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To determine the position of the first intensity minimum due to a single slit and the value used to calculate the width of the slit. 2. To determine the intensity distribution of the diffraction patterns of a threefold, fourfold and even fivefold slit, where the slits have all the same widths and the same distance among each other. To asses the intensity relations of the central peaks. 3. To determine the transmission grids with different lattice constants, the position of the peaks of several orders of diffraction and the found value is used to calculate the wavelength of the laser light. THEORY: If monochromatic light of wavelength impinges on a system of parallel and equidistant slits, the following will be true for the light intensity I of beams deflected by an angle : sin2 ( /b sin ) sin2 ( p/g sin ) I ( ) b2 . _________________ . __________________ ( /b sin ) 2 sin2 ( /g sin ) ( b = width of slit ; g = distance between slits ; p = number of slits ) According to Fraunhofer, the minima and the peaks of a single slit are called 1st class interferences, whereas the interaction of several yields 2nd class interferences. Observing only a single slit ( 1st factor ), this yields a minimum intensity when the numerator becomes zero. In this case, the following is valid : sin k = k b ; ( k =1 , 2 , 3 ) (2) (1)

The angular position of the 1st class peaks is given approximately through : sin k = 2k + 1 ; ( k = 1 , 2 , 3 ) 2 b (3)

If several slits act together, the minima of the single slits always remain. Supplementary 2nd class minima appear when the 2nd factor also becomes zero. For a double slit ( p = 2 ), the zero points can be easily calculated by simple transformation of the 2nd factor. Equation (1) then yields : 4 cos2 ( /g sin ) = 1 This expression becomes zero for sin h = 2h + 1 . 2 g ; ( h = 0,1,2,3) (5) (4)

The following is valid for the intensity I for the main 2nd class peaks :

I p2

(6)

The main 2nd class peaks thus become more prominent as the number of slits increases. There still are ( p 2 ) secondary 2nd class peaks between the main peaks. When light is diffracted through transmission grids with lattice constant g , the diffraction angle of the main peaks fulfils the following relation : sin k = k ; ( k = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ) g (7)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE : 1 ) The experiments equipment is set-up as shown in the lab manual. With the assistance of the f = 20mm and f = 100 mm lenses, a widened and parallel laser beam is generated, which must impinge centrally on the photocell with the slit aperture, the photocell being situated approximately at the centre of its shifting range. 2 ) The diffracting objects are set in the object holder. It must be sure the diffraction objects which are to be investigated are set vertically in the object holder, and uniformly illuminated. 3) In order to avoid undesirable intensity fluctuations, the laser and the measuring amplifier should warm up for about 15 minutes before starting measurements. The photocell is connected to the 104 input of the measuring amplifier (amplification factor 103 105 ).The zero point of measurement amplifier must be checked while the photocell is covered when the amplification factor is changed, and corrected if necessary. 4) The diaphragm with single slits ( 08522.00 ) is put at the object holder. The diffraction intensity I as a function of the position, x is measured by moving the photocell. > The measurement is read and the values are recorded in Table 1. > A graph of diffraction intensity as a function of the position, x for b = 0.1mm , b = 0.2mm , and b = 0.4mm is plotted. > The angle between the central peak and the secondary peaks are determined. Consider sin tan . 5) The diaphragm is changed to a multiple slits ( 08526.00 ), at the object holder. The diffraction intensity I as a function of the position, x is measured by moving the photocell. > The measurement is read and the values are recorded in Table 2. > A graph of diffraction intensity I as function of the position, x for n = 2,3,4,5 is plotted.

6) The diffraction grating is put on the object holder. The distance of the diffraction peaks is determined up to the 3rd order of diffraction ( k =3 ) for diffraction grating with 4 , 8 , 10 and 50 lines/mm. For the 50 lines/mm transmission grid, the secondary peaks are outside the shifting range of the photocell, so that in this case the position of the diffraction reflexes are marked on a sheet of paper and their distance are measured with a ruler. > The measurement is read and the values are recorded in Table 3. > A graph of lattice constant, g , as a function of reciprocal distance of diffraction peaks up to 3order is plotted. > Based on equation 7, the wavelength of the used laser is calculated.

DATA AND GRAPH : TABLE 1 b = 0.1mm Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I b = 0.2mm Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I b = 0.4mm Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I 0.1 16.50 -0.1 16.66 0.2 15.25 -0.2 15.35 0.3 14.73 -0.3 14.66 0.4 14.08 -0.4 13.96 0.5 13.25 -0.5 13.06 0.6 12.92 -0.6 12.88 0.7 11.30 -0.7 11.44 0.1 12.80 -0.1 12.72 0.2 12.54 -0.2 12.48 0.3 11.08 -0.3 11.35 0.4 10.28 -0.4 10.32 0.5 9.96 -0.5 9.87 0.6 9.08 -0.6 9.06 0.7 8.88 -0.7 8.87 0.1 6.73 -0.1 6.64 0.2 6.04 -0.2 6.11 0.3 5.91 -0.3 5.87 0.4 5.83 -0.4 5.76 0.5 5.61 -0.5 5.53 0.6 5.45 -0.6 5.31 0.7 4.93 -0.7 4.87

18 16 14 12 diffraction intensity , I 10 8 6 4 2 0 -1 -0 .5 0 p o s itio n , x /m m

Description Pink : b =0.4mm ; Blue : b = 0.2mm ; Green : b = 0.1mm

0 .5

TABLE 2 b1 = 0.1mm , g = 0.25mm , n = 2 Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I 0.1 12.65 -0.1 12.75 0.2 11.23 -0.2 11.10 0.3 10.74 -0.3 9.56 0.4 8.70 -0.4 8.53 0.5 6.43 -0.5 7.32 0.6 3.54 -0.6 4.60 0.7 2.49 -0.7 2.55

b1 = 0.1mm , g = 0.25mm , n = 3 Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I 0.1 3.70 -0.1 3.75 0.2 3.55 -0.2 3.63 0.3 3.08 -0.3 3.12 0.4 2.85 -0.4 2.77 0.5 2.22 -0.5 2.10 0.6 1.88 -0.6 1.92 0.7 1.57 -0.7 1.51

b1= 0.1mm , g = 0.25mm , n = 4 Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I 0.1 5.80 -0.1 5.81 0.2 5.27 -0.2 5.12 0.3 4.36 -0.3 4.43 0.4 4.04 -0.4 4.17 0.5 3.82 -0.5 3.78 0.6 2.51 -0.6 3.46 0.7 2.28 -0.7 3.32

b1 = 0.1mm, g = 0.25mm , n = 5 Position , x /mm Diffraction intensity , I Position , x /mm Diffraction 0.1 12.86 -0.1 12.65 0.2 10.65 -0.2 10.53 0.3 8.71 -0.3 8.63 0.4 6.32 -0.4 6.12 0.5 5.98 -0.5 5.63 0.6 4.12 -0.6 3.98 0.7 3.21 -0.7 3.13 7

intensity , I

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10 Diffraction intensity, I

0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 position, x/mm

TABLE 3 k=1 Lattice constant , g /mm Reciprocal distance , d -1 / mm-1 Lattice constant , g /mm Reciprocal distance , d -1 / mm-1 Lattice constant , g /mm Reciprocal distance , d -1 / mm-1 1/4 4.4 1/8 0.76 k=2 1/4 4.7 1/8 0.94 k=3 4.86 1/8 1.04 1/10 0.52 1/50 6.0 1/10 0.40 1/50 4.0 1/10 0.30 1/50 2.0

reciprocal distance , d-1 / mm-1 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 lattice constant , g / mm

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

reciprocal distance , d-1 / mm-1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 lattice constant , g /mm

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ANALYSIS : From procedure (4) , The angle between the central peak and the secondary peaks need to be calculated. By using the formula , sin k = k b ; ( k =1 , 2 , 3 ) (2)

k = 0.286 From procedure (6) The wavelength of the used laser needs to be calculated By using the formula sin k = k ; (k=0,1,2,3) g (7)

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DISCUSSIONS : Diffraction is described as the bending of light around an obstacle. . But the process that causes diffraction is present in the propagation of every wave. When part of the wave is cut off by some obstacle, we observe diffraction effects that result from interference of the remaining parts of the wave fronts. Diffraction usually involves a continuous distribution of Huygens wavelets across the area of an aperture, or a very large number of sources or apertures. From table 1, we have plotted the graph diffraction intensity I as a function of the position, x for b = 0.1mm, 0.2mm and 0.4mm. From the graph plotted, we can see that the b = 0.1mm has the lowest diffraction intensity, I compared to the b = 0.4mm has the highest diffraction intensity. The graph is a quadratic graph which has a maximum point for every tread line. We also have calculated the angle between the central peak and the secondary peaks and got 0.286. From table 2, we have also plotted the graph of diffraction intensity I as a function of the position which the b and g is constant but the n are different. n = 2 has the highest diffraction intensity while n=3 has the lowest diffraction intensity. The graph is also quadratic and has a maximum point. From table 3, the graph plotted is graph of lattice constant , g as a function of reciprocal distance of the diffraction peaks up to 3 order. The graphs are increasing graph which means the reciprocal distance increase with the lattice constant. The calculated wavelength of the used laser light is 1.25 x 10-3 m . For somehow, there might be some errors that occur during the experiment is carried out. The errors that occur has affected the value of our result. Therefore, some precautions should be taken during the experiment is carried out.

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CONCLUSIONS : From this experiment, we have achieved all of the objectives. The calculated angle between the central peak and the secondary peaks is 0.286 while the calculated wavelength of the used laser light is 1.25x10-3 m .

REFERENCE: 1. UNIVERSITY PHYSICS with modern physics. YOUNG AND FREEDMAN . SEARS AND ZEMANSKYS. 12TH EDITION . PEARSON INTERNATIONAL EDITION.

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