and good intervals at the points of contact. was a " given part. so. J J -* j -n <^^^ J j-i ijpP^l . 59. without 61. KaIaw Further.E prfm may result thus <* E§E§ ^^ 1 Its manipulation Given part. Invert both of these examples. to ensure fail. 59. EXCEPTIONAL INTERVALS. they were conceived illustrations. Note. in these together. Ex. under harmonious cooperation." the constant influence of the two vital requirements. above. it is also possible to use a dimin the inished 7th (and inversion. and thus rule. 52. There is not the slightest evidence that either of the two Evidently.ivon TWrf below.: : : Par. Do without Also write out both versions in C minor. In minor. (1) perfect melodic formation of each part alone. in minor Ex.-. — very its rare. MvV. Given part. mktiu - i C i f "w^m t/'r f i r r 1^ P 60. fail.^t Jit^ v 11 Mm ^•— | mm rrfr^r ¥ -TJ" r two (2) J-Jr^Q giT^ parts. . an augmented 2nd) union of . 61. slurs again indicate 27 The where the chord remains the same.

53. Also a few of the given melodies of Exercise 4 and Exercise 5 again. ~~ ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 38 and Ex.: : 28 steps 6 58). 1. according to former directions. and the roles of this chapter m ft Q w r O i r J j j 1-^ 1 ftfrr nr r fir r ^U^hAM^ a 4. I w Aii'j hU \ J J j i' ^ -gi- I EXERCISE & Fundamental and Secondary Intervals. 61. 2. Also the following given melodies. Major and Minor Modes. Manipulate Ex. according to this lesson. They are subject to the usual rules (given in par. " Ex. 42 again. *=&£ <f77HfrTTgg£ w r a o & ^m ±± -^ zp- frrFrr ^ fj e) I *- I g | ^J Jl^JD P^Hl l =S=^"c -<=-' l£ i . and Thus 7 only. 3. Par.

TWO NOTES TO A GIVEN BEAT. as usual. ira am ft 2= s I * I * ?- S£ « —r— S=p: a~~ •-=- i fc m k>= 12. relative importance of the several tones in each group (or beat) . . 62. 62. 1 solution of Melody 5 will be found in the Appendix. RHYTHMIC DIVERSITY. In making this distinction. for it is probable that not every single one of the added tones can be of equal har- — — when two or more notes accompany monic significance. CHAPTER VII. one is ususential. 63. the tones are defined as essential and unesIn a group of two notes (against one in the other part). S$E . a number of original melodies with counterpoint. Itt 9. 29 ^ 10. comlike Ex. * Si =i=P=p: i «=f n %£H^r te FT* rm 11. with reference to the each given note. The rhythm that of the given melody. as in the preceding lessons.Par. RHYTHMIC DIVERSITY.] Also write. -J ie [A 4. but may notes to each note of the given melodic part. 52. added voice does not always correspond to That is. posing the two parts together. the counterpoint may not only be derun in a more rapid rhythm of two (or more) vised " note against note " in exactly or nearly similar rhythm. When this takes place. a necessary distinction arises. =t ^ — of the Cpt.

reliable guide is is. . and the other unessential in a group of three notes. m 1—r i is j-j Tj The most T^T i from which the conclusion unessential. must be unessential. . 64. while the un- accented fractions are apt to be illustration (the unessential tones in with unessential tones. Invert these examples .: : : 30 ally essential ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.) part. Par. because they are accented than the harmonic tones which precede them. x x x x 2z 54. drawn. 55. with little or no responsibility. all the tones marked unessential are foreign to the harmony (chord) of the beat. — thus Ex. and the d at the end of the third (These two <fs are considered unessential. But this is not the only test. excepting the measure. after the harmonic quality of the tone. and the lower part an octave higher. almost wholly upon the essential tones whereas the unessential ones slip smoothly between. 54. naturally. that is. even when it ocThis is seen in Ex. is influenced largely by the rhythmic location of the tones fraction of the beat is the one which occupies the accented to somewhat more likely filled be essential. copy them out. the student . than here written. all. with three notes to each one of the given some of the unessential tones. because the burden of contrapuntal agreement devolves. that these tones are unimportant. there The distinction will generally be one essential and two unessential tones. less d in the second measure. As may be sential tones seen. is important. A tone which foreign to the chord of the beat cannot be essential it cupies the accented fraction of its beat. . x) For marked x Ex. foreign to the chord of the beat. this counterpoint all would be quite perfect if the unes- (marked x) were omitted. I r b in the first The d and measure are so-called Passing Notes. In the following version. In thus qualifying the tones. 65. placing the upper part an octave lower. 64. ap- pear on the accented fraction .

are unessential tones. In general. 55 should not exactly appear as the form to which Exs. and it is of the contrapuntal part without regard to them. Scan Ex. 5th. pre-defined form. Such a conclusion is just. 8ve. as in former lessons. as the original. The if essential tones. group. only the accented one. however. as before. in the mined precisely as they stood alone. An unessential'tone may form any interval with the given its movements are governed strictly by its relation to the essenits tone of 69. This implies that Ex. 54 and Ex. that the accented fraction of the beat. with reference to rr-n mm this rule. to a certain extent. and the a in the second beat of the 3rd measure is the " lower Neighbor " of the essential f tone b. 31 The in the first beat is the " upper Neighbor " of the essential tone e . diminished 5th. . by omitting all marked notes 66. as usual. as follows 4. an inharmonious interval (that is. 56 again. They are therefore defined according to the table of permissi- ble intervals. 2nd. 56 were actually conceived first in the form given in Ex. thus : . : Rule In general. occasionally the augmented 4th.. but the unessential tones which " slip smoothly in between " will be found to exert considerable influence therefore not wise to construct the basis upon the counterpoint as a whole. 34 and 56 could be reduced. tone. chord are usually see the in first essential. RHYTHMIC DIVERSITY. Rule 2. Par. all tones that do not constitute a plaudo not belong to the chord which the beat evidently represents. . then. whether they occupy the unaccented or Rule 1. 55. the And test it. sible chord-form. 3rd. a " doubt- ful " interval. 66. 68. If And tones which do form a part of the two or more such chord-tones appear in is the same group. it will agree exactly with Ex. as has been learned. 6th. 55. must be deter- note. 54 and Ex. . 4th. tial but Rule 3. — note against added part. Invert this example. regarded as essential beat in the second measure of Ex. and so forth. 56 (the note d each case) 67. 7th) should be followed immediately by some " good " interval. but rather as the result Ex.

Comp. as resolution of both. as follows Rule 7. throughout. as usual. 67. skips should be is not good : r^ . — such as belong to the chord which any other tone of the same chord. n. the "poor" interval of a 4th (permitted because In unessential) is immediately followed by the " good " interval of a 3rd. 70. either. beat of the sec- ond measure . under any circum- The following forms are correct . r^r — those notes Invert this example. The following In a word. — should not be- not leap. their chord-tone follows. the " poor " 7th (unessential) is followed by the " good " 6th. In the first beat. The upper " neighbor" of a chord-tone . the first to This confirms the rule of par. Invert this example. such And. (2) stances. the second beat. This being properly provided original essential for. 71. Rule 5 . is ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. inharmonic tones. r^ ^ ^ r ^2 x < > 58. — may leap X tones. or the lower neighbor words. as tones should not enter with a leap. par. the two neighbors of — if may leap a 3rd down to may leap to the upper one any chord-tone may appear succes. See Ex. the lower neighbor in other sively. which refer a rule. And the tone so on. the reduction of the embellished form to the form usually follows as a matter of course. They must be accountedfor as passing-notes or neighboring diatonically (scalewise) to the following essential tone. and note the change in the interval numbers. 54. ^LpCpiJn 59. longing to the chord. Par. 70. The upper " neighbor " may leap down a 3rd. as usual. limited to harmonic (chord) tones. j t To 72. (1) j r this rule there are two notable exceptions. and the following i—4 Ex. Rule On the contrary. T~r 6. Harmonic the beat represents.: : : 32 Explanation. but must progress stepwise.

leaps down a 3rd. At while.Us'r | 8 # * # Reverting to par. ful. X 33 X Ex. tone it The tone/ major). fully illustrated in the triplet-figures at b. Thus in Ex._._ ao. i=± I 74. such a process instructive. It will . e (the I of C 2. 54 was adjusted is to Ex. ± m'tB^ZJ1 tiJ. and then adjust the unessential tones to these (as Ex. and worth pursuing for a .Flj3 1 r r V b. liberty than the lower one. the student may find it help- at first.. 67 (which review). which follows the lower neighbor of c be observed that the upper neighbor has more 8. 73. c both properly. In measure the tone b the upper neighbor of the same In the third measure. r I r I T ^m r l i r 1 1 IV Explanation. it leaps up to d. back into e (or on up into g). Better. i J (?) tJ U Uzl Good. RHYTHMIC DIVERSITY. when separated by two unessential tones). The irregularity is more is c. 61. to counterpoint the given melody with essential tones (fun- damental intervals) in corresponding rhythm. . 55).. in the first measure is the upper neighbor of the chordInstead of moving stepwise. possibly. Rule Successive octaves (which were proven objectionable when separated by one unessential tone. and a are the two neighbors of the chord-tone b.Par. ? Ex. but may be excused when an accented essential tone intervenes (or. all events. which is and then c itself appears and resolves them both. 34) are not rectified : 8 . 73.

'6 I - 8 S C These simple counterpoints may be transformed notes to each beat. From Group -or 2. 71. Group gt Also . or may fall . made. Given the figure Par.'. . r' 5.'. 1 ± C 62. fl tr i rrrr'C ri ! . 74.'. it always represents a good chord-line. and also at the keyboard). and That the progressions of the quicker part That when a skip is Com- pare par. f : Crr Group 3. i Compare observe 1 these two examples carefully (mentally.'ii^i. with a number of possible counterpoints in similar rhythm : — 1 Ex. lie Compare par. j j^J 5.. 70. g P -U — r- J=A t=i H zj t j i 3^ 3. i. Lc it r ^Tot Group ' jl ^Ur"^Tl7r Bad. of three ascending scale-steps (upper part of Ex.'ii. . That the unessential tone may between the beats (unaccented). LTLr Group . Bad. 4. * ^^ ' ±=i Group 1 £i± j j=t cu-r'^crcVtrr'-'-Ftfr j . as follows : into a rhythm of two From Group Ex. 62). . 63 are mostly stepwise.^^i Bad. : 34 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 3. 63. ur-i'i. 2. q'Vf ^^f j m ^r j * j j "c^ ^ B* X in Ex.

or of perfect fifths. 65. par. T=* x x x x B3 m itself. See the first 35 63. ultimately. below. tke student will not first define the essential tones throughout. again. That a rest may sometimes take the place of the accented fraction (measure 5). by no means necessary that the quicker rhythm For example Ex. and the added part. 66. In the fourth measure (second beat). J 6 3 i J^i ¥=T r -etc Ex. has two notes to a beat. Thus. Compare stepwise. see par. par. : cellent Ex. 47). This is important. and therefore chooses its own progression. 6. created by the trend of the parts. This is because the last unessential tone (the fourth 8th-note). but phrase. is should be sustained in the same part throughout. both parts have the quicker rhythm together. relaxes . Compare. the given part. 67. r^-J- J 65. ^r : Further. but will let the choice depend upon momentary conditions. That two unessential tones may appear in succession. the is always permitted. is not rectified . 5. 4. and is extremely effective. 64. 63 diverge from the original groups (of Ex. 62). -•—t- hi . 64 is awkward but changed to Ex. rhythm and counterpoints one note against two. RHYTHMIC DIVERSITY. That a the error may be — leap of an octave Quick repetitions should be avoided. upon the beat (accented). in the course of the good but that by sufficiently separating the intervals. 7. and is easily controlled. may also occur. 73. when the progression is See the first and third measures of Ex. its reversing the rule. after a " good " interval. without affecting any of the rules. as a rule. and shows that. In their place. Ex. . becomes practically " essential " in character. It is common at the very beginning (compare par. tZZJ it -p- r w? 6 -etc. the very same notes are ex75. 65. occasionally. being a chord-interval. 75. Such alternation (and occasional union) of rhythmic movement adds greatly to the musical interest of the sentence. gi E^E± gl 76. In measure 3. and second measures of Ex. tJ^L J ^ . 63. That the last three measures of Ex.Par. direct succession of octaves." pnii s? 3 8 » 4+6 V7 S SIP 3 IV II V ¥e Given part. This depends upon what precedes.

] write. Follow the general directions given in Exercise . according to the rules of this chapter (with two notes to each beat).[ b=t solution of in the Appendix. 76. Two-Part Counterpoint. Ex. duets) imitating the style of Ex. | i i « * *r u Hi &se£ Ia P ¥ *=• 11 1 i may « s 7. a -* 2. P£ S^| P=¥ =*=£* I& u. with which the student carefully Besides these. Two Notes to Each Beat. . — using two staves. 1. p ** ss [A ^ Melody 6 will be found compare his own versions. Also number of original melodies with counterpoint (as. mm t i i§i s^ite fflf Ti rj r I J1 £P t!frf>ri^ frf Tr T . re-counterpoint the given melodies of the preceding Exercises. Par. as usual. n ^^ji^EfflfNa ^ * fel *s it. — similar to 4. The student will do wisely not to neglect this additional task. 66. in a constant rhythm of two notes to each beat. 66. Manipulate the following given melodies. EXERCISE 7. for practice is here of the greatest value. 3.:r.36 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.

as the case may modes same two-sharp signature namely. The com- parison of the signatures therefore exhibits the relative location of the keys. but are subject to certain fairly end. — the central al- or zero key. and stands in perfectly definite relations to the other mem- ture . to major. Each key is a mem- ber of the greater family of keys bers of the key family. their degrees of similarity or difference. strictly speaking. absolutely valid for both major and minor (those with corresponding sig- natures). of the parts. it is to the zero (the " natural more than one to whose signatures differ by no key is next-related and is also nextthe one-sharp key (which has only one sharp less) next-related keys are those The similar sign. MODULATIONS. and may be of any reasonable duration. Also. 80. each key has its individual place in the system. and. . should remain in the same key from beginning to either. the two-sharp . . the The proper index of any key in the system of keys is its Signanumber of flats or sharps it contains indicates precisely the deit gree of similarity or of difference between phabetic without and C major. 37 CHAPTER VIII. the two-sharp key is or five-sharp (or any more remote) keys. in fact. 77- MODULATIONS. the de- grees of relation or non-relation. That is. consequently. or any flat key. The most important of these is the limitation naturally imposed by the varying degrees of relation between the keys. the one which has accidentally been chosen for the plain letters. — or Relative major. This it is rule of Signature-relations applies. are likely to add and smoothness of the counterpoint. the two-sharp key is next-related. closely related. or in both. — to But the other key which has the called Relative minor. because of their very close proximity to each other in the system of keys. For instance. or the given melody. . Note. the sobe. related to the three-sharp key (which has only one sharp more). 79. It is neither necessary nor desirable that the added part. 78." Par. more closely located to the one-sharp. Modulations in greatly to the beauty strict conditions. 77. the two-sharp and three- sharp keys are more nearly related than the two-sharp and the four-sharp. Such changes of key may be made at any point in the course of a musical sentence. flats or sharps to inflect their pitch. than scale). — most Further.

A sentence in E-flat major may exhibit transiently the keys any one. or double-period) should be limited to the next-related keys of the principal or central key. Invert this example. a phrase with a three-sharp signature. F minor. and D major. other possibilities beyond the closer range of the five the same keynote. next-related keys such. of C minor. Further. G major. the next relatives of a three-flat key are the two-flat keys.: r 38 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. B-flat major. or all of these. period. are. — i 82. A-flat major. . major or minor (one-sharp keys). into G minor (oneflat keys). That is. LSUJJ 1 Ai i «— f <#" fT — r mode ' f rfl ^ r of each related etc. Modulations that are made during a brief melodic senThus. and into major or E F D — or more. to F-sharp and to B minor.). C major may contain brief modulations into A minor (same signature). for instance. minor. 81. And B minor (with the A major. C minor the four-flat keys. There is. 67. D major is next-related to A major. as in the preceding lessons. keys should But in the elementary studies of counterpoint. N. he If the student is not absolutely familiar with all the signatures. — : and to E-flat major. the next-related suffice for all modulatory changes. to to G major. and not undertake any exercises in before thoroughly mastering this necessary item of musical knowledge. mmmWLL3 ^ "1 1= m £. is next-related to B-flat major and G minor. to A-flat major and F minor. a sentence in tence (phrase. Rule i. E minor. and the other key with three flats. Fsame signature) has the same group of next-related keys. as the so-called opposite key (that the other mode of — D major and D minor. and the small letters minor) Ex. or G minor. E minor. B. containing brief excursions into the keys of two and of four sharps (the capital letters indicating major. will major and modulation do well to pause here. For example. sharp minor. naturally. . minor. For illustration : Par. 81.

this as to contain one or same melody may be counterpointed more modulations.: Par. naturally impossible. 69. Or. 67. and each generally. . I 68. For example. at the option of the student. 83. obligatory. or entirely. * r =t= -~E *P in Invert this example. i. But it is may be effected partly. It is =£ 6i= -nr Invert this example. not only in counterpoint but in music-writing the union of tones must sound well. of course. part roast flow easily and Such given results rules. as usual. 1 i 84. For example such a manner Ex. in which case they are. accidentals in the following given melody. in these *T~r 3 f r elementary lessons. Sometimes. there are no and it may therefore be coun. throughout. are smoothness. in the added part. can be obtained by every intelligent student who and who has diligence and patience. as usual. as in the foregoing lessons (the given part above) : thus C Ex. to give complete Besides close explanations and directions for the manifold details of modulation. major. m I 4- n it U. the student must rely upon his musical judgment to some extent.e frr^^^^r^^^ i 8S. 39 83. as in Ex. the changes of key are indicated by quite as likely that they accidentals in the given part. MODULATIONS. attention to the general rules. and euphony naturally. terpointed without changes of key. The main requirements. carefully notes the .

Rule 2. For illustration . In the following example (Ex. Further. Also analyze Ex. movement. The great fundamental rules of modulation are. because these lead naturally into This may be best illustrated in chord-forms In every case. 86. 86) that is. also. in any case. with reference to the chords employed in modulating. Par. and to enter the new key with one of its Dom- inant (possibly Subdominant) chords. when the chromatic inflection is used. and each new key begins with some form of its Dominant har- mony (the V or V 7 1 ). the keys close upon some form of their Tonic harmony (the I). . it is generregard the fundamental rule (par. 67. 70 only the keys of one represented. here. and that each is made through the Dominant harmony of the desired key in one case only (at the end) the new key begins with a Subdominant harmony (the II). i i i i i i ii Invert this example. in tone-lines ic- Ex. 72) most of the changes of key of a chromatic are made by means 88. and yielding point — not enter the new key at some abruptly. 87. to to finish one key before passing into another. Observe. as usual. modulation . is made chromatically. When a modulation ally needless to . that each key terminates with a Tonic impression. it does not matter at what harmonic point the old key is abandoned. zero signature). it is Technically stated. But the new key is generally entered through Rule 3. that both here and in Ex.: : : 40 86. Observe. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 71. this means that best to close a key (before modulating) upon some form of the Tonic harmony of that key. as this has a concluding quality the desired Tonic. as nearest relatives of the principal key flat and one sharp are (C major. its dominant or subdominant.

Good. And analyze it carefully. with refer- ence to the key-relations and the chords. and therefore confirms the wide leap" The same thing occurs at the begin- ning of Ex. Namely Rule 4. is preceded by a leap. 72. as usual In the first three melodies . as usual. part. It is evident. the * indicates where changes of key are to be made. in the lower part. Manipulate the following melodies. — so movement should as to be introduced in the corresponding direcline. and at the how it continues in the same direction. again. as upper and then as lower An J J J fe Uh d: -g>- ^n±+h± . then. is 3F Bad. with Changes of Key. - *— • > 5 S F=*=^ Examine Ex. the lower part) . Good. 89. MODULATIONS. VI Invert this example. the manner of treating the chromatic change itself is subject to stricter regulations. that modulations may be made most freely and easily by means of the chromatic change. 1. in corresponding rhythm (as in Exercises 7 1 4. 69. Also analyze Ex. 72 r^ Bad. EXERCISE 8. but they should . 16). upward chromatic move rule of "turning after a — introduced. first Use each melody twice. downward. 71. modulating wherever possible or necessary.: : Par. (in end of the third measure (par. Eb 41 — V |Ab — |Bb- Ex. Two-Part Counterpoint. 90. 89. form part of a continuous Thus : ^'B=S ir^ps£^ Ex. Chromatic changes are usually good . and examples and 72). not be made too rapidly (as a general rule not quicker than eighth-notes) and tion the chromatic if possible. in 1 which each the and observe the straight-forward manner chromatic progression There is one exception. 5 and 6. On the other hand. 1.

i s^y ^ =P$i j Ji^py ™^-- 1^^ B£ 2: 5. sap^ m=kgsm rf^W^ is f-h*-:^? ^ $r=Ffr=¥=w&i. staves. Par. H*=5= t=f=pE F* — CXtTTTTTH beat (as in Exercise 7) with modulations. I& IS*^=t ^ ^ k^ IO. fift f^- I Jlf ^riMfT^^Tr¥^^=^^^± a (6 notes. 67 and Ex. Manipulate the following melodies in a constant rhythm of two notes to each similar to Ex. as a rule.5 42 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 90. • s Tg-j ffiEfcfS t=t ^Efc^ <g <g IBs ^2=2^ 3 £> W a Efe li^ b4 I 1 J-M~fr s r^r^— W- bp ^^=^ :±=t* PP^fl *S ggpai 2. 69. a. Use two 8.) sa tr fif tjrhrLH p^ i SI .

. gi. three tones When . in each group. |& rw 15. as usual. tt 12. and two unessential ones. tt^ ii 'i P P: *=f i^B tea S|Ep 18. * i" 1 i i i£=fc -M4P #= i=F= * *F FF^E 3E =££ 14. Par. Also write. so that accompany each beat of the given part. IX.] Also experiment with some melodies of the preceding Exercises. THREE NOTES TO A BEAT. g£l ^ aggr^ r^ 4ft 16. there will generally be one essential tone. » ^^ i^i» ET m ^¥ P5 -s>- i is 13. ^H3 ifc ?i=5 Si* W=± « 1 — *=£ *==*:t W =p=i=*= I :fa^= 1 - fo^. 17. the rhythm of the added part is again quickened. with a view on the principle of examples 68 and to possible modulations in the added part. »H -It ^^=£=* II will solution of Melody be found in the Appendix. MODULATIONS. 83 and 84) 4. 43 11. a number of original melodies with counterpoint. 69 (review pars. CHAPTER 91. ^ES =P=i= S I 1 ^— i» [A 3.

5. 74. 8ve . occasionally the perfect 5th. The unessential tones may form any interval. 3rd. diminished 5th. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. The The of rules governing these are exactly the Par.). 6. same as before (Chap. and resolves both. ^f Tf rf r if r 1 . 2. Each part must be melodically perfect.. The essential tone generally stands at the beginning of the group (on the accented fraction). The upper " neighbor " may down a 3rd. — 7. but by no means necessarily. form. Amplified forms. For illustration Orig. (1). but may leap. augmented 4th. 4. x jx-x-L Ex. in and by itself. (2). Successive 8ves and perfect 5ths should be avoided. Ex. on condition that the principal (harmonic) tone follows. etc. with greater freedom 8 ^-*—+-f r r=r 1 1 3 i IE n n^ r Ix ^T_r t_L X 93. without this condition (usually in the upper part). 3 (8) X Further. i * J ! J J I _ -1 lA x x ' J J i -^—± 1 x X x x „ . Either " neighbor " of a harmonic tone may leap (a 3rd) to the other neighbor. with occasional irregular movements x I |x 2.>< i r T=^ Also. 75. VII): 1 essential tones are chosen according to the fundamental rule good intervals (6th. occasionally leap fe. The quicker part runs chiefly stepwise (smoothly) along any good chord-line. Par. 92. 72. . Par. 3. 72. : : : 44 92.

excepting that of par. all these irregularities are permissible in either the upper or the lower part.r Par. 28 thoroughly. That is. 30. 92—8. 28 becomes more and more imperative. without ultimate resolution (par. THREE NOTES TO A BEAT. f In group I. — 94. 32. if used. 94. and endeavor to apply generally. Review quence. b). and Ex. In the it first beat of the last measure the 6th scale- step (/) is raised to /sharp. 45 rn rn fj-fc. because descends. in every instance. which. Exactly the same thing takes place in groups 2 and 3 but observe the change in In group 5. precede their principal tone c (par. because ascends. Further. As the rhythm quickens and the tones multiply. as usual. should be carefully tested. — excepting Ex. the upper neighbors leap down a 3rd. In the first beat of the third measure. 92-7). . par. . see also Ex. Compare par. result is perfectly 75. 92-8. 76) : IS & £e£ E #t 1 m is i lowered to Invert this example. the 7th scale-step (gsharp) it g-natural. as the rule of the se- and of uniform grouping much as possible in the run- ning part. their location in the group. b and d. — i the two neighbors. the student will learn that the good group 5. 95. the principle of par. with alternating rhythmic movement (review par. 60. in this manner. In inverting these examples.

purposeless impression. clearer significance than the other. a. 95- following two versions are both faultless counterfar better music than version a because the uni- but version b form arrangement of its groups gives it a more definite character. — which creates a and more rambling.46 For example point . The is Par. . : ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Inferior version.

imitating the style of the above. CHAPTER X.r Far. i Br*fl f *fe^w LT 1 J ^m^fferi^EB fi^s^ 4.] Besides these. 96. OR SHIFTED RHYTHM. And. 96. write a I ¥^ s Par. -(=^- H=i- — 1=- SEES 1 [A solution of Melody 4 will be found in the Appendix. fap-«- **= 1E §S S ^ Yr £=E5 &> ff£=*= 5. as number of original melodies with counterpoint. manipulate some of the given melodies of the preceding Exercises. J*r 3i3 ^ LU p1 * — a ' •- 1 4= i# • LLr r 1 JSg vi — ¥S i 50 IE -s>- &* ^ f -«> usual. Another method of obtaining quicker rhythm fall in the counterpoint of a given melody. SYNCOPATION. The re- . THREE NOTES TO A BEAT 47 3. so that they between (instead of upon) the beats. 95. consists in simply shifting the tones of the added part forward.

79. i *a= j=* 1 r'H r r 1 i will produce the effect of is quickened rhythm (two notes to each beat). and sug- gests no other objection than that of possible monotony. in corresponding rhythm j Ex. iB=t If n-n^n^r^ - t=t r pja-J3=J^P f 98. the tie as reliable as it is valuable.) 97.: : 48 ELEMENTA RY CO UNTERPOINT. E— CJ UJr-'U—U ~Z-F^f . 97. and is Pai. (Comp. as modification of a perfectly is interval-succession. par.W i J ^ or i i J U II when the lower part remains. . For illustration : The following faultless series of intervals. is entirely smooth and faultless to begin with. r r ^ s r Tie. and the upper part is shiftedforward so. suit is syncopation. when the lower part thus shifted forward': Ex. rhythm and of increasing the energy of the musical sen- When good obtained in the above manner. invariably permissible when applied to a coun- terpoint that 108.EIE3=E - I* J .ES £#. This process involves the of the — a device which the student must regard as one of the most important and effective means of relieving the monotony tence. 78.

1 r r *JT faultless in principle applies. OR SHIFTED RHYTHM. to an original counter- point of two notes to each beat. i IS B=± -* — r w*i r r ^L^J^ sA^3^=^^ m i -ft n*n nn ~. stead of constantly. either it ing the alternating parts.n *=•= The same n^S -=' • -P- j zt=t '. D =pt 4 =^ ^ £=t - cj ^j'-^-rTT - •j * i o i — 1 it- i p^f 100. — if smooth and . t r-i-. SYNCOPATION. n s> i Q^B=7 And " Ex. £3 p -*- r : Lr zJ j in the following. But tie in 99. the tie is used occasionally. this possible monotony may be easily avoided. or by employing occasionally only. of In the following examples the parts are an almost endless variety of forms) : alternately syncopated (in two Ex. gg. naturally. 81. alternating with passing- notes as defined in a preceding lesson J i 82.— — » — r 49 by usin- Pai. which.

:

So
self,

ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.

Par. 101.

— may be
of the tie
:

accelerated to a rhythm of three notes to each beat,

by

means

and

shifted rhythm.

Thus,

the following faultless

coun-

terpoint

Ex.

83.

I m

-J:

wv^m^rv
rJ-j
.
i
i

r n
e

P
a

1

_etc

^~r

may be quickened

to this

:

^
101.

^j3ej3qg^BJf'r

S
f

•—+-

fH tOT
ing
all

&J
-ti

Si
the necessity of avoid-

The greatest emphasis must be laid upon
is

doubtful or irregular conditions, in the original construction of the
to

counterpoint that

be manipulated

in these

syncopated forms.

Only

the smoothest and most perfect models can be thus utilized.

EXERCISE
Shifted Rhythm and Ties;

10.

Two and Three Notes

to a Beat.

Manipulate the following melodies, according to the above
i
.

rules, as follows

Construct (with each given melody) a faultless counterpoint in corresponding
(like

rhythm

Ex.

78),

and

alter this to various accelerated

forms with two notes to

Exs. 79 to 82). At least six different versions of each melody should be obtained. Each melody to be used both as upper and as lower part, as

each 'beat
usual.

(as in

mm
im
-gH

U-J-J-J-l
' r

t

r

f=fiF=f
r
f

1

i

minor

1

:

Par. 102.

SHIFTED RHYTHM AND
6»z

TIES.

51

e i^=t

-*-

^

o

I

% p£
4.

S#=

ft^^E3 l=P
I

f=3t
1

J

JTTTTmF B

^r^mLT^r?p^gFi^cg^i

ms
2.

5.

?=i

z

^
F
This

maj. g min.

1

cise 7),

Construct a faultless counterpoint with two notes to each beat (as in Exerand modify this to various accelerated forms with three notes to each

beat (as in Ex. 83). 3. Besides these, experiment with some of the counterpoints constructed in
earlier exercises (possibly omitting Exercise 6,

because of the

irregularities),

modi-

fying

them

to quicker rhythms.

may

be done at sight, at the keyboard.

CHAPTER
THE
102.

XI.

TIE,

CONTINUED. RESTS.
a
tie

It is also possible, of course, to introduce

without such

ref-

erence to a pre-defined counterpoint as formed the basis of the preceding
lesson.

But

in this case,
tie,

dent use of the
vice should be
103.

if

the student undertakes to

make indepen-

it is

necessary that the nature of this technical de-

more

fully understood.

effect. The longer tone, which reand therefore consists of portions of two contiguous beats (or measures), may produce a gentle strain upon the second beat or, on the contrary, it may prove to be a dead weight upon both

Ties differ greatly in their
tie,

sults

from using a

;

beats.

Compare the two

different applications of the tie in the following

:

.

52
1.

ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.
Good.
Poor.

Par. 104.

Ex.

84.

#4
g
is

Is;

l

lgg

r

-g

1

Note. In order
two
tied notes the

group, the J at

to distinguish easily and quickly, we shall call the first of the "tying" note; and the second one the "tied" note. In the first the end of the first measure is the tying note, the next d (at the begin-

ning of the second measure)
In the
first

the tied note.

group (Ex.

84), the tied note appears to vitalize the

rhythm and mel-

a foreign tone and strives for resolution. Such tones are called Suspensions, because they hold the correct harmonic tone " in suspense." Here, the second d " suspends " the real chord-tone c
ody, because
it is

The

as an incubus upon both melody and rhythm. an Anticipation, because it does not belong to the chord of its beat, but " anticipates " the harmonic tone of the next beat. While such tones are sometimes used with striking effect, they are, when tied, usually dis-

In the second group the
tying note (the

tie acts

first c) is

called

appointing.

104. A similar paralyzing effect is generally created when the tied note is longer than the tying note. And, in any case, it is not wise to leave the tying note very short it (the note where the tie begins) should not, as a rule, be less than a half-beat.
;

For example

Ex.

85.

PE

^~ S=k^ M Ban —
~
is

The second group

m
2.

Doubtful.

3.

Better.

4.

Poor.

^JV^ffl
f

i

-^
r
;

t
all

f
is
1

-y
a suspension

not wholly wrong, as the tied note

and

sus-

pensions are rarely limited in their time-value.

Groups

and 4 are

intolerable,

because the tying notes are abrupt anticipations. Note. When the tones are struck, instead of being
ent ; omitting the
ties,

tied, the case is entirely differ-

the above are

possible.

But

see

far. 73, and note the

analogy between that rule and this one.

105.

Rule

1.

In using a

tie, it is

always best to

make

the tied note

(the second one of the two) a suspension.

In other words, the tied tone

had best

be foreign to the

harmony of

its beat,
still

and then progress stepwise
it is

into the essential

harmonic tone.

In

other words,

usually best
4th, etc.)

to tie from one of the "good" intervals (3rd, 6th, 8th, Thus : over into a "poor " one.

augmented

Ex.

86.

In the above example. both methods are ward. This example. poor intervals are tied over into good ones. 109. as usual. 1*^. The effect decidedly inferior to that of Ex. skips ' may 8 occur. contrary. 8^~ « 6 2~\ 88. if reduced to its essential intervals. copying it out. of course. each tied note was a suspension the . 86. and the lower part an octave higher. as usual. vitally . 79 to 82. 87. is tied 53 In the measure. and would be intolerable but for the significant fact that this condition prevails throughout . effect is therefore good. See par. into another Rule 2. the 2 8 result is as follows 7 6 Ex. This arrangement of the intervals occurs quite frequently in Exs. mm^¥=mm ___ _ X 107. CONTINUED. ^S Ex. which should now be analyzed with reference to these more general rules of the tie. — and over into a 7th (poor interval) so on. f is treated as upper neighbor. THE first TIE. though it covto ers The whole example may. last measure. This goes to prove that the simple process of syncopation explained in the preceding lesson (Exs. the rule is When. on the reversed.: — :. the suspension is true. to use the tie for a tone that common to both beats. . the device of anticipation is applied persistently and uniformly. There. one of the parts is shifted backward. 86. any irregularity. Invert Ex. In this case. r r t r ' r " f V r Invert this example. is 9 ? Here. Par. and the tying note is an anticipation. 96). a narrower range of possibilities. and carried over into the lower neighbor before resolving to vals. than here written. It good one is . here. Such consistency is an excuse for almost 108. will be found to differ from those of the preceding chapter. 106. one of the parts was shifted forEvidently. e. possible but it is surely far better to shift one part forward (par. RESTS. 92-7. it from which it may appear be reduced to a series of good essential inter- have been derived. an 8th (good interval) then a 6th In the is tied over into a cth. also permissible to tie one good interval over is that is. and placing the upper part an octave lower. 78 to 82) is likely to prove quite sufficient for the ordinary applications of the tie. 106. For example Susp.

$r t f " B+h r r=^ TT m m The spasmodic. it was derived by merely shifting the — 110. no. yield the best results. may always be substituted Thereby the Ex. r rer—w—r 1 Invert these as usual. beats. board) with Exs. 111. on corresponding (at the keyrests. the melody loses its cohesion The fourth version its is also inferior. Another important device for increasing the effectiveness of a tone-line. is the short Rest. but often a " good " interval. keeping with the faultless model. out. may be follows Ex. 89. Rule 3. . The student may experiment also with Exs. . It is a somewhat singular fact that a rest (uniform in value with the general rhythm of the part) the tied note (on the accented fraction). and becomes 112. There.: » 54 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.n —r and force. is Par. 86 tie for simply drops written as For illustration. from which in exact a suspension.rr-± i *=* r—r^r - T-& i rr g»- t hR-. especially in counterpoint. because the rests are irregularly distributed the melody loses evenness of structure. third version of the above example contains too many rests . not every tied note notes forward. From this it appears that occasional brief rests. 79 to 83. but its effect is retained. . =*=* 5i=* r r SS^^f -• s> n i i . 87 and 88 — introducing .

(Double-neighbors. CONTINUED. By a repetition of the tied note (Ex. 86 may be ac114. 1. ^^Yrymmfn^n^=^ — ^r r 'r j— 1 z^^jr S s- t. a). For illustration. 90. =Z5 go. Ex. Rule 4. 86. in the following ways : a. 99. 55 113. (Repetitions.— Par. of course. up or down as the case may be. par. The first of these methods is.) TTTLL : *=£^ J^r^h±=^ "1 -m T ijuf -I . leaping a 3rd. if it is an inharmonic suspension (as in Ex. (Rests. 88). 113. A tied note may be followed By its proper stepwise resolution. d. (Alternating rhythms.) Ex. By the other neighbor of the resolving tone. J : * THE TIE. always good and always The second and third are peculiarly useful in quicker rhythms (of 3 or 4 notes to a beat). b).) $r i -=1 3S •- I 1 &—&- r^ffi^f Effi3= pt -4 — - r — fe^ r 71 The best form. RESTS. celerated from two notes to three in each beat. applicable.) -I- ii 2=£ t — i i—m •- -* c. (as in Ex. last measure (and Ex. — 3. 86) or by any good leap. if it chances to be an : — harmonic interval 2. as in Ex. 90.

87). it is always |H*=^ =J= Lu |~G major. 96. Observe that these methods.) — r r Par. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. as usual. Rule 4. B.— 56 and mixed. tie. 1. 114. not so well to the which creates an anticipation (Ex. the occasional omission of the is and substitution of passing-notes. but often convenient. in a rhythm of two ties. permissible to fall back upon the process given in pars. | 1 =F=S= 4 i 'U-d-r-J-f^=p y^r qc -p-f-r- ±j Pi < & & £ -*-f- m . tied as tie EXERCISE Ties and Rests. Two and Three Notes to a Beat. need not be used in every group. See par. apply best to the note which is legitimately a result of shifting the original essential interval forward . N. 97. Each melody to be used as upper. and also as lower part. not only effective. The student must remember that in case of embarrassment. II. with a contrapuntal part to each of the following melodies. Add tie notes to each beat. r 1 r fag rn f—0- 1 [~e minor FU ¥ -• • r * P- IE ^ pa minor. as in Ex. 86. (a b fe r ^tSi. The 99 (Ex.%^~ j^m i r t — etc Invert each of these examples as usual. 82).

:

Par. 115.
5.

FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT.
fEb
ma]."]
|~f

57

s i iS
2.

min.

-4f

2 =^=t
-wc
is

e£ee£-u-q- £

^=^

fc5=Mp=
=F

-=1— f-

^ §1
m,
113,

Each version thus obtained

then to be quickened into a rhythm of three

notes to each beat, according to the above rules (pars,

— Ex.

90).

At

least

four different forms of each should be written out

;

and

still

other versions

may be

made at sight, at the keyboard. [A solution of Melody 3 will be found
3.

in the

Appendix.]

Besides these, write a number of original melodies with counterpoint, as usual,
together.

composing the parts

CHAPTER

XII.

FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT.
115.

When

four notes

there will
tial

be one

essential tone

accompany one beat-note of the given part, and three unessential ones, or two essenin

and two unessential ones,

each group.

All the rules given in the

preceding chapters are valid, without exception or modification, for these
still

quicker rhythmic movements

;

but the larger the groups, the greater

the likelihood and necessity of uniform figures, and of more definite for-

mations, in general.
116.

Among many

forms which four-tone groups are apt to assume,

the following figures are especially

common and worthy

of notice

:

Ex. 91

=p=i=

'See
In group
1,

^a^fe^=a
(/)
is

the upper neighboring note
(e)
;

so inserted as to create a 3-tone tone (d) goes on to
is
c,

figure out of the essential tone

the

final unessential

or

back to

e,

as the next beat

may

require.

In group

2,

the lower neighbor
is

used in

the same way. In groups 3 and 4, the double-neighbor the essential tone at once into a four-tone figure. 117.

so used as to transform

Applied to a faultless series of good essential intervals

:

58

ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.
Ex.

Par. 118.

92.

The

results

may

be,

— using only the above

r

r

?figures

Ex.

-—--

Invert

all

of these, as usual.
in the second

At N.B.,
instead of g.

measure of version

a,

the lower neighbor

is

gsharp
is

In many

cases, this choice of the half-step

for the lower neighbor

decidedly preferable.

It is left to the taste of the student,

who

therefore should not

neglect to test the lower neighbor, and substitute the half-step (with an accidental)

where

it

sounds better.
agrees with the scale.

The upper neighbor always
118.

— of which the two are indicated version b of the above example, — depends mainly upon the location of the following
is

Rule

I.

The

direction of the figure,
possibilities

when a double-neighbor
in
es-

used,

sential tones,

which should, as a

rule,

be approached

in a straight line.

For example:

:

Pai. 119.

FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT.
Good

59

Ex.

94.

i rr
119.

±=pj
Poor.

S-

-j

'

J—,

^
r

i

Rule

2.

It is usually

unwise to leap to the

first

(accented) tone

of a following beat, a/fer stepwise progression in the same direction
that point.

up

to

This

is

important.

In other words, do not interrupt a step-

wise progression (in the same direction) at the junction of one group

with the next
illustration
1.

;

if

a skip

is

necessary,

make
2.

it

earlier in the group.

For

Good.

f f

Ex.

E^*

95.

^

??

±

*a3
Bad.

r
Good.

r-r
is
??

m
I w8.

^-j~

^k^i^ S
r
6.

Good.

y.

Good.
1 ; ,


Good.
1
>/

5^

rt
if it

J7

^^j™^
r
The
ear follows

up a stepwise progression, and
it

extends to the end of
next

its

group, the ear (mental ear) expects that

will continue stepwise into the

beat.

Compare groups 1 and 3, for an illustration of this cause of mental disappointment. Group 4 is wrong in any case, because of the rule in par. 71 (Ex. 59), which see.
In group
6,

the c-sharp

is

preferable to

c,

because the essential intervals impart

minor. Further, the c is possibly the unessential lower neighbor an impression of compare note to Ex. 93 (N. B.). of d, and therefore sounds best as half -step,

D

groups 3 and 7. i as usual. Analyze thought- and test at the piano. but it. but correct. there is a leap into the new group. . 120. in Par. S Invert them all. fully. it is not same direction as the stepwise tones that precede Such a change of direc- generally good. Other manipulations of Ex. 120. because of the dis- tinctly unessential nature of the notes that cause the irregularities. that. Group 8 is very peculiar . 92 : 4- 1 IS I 2: T_f ££J f i ! I ! ' ' \ jiff 1 i Study these carefully.6o Observe in the tion is ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.

because a skip to an inharmonic tone." groups measure and the next (each group beginning with a last sentence). m Tt T m I Sequence. Observe that in all of these versions. and desirable. flect that this requirement is more imperative in counterpoint with four For further notes to a beat. Thus: 4- Ex. 96. See. 61 In version It is second measure. b) and reity of figures in general. t± 1= I 1 1 A w* | — —— i I 1 I i— J I J-*: minor. par. there it is is a wide leap at the junction of the groups. varieties. because .: # Par. however. because of the analogy between the " neighbor. ^ places in Ex. many Rule 4. one of the parts usually carries on the quicker rhythm for a beat or so. illustration Ex. carefully. further. i I 3ES (IV) 3 3= z± I m vl_ Invert. than in the preceding. less active. No. Besides the " straight lines " just mentioned. It is permissible. again. (like It is permissible. tones is so entirely unmistakable in that Ex. — compare par. I. 121. . 98. and uniformReview. Seq. daring. 95 (Ex. to use successive chord- tones occasionally. Rule 3. ^ rr however. 107. the most desirable and necessary trait in counterpoint is the sequence. 8) the nature of the unessential and. as usual. par. . Preference should be given to stepwise progressions. 71 (Ex. FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT. at the cadence. V Ex. suggests " harmonic " figuration rather than " melodic " proand should therefore be used sparingly. especially to such straight lines (fairly long) as are seen in gression. 77. and in nearly all recent examples. 95. 122. This style. Seq. 97. 59). 121. 95 (6) Emwj f Seq.

as a rule. in a rhythm of without ties.62 Seq- ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Four Notes to Each Beat. Each melody is to be used both as upper four notes to each beat. fr t_ L_J EXERCISE 12. as usual and several different versions of each should be ob- — . tained. r-^ ir^ r * ei 1 1 r G major. and as lower part. i22. Use two staves. m M ¥ it 1. as usual. §SE ^ p=t PS * MMii 'k -t-^s-&- i 1 i 1 B E tfn r tr r r r J^tiT^r — M^SMgun »-*- tat iS3 6. Add a contrapuntal part to each of the following given melodies. Invert this. i 8 Se ^ fr-r-- si- m I rQ g r? — ~g»- i fe -« — «=- ^g=t |g-l-f=^ f p l al ^l j H . Two-Part Counterpoint. i I i i Par.

6 and 7.) _fl.: : Par. CHAPTER XIII. Also a number of original melodies with counterpoint. 4+6 1 6 >^"^ 3 X ' 6 X 8 (from a. Namely An original counterpoint of three notes to each beat. AS AMPLIFIED FORMS. if smooth and faultless. ^ 4. according to this chapter. ^S 4 J S ! may become P ZUHT}~F7 </. write. by means of the tie 123. 99. $r I ^^^=d i 3E& 'f 6 3 I 'C j j U '* ' ' a c. The principle of paragraphs 96 : and shifted rhythm.) i *P^F B3r f r =P=f= St 1 . FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT. r (from 3. 123. For example ex. 2 will 63 [A solution of Melody be found in the Appendix. 5. plicable also to the contrapuntal and 100 (which review) is aprhythm of four tones to a beat. as usual. maybe accelerated to a rhythm of four notes.] Besides these. FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT. re-counterpoint some of the melodies given in Exercises 4.

The chief drawback is the brevity of the lying-note. 104. — as first al- ready shown in Ex. For against one " 126. Therefore. but depend upon other. . better resources. A counterpoint of four notes to a beat may also its be derived from a faultless version of two notes to each beat. as usual. second sentence. as shown in Ex. 124. f ! \ f 1 P ~l 1 p^\_ not — P p r ^ P p : the figure ascends . ing an occasional brief rest. It will ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 91. is a : and the lower neighbor. IOI. by such embellishment of each J= 102. Another drawback is the circumstance that the tied note is frequently a " good " interval instead of an inharmonic one. is Pf r p r * i « Jfe T-r • §£^ Invert these examples. fe P a. becomes amplified accented fraction Ex. in this quicker grade of movement. be observed that these results are not as Par. The excuse for both of these unfavorable conditions is their persistency (par. See par. the following faultless : counterpoint of " two s 3 Q I 1 Ex. the student will probably not make extensive use of this device. #t I ±=k f t r b trtTx LSiJT IJfe to four-tone groups. therefore it is better to use the lower neighbor {i) of the note At b. They are improved by insertlast sentences) but even that is a source of monotony. good as those of the for- 96 and 100). illustration. the opposite applies. as follows 125. The upper neighbor is generally chosen when the two-note group falling figure . IOO. which. Thus Ex. -becomes- B ! I -j? \ 1 • «p At first J- —becomes ""*" (c).: : 64 124. . when it is a rising figure. 107. 105. See par. by embellishing the note of each two-tone group with upper or lower neighbor. is only a quarter of a beat. 106. in this quicker movement. mer chapter (pars.

Further. 75) to the ence to Ex. Thus. a perfect counterpoint of " two against one " 65 .accelerated to four-tone groups may be by inserting a chord-tone (instead of the upper or lower neighbor) between the first tone (of each group) and its 127. with refer- / . or four. 127. FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT. 101 tone of each group. Observe the manner in which such a embellished by its neighbor. always occurs when a tone is That is. 101 : ^ZJT Invert this example. 128. Further. 91 and 100. by applying the octave-leap (par. for in all good counterpoint the chord-suca ruling factor. the student must be able to define This should not be difficult.: Far. the principal tone always recurs. cession is In order to apply this last device correctly. and at least always present to a recognizable degree. ' i the chords. two tones may become first three. after the neighboring note. when applied to Ex. repetition. Thus. — as " repetition " in Exs.

99. the development of the resources con- tained within the primary chord or chords. as The brief rest shown in Ex. awkward results. constant employment yields somewhat 129. >SjlttW^ r -r may be used in connection with the tie. (Review par. realize the The most hasty analysis of any apparently elaborate piano composition will convince the student of this fact. in and par. and the like. naturally. 112. 91. This form. usually. by employing of these forms of enlargement. or even the single essential tones. For instance: U=S=T 130.— 66 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. all The best products are obtained. figuration. This version is considerably better than Ex. are as significant as they are natural and convenient . 89. . multiplied. duplication. as the student has no doubt already observed. These various methods of obtaining a more animated contrapuntal part by simply expanding the simple small groups. All composition technically speaking. and are. 103 and 104. nothing more than an amplification of the latter. as in rational alternation. c. 131. by familiar devices of rhythm. xag. and other pianoforte writers. because. its best limited to occasional use . by the addition of the grace-notes (inharmonic neighboring notes) which occupy the spaces between and — around the chord-tones themselves. 102. of the development of larger groups of tone out of the simplest smaller groups. The most brilliant florid passages in the works of Liszt. the result might be Ex. and lead him to extreme importance and correctness of all the processes of amplification. Jfr-JT^ FES 106. is. the most elaborate contrapuntal results are invariably reducible to a simple basis. as usual. can always be reduced to the three or four tones of which the chord is composed.) : Applied to Ex. c. 99. though perfectly legitimate. shown in Exs. 99. is Par. Chopin.

128 . 127.=ff¥*^r- = ^ — i?P : == -. m 'l m 7 3. particularly par. notes to each beat. P 1 f I ^ I -fl p r f ^T = f. pi 2. Each melody to be manipulated both as upper and as lower part. 132.— Par. FOUR NOTES TO A BEAT. Two staves will generally be necessary. in a rhythm of two Then accelerate each version to a rhythm of four tones to each by the means shown in paragraphs 125. 1. EXERCISE 13. Add a contrapuntal part to each of the following melodies. beat.1 . 67 Four Notes to Each Beat. 129.

either. or both. in without disturbing the evenness of the whole. Consequently. with constant i 107. life within. not — such regular intervals as to incur again monotony of another kind. For illustration. humdrum pace So important Par. and to define the method of 134. human To some extent. in the preceding lessons. Ex. 94. but so as to impart a more definite melodic character to each separate part. or four uniform notes to is each uniform beat. that no musical sentence is complete and effective without A re- contrapuntal phrase spect. if it may be called wholly does not exhibit more or less diversity of time-values in . however. 108. this important requirement has already taken into consideration. so indispensable is a certain amount of rhythmic diverit. S trrf i ±5=£Sj . 133. 76 been and 66 and 76. the ele- ment sity. it vent any extravagance of rhythmic is customary to preserve a general uniformity of time-value (a certain constant fundamental movement). three. its application. In order to fix the bounds of such rhythmic diversity. ir m. That is. of two. — like the following. by some such alternation of the fundamental movement (three notes to each beat) as Ex. in one of the two melody-parts. no union of contrapuntal parts acceptable. of rhythm.68 with their ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. an example uniform rhythm in the added part. far and significant in both parts. puls- ing with the varying stress of 133. instead of giving all the more rapid tones to either one of the contrapuntal parts alone (as in most of the preceding exercises). and preeffect. and to limit the diversity of rhythm to the alternating interaction of the parts. may be perfect in every harmonic and melodic and yet fail to excite interest or real enjoyment. '•as*: ^g t/m'^La'tapTBPi more vital may be made this: a. to develop and systematize the process of diversifying the general rhythmic effect of a musical sentence. because of a lack of rhythmic variety. — Examples Review par. It is possible. they should be distributed alternately between the parts. of the parts it must bear witness to a emotion. 135.

first Do this thought- with the separate parts of Ex.' and the lower part has nearly constant rapid rhythm. and the lower part an octave higher. Also invert both examples. as usual. of the two parts. in regular alternation. 136. 108. copying them out and placing the upper part an octave lower. DIVERSITY OF RHYTHMIC MOVEMENT. 107. 69 ffl: fe f> t_u' marked in 1J lj^llj le t E^E i ^r Si = r^s^ -z*. in a rhythm of four notes to each original beat (on the basis of the essential intervals given in Ex. than here written. 108). and then to the other. A clear impression of the increased melodic vitality enough to and beauty of these versions can be best obtained by singing each part alone. interrupted just often prevent monotony. At a (Ex.S zJ: ^ 1 11 I 3 6 ^2 . 107. First of all. but appear occasionally in both parts at once (on the second beat of the first and second measures) further. — the upper part quickens at every second beat.: Par. from measure to measure. it will be observed that the original intervals. fully. 136. it will be seen that they are not confined to one part at a time. 109. 107) Ex. and then with those of Ex. g PE -J. are retained without essential change. the movement in general is more animated than at a. At b the effect is still further improved by In both of these diversified versions — a more irregular distribution of the shorter tones. Further. Ex. the rapid tones are assigned first to one.

Sing movement should be rhythm (two. and are therefore irregular. incorrectly "• ( Correct. Par. movement is shown at&. or four notes to a is. Hence 139. at accented points (as shown in the next example). as the case may be) should be maintained in one part or the other. in one or the other of the 138.- — applied correctly at a. That The — In Ex. carefully. tive Rule 2. In case of any diversity of time-values in the collec- rhythmic formation of a sentence. occur at accented points (at the beginning of each measure). 137. The demonstration and belong properly is obvious : — Longer notes are " heavier heavy " points in the " notes.) m » stars indicate all SH ra n_j~muj where the steady running movement 1 Lr In ver- The is interrupted. 108 there three tones parts. three. . as seen in the above examples. 109 every beat has four tones. 22 and sion a these interruptions par. the heavier (longer) tones should gen- erally occur at accented points. therefore they are all correct. and invert them. is no beat which has less or its more than the adopted rhythm of and in Ex. An occasional interruption (slackening) of the fundamental in the following. In version 6 they all occur at comparatively unaccented points. carefully. to the comparatively " measure . occasionally in both together. the general beat. Rare exceptions to this rule may be made.: 7o ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. effect of uniform rhythmic Rule 1. Review. Examine these two versions each part alone. par. 137. as usual. preserved. 23.

also. the the lighter tones (i6th-notes) in the upper part all appear on the lighter beat (second. and It is This warning applies chiefly to the quicker rhythmic moveseldom necessary in rhythms of only two notes to a beat is still more imperative in one of four notes to a beat. 3 and 4 they occur . necessarily. in. to the collective rhythmic formation). Ex. or unaccented beat) of each measure." and belong properly com- paratively " light " points. second sentence (Ex. and note the marked difference in their effect. on the heavy (first) beat is subdivided into the light i6th-notes. Ex. but becomes so in a rhythm of three. uniformly on the second beat. to gether (that must be distinctly understood that this rule does not apply. even the funda- mental rule (par. 141. ments. For example Lento. tr measure Here. contrary. in Ex. l ilff j j In Ex. a . i ^Sj a. 1 1 1. 23). 140. Here. Observe. no.: . the result probably be good. 140. but to the combined effect of both tois. upper parts alone. when inverted. 71 to the (or beat) shorter notes are " lighter. the comparatively heavier notes all stand upon the lighter beats of the but the effect is not bad. example. DIVERSITY OF RHYTHMIC MOVEMENT. Par. For smooth as Ex. If either one of the will two parts maintains the fundamental movement. 23. At the same ularities in the time. 1 1 T + rail See par. it is usually necessary to avoid any striking irregis upper part. no. It no very minutely with reference to this distinction. Invert this . Observe that in measures 2. in. because that the instance. while the Sing each of these two unbroken (heavy) quarter-notes fall on the unaccented beats. that Ex. 139) may often be disregarded. . In slower rhythmic movement. and moderate tempo. the following version is not quite as more prominent one. sounds perfectly well. 12. each separate part. Examine Ex.

or eight measures. being careful to select good essential intervals. 1901 -^5=1 f= Par. to — which review. 95. A r ^r 5 13= I Besides these. in corresponding note. as shown in the above ex- Use two staves. 1. imitating the style of the above. then be amplified into a rhythm of — the rhythmic movement to each is to first two. Alternating Parts. 192. Also invent a number of original melodies with counterpoint. and then four notes amples. EXERCISE Rhythmic Movement in 14. Far. as usual. . experiment with some former melodies. 101. in sentences of four. beat. as a rule. appear alternately (and occasionally together) in the two parts. Each version thus obtained then three.72 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Add rhythm (note against a contrapuntal part to each of the following melodies. 2. te^ # i fr 3S Par. as required in par. it ^3 i w**- iFfr W4M r r i $=k=k p gt^pfc 3LJ-g- mm ^ ^ Use fg H ^ o 1 1 £ -(2- ^^^^^[iT7 "^^^ *=F ' Par. six. 141. as in Exercise 4).

which indicates or suggests the tonic chord of the key it generally ends upon an accented beat. at. IMITATION. no guaranty of artistic structure on the contrary. The necessary concentration is leading figure. is the association of melodies. usually no more than one . Multiplicity of tone-lines may so divide the hearer's attention as to destroy his sense of the principal line or lines of the musical picture. in the development of which the parts engage alternately. of simple. more rarely. 1 . most easily and safely effected in the manipulation and develop- ment of a brief Motive. the student is referred to the Two-part " and Three-part Inventions of Bach. or held more or less constantly before the hearer's mind. IMITATION. The student may now venture to make more . Nos. Par. 143. 3 and 4 of the Three-part InvenExamine all of these motives very carefully . MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. tions. as"in Nos. 13. For illustrations of Motive construction. 2. 1. as the all ruling idea. 142. or the multiplication of melodic lines by harmonious cooperation. and also the following two. so as to establish the key. ate any It is chiefly necessary to provide for a clear tonic im- pression. 1. and defeat the artistic purpose by diffusion instead of concentration. The general aim of counterpoint. such profusion of lines may easily tend to render the structure complex and obscure. in itself.. Only the most natural and fundamental A Motive It is a brief melodic sentence. Motive. as stated. the beginning. as in (contained in the first measure or two). 73 CHAPTER XV.: . the dominant) chord. 3 and 4 of the Two-part Inventions. almost all of which begin with the " Motive Sometimes the motive appears alone. the student is in this process of development . or near. regular. major. which is gained by the adoption of some striking motive. increase of the But the mere number of melodic parts is. and obvi- awkward or obscure conditions further on. for the expla- referred to the author's " Applied Counterpoint. and with any tone . 1. which will be employed in this lesson G Ex. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. Very many devices are employed nation of these. specific practical application of the contrapuntal facility he has gained this is for the beginner." Chap. 142. Sometimes it is accompanied at once by a lower contrapuntal part. but somewhat striking may begin at any point in the measure. or any standard text-book. IV. or two measures in length character. method can be considered here. 144. with some tone of the tonic (or.

D minor. Par. puntal " added part " to the Motive which is being imitated in the other This continuation is called the " Contrapuntal associate. so adjusted and conducted that the entire group appears to be one uninterrupted melodic sentence. Motive. an octave higher. second measure. : : . 1 as follows The adopted Motive is first announced. or " imitated. upon the same steps of the higher or is lower octave. reproduction of the Motive in another part is called its Imitation (not " repetition "). Such a in the same part. but in the other part. 114. the upper or lower of the two parts of which the contrapuntal sentence is to consist. The design of a sentence that is is devoted to the manipulation in either of a Motive. But it is subject to one other significant rule . is its i ^ The first i£2 S g^B recurrence. sec- ond measure. in two-part counterpoint. with reference to the free rhythmic treatment of the two parts. The term Imitation may be applied to each successive occurrence of the Motive. though the proper name " Motive " is everywhere quite sufficient. either of the measure as at first . . called the " Imitation in the octave. as contra3. 5. See Ex. upper Meanwhile. the first part continues its melodic movement. or an octave lower. namely : The con- trapuntal associate must be a perfectly natural continuation of the preceding tones. 146. This counterpoint is made according to the principles and rules of the preceding chapters. than before (according to the location of the leading part) A recurrence of that kind. 147. These details are all exhibited in the following examples (with the Motives of Ex. 113) . particularly chapter XIV. 4. generally alone. See Ex. ^- 58 ESES 145. and upon the same steps of the 2." part. — not and most natural act in the development of a Motive." by the other part — — usually upon the same beats scale. 1 14. 145. 74 1. Then it is taken up. throughout the sentence .. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT." part.

announced upper part. 148. IMITATION. imitation in . 148. but invent a new contra- puntal associate. 1 This analyzed as follows . and imitated an octave below Again. In order to obtain a better grasp of these important preliminary the student may re-write these two examples. in order to test the and. details. 75 Imitation (in the 8ve. the lower part followed by its " Imitation " an octave higher. 113) : Contrapuntal associate. 146-5. 3=t is 3= 1 i (Ex. reversing the order in the of the parts. in the upper part below. Play.). and test these two measures with reference to the rule in par. throughout. Namely: Begin Ex. adopting a different melodic and rhythmic form from the one given above.Par. without regard to the Motive in the other prove that these two measures part. and lower part) are an entirely complete and satisfactory melodic phrase. the " contrapuntal associate " of this Imitation of the Motive. by themselves. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. or sing. imitate in the lower (in the octave). the lower part alone.) m Contrapuntal associate. m *zt #-Fin the Here the Motive in the lower part. the " announcement " of Motive 13) in . play or sing the upper part alone. 114 with the Motive it upper part . ISE i 33¥ X is -fi-w- ffi* -*-*- f-rr-r-F I Imitation (in the 8ve. and Then begin Ex. the lower part. above rule (146—5). the upper. : First. 115 with the Motive in new contrapuntal associate. (in the Further (with Motive 2 of Ex.

however. the following design is and to the most his facility. devote measure. 9 \ -i^aa •***- =P=p= Sequence. associate. few measures of the Two-part Inventions of Bach. 95). 1 m fat f-flr-f-fr=j^ I m — f* ^ # I m --¥ Motive (in ^m D). lower part). 149. -4*=*=± >3* if Episode : Modulation into D major. 3. — giving fe E decided preference to sequential figures (par. T^ 1 New • * F m -• cont. but a fourth below the original tones. 10 of these Inventions. and carefully analyze the formation of the contrapuntal associate. the imitation of the motive (second measure. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. with the Motive (beginning in the middle of the second measure of Ex. the possibilities are very may be and given to the freedom of the these. by far the most common at the beginning . using lines which proceed as naturally as possible out of the preceding to the beginner : After the first Imitation is finished. From this it will be inferred that the motive may recur upon any steps of the scale which may prove to be convenient for the purpose. 1 16. com- mended one measure to a modulation into the Dominant key (or the relative key). Nos. then of the Motive in the make two announcements first new key. In continuing the manipulation of a Motive beyond the numerous. . and 8 . 114): Ex. and the greatest scope writer's imagination first Imitation (the point at which the above examples were interrupted). In No. 7. however. Thus. Among is natural. is not in the octave. 3= Seq. The imitation in the octave (upon the same steps) is. while other steps of the scale are likely to be chosen for the reappearances of the motive from time to time in the later course of the sentence. first Par. 4. 3 iii. observe the manner of imitation (in every case in the lower part). 149.76 Also examine the i> z.

Further. for variety. is the most desirable. 150. — must be the in close keeping with what has gone like contrapuntal associate. &F JE^fif New ^g |jOP J ' cont. The It formation. a perfectly natural continuation of the foregoing lines (par. associate. this contra- not re-constructed. Observe. m gfea Such a pas- Cont. 150. IM1TA TION. i^g m Motive (in - i j=* i gSsg m^ ijEfe ' A j minor). devoted contain the entire Motive. the continuation of Motive 2 (beginning with the 3rd of Ex. but only figures from sage is it. etc. excepting that before. " the how completely " new contrapuntal associate . of it an Episode are entirely- optional. but corresponds to the preceding one. . I jy?rfi3 =jg^^ Mod. 17. to the modulation. sequential formation 151. Motive (in 77 D). observe how d-sharp is substituted for d at the beginning of the last measure. Episode : Mod. must.: Par. in the following measure. in order to introduce another modulation (this time into the relative key. Observe that the 2nd of these measures. into A minor. but necessary. and this mayFor this reason. as compared with the puntal associate is first one and notice how. in the next measure. and the length. that the sequences are not exact. associate. MO TIVE-DE VELOPMBNT. does not derived by sequence. called an Episode. ^H =r=l r=5^ ^rferff L^j 1 Ex. 146-5) refer to the line of either the upper or the lower part. Finally. further. E minor). is. 115) measure might be about as follows ^ Seq. — be . and is remember that such freedom Notice not only permissible.

Motive in this key (one in each 5. 4. 3. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. entire sentence) will prove 1. and alternating (or combining) the shorter note-values so as to obtain a good rhythmic form in each separate part. 153. If any additional directions are necessary. To test this rule. Par. modulating into the Rel- ative (major or minor) key. in general. and observe the agreement of this design with the suggestion given in par. the preceding Exercises and the counterpoints shown in this lesson appears much greater than it actually is it is merely a difference in rhythmic appearance. specific nature of the Motive. In pursuing the development of the Motive still further. : . The observant student will probably realize that a great part of the object and the labor of this method of composition centres in the formation of the contrapuntal associates. XIV will prove this. and will depend upon the fancy of the writer. the details may be chosen with considerable freedom. . given in Chap. . Motive (in A minor) Analyze carefully. modulations. Sequences. An episode of one or two measures. though. in the other part. a schedule like the following (embracing the most natural and effective The announcement of the Motive (in either part). . or of the " counterpoint " in general and this is a task for which The difference between the past lessons in counterpoint must have prepared him. and determinable . The imitation of the Motive in the octave. : 2. 152. analyze the contrapuntal treatment of every measure in all of the Two-part Inventions of Bach. it will be necessary (before rounding off the complete sentence with a perfect cadence in the original key) to introduce a few more episodic passages. For the beginner. and is not Close comparison with the rules and illustrations at all of an essential character. and at strong beats in general lead the two parts smoothly to these points. and imitations of the Motive. or upon the 154. they are comprised in the following general rule Be sure that some good interval appears (or is understood) at the accents. modulating to the Domiof the nant key.78 Seq. maintaining a uniform rhythmic effect. 149. Two announcements part). 152. An episode of one or two measures. Some of these are necessary.

associate. One announcement of the Motive in that key (either part). 154. to A minor. For example. Motive (in E min. above details — recommencing of Motive given in Examples 114 with No. ^m- . N^^ Ei Episode : Sequences. IMITATION. and perfect cadence. 8. 10. or all of these. One 79 6. 1 1 One or two announcements of the Motive in that key. the development and 116. may 1. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. be omitted. 5 of the (end of Ex. 6. An episode. 9. or two announcements of the Motive in that key (either part). Si Mod. Episode. Note. Either 3 and or 7 and 8. 116): Seq.). n tee m Cont. modulating into the Subdominant key (or its Rel- ative). may be continued thus. Par. An episode. 7. modulating back to the original key..

in the 5th measure (of Ex. the imitating of a figure that is not the Motive. 118. the brief rests. 118). be- fore the entrance of the Motive. Observe. Seq. the alteration 0/ one of the . Par. Perfect Cadence. so he can analyze the whole sentence without interruption. ^^S ^3=& =#£ N. 4H^-W 5^ N. B. 114. consecutively. : *-^r Episode Mod. I paring for Cad. Motive (Mod to C). B. Also in measure 6. associate. Such episodic imitations are as valuable as those of the motive itself. 1 16 and 118.). Observe. 9$4-i J j rr =#*= Cont. rail.8o Motive (in ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. B. A min. B. 154. at N. in the same measure. Observe. Seq. at * in the first measure of Ex. at N. to G. 1 - m 5t* The that in * g =T student will do wisely to copy out Exs.).

: Par. and with the lower for the second solution 1. Motive-Development in Two-Part Counterpoint. from time to time. 155. further. most minutely. completely beginning with the upper part for the first solution. 154. the addition of extra parts. at N. IHEa i m=* . and the duplication of the lower part in octaves. ^ ±g= i£te^ 1E=£ „ &J1= m^^^ *=±hiz STL a Andante con moto. in the manner explained above. but desirable. changed changes are not only permissible. Observe. Analyze every detail. A sentence of this kind is generally known as an Invention. Lento. Each Motive should be developed twice. 155. little Such instead of at the beginning of the measure. in the 6th measure. . according to the schedule given in par. 8 lower. Manipulate each of the following Motives. Observe. 6th. especially the. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. and the Episodes. as small INVENTION. at the approach to the perfect cadence. if carefully tested. EXERCISE 15. B.formation of the various con- trapuntal associates. IMITATION: The upward leap of a 4th is 8l to » leap of the intervals in the given Motive. This is called Imitation in Shifted Rhythm. 3. Larghetto 4. that the Motive enters in the third beat. Allegretto. and is permissible and effective.

# # # 156. L *—* jt J Allegro. and manipulate them in the indicated manner. Nothing remains to be said about two-part counterpoint. All the essential rules. Adagio. IE feE^ fc=t solution of ^p -J-*- hs^=4mi g3^ [A refer. Moderato. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. and all the important methods of treatment. after 3E will Si in the 1 No. ifar—«^ 2-j 11- l^Eg Lento.82 6. 156. and supplying them with contra- . Allegro moderate. inventing thematic melodies and motives. 7. The fundamental conditions which govern the association of two contrapuntal parts have been amply explained and illustrated in the foregoing lessons. i^EE p ifem mpttfaH f ^^ £ 8. 9. Allegretto. -SH ^us^3 *3r£U J I ®= m^ iB IO. to which the student may having made his own version. 5 £e found Appendix.] Besides these. have been thoroughly rehearsed. It rests now with the student to continue the exercise of these methods in his own way. Par. invent a number of original Motives. similar in character and length to the above (and to those of Bach in his " Inventions ").

combinations and their complete mastery is to him only a question * is of time and. 160. some one this tain coordinate though they will all be. to be melodically distinct. Par. in order to gain more complete technical not fail to do. earnest effort. and that. or " tory melodic lines. # * For further details of the Invention. therefore. itself.— . The next step in contrapuntal study is the simultaneous treatpar. THREE-PART HARMONY. who can carry two melodies side by side with perfect ease and consciousness. the parts are but harmonically unanimous. be. ment of three individual melodic parts. 157. of At the same time. it is also true that two-part counterpoint constitutes the its groundwork of all tone-association. the student Author's " Applied Counterpoint. In a word. the underlying chords must first be defined. from point to point. 159." Chapter V. 1. this individuality of each of the and limited by necessary consideration for the the other parts. are possible . Review must 158." It in- volves the association and interaction of separately correct and satisfacparts must be controlled movements others . as melodies. referred to the CHAPTER XVI. first 83 This he should puntal associates. as has not rest upon mere duplication of parts. as a general guide (at least) to the melodic course which the parts are severally to pursue. This statement admits of but one construction. The reasons for will be understood when the time comes. " Individual " these three parts . each by to a certain extent for the contrapuntal principle. is likely to be the Leader for the time being. therefore. It may be (is almost certo be) that the Leader is that one of the parts which has the Motive — . and harmonious agreement of each with the in their personal melo- their independence should consist solely dic formation. been shown. For if it be true that technical facility is the and really indis- pensable condition of fluent and effective expression (whether reproductive or productive). of course. To all the student who has learned to think and feel the simultaneous progression of two parts. does accompaniment. 157. command is the fundamental preparation for every task in the fuller styles of harmonic and contrapuntal writing. THREE-PART HARMONY. Of the three parts. facility. and. is. to repeat the fundamental definition. and must not lead to conflict of harmonic formation. and that is that a harmonic basis necessary .

123). which causes it to step into the foreground for a while. 163. Thus. if The task of selecting the proper chord would be formidable. Seventh. only when moves stepwise downward. 162. etc. Be this as it may. 161. for instance. 4- rhprz -hi f^E M T—r Maj. Min.). the tone as Root. ^ Ff I ^ Maj. Seventh. the tone C may Third. third. uppermost tion because of position . the upper line in Ex. or even Ninth of some chord as Seventh or Ninth. Min. But the . the following chords As Ex. or in some other way that provides for its resolution. which attracts attenbe the one that is engaged in car- rying out some sequential design. 120. in VI IV As Root. its fuller significance. Third. Fifth. and to define the chords from that line (as. Ninth.) 1 t ) f& T & I g J 1 J 1? II 7 ^m t 1 i o CI And. Min. possibly as Seventh . in C major. Such tone " " harmonizing " of a melodic phrase is subject to one sweeping rule A That it is. (Not as 9th. this entire list of possibilities were always valid at every point. Ex. 84 or it ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Maj. the mind is inclined to give momentary preference to some single line. 161. 19. rather frequently. or it will part.: : . may be. The given tone may also appear as root. indicate. however. in the Dom. Fifth. This list is not exhaustive. for instance. in any key Third Fifth. the its Par.-7th chord of F major and minor. Root. may " be harmonized by any may appear chord of which it is a component interval. besides these. Dim. or fifth in several other chords of the seventh (as root.

and the restrictions apply to every tone rest . the number of available in C major or its vicinity. choice of chords for each individual step of a scale. and vindi- cates the truly vital principle of tonality and key. (or minor) Step 1. so with The same D. must depend upon whether it occurs in the neighborhood of And. A minor. 122. Step 5. while Ex. 119. 165. 1 3 * I — 2. Root. choice is very greatly reduced by the ruling key. Third. -g= I II . there are a very few probable ones. may be tabulated as follows. it also suggests the necessity of rational limitation. — for C major Step ' Ex. 120 would be treated as a major third. the tone As Ex. Incomplete. Step 6. C major i -S- J=i r means 121. Not as 7th. or tonality whether. Step 7. further. Step J 3. or as a minor third. would dwindle down to the brief list given in Ex.'' refers to the omission of the root. r C II f-r— V7 ( & r V 1 VII ) V7 f The term " Incomplete " The name V " Dominant-7th. : Par. as in the case of C. the C in Ex. 164. . as temporary centraliz- ing influences. Fifth.: r THREE-PART HARMONY. or of At> major. Step 4. Hence. 164. and which are to be singled out as choice. but more rational. for example. D suggests only the following chords. to which preference must be given. and clearly exhibits the infinitude of the composer's resources. 120 discloses an inspiring outlook for the chords for the harmonizing of the tone C. or 9th. 85 . consequently. among first all the possible harmonizations. The name VII is not used in this book. intelligent student. in Thus. This more narrow.

3. by substituting other (inverted) forms of the same harmonic succession. —J 5th.: 86 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. first. 4. is made by simply defining. 6 5 I P The above ±e! ^m . J J J. according to the table in Ex. Many others are possible. -> ! J J J J^JJ 5th. 5th. i — are all good. 8 and 9. The latter succession is also responsible for the faults in the third and fourth groups. 124. 2. in fore For example Given the melo: C : major . the scale-step which each melody-tone rep- resents in the given key. J f U-U-i ' J r i J J JrH^ I -r r r r r CI V I 7- I II I I 8. . compare Nos. II VI I V VI 9- V VI 3 4. 5th. and then selecting one from the group of chords that are valid for that scale-step. and may there- be harmonized and one inner part) 1. Steps z. with a lower 45- 2. rrf =F=fr= 1 ^E 5th. as in Nos. 125). especially The following are faulty 1. and second. In the second group there is an awkward chord-succession (II into IV. the successive 5ths (in the outer parts) result from two causes from harmonizing step 3 with the VI (which is possible. 3 3 . *=E VI In the 1 II IV IV IV II 7 first group. from the unnatural chord-succession. J 5th. i Ex. 166. 125).— Ex. (see Ex. these tones are steps 3-2-1 . but rare. Par. 122). 4 and 5 or by modulating into related keys. Examine them carefully. * 5th. V into IV : first. 3. 1. dic figure e-d-c. 166. in the following ways 3- ( — as upper part. The application of this table to a given melodic succession.

and including par. (which own After the VI. fect After the IV. If his musical instinct is quick. Some centre. mind will all the more readily assent to them. After the III. or the VI (which is the " parallel " triad Possibly the III. THREE-PART HARMONY. inferior one). After the After the II. of the I). either (a perfect (a per- the I is its " paral- " follow. After the II. recede. dent must kn&w and must therefore memorize the The stuand embrace every If opportunity of putting them into practice. created by the relations of the chords to each other. After the — After the V. -& in VI III me^tm PPP After the IV. prohibitions) there are satisfactory sci- This. either the I. ultimately. he might omit the next ployed. either For every one of these movements (and entific reasons. progress that I. Stated inversely. Ex. may be already aware. 125. is not the place for their demonstration. his not. If so. following table shows is. — how each one of the six triads may which chords may come after each any chord of the same key or of any other key. or the VI 5th above). 176).: Par. 167. or the VI. and to their Tonic Others are more or less unnatural and awkward. he will have to work a little harder. III/ v IV III VII II IV -sh III 11 V111 vJ . 170. III. tables. the facts. The . awkward movements (correct melodic But the beginner must respect the following corroborating the conditions distinctions. that the choice of chords from the limited Ex. lel — the V 5th below).) S^ V IV V II \V After the VI. until they become a second nature to him. 122 Of these somewhat to by the rules of natural chord-succession. the following are the chord-progressions which should be avoided : After the V. — when It is true. however. — any chord excepting the and therefore should not chord bxitf — the IV. any chord excepting the III. ( All poor. From is 87 lists 167. chord-successions are natural. 169. that any chord-succession may be em- the student shall have learned to overcome conditions by perfectly correct contrapuntal movement in every part). rules the student few paragraphs (up 168. in this it appears.

avoid the chord-fifth in the lower part. and should be it is always possible . lustration : on account of the resolution of the chord-7th and 9th. limitations. and with certain 7 8 . In other words. f r r r tt ¥e On the contrary. as a rule. the following rules must be observed Leaps are not good. 171. is — the chord of the which almost invariably good. when V may 172. part. and of the IV '. or of the II. 6th. — — il- . during chord-repetition. Pr i \ X r 4- X etc. exceptThese are good. either to or from a £ chord (in the lower part) excepting. or 5th. . excepting in the I and IV. as usual. For I chords. Six-four chords should not occur in direct succession. 49. For example. of the two chords is inverted. It ing the inversion of any triad-form (the \ chord) is rare and hazwould be wise for the student to avoid all | chords. ^ 1 6 6 1 9 4 I3 Hi The rules given for the their Incomplete forms.) For (See par. is avoided. 126. — but not bad a rare chord. ^t^-pf 174. & rrr i J hftj=&hhh±a r^F=^f=T 1 127. instead of the Root. For illustration. the be followed by an inversion of the IV. when the chord-3rd. V 7 and V apply also to the V and V (and to V ) but more strictly.: : : 88 The when ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. second inversion of the I. second clause. stepwise downward. 173. the second one This refers principally to the first inversion. succession V-III is really Par. Ex. but the III is stiff. this lower part is faulty I Ex. appears in the lowermost 171. The succession II-I inverted forms are used. good that . Every one of the above unnatural chord-progressions can be used. The second ardous. is. the following is 1 good Ex. 58.

BEEEp: tr I—r r V i ' ± 4-^ h sJ = f=^ r f r^ Other Sevenths. Thus 129. m- ^t= IV I7 O^j r VI 7 IV r*=f=T=*r-i V III 7 ^B All of these rules apply. In group 4. or into inverted forms of the The other chords of the Seventh seldom occur as essential bodies. i7S THREE-PART HARMONY. if the proper resolution follows. fcEt 3^=1 g fTTTf 1 ^ (f II. II 7 . 175. m 9. rarely inverted. because of the inverted form of the VI. As already stated. the term " Incomplete " signifies that the Root is omitted. i5^ I IV 7 176. to the minor mode. precisely as to major. as usual. it : 1 That triad is iv 2 very in the upper part) remains Group . The Ex.b Par. The 89 V7 ft •^^ g r r The ^^ r t H» ' U r — ' W ' * f IV. V 7 . 3 is doubtful. but often as descending passing-notes. The II 7 is treated like the I. Like the passes into the V. the seventh of the chord where it is this is always good. = • r ^ f VI 7 Vs Incomplete. The only modification is the occasional lowering of the yth scale- .

But it acquires a certain contrapuntal flavor through the effort to give each separate part a is. in the spelling of the chords. . 130. Steps 3 in these lessons) I2 34-3 l6 1 5 4 3 I IS Ex. and it will be seen that something more is accomplished than the mere harmonic accompaniment of the given melody. In this lesson. to obtain the best melodic progressions. 12). merely the defining of the good melodic form. 184. Such practice is so beneficial. . a purely harmonic task. or write omission. — with This particular reference to these paragraphs (32 177.: . and raising of the 6th step. e is doubled and ^ omitted. 32 (Ex. 30). the student will confine his exercises to the " good " chords (review par. a melodic sentence in C major as upper part each an essential chord-tone (that is. 90 step. is Either of the three endings good. 177. d is On the next beat. out. which view thoroughly. 178. beat 1. =F 130. chords that are required or suggested by the successive melody-tones. or play. it In all of these cases. 122. tone For illustration. In measure beat. and of Sing. See also par. enough of the chord is. B. doubled and/ is omitted. — at the keyboard. as seen in Ex. This to be sure. In measure is 3. no passing-notes or neighboring notes. will simplify the use of Ex. and 184). d is omitted. I u I V V7 V g is is I 1. Transpose Exs. the chord-5 th beat 3.24321 j y IV F^ 0V 7 3 — V*> V rii I ^CT "j. present to define beyond doubt the object of the omissions simply. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. the omitted. On the next In measure 2. that the student should make extremely thorough use of it. above three parts alone by itself. x N. before undertaking the genuine contrapuntal treatment of three parts. 123 to 130 to re- C minor. g again omitted. and of par. 169. beat 3. so instructive and so stimulating. Par. and to one key at a time. Ex. 12. -J-^§33 n ii-^ 1 1 . each of the This can be done by judicious choice of duplication. according to par.

If the melody is high. Primary Chords. „ i-S -&—!*- i ijj inJJ Either. 91 Three Harmonic Parts. (One staff. as Melodic Harmonization. two staves will Or. if low.iown in Ex. Harmonize each of the following melodies. 130. as melodious as possible. as s.] .Par. if he so be more convenient. — V — part. in any case. as upper and V. desires. "good" chords only. 3. with Endeavor to make each part. 4^^^ Either. JJ.) j J j .) i=3t=J ^d 3t±M mm l Mil »— *~ I sr^ ^=*i ifczfa±± iffi 15: tj * s < N= [A solution of Melody 6 will be found in the Appendix. IV. EXERCISE 16. 2. 178. the student may use two staves. one staff will suffice (as in Ex.. Several versions (at least three) of each melody should be made. :*=£ *±=i=± e 1 IE iffi 15": ^fW^ a 1 -Kt~ ^4m d= J g? ^ m m^^ > V^ -j- ±=*z -X J „ «U_j 1 p=m k $ m^ S^* (Two staves. the I. U jp^^y ±r 1. 128). m ^=^ 5. . !.. V. Each melody in the same key throughout. THREE-PART HARMONY. separately. .

182. 129. 122. Successive inversions (chords of the 6th) are always good especially when used ^ T=H -* in stepwise progression. the III appears as harmonization of the descending ph scale-step sible. the tables in Ex. its first inferior (but decidedly useful and effective) chords. Par. The following groups illustrate certain specific applications iU (I Ex. The 181. 169. Thus ?-r-r f l- : —p. because it is always better to change the chord at the bar. 179. the Root always appears in the lower part. which review. (in the line 8-7-6). VI II V III To these. and par. The treatment first of the Sevenths is shown in Ex. CHAPTER XVII. It harmonizes step 7 when it descends. 1. III is very rare. add In group 1. — rarely step 3. 179. comparatively in their fullest significance. 129. SECONDARY CHORDS. shown in Ex.$=$— — Er^ £ . if posIn group 3. Ik II 4EEH 7 a X V V V. ± Better than ±i S si II 7 is 131. that is. after the V or V 7 It exis not inverted. and the II 7 and its They harmonize steps 4 and used chiefly as substitute for the I. For the employment of the other. the VI appears after the the first version better than the second one. 2. In group 2. Ex. The is best of these chords are the II and inversions. must be applied 180. stepwise. inversion. 132. cepting in the succession of 6ths. which was not used in the preceding lesson. 92 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.V : : . It harmonizes step The VI — . to step 6.

J=± ±^k i r j=^t 6 6 1 6 6666-66 the effect 3 is is -^ 3^ part. almost any irregularity is excused. Group is better than group 2 lies closer to the upper one. etc. For illustration I 3=i-Ex. in each part. 107. 29. 169 are set aside. SECONDARY CHORDS.: Par. ^E? ^^ 4=£— — -r F ^rf ^TTJL S* ^ etc . m ^ rjy f ^ ^ $*=?=£ * f=Fm. and that it interlocks readily with the first tone of its sequence. 183. It is mainly necessary that the first as usual. figure is regular (normal). 183. #—p§_^=tE ffff 5- I w ga=^=j -r« =^=F etc. Group also good. because of the uniform parallelism of the outer parts compare par. 93 -f i ^ j 1 j 1 j 1 j f=r^ 6 6 . See par. For example. last sentence. in the following. iEh U=l=^ ^ h- 133. In sequential successions. But observe the conduct of the inner redeems its independence by occasional contrary motion. and wide skips. more compact when the inner part Group 5 exhibits an unusually which long line of sixths it is good. many of the conditions of par. .

and closely observe the . it must be a-natural 184. Do this withoutfail. B. but the points at which the sequence may begin must be those into which the figure itself runs smoothly. above examples (131. observing exactly the effect of each system of slurs. but the notation of steps 6 and 7 may need to be modiAs a rule.I^-J_j T „ etc. and observe that the present rule the melodic minor scale. is First review. especially in sequences. whenever step 7 descends. Any good figure will yield a number of sequences. 133) to C minor. 3! ie m fe± m .— 94 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. slurs indicate the actual figure and its sequences. 17. with the material of Use two staves. 1. The inner and lower slurs are merely noted to show how the sequence interlocks with its Examine every group very carefully. the difficulties of creased. The uppermost (preceding) figure. m §# *=t J r ^r Tj^J. In Minor. ten b-flat (in C minor). Primary and Secondary Chords. ^ 1 r~r r~r iM^fc f etc N. good melodic movement are innotes of the major versions need never be changed. this chapter. Ex. Harmonize the following melodies. 184. Review the directions given in Exercise 16. more sweeping than that of EXERCISE Three Harmonic Parts. 132. all Transpose of the both as written exercise. and at the keyboard application of this rule. The (in C minor). it must be writfied by accidentals. 7- Par. And where step 6 ascends. 30. Sequences. thoroughly.

U|iJlM^%^ . 184. UMU i vi jWg I ^^ 7 1SfebB IE nil W^S *2 6 ^f-* ^ . -g II 7 zi —g— '-# -g — g|g 10. 6 6 3M Ifcg^g^ P 6 6 ^ I & ==• ) 1 Si i VI » II n_i *—— 6 6 i 11- Sequences. hS* i J~M i^UJJ-Jl. £ i ^^?! '" -^-t VI *i frUi^Li^a ^^^ g*- I EBa feW^i^^ iN^u jjj^g £| s g^j^j^l^^U^a p lE^S gsS3E 8. 95 mm 2.— Par. THREE HARMONIC PARTS. W^i ^ v p. gj g &^ 1%-art J 'j 6 6 6 6 Successive 6ths.

easily. like the above. itself. 186. ° Q J I id n~r J-U. 88 and par. ^m rrVfj^ *—1-» e . But chromatic modulations may be made at any point. after of the Tonic harmony has completed the — if the chromatic succession itself is properly prepared. 90. Review the whole of Chapter VIII. WITH MODULATIONS. Par. 1. 185. The key may always be changed 3. As usual The keys which occur transiently in a sentence should be next- related to the principal key. par. 134. some form momentary key. and with Successive 6ths. 1 £:S m When may j * DV 3fc I I rUrtm GV 188. The first follows. 12.jj j. CHAPTER XVIII. the student j.] may re-harmonize the melodies of Exercise 16. The rules for changing the key are all given in par. ^m [A solution of Melody 8 will be found Besides these. it the chromatic progression occurs in the given melody generally be treated in one of these two ways . but very particularly the paragraphs mentioned. intro- ducing Secondary chords where possible. G . 86. 185. with transient melody of Exercise 17 may also be harmonized as changes of key G 1 Ex. Also write a number of original three-part sentences. par.j in the ttt ii Appendix. 81.: : : 96 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. with Sequences.J r Chrom. And the pres- ence of the chromatic progression excuses almost any irregularity. 2. 187.

88 and 89. 135). 158. . For instance. of course. version 2 may end like version 1. The triad. MODULATIONS. by simply minor. 2. Or. The chromatic character of the harmony See pars. resolving the last chord of the third measure as Incomplete Dom. In the second version. Far. 182). and do not actually change the key. AND ALTERED STEPS. is the common practice of momentarily altering certain Scale-steps " altered " form 190.-7th chord. a. 2. Closely allied to this principle of very transient modulations in (shown version 2 of Ex. or dimin- ished-7th chord. the lines of chromatic 6ths are so indefinite that scarcely possible to prove the keys. ^ it In the first version. is properly speaking. . are the most Of many possible Altered scale-steps. no more than passing chords. 1 The raised 4th Scale-step. For illustration F Et> a b T-*—•—*- fe =t i v7 ^^^fTT^ v § v 4 Ov 6 9 e «V 9 Ov CI CI • cv 7 SE i iijUuiJa =£^ 1 f^rr-pr n=f^r^=f=#F 2e ^is^p^f^ They are. any of the intimated keys might be confirmed at once. by resolving the chord in some legitimate manner. the transient keys are not all next-related to the original key nor does the melody end in the latter. which remains C major throughout. the following frequent and effective The lowered 6th Scale-step. change the melody at that point. : : . both in major and in minor.. 189. accounts for all this. At the same time. in major. first 97 1.-7th of B 189. of the two chromatic tones may be harmonized with a and the second tone with a Dom. of the 6th (con- Each tone may be harmonized with some chord firming par. by accidentals. This gives the chord a so-called but does not change the key. this would. Also glance at the Notes to Ex.

again. and in confirmation of the principal key. 1 m nvrnvfl 3. * IV IV 7 IV 7 Observe that. Ill 11 7 137. w II 7 $ U ^ ^^^H^H^ Raised 4th step. (Raised 4th and 2nd. (Raised 2nd. 30).: : 98 For ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Ex. though it is Observe also. in Dom. IV (Subdominant Also that it may be accompanied by the raised 2nd step. In IV and II. par. "Altered " following scale-steps. in Dom. igi. ahsME ±±4+JIV 7 IV II 4. and raising of the 6th. the raised 4th step occurs only in Subdominant chords (II-IV-II'-IV). and the . Par. as resolution. that the raised 2nd step may occur alone. illustration (in i. — 191. in the II. minor. because the latter naturally moves at once into the desired Tonic. II'. minor. par. — which such extended use has been made in all the minor is nothing more than an application of the same principle of See. And in the V or V.yth becomes valid for major fas well as minor).) 5. *. in Exercises. the raised 4th scale-step in minor C Ex. — The lowering of of the 7 th scale-step. 32 (Ex. Observe that the raised 4th step occurs only in the II. — — Further.) r f 11 Observe that a Tonic chord always follows the altered one. as resolution. perfectly proper to pass from these altered chords into a Dominant chord (measure 2). 184. 136. C major) : Lowered 6th step. chords^. here again.-9th. Observe that by lowering the 6th scale-step the chord of the diminished. IV. that the Tonic chord usually follows.

Lowered 7th 7 step. In the first melodies. pm^i±UM±¥^¥3i J3. and Altered Steps. Ex. ^ = r= w EXERCISE Modulations. or desirable. MODULATIONS. it is also possible to lower the its 2nd Scale-step.J G min. introducing changes of key wherever possible Use two staves. Thus 139. the * indicates where modulations are to be made. 99 Raised 6th step. as a rule. Harmonize the following melodies. i^44^U=^^ rrrf r f f 192. 192. 1. FE F^? v r r 1 r^ -p- -=- 18. In minor. six 2. 138. but only in the II (usually in Ex. AND ALTERED STEPS. i IE -* 4 — — *- -*—•- i 2e=t 1a ^=* *— j -• * m^ J|t^-j 11 7 ^^pg St^g^ i faE Jij. chord of the 6th). according to the above rales.• u — : Par. 6. #t i £ ife «S fct -*- ifcfe .

^3^Si=? i Ifa3 * Lowered 6th 12. u * * ti± 1 I step.j s=* 6 j :# 6 6 Seq.j . :j i i i . Par.. m [A 1 ^ jy Melody gEjiai fti^S^ ^^ solution of be found in the Appendix. Sequence. -• i Jt3t ^r^rr 10. . l ^j 11. i | J J-j # * ^ ^¥ = t Efl Altered Steps.] original three-part sentences. SB -zS- ^n H 7 will it l^Ud^j * Various altered steps. like the above. 8. Besides these. iga. write a number of with modulations and altered chords. i >UhM « i j i j. j J . Ut \mj^ ^ l n # ^J i .IOO ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. £—hr- ^ -et- ISE I ^= »J — bJ I J b^=^ y^i j . 6 ^ # #f^^^^-^ Sequence. PSSEg i 13.

the chords are defined according to former tables (Ex. The tones required to complete the chosen chords The are so divided be- tween the outer parts as to give good melodic especially necessary in the upper part. lower part is. as inner and as lower part. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. subject to the rules of chord-inversion. that the two outer parts alone. . carefully. without the form a perfectly satisfactory counterpoint in this example. without the lower. 193. and par. and harmonized as before possibly with somewhat greater concern for the melodic movements of the other parts . 122. IOI CHAPTER XIX. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. Review. and subject to almost exactly the same But the attention is necessarily more evenly divided between the parts. 194. r* JL-± l Ex. 1 3=t nr 1 141. — though This is there may be greater freedom in the choice. the given melody is placed in the upper part. 126 (in which the above given melody appears in the inner part). For example J . I =t 4=t i It is significant. In the following. 193. It is the act of harmonization. and Ex. par. 169). and the melodic nature of the exercise is sufficiently emphasized to justify the designation " contrapuntal harmony.: : Par. 195. When the given melody is placed in the inner part. tt i=^LM 4= -r- ± 3= 4 *z. m^f=FF 4-d- ^^ (#) Here.-jL *-4- ^ -v—tinner." rules as before. adopted. The consideration of melodic independence in the several parts is becomes more emphatic when the same given melody nately. of course. results in both. alter- The still task differs but little from that of the preceding chapters. 173. J . the inner and upper parts yield good counterpoint.

part. 196. are — but somewhat more in the lower part. Par.: 102 196. For the lower 122 should be thus modified . When the given melody is placed denned according to the tables. the table of Ex. again. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. the chords. strictly.

It is. forward. 79. because of melodic prominence . or with occa- sional rests. as in Ex. is not — commended. 109. which must also be reviewed. of course. 108. ered as a valuable or effective resource. about as follows Ex. with Ex. is not only desirable. This should not be considas shown in Chap. This manipulation of the original essential tones . — See also Ex. 78. X. Ex. but absolutely necessary and the student must not consider the task of 3-part contrapuntal harmony fulfilled until he has so accustomed himself to the addition of unessential (embellishing) tones. also possible to quicken the rhythm of a simple three-part harmonic sentence to two notes to each beat. shown in is not to be maintained must appear in alternating parts. and even assist. 89 — it may be permissible. as in Ex. and endeavor to is. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. especially at single points. 80. Observe in the rhythm its of the upper part is arways regular. by shifting either one of the three parts See Exs. part. But the quicker rhythmic movement It 198. mm f^CF^T 9 §fc gEHbsS r *=»= & 144. where no other form of amplification seems convenient. 199. or influence. For illustration. B.: — IO3 Par. 200. that they will naturally suggest themselves at once. 140) that the . as Examples 66. 198. 111. Thus. when . 140 . s t3= St Compare this very carefully with the original form (Ex. and its use. This is desirable at all to upper part only. the choice of the essential tones. obtain other solutions. it does not apply the inner. that the quicker tones are applied in the upper part at the unaccented beats. Still. 140 may be accelerated to a rhythm of two : notes to each beat in alternating parts. N. (constantly) in any single part. applied in alternating parts. unless very moderate. 81 . or lower. 76.

— e5 £& . 140) accelerated 3 to three notes to each. Observe. • t\r*=V ' I > I 1 as •' 5* ij j 1(8 ^M H : 1= : ^ LJ^uj 3 . again. 200. I »l 104 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. ll Ex. i v§ i e:- •-*- ?= 146. the 1 * yx_. with four notes to each beat Ex. . a =P=S= I Manipulate this in other ways. . beat in alternating parts Ex. P' U a etc. the regular rhythmic treatment Further. 144 B. same model (Ex. iTT*—-*= * rrr ^E -T-T- 145. m 1 fcs: §EgE of the upper part. & Further.: ^ Par. ^ etc.

j Par. in part. Also. 121. EXERCISE 19. written (possibly a sional eighth-note little less than two octaves.B. 140. and then four notes to each beat. as broken beat. Par. note the rhythm of the upper part. 140. p? fr =fefe I ^i# Compare Also. and transpose C minor. Harmonize each of the following given melodies in the three ways illustrated first as upper part. Manipulate Examples 141 and 143 in amplified rhythms of two. to facilitate the melodic movements. review par. 141 and 143. and then as lower part. I I 9= 83 i $=± -d t=X•- ^ JJ- I -tfz =z:=l 2 H = f m— tTt I j^ JjJjtob^^M^B i . even in these original essential har- monic 1. where it is written. this carefully with isi is all Ex. Again. transposed to another key). 2. I N. An occa- may be any used. one octave lower than written — — . 75. then three. I05 i5fc= ^7~^g^ J J . as shown in Exs. and 146. the above to make a number of other versions. two octaves lower than part. then as innet in Exs. 200. z. and observe the degree of liberty that taken with the original. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. versions. 145. Par. Contrapuntal Three-Part Harmonv. 144. j net •fe=£ ^S ^?^ §g2 PS I p=s=Pi j s ^ •# ^^^ I . 1. 184.

Par. When the student has cultivated his 203. ^ w g 3. similarly. in the sense in which our reason. [A CHAPTER XX. Inharmonious music is really not music at all. in an effective and interesting musical sentence. THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. which guarantee (as is this necessary prevalence of harmonious effect. But there are other modes of arriving at a good harmonious distinctively contrapuntal in character than the simple harmonization of the given melody. 202. our instincts. and neither can nor should be accounted for in any other way. 144. at least for the determination of all the fundamental conditions because it is the Chords which constitute . more sense of chord-succession sufficiently. and will achieve a good result more quickly and surely from this point of view. by referindividual when ence to the chords. tre his attention he will find it possible and natural to cenupon the melodic movements of the parts. strictly speaking. Select a large Melody 3 will be found in the Appendix. the only correct manner. The inharmonious effects which are more or less plentifully interspersed.] number of finished sentences from Exercises 16. to the quicker rhythmic forms shown in Exs. and amplify them. and has reached that stage of progress at which the chords have become a part of his nature. the general impression must be an harmonious one for no music may be called good. or may be expected to produce an agreeable and acceptable impression. are merely modifications or embellishments of the chords. as indicated above. No matter how freely the dissonant particles are intermingled. result. in unless it is harmonious as a whole. and perform their functions automatically. 17 and 18. harmonious music. . is Each of these simple harmonic versions partial solution of then to be manipulated in rhythms of 2. 4. ized world. And therefore the association of parts. 3 and 4 notes to each beat. In the four preceding lessons. This is.io6 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 145 and 146. iTJ JJ | | V J J | J U^4^ I Bb major. aoi. even the case in and melodically independent of each other genuine counterpoint) must be determined. 201. the proper basis of all . fundamentally. and the judgment of the whole civilThe chords are the " accordant " tone-bodies. compel us to regard it. the association of three melodic parts was explained and conducted on the basis of the chords which the individual tones of one given melodic line suggested or required.

but by harmony of movement among themselves. copious inharmonic embellishing tones are added (as in Exs. the separate parts are unhampered. In these unrestrained melodic movements. especially in elementary counterpoint. The most . to vary the length of the chords. In the above examples rule. is impressions. or. 2. effectual method of diminishing such persistent chordand increasing the significance of the tone-lines as such. as a a different chord for each beat. and can move about with greater freedom. 145 are too frequent This . 148.) 205. In genuine counterpoint it 107 204. and manifests itself most frequently in the following two forms Parallel 3rds. the parts hold each other in check. not only by mutual agreement with the underlying chord. at regular intervals . For example Parallel 3rds and 6ths. and therefore the chordobtrusive. (This is shown in Ex. in general. upon certain (strong) chords and. in the opposite direction. This latter element is of extreme importance. 144. While the chord is stationary (or passive). Duplication of any 3-tone stepwise figure. movements obvious defect in such harmonic sentences is probably the most under such conditions a not even when genuine contrapuntal effect cannot easily be gained. to some extent. there is many and chord-changes. 304. tones. 1. is The influence of the chords there are too felt rather than heard. 1_e <CTp[Z:drZcrz| —cZ3^eZZpc~dz:eZz| . between any two of the parts. — and 146). that create the required impres- but the movements of the separate sion. or parallel 6ths. at least. THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. is not the movements of the chords.: : Par. 206. to dwell longer upon each single chord.

outer parts in the fourth measure. Ditto. in the prolongation of good chords. the inner and lower parts run parallel in 3rds measure. Measure eight is still worse. i »v P^B in the next measure. c-d-e. with genuine contrapuntal result. in 6ths. S first . Prolonged Tonic chord (C major).io8 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. In the second example. because of the collision with the leading-tone (i). I B*=F g* In the rn m • II Par. For illustration: 1. 5§^ @>4 X J--rn j- TCTTTH ^F¥f^l II in C I . In the third measure. TTTT • *- 1 Also: ^ . because both parts clash with the chord-3rd (e). it is the The fifth measure is harsh. The chord remains unchanged. 207. yields a great variety of forms. 207. 144. the upper and inner. Occasional evidences of these almost inevitable cooperations will be found in Exs. the tones e-c. The employment of these two convenient (and almost invariably acceptable and effective) figures. 145 and 146. are counterpointed in " opposite duplication " by c-e. or e-d-c. which is a poor interval to double.

v7 dV 7 *M £2 FffffP ^m . IV (VI) II 1 (iv) 9 Ztt ' I 1 . IO9 3. This is important. J J <p 9i « - -si—=1- J. Observe.—. THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. N. transiently. -^—d^= etc. a number of note1. i^4^M^Mi3tm ^ ^Zg= C(I) 1 h etc. — indicated in parenthesis. In the following three complete sentences.: * — Pai. 208. some other (related) chord. Ditto.jT3 » Uj 11 7 JT]|^TT3 Cf i_ . 208. and thus confirms the rhythm. that in a. so that the change of harmony occurs at an accent. #P V - ^ (II 7 ) I « Si ^i^ i Observe that the prolongation of the chord extends exactly to the end of some measure. also. I V_ .ra «— r r 1 ^ S* S^ f=f= . 1 s P3P v7 \ (IV) Prolonged Dominant chord. worthy modulatory incidents appear Andante. few cases the current of the moving parts seems to denote. :£::* c 4. B.

cb_ Fn ib^ ^ -#> n—jCJb S j ^ jg j^ . 1 I CA " J . » r rTlf C(I) i I V_ Lento.no ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.^ 4^=E J*_ TT~V- ^= . 208. ^Ss a!?_ K5 1 r g & . m j I c7?j. . Par. h ^ Sequence. rrw-7 s ^ = (g) ^ 5 B^7^j^~^g. ££5 GV_ .J.nj g^^W. te% . ff? rTT. BE f"ftl JV m nm ^ fr F*FEi Sequence. ^ ± =5=* d • b^ ^ \ m~M -V Wz Sequence.


Ill
Sequence.

Par. 208.

THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT.
Larghetto.

3.

1YZSZ£
I
7^ minor.

£Sg=

m f^Mr* fr
fac

t=ri=

1^^^ H^tT
$S=
Like measures
z, 2, 3.

i^lg^ EE£
dfa

bdfa

^g
ffi
fe* 1s

1 * fr^Tfrf
H'qft51

f**>

^S*

^^
egb

OJ gUi M
fac

gdf

dfac

mF
JzfcLzJ:
ti

y= gL>L1K
f

^
Jjii %A tft^V

raised 4

\^1
H

;*-

It

d_ -

J=*

f=
eebd
cegb
fae

bdf

Ji

ll

^^j=^ - ^
|

j=q:

I
T9fa(c)

ace

ceg(a)
i

egbd

ceg

fac

gbd

fac

cegb

f
;

I

Explanation. No.
fifth beat,

contains the so-called "Exchange of

the f-sharp in the upper part changes the

Mode " in measure 6, mode from d minor to D major;

in the next measure, the b-flat changes the expected

G

major to
to

g

minor

;

and

in the

following measure the a-flat changes the expected

F major

f minor.

The same

2, measure 6 (from the expected g minor to G major). Such a substitution of major for minor, or of minor for major, is pbssiblc at particularly after any dominant chord, which resolves into either almost any point, the major or minor tonic.

exchange occurs in No.

In No.
last

i,

with this exception, the keys are

all

properly interrelated.

On

the

beat of the 8th measure, the a-flat (lower part) becomes the lowered 6th scale-

step of

C

major.


ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.
2,

112
In No.

Par. 209.

on the other hand, the successive keys are quite foreign to each other is rational, the modulatory movements concentrate toward the principal keynote). These irregular modulations are chiefly accounted for by the chromatic progressions ; in measure three, by the enharmonic agreement of But the factor most actively engaged in these changes is the sog-flat -mth. /-sharp. called " Pivotal tone," that is, a tone which, being common to two keys (sometimes in a widely different capacity), is used as a point of contact, or pivot, upon which to swing the melodic movements from the one key over into the other. Thus, in measure three (of No. 2) the g-flat (lower part), as keynote of G-flat, is made identical with /-sharp, as leading-tone of g minor. At the end of the measure, this same /-sharp becomes the raised 4th scale-step of C. In measure five, the g (upper part), which was the 4th step of d minor, is held as keynote of G, and then becomes the leadingtone of -4 -flat major. The same operation may be claimed for several other changes of key, as for instance, in measure one, the c (as keynote of C) becoming the 6th scale-step of E-BaX major; in measure six, the b (lower part), as 3rd step of G, becoming the leading-tone of C in measure four, the e (inner part), as 3rd step of C, beand so on. coming the 2nd step of d minor, This principal 0/ pivotal {or common) tones is very prevalent, and very effective, in modulation, but it must be applied with caution, under the smoothest possible melo(excepting near the end, where, as

j

dic conditions.

Number

3

is

not to be taken too seriously.
carried,

It represents the

utmost extreme to

which free chromatic movements maybe
the student.

relationships that, despite its popularity in

and reflects an attitude towards Tonemodern music, is decidedly hazardous for

In moderation, such hazy

delineations are surely permissible, but the

beginner has no motive whatever for their employment. At the same time, he should devote some little attention to this style, and may experiment with it.

whose presence, and careful consideration, make No. 3 melodic movements, almost constantly, relieved here and there by a skip along some good chord-line second, there is some good chord/orm at almost every accent, some harmonic tone-cluster towards which the parts unanimously lead (as shown by the letters beneath the staff, the chord-names being left to the student's analysis) third, there are sufficient sequences and other evidences of consistent formation, and agreement among the melodic figures used, to prevent the sentence from being senseless and purposeless fourth, from time to time there is a regular resolution 0/ a Dom. -chord into its Tonic. The more of these
There are four
First,

qualities

justifiable:

very smooth

;

;

;

the better, as they effectually prevent eccentricity. Observe, in all three examples, the frequent application of the devices given in
par. 206 (Ex. 147).

Observe, also,

how

flexible

and smooth the melodic movements constantly

are,

especially at the bars.

Analyze every tone, most thoroughly.
209. Sentences of such free modulatory character may be somewhat beyond the reach of the elementary student. But this freedom may be Not at once. The student attained by earnest and thorough practice. forms at first, so long and so exhaustively that must exercise the simpler the voices begin to acquire life and freedom from within, and seem to move of their own volition. That facility once gained, the more ample

:

:

±
"3
in

Par. 209.

THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT.
will naturally follow.

and excursive movements
trapuntal masterworks,

Hand

hand with

this

long course of faithful practice must go the exhaustive analysis of con-

at present,

passages with two, and with three,

individual melodic lines.

EXERCISE

20.

Three-Part Counterpoint.
1.

To

the following melody, as upper part, add an inner and a lower part, in

similar

m n u-n £^^=a^^g
~0

rhythm (uniform 8ths)

s

-^

*

-f-

tf^htftt&l
e min.
2.

i\fTiin
C

D maj.

G

To

the following melody, as inner part, add an upper and a lower part, in

similar

rhythm

'pi'i^
*

*-

uw'" —
Seq.
1

r^SE^EEf
Seq.
3.

ra= ii 4-*-^—.
~
-+
-

Tt

£ ^

To

the following melody, as lower part, add an inner and an upper part, in

similar rhythm.

H#

s

n^iip?
•—
*«-

gtei^

e^a * ^=5^1^11^
«
f*-

g in

1

&
1

1-

-#-=-*-

M

^^yfeiz^^t ^S™fefe W

I

conducted in practically the same manreference to ner as was shown in Chapter point. The character of the motive is not materially affected by the number of contrapuntal parts employed. or a perfect fourth lower. 148. first announced in either the upper. utilized here. reference himself. 5. to which may be made after the student has exhausted his ingenuity in solving them "Write a number of brief exercises. usually an octave higher or lower than at During these imitations of the motive. the other terpoint with which the student is familiar. is to place the first Dominant key each tone a perfect higher. as usual. with the first motive given in Chapter XV (Ex. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. The application of the elements of three-part counterpoint to is the manipulation of a Motive. again in the original key. than in the preceding announce- ment).] 4. 149. The most effective and most imitation of the motive in the fifth frequent practice (that is. in Ex. 206. 210. part. with two-part counter- That chapter should first be thoroughly reviewed. [The solution of these three sentences will be found in the Appendix. almost any of the motives given in Exercise 15 may be moderated tempo. applying the devices of par. inner. The next imitation (the third announcement) is then made first. in slightly Consequently. for illustrating the methods of manipulation in a contrapuntal association of three parts. Write a number of original sentences in the style of Ex. as shown I. 212. beginning in the lower part: . according to the rules of coun- For example. Pat. XV. The motive may be . or parts. excepting that it may be a trifle more serious and rhythmically subdued for three parts than for two. or lower part but its first imitation should follow in the next higher or lower one. CHAPTER XXI. 211. — especially No. 210. 113). con- tinue their melodic movements.114 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.

. During this second announcement of the motive. The motive enters is first announced in the lower part. .) the Dominant. an first the two other parts meanwhile run on without interrupforming an association of three contrapuntal melodies. and ends upon the instantly denotes the first (accented) beat of the second measure. Andante. imit. octave higher than at announcement of the motive occurs in the remaining (upper) part. 213. The tion. third . These beats are so employed as key. to effect the modulation into the new See Ex.Par. M. 151. second measure. "5 i Ex. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. the lower part continues. -E Motive. assigned to the next higher (inner) part. inasmuch as change of key — to (There are various ways of avoiding such an abrupt entrance of a new part. Any such abrupt entrance of the part (the Motive first imitation of the Motive mollified as was seen in the inner part (Ex. in 5th 2-part counterpoint. In the above case. is best to add two beats. so that the final tone in that part merely shifted to the next accent. beat or two to the first may be by adding a it is itself). 151. 213. 150. it somewhat abruptly. 150). The imitation. of course. when sufficiently rude to require modification the best of these is illustrated in Ex.. as ordinary contrapuntal associate.

. beats come under the head 1 r6. f . without injuring or obscuring the latter.). interlined. intermedi- ate tones are and a similar episode is added to the Motive itself. Such additional (or " intermediate ") tones may be affixed to the announcement of the Motive. etc. if they are chosen in strict conformity with its general melodic and rhythmic character that nothing and if they are carried to the next accent more than an exchange of accents takes place. to D. etc. in larger ones (as J. In the following manipulation of the same motive. Episode (Mod. or added. Such tones. y.— n6 214. : modulations. only. first ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Both of these serve as . so In small measures full (|. Par. as a brief episode.r t r n : . it- E& i=t ^^ rnr- Episode. to G). they will equal a half-meas- ure. of episodic See the explanatory Notes to Ex. Wz &m =i=¥1 ^ . .). 215. the intermediate tones will equal a measure . Motive. -£. to prepare for the transposed imitations — -*h*F « f- m Mod. or interlude added to the Imitation. 214.. f f .

10 . 3 the first five meas. . 206. In analyzing these passages from the beginning of the three-part Inventions. . the last measure. here. The validity of these essential rules may be tested by careful analysis of For example. Motive. run in rapid rhythm (for instance. 117 Compare 216. 149 (for instance. 148). necessary to disguise it somewhat. one other may be added : It is abso- lutely necessary to restrain the rhythmic movements all of one and another and of the three parts (alternately). at each accent. See par. 218. and to lead each one of the three parts smoothly and melodiously from one of these chord-nodes to third the next. too much commotion. in order to avoid rhythmic confusion. 14 the first six measures of No. with that of Ex. and which is to continue more or less constantly to the end of the sentence. measures 7 and 10). the first ten measures of Inventhe three-part Inventions of Bach. which results from adding the announcement of the Motive to the two preceding parts. 1. Here. 150. MO TIVE-DE VELOPMENT. — . But 217. 207 (Ex. move Very rarely indeed should at a quieter three parts at once . at least this one of may be any part. four notes to a beat) the parts should pace than the others . For the same reason. as there. This does not mean that the chord-form must actually appear. 8 1. The three-part counterpoint. Further : Free use should be made of the two devices indicated in par. tion first No. 216. To this fundamental rule. measures of No. the first six seven measures of No. rests should occasionally be used and from time to time one or another of the parts should be silent for a measure or more. in No. and should frequently interchange with the others. 1 2 the the first seven measures of No. . ures of No. the harmonious cluster must be perfectly evident. does not differ in any essential respect from the exercises of the foregoing chapter.Par. but with considerable . the student will observe that the design suggested in the above examples (with reference to the treatment of the Motive) is followed in a general way. is quite — It as seen in many places in Ex. the vital requirement is to secure some good chord-form at the accents or principal beats. by ties (suspensions) or passing-tones.

. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. The development of a Motive into a complete sentence is con- ducted with three contrapuntal parts in the same general manner as with two. or his first own purpose. in Dom. that his Motives are often longer than the 219. which the student is advised to adopt. He will notice that Par. ^£_ _dV _________ _________ Interlude.: 3 . . with such modifications (omissions or additions) as the increased of parts. 154.. B. tant study of analysis. Applied to the as follows Motive Motive of Exercise 15. __________ §5£ N. the more he will see and learn. in orig. contrapuntal association . 319. Bach usually announces his Motive it first in the upper free or inner part. key. w= £ __ 3-J. and that the lower part accompanies from the start. ^8 j_ > fr Free Bass. ^=?= ±=± 152. £ S M. may dictate. in somewhat above and that frequent episodic " interludes " are introduced between the announcements The more carefully and extensively the student prosecutes the imporof the Motive. t«M $ Interlude. the result might be about is=S m Ex. f_B M. n8 freedom. key. The complete schedule number is given in par. further.

N. 219. MOTIVE-DE VELOPMENT. 119 i P=^ . i -f— nfe .Par.I ^^r=lB gV . E* *-#-*qg » e r Ttr^iat 'f-rr- ?=£fc ^5^ MJ fN. n.B. r.1 ^ dll ra±j s V -* *JTh 11 j 1 • * : Episode Modu- trzfe :n.§±£ v- $F -*-#- y S^ ? • Episode : =£ Mod.1 £ Hee * n_ or: i% S -J—J J i ^ i p f ^ — N. b. *t i- T—I—I— ps^^ =f=P gV. i r I I |S«^g S lation to B-flat. B.

2ig. and then with. in At the same time. ment . and longer.: t 120 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. In measure 19 . the silence of the of the repeated figure in the inner part. based upon the peculiar rhythmic treat. In measure 20. in each part.t7J?1j~^ 1 III » -P— ffi^ I"J» u Analyze this (first without. as associate of the first presentation of the Motive. and traits observe the following noteworthy The free (or auxiliary) bass at the beginning. In measures 19. Par. 173). The brief rest in measure 22 (inner part). the keyboard) most thoroughly. This is important . the prolongation of the first tone of the Motive. 2& Of: G 1= -f-m. to f ' i 1 c. «' J UJ { ! d^- ^. which requires caution when in the lower part (par. and is owing to the fact that the Motive begins with the 5th scale-step (5th of the tonic harmony). 20 and 21. and later. In measures 8 and 9 (lower part). sS s B^S ^ ^j s i s^ r nT rrr r-m £=*! iwj j =t? I Mod. and also in measure 17. the distinct perfect cadence (in D minor). This occurs frequently.*-+ t=t cV. lower part for a whole measure a few measures later again. the slight alteration of the Motive (upper part) measure 22 (lower part). the episode.

— usually the closer interaction of the several parts. In the final measure. B. by fragmentary imitation. Manipulate each of the following Motives. that he is obtaining a perfectly natural and harmonious product. The student should make free use of all the devices and licenses suggested in Ex. first clauses. and guarding scrupulously against eccentricity. 219. Make another complete solution of the Motive manipulated in Ex. 151 and develop the given Motive to a complete Invention (similar and method of Ex. or extravagance of any kind. 152. to secure the proper register. in the manner above shown. conscientiously. mm$mm rx $f£Wmtgm E==fe 3. the crossing of the upper and inner parts. if ginning with the inner part. — necessary. 2. solution. 152). MO TIVE-DE VELOPMENT. The frequent slurs. beginning respectively with the upper part (for the first announcement of the Motive)." but always assuring himself. Continue Ex. The key may be altered. mm^ Interlude. 2.Pai. be- to the general design ginning with the lower (or inner) part. Each 3. which everywhere indicate some linear purpose. avoiding too close adherence to any of the given " rules. EXERCISE 21. Allegretto. 152. then beand then with the lower. Motive may (and should) be developed in three wholly different ways. the cadence in G major. 149. and invite a different train of thought for each N. the lines are not too long (or too completely) obscured. . with Three Contrapuntal Parts. This is 121 permis- sible. See explanatory Notes to Ex. Lento. Motive-Development. Allegro moderate. and of any others that his ingenuity may prompt. if In measures 34 and 35.

] Manipulate. and develop number of original Motives. CHAPTER XXII. conditions are not affected by the rules number The cerned. them as usual. 10 and 11 are recommended for this purpose. FOUR-PART HARMONY. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. In that similar in case. is ¥ 6 - HJ "j" 4 i ~n F7 -J * j * id Interlude." Chapters VI and VII. The fundamental harmonic of parts. ^ in the i solution of Motive 6 will be found Appendix. numbers 2. when only three parts are are fewer omissions. invent a Besides these. association of four parts is subject to precisely the same is as govern the association of three. to which the student all) refer after completing his own version. there chord-intervals. between three-part and four-part harmony somewhat more crowded. may character and length to the above. some (or : of the Motives given in Exercise 15 5. the music is For further details of the Invention with three parts.122 5. 6. i^^tHP [A 4. the student all his own. with three contrapuntal parts. H may Lento. 5. Allegro. I Par. and are their individual melodic movements. Further. the student is referred to the author's " Applied Counterpoint. i20. the tables given in Chapter XVI (Ex. 220. 221. is The chief difference that in the latter the parts are therefore cially the more restricted in . 3. and more duplications of the . 122 and par. 169) are valid for the present tasks. espe- — two inner parts the compass of each part is narrower. as far as the choice of chords con- Therefore. and the progressions smoother and quieter than used.

namely. But steps 1 . is generally Applied to the first melody of Exercise 16.k trrrrrF ±±U 1. the bass tone (the chord-5th) doubled. harmonizes the . the result is as follows S rr A Soprano.L4 i i i i i 1 i^ J-j Version All primary chords. . j i ^ MT*ffrr-t UA -^ ±=±1 '' j. m 1 ^i-ii^-Wi iJllU L ^r vt rtmm r I \ r V I V IV I V7 I V7 ^ r *»jjj Jj | J i . Primary and secondary chords. 163. always correct to double one of the good scale-steps. The VI. as usual. is necessary. l j JJ | r J rrr-r Frr prrrr 1 l. second last beat of the clause). The chord-7th. Alto Tenor. and in the Dom. ! J- l l Jj l JJ'' j-'J J l l Ex.J '| - Jj J J J . rule. and therefore the root measure. This is allowed upward when the bass part moves in ^rds parallel with it. 223. In the six-four chord-form. the 5th is omitted. resolution of the leading-tone (7th scale-step) in the Tenor first . Version 3. where because of the is no duplication tripled. the best tone to double is the root of the chord.-7th chord. neither of which should be doubled). As a it is 123 222. 5 and 4 excepting when these chance to be the dissonant inter- val of the chord (the chord-7th or chord-cjth. In every one the root is doubled. It is almost always wrong to double the 7th scale-step (the leading- tone). FOUR-PART HARMONY. resolves Version instead of 2. on the downward (par.: Par. and inversions. last chord. excepting in the two \ chords (doubled bass In the tone). 58. 322.

When successive 6ths are used (as in Ex. difficult.. — for In measure 3.r : 124 first ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. planned carefully. /Tj rr ] TT r J rxir 155. Version 4. In all of these versions will be observed that neither one of the inner voices undeniably monotonous. More frequent use it of the Dom. according to par. and need give him no concern. £ J-~q 1 (Z2 J FT* 1 S J . and transpose the above examples to D minor. if For illustration i Ex. par. scale-step (in soprano). sec- the sake of good melodic pro- gressions in the outer parts. 132) care must be taken to avoid parallel movement in 5ths or 8ves. Uliu r r T=i ^^ r i : r=r=f D minor. the II harmonizes the fourth step.-7th chord. the alto part is This a condition which can scarcely be avoided by the beginner. 184. between any two parts. Thus: 1 P Ex. because But they are possible. is distinctly melodious. at present. J J J j . beat. r htt 1 a e Not: r 154. 224. -&-£ j £ d • Z -*-» -Jt-» . Compare all four ver- sions very minutely with each other. 183. with four parts. Review 17A. Sequences are somewhat more is the greater body of tone less flexible. ± J J Jii r i J TT J e e — * I IE ^ Also in 225. the chord-3rd Par. is In the last one. ( ond _^sharp) is doubled.

the beats where the sustained tone in bass becomes dissonant. i?r fed =H ? J U-^£ iter S3 f= The X marks version 1. interfering with the is movements of the other parts.: 1 — 125 Par. the Dominant. — as shown by the lower The how each sequence interlocks with the preced- so-called Organ-point is particularly valuable in for four (or more) parts.^' -J3 X TV 7 I I r In 2. Ie v ^# ^^ ^'ruWnrMr r W 2. J J * *XJ . of Exercise 16) For example (applied to the 7th Melody Ex. Organ-point on the Dominant. as dissonant interval.'j J X & biJ-. Organ-point on the Tonic. because — without cipal rule adds a line. observe ing figure. and a . 236. 133. 5- iWi =T=F 1m a . 226. tem^^^ 1. it z -jf ^F¥ £ The 1 1 Here again. beat 1. other steps than these are likely to occur as organ-points. that the organ-point. iiJ isasETE m j 7 l \ ? J f J . In version 2 there is a raised 6th scale-step raised 4th step in measure 4. set ±±=k 1 a ^ slurs. the Tonic of the key. W- 156. it is -J J jn. as in Ex. — harmony prin- usually the lowermost. in version No 3. 75. should neither enter nor progress with a leap. \ lj ? \ ii i -^ ^ f\ 1 par. in Alto in measure beat 1 . FOUR-PART HARMONY.

f=r=Fr §* 157. All former rules for the changes of key are here again applied. 136. according to the above directions. ^ Ex. MODULATIONS. Four Harmonic Parts. in four- part harmony. Sequences. m ^ j. This should be done without former solutions. common. Melody No.: : 126 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Also write a number of original 4-part sentences.-7th or dimin. again. 2 of Exercise 18 may be harmonized voice texture as follows in four- J i 1 J J J J j j :*- j. Par. and Organ-points. CHAPTER XXIII. and . Harmonize. 327. EXERCISE 22. in four-part Jth chords. successive 6ths. 186. Review par. 1 Review par. reference to the the Melodies given in Exercise 16 and Exercise 17. 188. triad into a Besides the chro- Dom. without modification. and the chromatic succession of 6ths it is quite harmony. Do this without fail. F^^ J J -A. with sequences. 228. 227. 185 and par. to use a chromatic succession of diminishedThese movements are all exhibited in the following — . matic progressions there shown ished-7th chord . Ex. 88. — from a 89 and 90. pars. all Primary and Secondary Chords.

7ths (par.bJ ^ 1 J 1 J l-j- 5 I 1 6666 6666 1 -ir* ±^UJ NHH^feJ^BJ Jlja a=l l^^moa •^-jpitt l #^#^^^%^ *£T Chopin. Successive dim. 188-2). discord (par. and Wagner. 229. 224.: Par. often extending through * complete sentence. a. c. Observe that in example c the line of diminished 7ths is always ultimately — checked by a resolution into the relationship is I. 188-1). 22g.js 1 1 relation. must not neglect the equally faithful analysis of Beethoven. beats 3 and 4. -is>- ^ ti . he delssohn. 127 From triad into Dom. When the chromatic succession is thus divided between two different parts. h-hhh Par. the d in Soprano is followed by d-sharp in . it is simply necessary that the Jlrst of the two chromatic tones should move stepwise. beats 3 and 4. for such experience as he may desire to gain with reference to this particular kind of flexible harmonic movement. The last urged to analyze Chopin's pages very comprehensively and thoughtfully. MODULATIONS. Schubert. last beat. Alto in measure 2. 1 r iSU^^i * Successive 6ths (par. c in Tenor is followed by c-sharp in Bass in measure 3. . I l J iJ. phrase in Ex. and should not be deferred too long. known as the CrossIn measure i. not with a leap. 228). MenSchumann. Such a return to the normal condition of chord- absolutely necessary. — — . the Bass has f-sharp. The 1 pianoforte music of Chopin abounds in beautiful and effective chro- matic chord-successions. a few random extracts from Chopin Further. followed by f in Tenor. The student is time. At the same 58 illustrates this. In example a there are three irregular chromatic conditions. m ^PP *.

aag. 159. j-*j ' I i s rfM Ex. \ rn 4M R-a^+w ^ f^^ Hy \]\ \ \\ pg^H nw Largo. fc B J I fet AV 7_ * ^—* P V cj IV I II 7 x-m- I (dt)_V I 1 U: giK^Sf SF=t V B V7 §es s par. Ex. 137. I X X ^ I E V7 AIV V7 D V7 b II I A V 7_ . 3==$ ?mm ? dSII 7 « & Is feRJ=p^ ^^S!^ *MM n^ ^ m s EfeS 137. Sequence.128 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Par. 190. 92-8. 72-1. p r par. ^=^^ 3=^ * =t==F gj minor. Susp. \ cl (!) Lento. etc. 3. 3t ?P£ £=* Ex. Allegro. p#=* Itf T es 5#l£ P= BI F V IV -1 par.

: Par.T H f 7 . For the rules of altered scale-steps. so " contrapuntal " in character. — Allegro. and 192. MODULATIONS. the /-sharp is a raised 4th step. No. Number forms are sure 3. — again c in Bass is a similar.t BbV 7 etc. 2. In four-voice harmony their application is as follows. because the tones involved create the impression of unessential passing-notes only. 149. Measure 6 is similar. Number 3. No. N. and the above examples. — only the chord- their names are not always 5. i>* * btfr. legitimate lowered 6th step of E major. in major . This paragraph (229). 107. and. consequently. which does no more than change the mode of the chord from major to minor (compare Notes to Ex. 129 i P^ * * f-ff EIV V I *=£ 4*L AV 7 W-f 4. Number 4. In measure 2. is 2. is This beat In measure beat 3. the a-sharp in is obvious Alto a passing-note. definable. the ^--natural in Bass is merely a passing-note. 3. review pars. with persistent parallel 5ths. The whole passage In measure is is in C minor nowhere is there evidence of an actual change of key. See par. in fundamental form. In measure beat 3. B. is Bass next chapter. 190. i 7 AV 7 GV f f GbV i if a 7 FV 7 1 . 191. a passing-note only. belong properly to the It is not the purpose of the present lesson to use any other than es- sential tones (chord-intervals). though here the 4. especially the last clause. ft f^p AbV 7 .-7th chords.. the purpose a I of B in meamajor. 149. 230. the e-flat in 1). 230. that the individual j melody-lines cannot in every case be referred to a legitimate chord present. beat 3. beat 2. the Notes to which should here be reviewed. A succession of Dom. pot Number » BV —i^hf— fVg. This passage 2. Similar conditions prevail in Ex.

z. s #f-T-rr i_J_ fe^ i I iE J-hL-iJ-^ • -• — i— f=^T J V7 I J i ^ II 7 TfT II 7 5. ~pm**^M sp -" IV 7 C Minor. should lie above. the chord-7th. C Major. " \ > r III r IV i F= I n V ^ II 7 1 I IV 7 I . discords. Ex. in minor r. gi^fE IV I j- i i i-u. Par. yr 3. Raised 4th step. 4.^ ri. 230. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT.). not below. r r fpr-f-f j r lr TTi i 160. Raised 6th step. 2. Ex. Lowered 6th step. Raised 4th step. VI Lowered 6th and 2nd ( jg in Major).: 130 i. Raised 2nd step (in Dom.V 9 g is j d=j= II I j i IV it J j s II I 1 I When the 2nd step raised in the Dom. ?? J-jLIlJ-JijJ *==^ » »» i j j I r. Further. 161.f T r=Ff . 3. i I J — V9 I II 7 I IV I IV V7 Raised 4th and 2nd. Lowered 7th step.

and thoroughly. in four-part harmony. Major. 1. unlike major. MODULATIONS. *t 1 <j J 3 ^ A maj. 18. i H=& l£P D d J J-=bl Seq. SB j jj j„.d^ j Mfe£ IV V m I all 1 II 7 UM F* I rr i I IV 7 V7 I II Probably the most common of these are groups 3 and 4. Observe that here. Seq. 2. =fe= i m f s j 4—*- 4^4 fr=Nt«^g ^tf>4JJ: *t minor . EXERCISE 23. 4. ^5 Seq. 131 5. -• •:• ± ^ duz =p 1 g f~7~fo=q=^ it E Major. 1. again. i IE ^^B^^^^ fe 4=3 1|=eS j i| J I Seq. Harmonize the following melodies: Major. 230. Lowered 2nd step. Do this without fail.— Par. the altered chords do not always progress into the I. Raised 4th and 6th. Seq. I^FHP=* maj. Harmonize. the melodies given in Ex. according to the above directions. Modulations.

write a number of original four-voice sentences. in music of . i 3. 231. as in Ex. 194. It is ^Ul ^ JL TT X r i I J- X f= Here again. pointed to the Soprano alone. with the material of this chapter. with more reference to general melodic agreement than — probable that this is always preponderantly the case. and in the same manner. Review i. there is significant evidence of fundamental agreeas if. ^ S=P to the chords. Review par. Given Soprano. 232. Jj §S£ ££ ^^m la I^ o. par. t»=fc HrfrSj 3=3 Par. i W 1 i=± ± r +-l-± J T= f I c 1—G=f 162.I J2 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 193. unconsciously. the given melody is placed in the Soprano. the principle of which applied to the fourth voiced texture also. 231. Ex. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. ^S^EjS^^? ^g ^=F Seq. * H *-J l a» I Altered steps ( *) a s^-^u [A solution of \»§=p ^=f t=t i=t 5 will ^^ is Melody be found in the Appendix. CHAPTER XXIV. In the following example. 140. the Bass were counterment between the two outer farts.] Besides these. ( bfy ) Seq.

par. and good contrapuntal association guarantees the complete harmonious result. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. posed either a 4th or 5th downward for the Alto and the given Bass a . in the upper part. in the first measure. to the Observe. if the given Melody is in —C — G or F Tenor — C Bass — G or Soprano Alto F. Observe the movements of the lowermost part in many sentences in Beethoven. The above may be amplified to a constant rhythm of two notes to a beat. 233. i= 1 1 *. . applied. here again. Review — In four-voice harmony. 162). simple harmonic version Review. §« ^E j"3 HA m i Compare this very carefully with the original form (Ex.: : Par. This attaches a degree of importance to the Bass (or lowermost part). 42). are melodic leaders their 233. Mendelssohn and others. which the student is warned not to underrate. . very thoroughly. — with one exception. T97. that the quicker rhythm unaccented beats. or overlook. and a The given Soprano is transgiven Bass. C. about as follows SSt Iw Ex. 198 and 199. the given melody cannot conveniently be used in the same key for each of the four parts. 4th or 5th upward for the Tenor. See the 5th Waltz of Chopin (A-flat. the keys will be as follows For example. 133 . in alternating parts. measures 29-41 from the end. 195. because of their prominence. A given Soprano is placed one octave lower for the Tenor. 234. m ^ is -J ^^ UL 163. every kind for both outer parts. one octave higher for the Alto. into which the two inner parts necessarily fall. op. pars.

the Bass agrees contrapuntally with the given Alto.4 m 1 ^1 . Thus Given Alto (transposed). =P=F 4=^ r 4= PM I Here. as if these two parts were unconsciously conceived together.: : 134 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. The above given Soprano placed in may therefore be F major 2. Note the parallel 3<ls in meas. ^ ±1 1 y^F* =t=t t=a j j- J. 164. N'V m$ m r 165. ^=t=d= IE rr^=^ ± j. 235. I S£ • * • F £ j ^m i jn. in alternating parts. 162. (Ex. $ES Wr^ 1 i T=F d j m j i-U. 235. 3. fe Ex. B-flat major) Par. Mm t. about as follows Ex. This may be amplified to a constant rhythm of three notes to each beat. E ffi . 1 «_ . for the Alto. ^=51 f m m ' i Z.

m r r *—*-ZS- " r- -rrj 1 r ' * . * =i=p= ^ — treat- Compare minutely with in the the original model. 164. — For the Bass voice. Observe.: : r Par. 153. in the amplified . This simple harmonic sentence may be amplified. again. Ex. Given Bass. for greater variety of illustration 3. 135 i^ i= ment of the rhythm 236. a new Melody is here chosen. monotony and meagre melodic contents of the version 4 and observe how. 236. part. this Tenor becomes as melodious as the other parts. 237. M- J -+—»=t J Here the agreement of the Soprano with the given Bass conspicuous. 167). J S=CT3 r=r -Mr J HP: i_^J- i u± is -1 J-tJ J. 196. about as fol- lows. — form (Ex. CONTRAPUNTAL HARMONY. to a rhythm of four notes to each beat . review the Notes to Ex. 162. As to the Tenor. the upper Review par. Com- pare the Notes to Ex.

l^f3"Lj & ^m I i carefully with Ex. y 1 p^? (it ^ I) -^ y^g^^ j (Ex. — harmonize admirably with stress unwise to lay too much upon these harmonious results. The above given Bass Tenor E minor) may be placed in B minor for the 4. 168) may be : amplified to a constant rhythm of four notes to each group.: — Far. he must carefully guard the principle dictated in the Notes to melodious lowermost part. 1 §i=^ Compare 238. 166. 238. he may be sure that it is a perfectly legitimate mode of procedure. It is probably Ji Jr Jij ^t Here. 1 at all events. feF=i ^0$ g-»-fL &&* qc=jz 169. Ex. At the same time. 239. because they are no doubt nothing more if than the natural consequences of choosing the correct chords. And. with reference to any particular part or parts. and always provide for a good. 62. 136 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. The above harmonic phrase (Ex. Given Tenor (transposed). ! . ate the given Tenor. Ex. as follows m Ex. J t I ! I s P=PF=f =t=t j* 4= h 1 — I W- I S? ^bfe 168. both the Soprano and the Bass. m$E u J . 166. k^ m 5 1 J . the student finds that the intentional adoption of such a process facilitates the task of harmonization. — separately.

in alternating parts and then to 4-note groups. And also Each version thus obtained is to be amplified as in the Bass. in A major. . 162 also in the Tenor. 162 also to a constant rhythm of 3 notes to each beat. to 2-note groups and to 4-note groups. Contrapuntal Four-part Harmony. EXERCISE 24. 3-note groups. 2.Par. similarly. in E major. CONTRAPUNTAL FOUR-PART HARMONY. Amplify Ex. the c-natural in Tenor is used as lowered 2nd scale-step (of b minor) in anticipation of this legitimate " alteration. 1. 164. The f-sharp in Soprano is a little harsh. . (bVI)C V bll IV V not only as a whole. Place the given melody of Ex. and 4-note groups. Amplify Ex. 13. . 168. as tity it is the very means of establishing b minor. . 239. Amplify Ex. and proving the iden- of c as lowered 2nd step. . . Compare minutely with Ex. but each part separately. Amplify Ex." the whole harmonic current sets into C major. — but inevitable. 166 to 2-note groups and to 3-note groups. 168 to 2-note groups and to 3-note groups. In the second version of measures 3 and 4. usual to 2-note groups.

one octave lower ^^w im ¥ 1. and the student must undertake it with be found in the Appendix. very thoroughly. Also par. 162. 340. difficulties. as the Alto version. Each version thus obtained and 4-note groups. Itto I ^ I^ ¥ 35 2o Sequences. in 2 -note. with shifted parts (syncopation). and par. at the keyboard. an octave lower) then as Alto. in the same key 3.: 138 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT." — are parallel 3rds and 6ths. to which he may refer after having exhausted his own ingenuity upon them. 240. 144. and here again. 164. and par. a 4th or 5th lower than where it is written and then as Bass. also. d minor. are to be amplified as usual. 206 . . . ±=k tf: faW: a 1—r-T I -!=-. Those given versions. Place the given melody of Ex. B. . "opposite duplication. 241.166 and 168) in a rhythm of two notes to each beat. as shown in Ex. in four-part counterpoint. and also 3-note. . This task presents peculiar patience and faithful persistence. — each melody must to be amplified as usual to 2-note. 205 . 166 also in the Soprano. 3-note. 207. in a minor. each one of the above simple harmonic versions (including Exs. Par. A partial solution of each will CHAPTER XXV. — . 206. is to be amplified to above Harmonize each of the following given melodies in the four ways exhibited first as Soprano then as Tenor (in the same key. ^ 1=-^ -gtis 4 ^^ and Each version thus obtained 4-note groups . par. 4. 204. The devices explained in par. yield 16 different solutions. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT. Review. Manipulate. in the Alto.

. 147 and 148 1. 241. and see the following: I=3fe T^I =3^ ^^ tt L— T-r-r- ^m etc. 139 be regarded as convenient and valuable especially in what must still elementary contrapuntal exercises. 3=i=*=t iw »--ffif . Review Exs.§ie al & gg-'Ta i i^f=r HP ^ 1 T . . £m m- -J ^1 i BEE* i -^4 ^ V7.3 Par. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT.

by name in tones . and often tend to overcome easily and smoothly some harmonic embarrass- The . imitaand other evidences of purpose and agreement in the formation and arrangement of the melodicfigures. Par. 242. as has been seen. which they contain. he should adopt the method Thus : indicated in the following analytical exercises. during the necessary prolongation of a of the parts. as far as possible. First define the chords. but by no means characteristic of the higher grades of polyphonic writing. 1 " parallel 3rds and 6ths " are indicated by dashes the " opposite duplicaby slurs. In pursuing this method of training. chord." — ment. They serve. the student can find no surer means of increasing his knowledge and experience than the careful study and analysis of good contrapuntal models. to sustain the rhythmic momentum especially. and also.: 140 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. sometimes admirably. their key then define the unessential (passing and neighboring) and carefully note all the linear details. As for the more serious details of four-part counterpoint. For illustration tions. by the letters . tions. 242. ®lrrj T^ =7 M f=r=F aoV» -&-. — . Again the student is reminded that these devices are useful and legitimate in elementary counterpoint. sequences.

1. 141 Bach. &n—m m in C minor. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT. N. 171. Organ fugue %WSz Ex. No.B. assa Chord-letters m -J J- . 243.Par.

-ffi i . |J a No. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. Requiem. Sequence. im w . 4. JTPfl^li N.1 i i ¥s x E minor. B.i—. J ^^ egbd V7 Pianoforte 4 m jfajL^fc H? -S==n s^e §? ant 1 etc.T5 R§a '& . i^^y fac g^B fac cegace dfa(c) I VI alV 7 ace I aceg gll7 dfa gbd I VI in V „V 7 Mendelssohn. t n- ^ No. I I JS3 : aV C V7 . T-y ^ tJLL \ Motive.§W: m ¥ I— —mLm^mmJ^ I I I =F ^ egb ace I * =^3 •TTT gbdf «& ^ i ." Motive. Fugue mWI-{UT 1?*£33l i ^rra JTj=§ t— . -J-.— 142 4 Par. 93te* egb Jo^ZMi|^ fe^ I . oV " I V EV 7 I(AV __£_ I AIV V° Mozart. ^> ace bdf £ lU cegb II 7 ^ A fac *^ 1 etc J— St egb aceg I7) f= cegb E+t£ff* bdfa I gbdf dfa „7 3. 24a.

. B. Beethoven. Motive. %m ei r DV 7 J.lt:Organ-Point. Motive. mT=f= rjTTM egbd ace I j. ji nun sfrj m egb II V7 —g 7 dfa DV I ace ceg face V bll V7 D. 5. Mass in f ^ ^nmn mm ^ N. J ffl. 242.Par. 6. No. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT. Pianoforte Fugue in 1 D major. j j-iJ i ~ > ceg ^ bdf I X— | « aceg V7 III dfa I \Elldt2lMotive. Mendelssohn. tcr egbd bdf — ceg dfa egb DII 7 Bbl iSt nI Jr J^k r f r r j~-* — "& s- ^J bdf J §5£ face o j 1 x eg gb V7 ¥1 FV .^. 143 No. -p — •- p f^ j^rrrrn^r dfa I m i 4—1*=-jZ±=±L _ Organ-Point" aceg V7 (dfa) aceg bdf(a) _ VI All 7 Motive.

j— j. u— wIpg: y~^ r r r i ~T— cj ^±±-1 egbd r a X ^ m Org. 7. jtL dfa I gbd egb ace aceg V7 (AV 7 ) Dominant DV (AV)DV V7 D Tonic . Ebv7 Brahms. r fr rrr 4 aceg IAT j^M^j T= ace £ j=^f r ^ rrr etc. 'M dfa I i 1 . 24a.Motive. German Requiem.dafc ^ etc 1 9^MJE ceg S fac fl iijj ^ egb I EB bdfa ^ X V No.144 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. yj-J-L I m x x 3* — *.-pt. Par. *f± IMl ace cegb ^£PQ dfa I dfac gbd I egbd GV 7 DII 7 ^ a [Ml tt 1 .^. ^4 m -X 1 aceg DV7 AVZ_ Motive.

206 (Ex. are of Above all things. 32 to 41 58. all the linear details. " Fugue No. whose letters (and name) are given beneath. 18 (G# minor). No. . in Soprano and Tenor. In measure 4. Also note. measure 7 to n. " Prelude No. " 5 (D major). not thus marked form the chord. beat 4. EXERCISE Analysis. 4). he should paramount importance. used on the way down. 147). 132). Analyze. the a in Soprano is the lowered 7th step of B minor. beat 2. the c-sharp in is.-names may be added. 20 (A minor). somewhat superfirst defining those chord-forms (and chord-names) that are quite evident. This is the most important detail of the analysis. Notice. the TONE-LINES Bach. — also pars. Compare paragraph 207 (Ex. 25. the g-sharp in the Alto is the raised 6th step. 148. S Measure Measure 3 \. near beginning and end. 7. 14 (F# minor). last 9 measures. Tenor is the raised 4th step. observe the prevalence of the progression II-V7-I. 12 (F minor). (G minor). " Well-tempered Clavichord " : — to the end. 3 In No. In . measure 15 to 18. 2 Measure 2. ficially and adding minuter definitions as the passage assumes a clearer general character in necessary to define every tone. strictly all : organ-point. No. beat 1. and that the subdominant (IV or II) usually moves into the dominant. 6 At the beginning there is a succession of Sixth-chords.] I. on the way down. the descending scale in Bass (in half-notes). 242. — to par. that the chords represent either tonic. particularly. a *' " " No. recollect that. " Fugue No. 1 : (Eb major). and with reference. The dhoxd. speaking. In No. observe the following details Measure I. and compare par. his mind. Observe. measure 11 to 15. dominant or subdominant harmony that the dominant almost invariably moves into the I (or VI) of its key. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT. throughout. to Volume " " « Fugue No. No. although the Similar long dominant chords are found in fourth 8th-note sounds like a brief tonic. In No. " Fugue . measure the end. syncopated. beat 2. each of the following extracts. wherever they appear definable. the chord-letters. 1 2 (F minor) last 6 measures. and how this line is later imitated in Alto. 174 and 175. 169. " Prelude No. is I45 The tones Every inharmonic tone marked x. In No. Fugue . as Determine shown in the above example . on the way up. and. in counterpoint. for instance. the manner in which the three upper voices cooperate to carry on the four i6ths of the beat.: Par. other words. Besides these general I : traits. It is not He should leam to analyze. " Fugue No. similarly. over the tonic : : In No. [The student may need to be cautioned against being over-scrupulous. In measure 2. the relation of the figures and tone-lines to each other. throughout all these numbers. to the end. : in preparation (also) of E 2 major. particularly. and mark all inharmonic tones. to 4. in the given order. dominant harmony. measure 16 7 1 1. the b-ftat in Soprano is the lowered 7th scalestep. 10 to 25. at first. Compare paragraph 182 (Ex. measure 5.

5 (D major). The development all of a Motive with four contrapuntal parts. 58. Rheinberger and . to the end. 7 (Eb major). Also pars. Volume (C major). — (longer) tones should occur frequently in one and another of the parts. Handel. in the works of Bach. measures 10 to 16 24. while subject to the general conditions of foregoing chapters. rests should be frequently introduced whole groups of beats should be another. Further. 2 (C minor). at the beginning. 217 should be applied with still greater emphasis to a contrapuntal sentence with four parts. " " Fugue No. 243. result is all the more effective. 23 (B major). to the end. . 213. in Ex. 213 and 214. to the end. 170. they are not always active together. " " Fugue No. also. . if need be. some extent. 5 to 7 . Fugue No. a few intermediate tones may be added. of the parts. measure Fugue No. At least one of that is. " " Fugue No. the student may analyze any example of 4-part counterpoint that he may find. heavier the parts should be restrained in its movements. measure 11 to 20. 12 to 18. measure 21 to 30. MOTIVE-DEVELOPMENT. In this manner. 243. 216. . measure 19 to 27 last 12 measures. 1 Par. measure 17 to 25 42 to 46. 8 (Dft minor). measure 51 to 67. with strict regard to pars. in contrast with the prevailing quicker rhythm. 22. 244. And. 1. 16 (G minor). measure Prelude No. to the end. The following schedule must be adopted The Motive may first appear in any one of the four parts. measure 5. 212. other modern writers. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 23 (B major). " " Fugue No. requires a somewhat more definite system of announcement and imitation. 215 and These all have bearing upon four-part counterpoint. 146 " " " " II. CHAPTER XXVI. " " Fugue No. Mendelssohn. 142 to 145. measure 19. Review pars. the dent's task is reduced for a part of the time to three-part counterpoint. and the 245. last 6 measures. " " Fugue No. 16 to 19. " " Fugue No. •• Fugue No. 214. After finishing these. 9 (E major).: . to not only brief ones in one. . to the end. 1 (C major). — so silent now and then and then stu- that while four parts are unquestionably rep- resented. The rule given in par. This may be seen. 22 (B> minor).

245. 1 ¥ ^J . The fourth announcement must be one octave lower or higher than the second one. *tki tfJ^to £=^ ~ 'r — - -feg M. in Soprano. 212). back to F. (first 147 2. — Imitation) must appear in the in the Dominant key (com- 3. The third announcement must be in the original key. MO TIVE-DE VEL OPMENT. 172. and therefore in a " parallel " part of the latter. — a 1 1 1 g . Motive of Exercise 21 I& IS Ex. key). The second announcement pare par.* : Par. one octave lower or higher than the first announcement. Motive in Tenor. if brief episodes may be intro- necessary. — again in the Dominant key. This will always be the last one of the four parts. in Alto (Dom. the one which has remained unused. i^^ 3 1 w s -d — lr-f TT Episode: Mod. 4. first For example. next higher or next lower part. Between each of these announcements duced. with the Andante. .*-<* 1 d-±=s=- ^J?^ f-3 l fi^ fTjJ i : . M.

) F?fli ". to Subdom. key). Motive. to C. Episode : Mod. I i r (bb min. in Bass (Dom.148 ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. 245. * JiL # i ___ rt =F=i=2= 'i^ dV7_ *—"— m-t =c=r# 1—T: _ molto rail. s=e i r t r r _DI gV_ ^ _&_ ^ I Uj = FII FV_ a ^ molto rail. u-j *-m >• — 'i \ >' _L vj • — l r a* r & d^= aJT-L Efisode : Mod. Par. key. 5F5R S F maj. . t n O^tJ r r &g rj ^r I Ff^-J=?T3 HTl^ FI S II 7 I V7 I . and to orig. M.

(Sopr. (Tenor or Sopr. Motive-Development. Should a more extended form be desirable. or with three voices.) 3. but cannot be wrong. more complete solutions of the Motive manipulated in Ex. excepting one measure rest in the Alto.Par. ^-*! I j j j. one additional announcement of the Motive is in the Tenor. EXERCISE 26. Alto or Bass. as indicated above. 234). in four wholly different ways. of course. tions with is much shorter than any of the Inventwo voices. 154 m ay be consulted. (in same key) then beginning with Bass (C or B major) and . or Tenor. in Manipulate each of the following Motives. The above sentence guide. Tenor or Sopr. The four parts are then retained steadily to the end. Review all the directions in Exercise 21.) i te 2. This is somewhat contrary to the spirit of paragraph 244. and according to the suggestions given in par. Make three beginning with Soprano then with Alto (C or 2. HP^^ii (Bass or Alto. . in A. . made in Exercises 15 and 21. the manner above suggested. Each Motive may be developed — 1. with Four Contrapuntal Parts. 172. Moderate Bass or Alto.) SSSSta ndante. 149 Analyze this (first without. practically the lowered 6th scale-step of F major. The d-flat (in Alto) is. In the second version of the ending. in both cases. in Ab. B major). 1. than literally. in e. Allegro. by placing the first announcement respectively in each of the four parts (in different keys. MOTIVE-DE VELOPMENT. 246. and then with. the keyboard) most thoroughly. No. Compare par. 219.j yj j j^- ^tv^ . Observe that the counterpoint does not become " four-part " until the last part announces the Motive (measure 10).. 3. but will probably be utilized more as a general 246. made. the schedule given in par.

) Par. Sopr. original Motives. Allegretto. m * (Alto or Bass. or in systematic alternation with the latter. — subject to pars. But before doing is so. he urgently advised to pursue a thorough course in free composition. 346.) Andante con moto.ISO 4. as detailed in the author's Homophonic Forms. the student may invent a number of 213 and 214. ELEMENTARY COUNTERPOINT. or Tenor. beginning with Chapter IV. Further. 5 will be found Appendix. and manipulate them in the usual manner. Sopr._nVTg '—' i in the [A concise solution of Motive 3. (Alto or Bass. in c%. The End. ffi izjLA ±d I 5. similar to the above. For the continuation of his contrapuntal discipline. and in Exercise 21. or Tenor. in £. This is as far as the study of Elementary Counterpoint need extend.] Besides these. if needed. manipulate again (with four parts) some of the Motives given in Exercise 15 4. . the student may take up the author's Applied Counterpoint. ^j.

I gas Exercise 4s J ££3: tt -•=#= "TrUj 'Li/t^t —— — — a. Melody i. *r IST TTf riff r £. As upper part.j - ' -111 ^ ri 1 j _'l:*^g rrr f ^ . a. CCfT 1 As upper ~ rt part. SOLUTIONS OF SOME OF THE GIVEN EXERCISES. As lower part. As upper Melody 5. 1^¥ r Exercise 6. e£* r part.. 1._ 3. ^JT]. ^r 0. ie^#^p#ff rrf as As lower part. ' J i Jig? fr^J i St^i**firrrrr? r>Lrrrfrfrrs d^+m • t j « 1 r fffr m^ f f^frf rr . m i As lower part. a. t 5. I5i APPENDIX.

152 a. m s^e^S3S jge^g^^^^gE^^^^I a. Melody m^'. ^ (B)g* lower part. I A^S PS ! ! I" ^ m+ t^tF-f -* -P- it S -• p j HI />. 6. ti^m^^^^ -+-& ?gf: As lower part (transposed). Melody 11. *-• BV £ --—- t=5=P= tttf ±± As h * . Exercise 8. APPENDIX. ^frff-rt-^ ZmrfMh&h Exercise 7.f i. As upper part. As upper part.

f ™ tj I fg =p= p. As upper part. i V7 . 4. 153 m st^^g 1 ) i«- 1 gpijjj ^i^Ppj . 2" gffi £ -<=- V7 £ §S? -X . Ep=§=t=F pars. Melody ls£ g&fal SEI ar**-*T§Sfe* SE If ^t*±5 v ii 7 1 ^eS ferf «_ > ^t *: itt±=«t ^ -ft =r=^ II ^^ •H^ 3t!t -x te^ -9- £.APPENDIX. 48 g=3 and 184. i M Exercise 9. « —p - 1 d ^r^-fV £^e I V ^^^ . » g -f. As lower part gg* -f 4t J4 x -.

— • — I — 154 a. fcM=j: ^fM gto^ (Accelerated. Melody 2. = t3 ^-r^iagi ##^^^^^^^ n^r rr* "qr r r f r r ^f f As upper part. Exercise 12. APPENDIX. i^ ^. . Exercise Melody 7 .) eS i f WrJ J as sWpi fe^tr#f#ff I 1- As lower part. As upper part. FEB-*-1 —S — *a F a—P F—0 —0—f —*—*—*— • —f — "—h—r^!—F—h w—0-f — '-' |-s»H £• *-rz. g Wz £nFT^ *=-=*=i$i r r r f r ff f ^ S* r V^^L-J- r « r (Accelerated.) feg^h^^ rfSffr r r a.

— *- k — . As lower part. 5. associate. Motive ^= Motive.APPENDIX. |j— .r s+ r ^'^fwTBg P^m 9* £. /^*V Sve-Imit. Motive. orf a£ggi^E^fg===i i^p^lll=g|i^^ ^ §1 ?-trt— ^ IK t^ 5? Andante con mo to. Exercise 15. 155 ^or-. Cont.

| < ^«S*Tf- .1 5 6 APPENDIX. to i = w y j* [ i- d=c S ' -^J^ " IS g g^^-j] P§*£ -^ S3 lE & nSatf *r Motive.B. ^ t^: *-* 9^ J:— 7 * Episode: Mod. N. *# Motive. t=?=^ IS: 4=t .

m Version 1. ^^g^fe pi^S p= ri tzt» fefc ^Qfrr. Melody 6. 3ti. -ffy-f i fc=F 3t i?L orig. uJ--i^jj/ r A. 157 W SEE 3 P* 2J .B. back to df) (t) IS^ f-*-- — * Motive. „ fl r ^^n crescendo. 15 ^ N. Motive.j^ i tI . N^%fg^gJ^gjS5 S' • S ' •*«-» fir* tf Exercise 16. &&* a i= -*^t* *=f=i= #-•- tid s p^ par. 1 =^r^ ?3F^=^ : *4 izat Episode: Mod.— APPENDIX. 9&M .

J l 1 1 i ll 11 1 = 1 Exercise 17.1. 8. ts» - r i p te * Sequences. ies y ^* b 1 jj^ux-i^ r 'rr ^ •g gJ ' ~zy ' r r r p P ^ rf fS>- -=»" 75H l» ^3 m VI Version 3. j r J u j f- u /au i g^ J=A ^3 3.1 ^»T j|JJ|J. to»J *l^^l g -j J . Melody rr rffr r? gA^^J II 7 3 VI III II Version 2. s* ei e> f^ 1 II 7 III ° VI ^ 'JI*H -h iS3 YjW wrrrrtt PS(==&: obP % r P r pf 'J I J l ' ' 'f rP- -g>- l=t t* M • d «-=- .1 58 Version i. tf J W* j J i Jfli r r r J i . / f r f f ?trr f riff I f frUfl^ ^ t i « Version ^^ * i Version —p- y— I I -g-J_ p:=t :fc£±* 1. APPENDIX.

75. |_J^ J J 1 J . im ^rn s t-rhr-hHJ : J Jl J~T il f ' i= i Jl. Version 4. 1»X" ^ ^^H . J? Jtl. fe a*^ b ^r= Sequences. Bfcfcltp: W= Version 2. 159 Sequences. J 1 J I 1 K 1 1 L 1 1 i_ . Melody 7. p i! &£ teg z=*£ fe 5±^ --rrr^r ^rT. I ~=H f-^fh-H^rf Vrf ff f p-^ ^5 £ « #=-«^ e a a a ^s 7 .i u p ga-^j — H TTfrTTT -•—# i iJ ^L^ F*W» i Version 3. ^ VCT ^HWrfH l ri '- r i ^> sea l *=r^Pt a a comp. Sequences. par. •*-=- i I Version 1.1 APPENDIX. | 1 1 Exercise 18.

J -• — P- # p- *F i ©*-#- 3? -3-»h* *—rr - a ±=f « * • d_± r^d cjr 11 7 J J W A>* j J j I fiL-.—— i6o a. r rn j VT] rU j J ip? uiru-»sj^ 11 ^ . H p v ffi • — I Jj- J ^ J r\ i \ -7r J ' 1 > 1 trr '1 1 1 J iteEfc f*¥ T-iHf-£=r (Amplified to 3-tone groups ) — J j. Melody 3. As upper part. Susp. -m J 1 d kPjJ l.'-v I 1 M n * 1 \ I —^>-» -P wgg—g * §&3 r^zm W^-^ a^ arid £. Exercise 19. APPENDIX. *-• — i r (Amplified to 2-tone groups) p f J?. 5 T-\—t m- =*=4 ] As inner part.j n * 1 rr II i * gy • II 7 sa I -* ^ — *- P^ * I J .

. S T* l T?=-= #=F LJ £ ~ s :. ¥ Upper part given. 161 s 3 ^^mm trnrnnm^ lower part. 6. ^T3 fefwr* ^-offl j 1 i I-* .APPENDIX.-=& ^^tfJ^Li^J^^^^ r j~r is -#-#• u f=r% =t=t r i r r ^f-frr ^-p^-p-Hfe^ ^^ ^t^3 . Exercise 20. 1. As §Se *=fc 3=E IV (II) Sf=*=T S3 t=f *t (Amplified to 4-tone groups) i3§l ^ ^Bf$ 11 7 ^ -*=• j 1 i 1- i p fi^f^rTT^7- ^fc±i S i 'L_fMr ' 1 1 1 1 1 1S3E No.

2. r~ Lower part j yP^eg^ ^Eaa 1 S-E w ^J N 'J=jy #-?C '^ Pte MEf!Ejj*5t _*J±_* f=f=F^ i=t± £ s W^ffiH«S . 3. APPENDIX. m • d •- ^ m jh~i. rFFf ^^u m zrr JV r La=* ^ No.i 162 No. l y /^ffi?^— i ff^ ## given. Inner part given.

H Motive.' APPENDIX. *±* Exercise 21. I IE S \J Interlude. imit. in Sve.. jt. * j ji' 1 j j j =P=i: I §? r Hi #-*-# Lento. Motive ^W imit. gfeaa^ IE j j rJ T > ^ ^ r 71— _ Motive..r 1— J-PJJ]M Ui^Si fi ^5^. 1 Episode : Mod. p M. tz CSS3 ^^-^ ^If-'fVF? imm Episode: Mod.r^—i 9 oft ^ S5 6. to (5 ^ 94 & —f ^ . to Z>. . in 5th. 163 ffitT~»f-6 ^rr- WT% w m 1 ?EF m=^=^^=r^ p I%. o^^^ Dom.. ^^tirf/fe M. . chord of *? minor.

Episode: Mod. S^* J =P5 anfc i»rrrfri% Motive. back to orig.1 64 APPENDIX. key. S r- 9* w ^^ r^ ftU of ^ Interl ude. Lf/f" 1T~* Dom. Motive. ii r Episode : Mod. I^T^-B'^g ^L: -. to G. chord a minor" w L^ \J 48S Episode : Mod. m *^ Cfcr ' JP'JJ? rf. J ^ . ^ ^ and a minor. N.'J^J^J^CT ^g "* l [Motive. to C. g*^ jt > f Motive.B.

APPENDIX. (" Intentional " 8ves. Melody 5. . 165 ^ i ii£ Motive. 111 ^BlEfiFVf Exercise 23.) litfgiillWP Adagio. fefa!l^l^* 4^9594 ^1^P?= s i4j tj- 1 ^^^^^^ L-LJkL-i—jl t-tj.

j j 1 1 . f 11 7 As Alto part ( transposed. J1 ^£to|g = : 4 j j Ji»i *B £ t.) ^ IbM t'. ^T .J |i .V Ji /l.'/i. I Exercise 24. i''rr' EPF I . 158a. wm m ^y J J par. - \m ^r^f tJ J i J. j J V J ^ Notes to Ex. . wHMitt yrrrr 1 wit t i rf r f Melody 1.f i66 APPENDIX. The given melody as Tenor part. J j i j J V7 I Et>V 7 _ r « s f= J .i' Jf . f '§te X.j | ^ Jii f=F Jl ?i.'ii U 'V. I m r J i j J ^ ^•^ §E=3i r t "r =E *r- f i r i.

\6? The given melody as Tenor part. Exercise 24. J. Melody 3. As Bass part transposed). py2 o p 1 p 1 p 1 r Kf ^ fee!: 1 ^UJJji^i Also: 1 s 1 S iij ° 1 I *> g) ^rJrcifff'' 1 ^ Tonic organ-point. 1 1 1 j J. Exercise 24. /wy f «f r erf t £• The given melody as Tenor part.APPENDIX. £ . J.\?tf'r-aW 7—n~i m 1 1 or : etc. i5 r fcsii-r gffii r "25*- *^ s>- gj g> - TT ^ p ' 1 . f V. b. Melody 2.^j 1 1 J. Pfe r \f f\t riPtf^^ ( <f .

t zi g f o J-— . '- jj-Mr-r ri ^ nr-4-r'P-r tfiuTi . N. As Alto part (transposed).) vUJ3. *. -S=#= J J f=^ J As Bass part (transposed). im s> * 1 1^2 —& ±j=. and 4-note groups. £m H-n-fTJ FJ ^gi* i dJ ^^ inl ^ ftfca g > of=^g frr 9 ^b * : s r» WiJF Dominant organ-point r £ i 4i^jrj f=p ^^M^ jJ p^f :^ ^ri^ ¥ ^Tf i - „ - :: i - ! T^i Sequence. . gj 2: S2: r- fg =H s -f T^rrt^ g J ^.j 168 APPENDIX. to 2-note. J - i j. ( altered seq. in the usual manner. ^f-ff^B -U of these versions of Exercise 24 is to be amplified. . J ir_j r ! ' r j =f=f 1 —ODjM^OOJ: §s ^^ Each 3-note.B. pA . rf. y— .

169 ^HJ-jP. i^ SE Motive in Tenor. B rH -x ¥ ( p=p= T r4f key). Motive 5. Motive in Sopr.APPENDIX. Motive in Bass Dom. §±£|gr Wf i?5=^ m l^S^rry^^^^r^l Episode : Mod.^ Exercise 26. key ). ritard. 1V1 i" ^. l ggj^ w - Motive in Alto ( Dom. fer* I& rff^ ^ &? " • j?*: ^ Jcr-J S3 i^s . back to At?. S i ^s n 1 Largo. iN§ 9ijfcT=^' P 1 t-t-^-t 1 ^bife^— 1 r= r g 5 Motive. ^ Bp^ r Dt>V 7 _ ^ 1 .

Revised and Augmented Price. but Melody. A 593 New York •. SCHIRMER t Boston .50. $1. designed for the use of young chiefly as a course of exercises collateral with the study of Harmony. $1. net Mus." and shows how the first may be a purely mechanical process. HOW TO THINK MUSIC HARRIET AYER SEYMOUR —New Edition. Doc. in connection with the pianist's own in- strument. while the second. A music students. It is not to take the place of is to precede. of musical theory will be and that it will consist in shifting the objective center found from Harmony to Harmony. systematic course of melodic composition. The author draws a very sharp line between "playing music" and "thinking music.00. The presentiment that some change in the study necessary. will give him a clear grasp of essential harmonic principles as well as lead him to sure control of the musical expression of his thought and mood in extempore playing. net Harmony as studied in these pages. Price. EXERCISES IN MELODY-WRITING PERCY GOETSCHIUS. by its very nature. net The title of this little book expresses its purpose precisely." In other words it teaches one how to make mentally audible the printed score without the aid of piano or other musical instrument.50. G. must develop the melodic and harmonic sense through the medium of what may be called the "mind's ear. $1.— HARMONY IN PIANOFORTE-STUDY ERNEST FOWLES Price. has induced the author to prepare this work. or to be conducted side by side with it.

" Nobody can gainsay the logic and appeal of this unique book. Physiology and Psychology and their relation to LONG a teacher method harmony-study. SCHIRMER . presentation divided into fifteen chapters. often illustrated. the author had come to feel an intense need for its presentation in a form that would seek to appeal to one's musical consciousness through the ear. with certain related inversions. The work proper is Opening with an analytical it traverses all of the intermediary study features of its subject up to the Secondary Triads in Minor. the inductive is chosen as the legitimate of approach in a treatise on aural harmony. and thus afford the power to hear what is written. division called "aural practice. and the proceeds accordingly. nor deny its need among harmony students. and there it rests. This work is the result of his conclusions.of harmony. At the end of a most illuminating preface. and each chapter concludes with a special. exposition of the Scale. The aural principle is maintained throughout. New York • G. in which are treated the aspects of Physics.

pause and accent. net By Constantin von Sternberg *T. taken up in a thoroughly will The book prove invaluable to the teacher who wishes to keep pace with new musical ideas. who strives for more than mere techand to the artist who represents in the highest degree the ethical and esthetic aspects of piano-playing." practical fashion. to the student nical skill . and to convey The importance There is of phrasing is emphasized and its two essential elements. inating discussion of the Art-pause in expressing the inner sole an illum- and its usefulness content of music." He suggests ways to conit ceive a musical thought intelligently clearly through skilful phrasing. "the lucid demonstration on the piano of thematic design. SCHIRMER • Boston . the means of conveying rhythm. New York A 600 • G. Accent. are fully treated. $1. HE author emphasizes chiefly the esthetic aspect of piano-playing.STHETICS of PIANO-PLAYING Price.50. "the handle by which is the auditor grasps music.ETHICS and E.

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