9

ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS - CNG AND LPG
Introduction
The use of gaseous fuels i.e. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) for automotive applications has been under taken in different parts of the world for varying reasons. The Committee has reviewed the global scenario, in particular, the status of the CNG and LPG vehicle commercialisation programmes taken up in various countries. The Committee has taken note of the on-going efforts for promoting the use of these alternative fuels in the country.

International experience
Natural gas vehicles Several countries have Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs). The top ten countries in terms of NGV population are given in Table 9.1. World NGV commercialisation activities have taken place for varying reasons in different countries since their initial introduction in Italy in the mid-1930s. Each country has a different set of market conditions, economics, gas availability / supply, technology development, that cause NGV commercialisation to progress at different rates2. A brief overview of the global NGV programmes is as follows:

Table 9.1 NGVs in the world1 Country Argentina Italy Pakistan Brazil USA India Venezuala Egypt China Ukraine
1 2

NG vehicles 721830 380000 265000 232973 102430 95150 40962 37642 36000 31000

Refuelling stations 969 369 310 284 1250 124 170 60 70 208

As on November 01 November 01 June 01 May 02 January 01 June 02 January 02 May 02 January 01 December 01

International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles International NGV Markets, March 2000, Dr. Jeffrey M. Seisler, Executive Director, ENGVA & President, International Association for NGVs 137

ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG

Before starting with the 1984 Liquid Fuels Substitution Programme, Argentina had a wellestablished natural gas consumption culture and pipeline substructure reaching most of its populated cities.

Italy. Italy was the first country in the world to use CNG as a fuel for transport in the beginning of World War II in 1930s. This was mainly owing to the need to become “self sufficient”. War time conditions drove Italy towards the only source of energy that was available naturally in the country. In the ’60s, petrol was easy to use, which caused a critical situation for CNG. In the ’70s, high management costs and new technologies drove establishment of 80 new refuelling stations connected with pipelines. It was this development that indirectly encouraged development of new compression systems used for pipelines and refuelling. Environmental awareness was not yet widely spread even though the problem of pollution on account of traffic had already become an issue. Restrictions of supplies in the ’70s reduced development of network for filling stations. The problem of supply was solved in the mid-’80s by imports from Algeria. The key factor in the development of NG

Fig. 9.1 CNG network in Italy

vehicles in Italy has been the gas pipeline network which in the ’80s was extended to obtain a backbone more than sufficient for an efficient distribution and technology development / export considerations. By this time, environmental awareness began and what had been considered a poor fuel of a self-sufficient country was now becoming a modern environment friendly fuel. CNG network of Italy is shown in Fig. 9.1. The network has been developed over a period of 70 years. In July 2000, there were 331 filling pumps in use. The Italians have been the historic leaders in the NGV market, only recently outpaced by Argentina. The Italians are product leaders worldwide, exporting vehicle conversion systems and compressor station equipment to the Middle East, South America, China, and India, to name a few. Argentina3. Argentina had developed additional policies of energy diversity mainly after the Yom Kippur War (1973), taking advantage of huge natural gas fields discovered in the ’70s. Being self sufficient in oil and having discovered new natural gas fields, it made sense in the 80’s to aim at: · Possible expansion of CNG by replacing liquid fuels and giving place for more oil exports and improvement of the balance of payments. · Alternative automotive low price gas fuel could justify taxation increases on liquid fuels without awakening unwanted massive protests. Before initiating the 1984 Liquid Fuels Substitution Program, Argentina had a wellestablished natural gas consumption culture and pipeline substructure reaching most of its populated cities. Environmental advantages of natural gas were known but they did not lead the move.

An overview of the Argentine NGV experience, Dr. Juan Carlos Fracchia, President of the Argentine Chamber for NGV 138 AUTO FUEL POLICY REPORT

3

Currently Argentina has the following infrastructure :· 11,000 km trunk lines, 43 compressor plants (701,470 HP) plus the compression plants of the new pipelines to Chile. · 93,000 km distribution network marking an 83 per cent length increase since the privatization took place in 1991. Nine NG distribution companies covering most of the country carry out natural gas distribution.

· 6 major pipeline export projects are underway or proposed to supply outside the country boundaries to Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile, and Brazilian regions. Central Chilean region is supplied as of 1997. Ratio between reserves and production gives 17 years for natural gas and less than 9 years for oil. CNG network of Argentina is shown in Fig. 9.2.

Fig. 9.2 CNG network in Argentina
ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG 139

Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority has a fleet of above 2,600 buses out of which about 800 are natural gas buses

Other European Countries: European NGV activity outside Italy commenced after the advent of the European Natural Gas Vehicle Association (ENGVA) in 1994. In other European countries like Germany, France and U.K., though pipeline infrastructure for gas distribution exists, NGV markets are in the initial stages of development. United States. NGVs had their initial start in 1969 at the Southern California Gas Company, which created a subsidiary to sell NGV conversion systems. The programme was dominated by natural gas utilities and a small number of their customers until about 1983 when the NGV marketing effort became more focused, expanded to fleets of petrol vehicles using bi-fuel conversions. Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority has a fleet of above 2,600 buses out of which about 800 are natural gas buses. Japan4. The development and practical use of Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) in Japan began in the early 1990, under the initiative of gas utilities. Most of Japan’s natural gas supplies are imported as LNG. The gas price is relatively high and so NG could not be popularised as a cheap alternative fuel. Though Japanese NGVs are of good quality and give high performance, they are very expensive. Small vans and mini cars cost about 2 times the cost of normal vehicles

and a truck up to 2-ton capacity about 1.5 times their counterpart. The Japanese natural gas industry has been promoting NGVs, primarily in fleets. The Japanese Government led by MITI, MOT, and the Environment Agency has created many subsidies for low emission vehicles including NGV and refuelling facilities. These subsidies were established mainly as a result of the pressure by gas utilities. Despite all the efforts, there are still only a small number of NGVs and customers, and this situation is likely to continue for some time to come. Today there are nearly 5250 NGVs (36 per cent owned by gas utilities) and 107 fuelling stations (69 per cent owned by gas utilities). China. China has NGVs supported by 70 fuelling stations. Much of the focus is on public transport – buses and taxicabs. Principal reasons for moving to NGVs are environmental and country’s energy security, relying more on indigenous sources. Natural gas for buses While initially CNG was more popular for use in cars, many cities have inducted CNG buses for city operations. The number of CNG buses in the major cities of the world in year 2000 are given in Table 9.25. As per the information available, South Korea and China have plans to induct quite

Table 9.2 CNG city buses in different countries Country / City USA Dallas Los Angeles New York New Jersey Canada Toronto Vancouver
4

Total buses 810 2,638 5,675 3,094 1,500 1,006

CNG buses 22 795 358 55 125 51

% of CNG buses 2.7 30.1 6.3 1.8 8.3 5.1
(contd)

The Course of Natural Gas Vehicles Prolification in Japan and Prospects for the Next Century, Toshiharu Sato, NGV Project Department, The Japan Gas Association, October 2000. 5 Natural Gas Vehicle Transit Bus Fleets : The Current International Experience by IANGV. 140 AUTO FUEL POLICY REPORT

Table 9.2 (contd.) Country / City Germany Berlin France Paris Italy Rome Spain Barcelona Madrid Greece Athens Australia Sydney Brisbane Perth Melbourne China (May 2002)6 Shanghai Beijing South Korea (May 2002)7 Seoul India (June 2002) Delhi Total buses 1,700 4,000 2,383 800 1,000 1,500 3,900 1,100 850 1,400 18500 10000 8200 12000 CNG buses 10 53 40 2 15 40 254 12 52 24 330 1640 880 61758 % of CNG buses 0.6 1.3 1.7 0.3 1.5 2.7 6.5 1.1 6.1 1.7 1.8 16.4 10.7 51.5

In Beijing, 1,640 buses out of a total of 10,000 buses run on CNG.

a large number of CNG buses in their city bus fleets. Their plans are as follows: China 6: Out of the 18,500 buses in Shanghai, 300 buses use CNG, About 11,250 buses run on diesel and the balance run on petrol. It is planned that by the end of 2003, CNG buses will be increased to 500; by the end of 2005, another 2,870 CNG buses will be added. The CNG buses may gradually be increased to 20 – 30 per cent of the total fleet, the remaining being diesel buses complying to Euro II emission standards. In Beijing, 1,640 buses out of a total of 10,000 buses run on CNG.
6 7

However, there are no plans to phase out diesel buses. Possibilities for introducing LPG buses and fuel cell buses in future are being examined. South Korea: Korea’s Ministry of Environment has initiated a programme to replace all the diesel-powered transit bus fleet with compressed natural gas (CNG) buses, starting in the year 2000. Targeted for replacement in Korea’s 9 major cities over the next seven years are up to 20 thousand buses. The CNG bus programme, is facilitated by many factors, some of which are:

Urban Transportation Bureau of Shanghai Municipality and Indian Embassy at Beijing. Department of Air Preservation, Seoul Metropolitan Government. 8 In addition to above about 2800 RTVs (mini buses) ply in the city of Delhi. ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG 141

1.

The review of NGVs programmes in different countries reveals that NGVs have been commercially successful proposition in countries which have adequate indigenous resources of natural gas, a well developed gas grid, and a long established usage of gas as domestic/commercial fuel.

2.

Korea is a small country having an area of about 99,300 square kilometers but relatively large coastline of about 2,400 kilometers (India is about 32,88,000 sq. kilometers with a coastline of about 7,000 kilometers). A nationwide natural gas pipeline infrastructure was constructed in mid 1990s. The country’s smaller area having a large coastline and an existing nationwide natural gas pipeline infrastructure to support gas sales have made conditions favourable enough for setting up the CNG infrastructure. An existing city gas pipeline network, laid for domestic and commercial gas supplies, reduces

ensures security of supplies. LNG is imported by South Korea from a diversified set of exporters. Imports are mainly from Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Qatar, Oman and UAE. In the event of supply disruption at any import location, supplies can be substituted from another location. Natural gas consumption pattern in different countries Natural gas and its propensity of use in an economy are indirectly related to the development of NGVs. Natural gas consumption by sector in the above mentioned countries is shown in Table 9.3.

Table 9.3 Gas consumption by sector in select countries in 1999 Country Italy Argentina Pakistan (1998) USA India* South Korea Venezuela Egypt China Power/Industrial % 58.6 64.0 76.1 55.9 97.0 52.4 40.0 85.2 89.0 Commercial/ Residential/Others % 41.3 36.0 23.9 44.1 3.0 47.6 60.0 14.8 11.0

*First Quarter 2002 Souece : Cedigez 2000 survey : US, DOE webside

3.

the gas distribution costs within the city. Thus construction of CNG refueling stations at bus terminals could be done at lower cost. A well-established LNG import infrastructure (2 LNG terminals exist with import capacity of over 16 million metric tonnes of LNG per annum, the third one is expected to be operational in November 2002) coupled with the gas pipeline grid

Conclusions The review of NGVs programmes in different countries reveals that NGVs have been commercially successful proposition in countries which have adequate indigenous resources of natural gas, a well developed gas grid, and a long established usage of gas as domestic/commercial fuel. NGVs have also been successful in countries which do not have enough
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142

indigenous gas production to meet the domestic demand but have access to gas from neighbouring countries, along with a well-knit gas pipeline network set up either for historical reasons, or to meet cold climate requirements for heating and cooking purposes . In contrast, where an elaborate pipeline grid does not exist, NG economics becomes unfavourable and promoting NGVs is tough, despite subsidies. In India, having regard to the country’s vastness, natural gas vehicles can be commercially viable only in the cities where natural gas pipelines exist or would be laid in future. Cost of establishing fresh gas grids are quite high and for that reason alone it may not be feasible to dispense CNG for automotive purposes in most cities in the near future. LPG vehicles The total number of vehicles in the world operating on LPG was around 5.6 million in year 1999. The major countries using LPG as an automotive fuel are Italy, Netherlands, Poland, USA, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, Algeria, Turkey, Iran, South Korea, and Japan. Of these countries, the largest number of LPG vehicles, over 1.2 million, are in Italy. China is one of the recent entrants in this area with around 50,000 vehicles in the year 1999.9 Europe: In Europe, supply of LPG comes from many sources. More than half (60 per cent) of LPG is produced by separation from oil and natural gas fields, the balance coming from refining of crude oil. Europe has access to three major supply sources…the North Sea, Algeria, and the former Soviet Union countries. In Europe, natural gas is one of the primary sources of domestic heating and cooking. Countries which use NG for residential heating and domestic cooking
9

tend to have lower LPG demand for these purposes. For example, 38 per cent of NG in Italy is consumed by the commercial and residential sector. Domestically produced LPG then becomes available for use as auto fuel. USA & Japan: In USA and Japan which by the early nineties had 2,66,000 and 3,00,000 LPG vehicles, no growth in the LPG vehicles took place in the nineties. In these countries the number of LPG vehicles over past 10 years has stagnated/ reduced, number of LPG vehicles as percentage of the total vehicles having reduced in both cases. South Korea: South Korea, a net importer of LPG but having high LPG vehicle population, has a different history, where large scale conversions from petrol vehicles to LPG have taken place not due to a planned effort but on account of pricing advantage that the vehicle owners found in using LPG as an automotive fuel. The LPG history of South Korea is that due to strong market intervention by the Government, the Korean energy market has had a highly distorted pricing system. The market distortion has taken place through different tax rates, financial supports, and price regulations. In 1983, in order to respond to a strong request for market liberalization, the Korean Government started taking steps to reduce its intervention in petroleum market. Several steps were taken one by one until the prices of petroleum products except LPG were completely deregulated in 1997. The prices of petroleum products are subject to several taxes to raise revenue for Government expenditure. Petrol is heavily taxed compared to other products. An LPG crisis resulted from the distorted relative prices of transportation fuels. The relative prices of petrol, diesel and automotive LPG were 100:47:26 till the year 2000. Because of relatively low LPG price

In India, having regard to the country’s vastness, natural gas vehicles can be commercially viable only in the cities, where natural gas pipelines exist or would be laid in future.

13th World LPG Forum, October 2000, San Diego, California. 143

ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG

LPG costs less where it is produced, but becomes substantially costlier than liquid auto fuels when it is required to be transported over long distances, overseas or inland, requiring high cost storage and transportation infrastructure.

and various tax benefits for mini vans, LPGfueled vehicles rapidly increased. This resulted in the decreasing tax revenues and the need to increase the number of LPG recharge stations. The annual increase in rate of LPG vehicles was about 60 per cent in 1999. Therefore, the Government hiked the special excise tax on butane in July 2001 with the intention to correct disparity in fuel prices. A review of the countries using LPG as alternative fuel reveals that the driving force behind the LPG vehicle commercialization, except in the case of South Korea, has been easy availability of LPG either within the country or from a major export market located next door along with natural gas being an established domestic fuel. As brought out in Chapter 13 of the Report, LPG costs less where it is produced, but becomes substantially costlier than liquid auto fuels when it is required to be transported over long distances, overseas or inland, requiring high cost storage and transportation infrastructure. For this reason, in countries that are net exporters of the product or are located in the close vicinity of major export markets, cost effectiveness of LPG makes it a normal fuel rather than an alternative fuel. Practically all countries, except South Korea, where LPG has been successfully commercialized for automotive use, are either major producers/ net exporters of LPG or located close to the countries that are net exporters of the product as below:
· Countries like Canada, Australia, New

auto fuels, using LPG as auto fuel is cost effective. · In USA and Japan the number of LPG vehicles has not grown over the past ten years and in South Korea, use of imported LPG by a large number of vehicles affected Government revenues and put pressure on infrastructure. Conclusions LPG is commercially viable as a normal auto fuel in countries that are exporters of LPG or have access to low cost LPG supplies from their neighbour exporting countries. In countries, where NG is used for domestic heating and cooking, the next cost effective use of domestically produced LPG is in automotive applications rather than for exports. This results into usage of LPG for automotive applications. In India, LPG is the main domestic fuel in urban areas. The indigenous availability of LPG is expected to fall much short of the household demand alone. As such none of the above mentioned conditions which made LPG as a competitive auto fuel in other countries, exist. For these reasons, as brought out in Chapter 13, LPG to be competitive as an auto fuel, in India would need Government support by way of substantially lower taxation.

Gaseous fuels (CNG & LPG) technology and emissions
Passenger cars

Most of the gaseous fueled passenger car engines are the petrol engines retrofitted with CNG / LPG kits. Earlier, cars were fitted with simple carburetor system for inducting gaseous fuel such as CNG or LPG and was · Italy, Turkey, Netherlands, and Poland designated as first generation kit. are located in the vicinity of major LPG Subsequently, in order to make the engine producers/exporting countries. In these operate on stoichiometric air fuel ratio, this countries also LPG being competitive with design was modified and kit was classified
144 AUTO FUEL POLICY REPORT

Zealand, Former Soviet Union countries, Iran , Algeria etc are net exporters of LPG. Being competitive with petrol, LPG for automotive purposes is used as a normal fuel in these countries.

as second generation kit. For meeting the stringent emission norms, further improvements were made in the kits by incorporating multi-point fuel injection system and the kit designated as third generation kit. In the ’70s and early ’80s, gaseous fuel cars had substantially lower exhaust emission levels than the gasoline cars of that time. However, the introduction of advanced design petrol cars in the recent years with substantially lower emission levels created new comparison levels between the petrol and gaseous fuels.

The CO emission and NOx emission for In order to estimate the impact of fitment vehicles running on petrol and LPG over 10 of LPG kits on the emissions of in-use cars, Introduction of advanced time are shown in Charts 9.1 & 9.2 . design petrol cars in the Chart 9.1 recent years with substantially lower emission levels have created new comparison levels between the petrol and gaseous fuels.

way catalyst changed the situation completely. The equipment manufacturers did not anticipate these new petrol technologies and LPG gave no advantage when used with the three way catalyst. Consequently, emission results of 1988, shown in the same charts for petrol and LPG show an advantage for petrol. Subsequently, several LPG kit manufacturers started developing Lambda controlled fuel systems for LPG which enabled the LPG vehicles to comply with the same emission standards as for petrol vehicles.

NOx emission (g/km)

Chart 9.2

CO emission (g/km)

In the early seventies emission legislation was not as stringent as at present. Then it was easy to meet the emission standards on LPG as petrol emissions were much higher at that time, and LPG helped in reducing emissions substantially. The introduction of passenger cars equipped with a lambda controlled three10

the Committee looked at the international experience. The emission results observed during a study conducted by South West Research Institute (SAE paper 932745) on a 1992 Chevrolet Lumina car, with petrol and with 3 different LPG conversion kits are given in Table 9.5.

Technical reference paper by Bas Hollemans, TNO Road Vehicles Research Institute, The Netherlands. 145

ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG

Table 9.5 Emission results with different LPG conversion kits11 Fuel Petrol LPG kit 1 LPG kit 2 LPG kit 3 CO g/km 5.40 1.90 10.23 2.55 HC g/km 0.37 0.33 0.57 0.21 NOx g/km 0.42 1.62 0.57 0.67

Results show that different LPG kits could result in different emission values from the same car.

The above results show that different LPG kits could result in different emission values from the same car. However, it was seen in this study that the NOx emission increased with all kits and in case where the CO emissions were significantly lower, the NOx emissions increased substantially. The emissions data as reported in an IANGV report of March, 2000, comparing emissions with petrol, LPG and CNG fuels on a new technology, category 2 vehicle while using the state-of-art conversion kits are given in Table 9.612.

overall emissions, some pollutants may decrease while others may increase by change over to gaseous fuels. Unlike diesel vehicles, the use of gaseous fuels in place of petrol in passenger cars does not result in any significant advantage in terms of particulate emissions for the reason that in both cases, particulate emissions are very low. The World Bank, in a briefing note on international experience with CNG vehicles prepared in October, 2001, as part of the South Asia Programme on urban air quality

Table 9.6 Emission results on a three way catalyst fitted vehicle12 Emissions, g/km Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbon Nitrogen oxides Particulates Petrol 1.12 0.15 0.15 0.015 LPG 0.91 0.12 0.21 0.005 CNG 0.45 0.36 0.13 0.025

The above data shows that in the new generation cars there may be some improvement in emissions of carbon monoxide by changing over to gaseous fuels but there is no particular trend with regard to other pollutants. As compared to petrol, LPG showed higher NOx while use of CNG showed marginally higher particulates. This implies that in new technology cars, there may not be any significant change in the
11
12

management, funded in part by the joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP), observed the following: With respect to emissions, it is worth noting that advanced technology gasoline vehicles with three-way catalysts are so clean that the fuel itself (that is, whether liquid or gas) plays a relatively minor role,

SAE paper 932745 based on a South West Research Institute Study.

IANGV report dated 31.3.2000. AUTO FUEL POLICY REPORT

146

especially for the regulated emissions. Under these circumstances, converting an advanced petrol vehicle to gaseous fuel could even increase, rather than decrease, emissions. Two/three wheelers Earlier the two and three wheelers operating in India were mostly powered by 2 stroke petrol engines. The inherent design of the 2 stroke engine is responsible for higher hydrocarbon emissions. Further, the combustion of lubricant along with the fuel is responsible for particulate emissions from such vehicles. However, their NOx emissions are lower. In a study conducted by South West Research Institute(SWRI), USA related to the exhaust emissions from small 2 stroke (28 cm3 capacity engine) and small 4 stroke (148 cm3 capacity engine) operating on petrol and LPG, presented in the Small Engine Technology Conference (SETC) organized by SAE International in Italy in December, 1993 (SAE paper no. 931540) mass emissions from small engines were shown as given in Table 9.7. It is seen from Table 9.7 that particulates from 2-stroke engines are high irrespective of the fuel used on account of the combustion of lubricant along with the fuel. However, the emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide are seen to be higher in the case of 4 stroke engines irrespective of the fuel used.

Since the particulates emanate on account of the combustion of lubricant in 2 stroke engines, the quality and quantity of lubricant used needs to be controlled. This could be achieved by switching over to dispensing of pre-mixed petrol to 2 stroke vehicles in major cities. When manufacturers’ instructions in regard to use of lubricants are followed, excessive particulates from 2 wheelers should not be a problem. As long as they meet the prescribed emission norms, both technologies should be acceptable. Buses At present, there is no gas engine that has the same kind of power output, fuel economy and reliability as that of a modern diesel engine. Therefore, the gas engines for bus application are mostly based on converted diesel engines. The conversion to gaseous fuel engines (CNG or LPG) for heavy duty application involves changeover to Spark Ignition (SI) operation. The engine manufacturers use either stoicheometric or lean burn combustion. It is reported by IANGV that from engine durability point of view, lean burn combustion is generally a preferred alternative where as stoicheometric application in combination with catalytic converter gives lower emissions and better driveability. For in use diesel buses, the conversion techniques presently being used in India are not proven technologies. For conversion, the existing diesel engine is modified to run on CNG by replacing piston, cylinder head, cooling system, intake manifold and At present, there is no gas engine that has the same kind of power output, fuel economy and reliability as that of a modern diesel engine.

Table 9.7 Mass emissions from small engines (g/kwh) Pollutants petrol CO THC NOx PM 300 112 1.05 4.33 2-Stroke LPG 349 107 0.65 4.30 petrol 672 57.9 2.74 0.67 4-Stroke LPG 558 61.4 1.39 0.51

ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG

147

CNG has advantage for particulate emissions but the carbon monoxide emissions with CNG are more than twice that of Bharat Stage II diesel engine

incorporation of ignition system and converting into SI engine. It is not a reliable system and there are complaints of engine overheating, spark plug fouling, engine head leaking, etc. The OEM CNG engines in India are also not original gas engines, but converted from diesel engines using the diesel engine block. Hence, they would have the same problems as converted vehicles including the engine overheating problem. A diesel engine converted to a CNG engine has different speed-torque characteristics, which leads to the problem of failure of clutch plate, over heating, loss in power etc. The fitment of cylinders and high-pressure fuel-line on in-use vehicles require high quality fittings, which should withstand the chassis vibrations on Indian roads. More experience and continuous improvements would lead to improved levels of technology in this area. The main problem reported with gas engines is the control of thermal loads of the engine and control of NOx emissions. A gas engine, which is not emission optimized can have much higher NOx emissions than diesel engine. In Europe, there has been much discussion on the real life emission performance of buses operating on NG. Although some of these bus engines give very good emission in steady state testing as is done in type approvals, they do not appear to perform well in real life transient conditions. In a recent report13 of August 2001, the following has been reported: CNG vehicle for one mile emits 20 per cent more greenhouse gases than driving a comparable diesel vehicle for one mile. From the perspective of global warming, the decision to switch from diesel to CNG is a harmful one. CNG vehicle emits 80 per cent less particulate matter, 25 per
13

cent less nitrous oxides, and 35 per cent less hydrocarbons (volatile organic compounds). However, the output of carbon monoxide is over five times greater than for diesel. The emission results from a Euro II diesel bus and CNG bus manufactured by an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) in India are given in Table 9.8. It can be seen that CNG has a clear advantage in terms of particulates and oxides of nitrogen but the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are higher. It is noted that data are without catalytic converter for a diesel bus, and with a catalytic converter for CNG, which on deterioration over a period of time may result into much higher CO and HC emissions. The type approval data of the CNG and diesel buses given in Table 9.9, indicates that CNG has an advantage for particulate emissions, but the CO emissions with CNG are more than twice of that of Bharat Stage II diesel engine. The type approval data of the converted engines of model 1992 to 2000, given in Table 9.10 indicates both the carbon monoxide emissions and hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen are higher from the converted CNG engines as compared to Bharat Stage II diesel engines. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) conducted tests of carbon monoxide emission from few randomly selected CNG buses operating in Delhi. The buses were tested for carbon monoxide at idling and during driving (i.e. average of 30, 40 and 50 km/hour). The data generated by CRRI in the laboratories of IOC R&D is given in Table 9.11. The tests show that carbon monoxide emissions vary from one bus to another and that carbon monoxide emissions increase with the age of CNG vehicle.

Report on “A Fresh Look at CNG : A Comparison of Alternative Fuels, August, 2001” Authored by the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Programme sponsored by HGCI, UOS, Ford Motor Company, and Harvard University. 148 AUTO FUEL POLICY REPORT

Table 9.8 OEM bus emission data – with Bharat Stage II diesel engine and CNG engine14 Emissions, g/kWh Carbon monoxide Hydrocarbons Nitrogen oxides Particulates Diesel (Bharat Stage II, without catalytic converter) 1.06 0.36 5.89 0.113 CNG (with catalytic converter) 1.68 1.64 3.42 0.03

Table 9.9 Type approval emissions data of CNG and diesel buses15 (A) Engines – CNG (Bharat Stage II) Mass Emissions in g/kWh Manufacturer/ Model OEM1/1 OEM1/2 OEM1/3 OEM1/4 OEM1/5 OEM2/1 OEM3/1 OEM3/2 OEM4/1 Average CO 2.69 0.46 2.28 2.95 0.08 2.50 2.92 0.41 1.69 1.77 THC 1.22 0.91 1.96 0.27 0.49 0.71 1.30 0.81 0.28 0.88 NMHC 0.028 0.03 0.12 0.017 0.029 0.020 0.04 0.037 0.013 0.037 NO x 1.32 3.39 3.03 1.52 3.08 1.94 2.91 8.12 0.03 2.81

(B) Engines – Diesel (Bharat Stage II) Manufacturer/ Model OEM1/6 OEM1/7 OEM1/8 OEM1/9 OEM1/10 OEM3/3 OEM3/4 OEM4/2 Average CO 1.06 0.75 1.21 0.57 0.48 0.84 0.66 0.81 0.80 HC 0.36 0.22 0.23 0.16 0.16 0.24 0.30 0.23 0.24 NO x 5.89 8.23 6.60 5.67 5.30 6.27 6.13 8.89 6.62 PM 0.113 0.105 0.102 0.115 0.122 0.127 0.118 0.116 0.115

14 15

Presentation of a vehicle manufacturer to Expert Committee. Type approval data of ARAI, IIP etc. 149

ALTERNATIVE AUTO FUELS—CNG AND LPG

Table 9.10 Type approval mass emission data of CNG converted engines15

MFR/Model

Year of Mfg 1993 1993 1996

ENGINE CAP. Ltr. 5.721 5.721 5.675

CO gm/kWh 1.8 2.5 0.4

THC gm/kWh 3.04 3.08 2.97

NMHC gm/kWh 0.41 0.41 0.50

NO x gm/kWh 5.9 5.1 10.8

OEM1/11 OEM1/12 OEM1/13

OEM1/14 OEM3/5

1996 2000 1992

5.675 6.014 6.075 -

5.5 1.3 9.3 3.47

1.37 2.60 5.09 3.03

0.18 0.35 0.70 0.43

14.1 5.8 12 8.95

In the case of alternative fuels CNG and LPG, to achieve the intended benefits with respect to emissions, maintaining the quality of conversion kits is crucial.

OEM3/6
AVERAGE

Table 9.11 CO emission data generated by CRRI on randomly selected CNG buses Bus description CO during idling CO during driving on chasis dynometer (average 30, 40, 50 kph) 0.01% 0.74% 1.01% 1.16% 2.87% 5.63%

CNG (OEM1/15) after 11000 kms CNG (OEM 1/16) after 42600 kms CNG (OEM 3/7) after 11500 kms CNG (OEM 3/8) after 51000 kms CNG (Retrofit – 1/1) 3700 kms CNG (Retrofit – 1/2) 23000 kms

0.07% 0.38% 3.42% 5.12% 0.10% 0.30%

Field performance of different fuel technology vehicles
In India, on account of differentials in the prices of transportation fuels and other fuels, at times, adulteration of auto fuels carrying higher prices with low priced industrial fuels is resorted to. Depending on as to which other fuel is mixed with the transportation fuel, some deterioration in emission performance of vehicles would take place, particularly when the quantity of the other
150

fuel mixed with the transportation fuel is substantial. In the case of alternative fuels CNG and LPG, to achieve the intended benefits with respect to emissions, maintaining the quality of conversion kits is crucial. That exhaust emissions from vehicles converted to CNG/ LPG could substantially vary depending on the quality of kit used is evident from the preceding Table 9.5, Table 9.9 and Table 9.10. The variation in performance
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of different kits even at the type approval stage is too marked. The Committee is aware of the fact that there is an unauthorized conversion of petrol vehicles to LPG mode using the kits that do not have type approvals, and that these are marketed at prices substantially lower than the prices of the standard conversion kits. Most workshops, currently undertaking retrofitments do not have necessary permissions/approvals. The common perception that conversion of an engine from liquid auto fuels to gaseous auto fuels irrespective of the kit technology, brings about all-round emission improvements, is really not true. The issues of availability of unauthorized substandard kits in the market and their use in vehicles and conversion being undertaken by unauthorized workshops are no less important issues from the angle of pollution from auto exhausts than the issue of adulteration in liquid auto fuels. As may be seen from Table 9.11, in the absence of proper upkeep and maintenance of kits in alternative fuel vehicles, deterioration in emission factors may be considerable. The Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in the month of November, 2001 shared with the Committee their experience of running a 1700 CNG bus fleet which is summarized in Table 9.12.
Performance parameter Fuel efficiency Operational performance

retrofitted vehicles owned by individual transporters, are not yet in place to the required level. The position obtaining presently appears to be that whereas mechanisms, though not foolproof, exist and more are planned to be put in place to check adulteration in liquid auto fuels, there appears to be even lack of awareness among the vehicle owners and the public about the need/importance of the use of the right quality kits and the potential deterioration in emission factors which the use of substandard kits may lead to. The testing facility for checking the quality of kits exists only at 3-4 places in the country. In the case of alternative vehicle conversion kits, guidelines for the authorized testing agencies are in place. However, after a kit design has been type approved, the systems for regular checking of the quality of kits actually being used for conversion/retrofitment appear to be weak. The Committee was informed that proposals for third party inspections are under consideration by the Government of the NCT of Delhi. Realising that the number of vehicles is many times more than the number of fuel dispensing stations, ensuring the use of the right quality conversion kits is an area as difficult to be tackled as checking adulteration. However, as both are crucial, they need to be attended to on priority or
Experience

I&M mechanisms to check quality of alternative fuel kits and their on-road performance are not yet in place to the required level.

Table 9.12 Field performance of DTC CNG buses

3.32 km/kg with CNG against 4.46 km/kg (3.75 km/ltr.) with diesel Power loss, gas leakage, starting trouble, engine over heating cylinder head failures, spark plug problems and frequent breakage of silencer muffler.

Note: CNG engines being used for buses in India are basically the diesel engines modified to operate on CNG and are design wise expected to result in power lose, engine over heating etc. The field experience of DTC with CNG buses confirms the same.

The Committee is informed that I&M mechanisms, to be set up/implemented by the state Governments, to check quality of alternative fuel kits and their on-road performance, particularly for the converted/
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else the expected benefits from the use of cleaner fuels, involving substantial additional costs, may not be achieved. As implementation of motor vehicles regulations in the field falls within the purview of the
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states, a lot of effort would need to be put cleanliness and for the gas engines, fuel by them and their active involvement for efficiency. putting in place the requisite I&M system is Conclusions—Motor vehicles considered extremely necessary. technologies & emission benefits Energy efficiency of gaseous fueled The Committee reviewed the conventional engines fuel and CNG/LPG technologies and their The maximum efficiency of spark – ignited relative benefits in terms of auto exhaust gas engine is some 10 – 15 per cent lower emissions for new vehicles and for converted (relative) than that of a good diesel engine. old vehicles. The main conclusions are: In real service, the energy consumption difference is higher; both due to reduced For New Vehicles: efficiency at partial loads, and increased (a) New generation engine technologies for vehicle weight12. IVECO estimated that a cars and three-wheelers using either CNG bus, which weighs some 700 kg more liquid or gaseous fuels have resulted in New generation engine than its Euro III diesel counterpart, reducing pollution from auto exhaust. technologies for cars consumes 25 per cent more energy. TNO’s Gaseous fuels have an advantage over and three-wheelers using also has made similar estimation on energy liquid fuels in respect of some of the either liquid or gaseous efficiency of different bus technologies as emission parameters, whereas liquid fuels have resulted in given in Table 9.13. reducing pollution from Table 9.13 TNO’s estimation on energy efficiency auto exhaust. Gaseous Engine concept Energy consumption (baseline =100) fuels have an advantage over liquid fuels in Diesel – Baseline 100 respect of some of the Diesel with EGR 102 emission parameters, Diesel with De Nox catalyst 95 whereas liquid fuels Stoichiometric LPG 128 have advantage in Lean-burn LPG 117 respect of others. Stoichiometric CNG 125
Lean-burn CNG 114

Competition to gaseous fuel technologies from emerging diesel technologies The future diesel engines, running on high quality diesel fuel and equipped with DeNOx systems and / or particulate traps, will be very clean. The Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) views differ on the future of competitiveness of gas engines, as some say that the gas engines will become less attractive as the diesel becomes cleaner, while others think that the gas engines will have a good chance as the emission regulations are becoming more stringent. The challenge for diesel engines would be
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fuels have advantage in respect of others. (b) Engines for buses, designed and manufactured for operation on CNG, offer benefits in terms of lower oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. CO emissions from CNG engines are, however, higher as compared to the emissions from diesel engines. The particular matter emission benefits derived from Euro II and higher diesel technology buses are as high as 85 per cent as compared to particulate matter emission from pre-Euro technology on road buses.
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Safety related issues on the use of gaseous fuels (CNG & LPG) (a) In the case of older model petrol as auto fuel passenger cars, a change over to
For conversion of old vehicles: gaseous fuels, in most cases, results in CNG reduction in CO emissions, however · Refueling: Refueling of petrol / diesel in NO x in some cases may go up. vehicles is a relatively simpler operation Particulates are low in both cases. requiring transfer of fuel at ambient conditions whereas CNG is filled at very (b) In the case of old generation diesel cars high pressure of 200 kg/sq.cm (200 times and three-wheelers, conversion/ the atmospheric pressure). Any leak from retrofitment/replacement of the engine the filling nozzle or CNG kit and its to four-stroke engine on petrol or connected piping needs to be stopped gaseous fuel gives benefits in terms of immediately which otherwise may lead to reduced particulate matter emissions. an accident / fire / explosion. Therefore, (c) In the case of diesel buses, a change it is essential that filling operator is well over to CNG results in benefits in aware of the laid down safety precautions terms of particulate matter emissions, including basic checks on the CNG with a disadvantage on CO and other cylinder and the associated kit. The filling emissions. station operator as such requires to be trained and certified fit for the job. (d) In the case of old generation twostroke petrol three-wheelers, a change · Servicing of CNG Vehicles: CNG vehicles are fitted with a high pressure over to four-stroke engine provides cylinder with associated piping, regulator, particulate emission benefits, both with pressure gauge etc. unlike petrol / diesel petrol and gaseous fuels, but there driven vehicles where the transfer of fuel may be a penalty on CO and NOx from the tank to the engine is through a emission. simpler mechanism of fuel pump. (e) Road performance of alternative fuel During servicing / repair of CNG vehicles, vehicles depends on the use of standard it is of utmost importance that the CNG kits of the right quality. While kits etc. are not tampered with. This adulteration in liquid fuels affects requires higher level of skill and safety emission performance, use/fitment of awareness among mechanics, and this sub-standard conversion kits adversely should be provided. affects emission performance in Any repair / replacement of the parts of alternative fuel vehicles. the CNG kit need to be done by authorised agencies. With the progressive In conclusion, both conventional auto growth in CNG, usage of spurious or non fuels and alternative auto fuels have their standard components are suspected to inherent advantages and there is a need for find a place in the market. Keeping in view having optimal fuel and technology options. these factors, servicing / maintenance of The regulatory decisions with reference to CNG fitted vehicles needs to be carried emission norms should, therefore, be out only by authorized garages/workfuel neutral. The Committee has made shops equipped with proper facilities recommendations accordingly. and trained manpower.

Refueling of petrol / diesel in vehicles is a relatively simpler operation requiring transfer of fuel at ambient conditions whereas CNG is filled at very high pressure of 200 kg/sq.cm (200 times the atmospheric pressure).

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Keeping in view the safety requirements associated with high pressure gas, it is essential to carry out periodic checks to ascertain the integrity of the CNG kit.

· Conversion of petrol / diesel vehicles to CNG: While various agencies and workshops have been nominated for retrofitting of approved cylinder and CNG kits, there is a possibility that vehicle owners may resort to non standard / spurious equipment which may be fitted primarily due to substantial cost advantage. Use of such non standard equipment or material may result in catastrophic failure. In Delhi, over past 12 months, a total of 12 CNG vehicles are reported to have caught fire, or have had explosions. · Periodic Inspections: Keeping in view the safety requirements associated with high pressure gas, it is essential to carry out periodic checks to ascertain the integrity of the CNG kit. Third party inspection is reportedly under consideration of the Government of NCT of Delhi. I&M mechanisms to ensure this need to be put in place urgently. As per Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981, every CNG cylinder needs to be hydro tested once in five years. Regulatory framework needs to be suitably expanded to meet the increased demand for such testing and certification. · Training of drivers/passengers: In the event of gas leak during transit, the driver needs to be fully aware of the safety measures to be taken to avoid a catastrophe. Unlike the petrol/diesel driven vehicles which can be stopped and attended with relative ease and without causing threat to the surrounding area, special training of drivers is a must in the case of vehicles using gas. Safety awareness and emergency handling skills need to be imparted through structured campaign and programmes. OEM manufacturers, TELCO and Ashok Leyland are reported to have carried out an awareness campaign to educate the drivers and other personnel about the

safety aspects in Delhi. Not much progress on putting in place a regular mechanism appears to have been made on this front. This work would need to be attended to urgently by the implementing State Governments. LPG LPG as an auto fuel was launched in Europe, Japan etc. about 40 years ago. In Japan during the initial phase of LPG introduction, lack of adequate experience, knowledge and safety consciousness of LPG on the part of both service station employees and customers as well as defects in vehicles and components, caused incidents of gas leakage and explosion which posed a serious social problem. To overcome this, Government, industry, and user organizations discussed ways to secure operating safety and agreed to institute the following measures : · Application of fixed fuel containers in vehicles. · Promotion of constructing new LPG service stations by easing regulations on safety distances in station. · Establishment of standards on the structure and handling of passengertransport LPG vehicles. · Establishment of standards on road transport safety as well as standards on carburetor structure and maintenance. Initially, replacement tanks were used which have been changed to fixed tanks in Japan, Italy etc. to ensure safety consideration. In 1962 and 1963, the fuel tanks of LPG vehicles, the process of switching over from replaceable to the fixed system takes began. Countries like Australia, US, Canada, China, Taiwan, and UK, however, use fixed cylinders. These countries have developed standards for fixed type tanks with multi functional valve assembly having various safety features.
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Replaceable tanks are used as fuel tanks only for stationery engines, fork lifts and earth moving equipments. These vehicles are generally slow moving, not registered for road usage and are confined to limited area for most of the time. The safety concerns with the use of replaceable cylinders on the assemblies are as follows : · Possible use of spurious and sub standard fuel tank and accessories not meeting the safety requirements. · Handling of cylinders by untrained mechanics and in unauthorized garages not equipped with proper tools and tackles, posing safety hazard. · Tendency to store extra LPG cylinders, posing safety hazards around the storage area, as the premises may not be fit enough to store LPG cylinders. · Diversion of subsidized domestic LPG to auto LPG cylinders by the unscrupulous elements using make shift arrangements not meeting the safety requirements, thus, posing safety hazards. With respect to the safety regulations for LPG vehicles, the US has federal motor vehicle safety standards and regulations which have stipulated the requirements for crash avoidance, crash worthiness, various fittings and components. Similarly, other countries have their own national standards to take care of the safety issues. In India, presently it is not mandatory to subject the vehicle to a crash or collision test and fuel system integrity test. These tests for vehicles, for which facilities exist in the country, should be developed in line with the standards and practices prevalent in other countries and introduced as a mandatory requirement for LPG fuel vehicles. It is understood that facilities for crash collision test are now available in India, which should be used for such tests. As per amendment of CMV Rules issued on 24 April, 2001, LPG containers need to

comply with IS : 148199-2000, governed by the Department of Explosives, which specifies functional tests like bonfire test, fatigue test and crash test. Further, ARAI’s standard for auto LPG tanks i.e. AIS 026 & AIS 027 specifications elaborate the specific safety related checks for use of LPG fuels in internal combustion engine to power wheeled motor vehicles and to 2/3 wheeled motor vehicles, respectively. Suggested measures For the safety of alternative fuel vehicles, the Committee suggests the following— · Development / deployment of enough skilled manpower for fuelling stations keeping in view the growth in alternative fuel usage. They should carry out visual inspection in line with Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981. · Setting up of workshops and service centers by OEMs with adequate facilities and skilled manpower specific to handling of kits. · Setting up mechanisms for periodic hydro-testing of cylinders and periodic safety inspection of alternative fuel vehicles and their accessories. · Training of vehicle owners and drivers for effective control of situation in the event of leak during transit. · Evolving an inspection and checking system to prevent use of spurious cylinders and kits and ensuring conversion through an authorized garage and to see that only genuine spare parts are used. In India, presently it is not mandatory to subject the vehicle to a crash or collision test and fuel system integrity test. These tests should be developed in line with the standards and practices prevalent in other countries.

Specifications of CNG and LPG
The proposed specification s of CNG as auto fuel are given in Table 9.14 . The BIS specifications of LPG as auto fuel are given in Table 9.15 .

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Table 9.14 Proposed specifications for CNG as auto-fuel in India Constituent Wobbe Number Water, lbs/million ft3 Hydrogen Sulphide, grains/100 ft3 Other Soluble Sulphide, grains/100 ft3 Carbon Dioxide, vol. % Oxygen, vol. % Hydrocarbons (% of Total Organic Carbon Present) Methane Ethane C3 and Higher HC C6 and Higher HC Total Unsaturated HC Other Species (mole %) Hydrogen Carbon Monoxide Value 1350 0.5 0.1 0.1 3.0 1.0 Tolerance +/- 20 Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum

80 10 5.0 1.0 1.0 0.1 0.1

Minimum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum

Other Requirements Free from liquids over the entire range of temperatures and pressures encountered in the engine and fuel system. Free from solid particulate matter.

Table 9.15 BIS specifications for automotive LPG (IS 14861-2000) S. No. i) Characteristics Vapour pressure (gauge) @ 40°C, kPa Min. Max. C5 Hydrocarbons and heavier, mol-%, Max. Dienes (as 1,3 Butadiene), mol-%, Max. Total volatile sulphur (after stanching) ppm, Max. Copper strip corrosion @ 40°C for 1 hour, Max. Hydrogen sulphide Evaporation residue, mg/kg, Max. Free water content Motor octane number (MON), Min. Odour Requirement 520* 1050 2.0 0.5 150 Class 1 Pass the test 100 Nil** 88 Unpleasant and Distinctive down to 20% Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)***

ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x)

In winter, the gauge vapour pressure requirement shall be minimum 700 kPa at 40°C. Winter period shall be from 1st November to 15th February. ** The water content shall be determined at the Refinery/First Dispatching Location. *** Product shall contain 20 ppm, min. ethyl mercaptan at the first dispatching location to ensure the detection of leakage by odour.

*

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and the emission benefits achievable from The view of the Committee on alternative fuels (CNG & LPG) is summarized as their use discussed in this Chapter, the Committee is of the view that in the cities, below : where tighter emission norms are · The Committee finds that the market prescribed as part of any city specific conditions that have made the use of CNG scheme to reduce vehicular pollution, with and LPG for automotive applications a view to provide to the vehicle owners commercially successful proposition as a in such cities, choices of different fuel and normal fuel in other countries, do not technology options to meet such tighter presently exist in India. It is seen that norms, necessary regime required for the both conventional auto fuels and use of alternative fuel technologies and alternative auto fuels have their inherent supply of alternative fuels should be put advantages and disadvantages and there in place. is a need for having an optimal fuel mix and technology options that meets the environmental objectives at least cost to · The Committee holds the view that in the fast changing competitive market scenario the consumer. and developing technologies, it is · In view of the availability and security of advisable to have an optimal mix of fuel supply considerations brought out in and technology to help development of Chapter 7, relatively higher costs of new technologies, promoting competition alternative fuels and investments and giving a fair choice to the consumer. requirements detailed later in Chapter 13,

In the fast changing competitive market scenario and developing technologies, it is advisable to have an optimal mix of fuel and technology to help development of new technologies, promoting competition and giving a fair choice to the consumer.

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