Mohammad Zaid

Quality Function Deployment
One technique for documenting overall design logic is QFD. It is a structural and disciplined process that provides a means to identify and carry the voice of the customer through each stage of product and service development and implementation. QFD uses a sequence of interlocking matrices that translates customer needs into product and process characteristics. Sometimes a matrix integrates added information in a useful form. Another definition of QFD is method to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process.

House of Quality
House of Quality (HOQ) is a diagram, resembling a house used for describing the relationship between customer desires and the firm/product capabilities. It was introduced in 1972 in the design of an oil tanker in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. As illustrated below:

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Mohammad Zaid

HOQ is a part of the QFD and it utilises a planning matrix to convey what the customer wants, how a firm (that produces the products) is going to meet those wants. In HOQ, the roof signifies "correlation matrix, customer wants versus product features as the main part, competitor evaluation as the balcony etc. It states that "the belief that products should be designed to reflect customers' desires and tastes. The basic structure is a table with “What” as the labels on the left and “Hows” across the top. It can be described with “Hows” from one level transforming to “Whats” of a lower level.

QFD Process
The HOQ diagram given in figure shows the following things: 1. Customer Requirement: This is generally the first portion of the HOQ matrix. It documents a structured list of a products customer’s requirement described in their own words. This information is gathered through conversation with the customers, in which they are encouraged to state their problems. It is supposed to be structured before it is entered in the HOQ. The construction of Affinity and Tree Diagrams can be used in this. The completed affinity diagram can then be used as a basis of a tree diagram. 2. Planning matrix: According to the figure, this is attached towards the right hand side. It quantifies the customer’s needs and then allows these needs to be adjusted based on the issues that concern the design team. Importance Weighting is the most important criterion. This figure explains the relative importance of each of the customer requirements. The second common component is the satisfaction of the customers with available products. The second common component of planning matrix provides customer satisfaction with available products. Other measures which are determined by the design team are:  Planned Satisfaction - Rating: explains the design teams desired performance of the future products.  Improvement Factor: It is calculated by subtracting the performance score of the company (for its existing product) beginning with its planned performance score.

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Mohammad Zaid

This difference is then multiplied by an improvement count (example, 0.2) and then is added to 1 to give the increment factor.  Sales Point: It can be used to add weight to those requirements which can be used to market the product (usually between 1 and 1.5). 3. Technical Requirements: This is also known as engineering characteristics or Voice of the Company. It describes the product in terms of the company. This information is generated by the design team who identify measurable characteristics of the product according to the customer requirements. Tree diagrams are implemented for the product characteristics. Tree diagrams are a combination of customer and technical requirements. This is weighed on a four point scale (high, medium, low and none) and a symbol to represent these interrelationships. These are assigned scores which the team should agree too. 4. Interrelationships: This forms the main body of the HOQ matrix. Its function is to transforms the customer’s requirement into characteristics of the product. It is a two dimensional matrix with cells 5. Roof: It is used to identify whether the technical requirements that characterise the product support or hinder each other. As the QFD team works through the cells in the roof matrix, a question is asked for each cell: Does improvising one requirement causes improvement in the other technical requirement? When the answer is an improvement, an engineer trade-off exists and a symbol is entered into the cell (usually a cross or). When improving one requirement automatically leads an improvement in another requirement a different symbol is entered into the cell (tick or +). These symbols are used to check whether there is a smooth relationship in the design. 6. Targets: This is the final section of the HOQ matrix. It summarises the entire HOQ house as follows:  Technical Priorities: The technical requirement for the product can be calculated from the weightings contained in the planning and interrelationship matrix sections.

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Mohammad Zaid

Competitive Benchmarking: The technical requirements after being considered as important characteristics of the product can be measured for its own use or available competitive products.

Targets: It is a set of engineering target values compared with the new product design. The output of the first HOQ matrix can be used as a first stage of a four part QFD process known as Clausing Four-phase Model.

Benefits of QFD
There are many benefits of QFD. They are as follows.  Customer Driven: They are more focused on customers requirement rather than what the company need. In this the Voice of Customer drives the development process.  Competitive analysis: The products which are available in the market are compared with the existing products and are rated accordingly.  Reduce development time: Since the QFD process is focused on customer requirement the change in design is reduced. Time is utilised effectively.  Reduced development costs: The required changes occur early in the project life cycle so by reducing the changes the production reduces the warranty costs and product support cost.  Documentation: Since the QFD process is implemented a knowledge base is setup. A historical record of the decision construction procedure is developed.

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