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Univariate Descriptive Central Tendency Mode the most commonly occurring value ex: 6 people with ages 21, 22, 21, 23, 19, 21 - mode = 21

Median the center value the formula is N+1 2 ex: 6 people with ages 21, 22, 24, 23, 19, 21 line them up in order form lowest to highest 19, 21, 21, 22, 23, 24 and take the center value - mode =21.5

Mean the mathematical average the formula is 3X/N ex: mean age = age of person one + age of person two + age of person three, etc./number of people

Variance a measure of how spread out a distribution is it is computed as the average squared deviation of each number from its mean

Standard Deviation how much scores deviate from the mean it is the square root of the variance it is the most commonly used measure of spread

Bi- and Multivariate Inferential Statistical Tests Differences of Groups Chi Square compares observed frequencies to expected frequencies ex: Is the distribution of sex and voting behavior due to chance or is there a difference between the sexes on voting behavior?

t-Test looks at differences between two groups on some variable of interest the IV must have only two groups (male/female, undergrad/grad) ex: Do males and females differ in the amount of hours they spend shopping in a given month?

ANOVA tests the significance of group differences between two or more groups the IV has two or more categories only determines that there is a difference between groups, but doesnt tell which is different ex: Do SAT scores differ for low-, middle-, and high-income students?

ANCOVA same as ANOVA, but adds control of one or more covariates that may influence the DV ex: Do SAT scores differ for low-, middle-, and high-income students after controlling for single/dual parenting?

MANOVA same as ANOVA, but you can study two or more related DVs while controlling for the correlation between the DV if the DVs are not correlated, then separate ANOVAs are appropriate ex: Does ethnicity affect reading achievement, math achievement, and overall scholastic achievement among 6th graders?

MANCOVA same as MANOVA, but adds control of one or more covariates that may influence the DV

ex:

Does ethnicity affect reading achievement, math achievement, and overall scholastic achievement among 6th graders after controlling for social class?

Relationships Correlation used with two variables to determine a relationship/association do two variables covary? does not distinguish between independent and dependent variables ex: Amount of damage to a house on fire and number of firefighters at the fire

Multiple Regression used with several independent variables and one dependent variable used for prediction it identifies the best set of predictor variables you can enter many IVs and it tells you which are best predictors by looking at all of them at the same time in sequential regression the computer adds the variables one at a time based on the amount of variance they account for ex: IVs drug use, alcohol use, child abuse DV. suicidal tendencies

Path Analysis looks at direct and indirect effects of predictor variables used for relationships/causality ex: Child abuse causes drug use which leads to suicidal tendencies.

Group Membership Logistic Regression like multiple regression, but the DV is a dichotomous variable logistic regression estimates the odds probability of the DV occurring as the values of the IVs change ex: What are the odds of a suicide occurring at various levels of alcohol use?

Statistical Analyses Chi square t-Test ANOVA ANCOVA MANOVA MANCOVA Correlation Multiple regression Path analysis Logistic Regression

Independent Variables # of IVs 1 1 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 Data Type categorical dichotomous categorical categorical categorical categorical dichotomous or continuous dichotomous or continuous continuous categorical or continuous # of DVs 1 1 1 1 2+ 2+ 1

Dependent Variables Type of Data categorical continuous continuous continuous continuous continuous continuous

Control Variables 0 0 0 1+ 0 1+ 0

Question Answered by the Statistic Do differences exist between groups? Do differences exist between 2 groups on one DV? Do differences exist between 2 or more groups on one DV? Do differences exist between 2 or more groups after controlling for CVs on one DV? Do differences exist between 2 or more groups on multiple DVs? Do differences exist between 2 or more groups after controlling for CVs on multiple Dvs? How strongly and in what direction (i.e., +, -) are the IV and DV related? How much variance in the DV is accounted for by linear combination of the IVs? Also, how strongly related to the DV is the beta coefficient for each IV? What are the direct and indirect effects of predictor variables on the DV? What is the odds probability of the DV occurring as the values of the IVs change?

2+

continuous

2+ 1+

1+ 1

continuous dichotomous

0 0

Research Question Number and type of DV nominal or higher Number and type of IV 1 nominal or higher 1 dichotomous Covariates Test Goal of Analysis determine if difference between croups

chi square

1 categorical continuous 1+ one-way ancova factorial anova 2+ categorical Group differences 1 categorical 1+ 2+ continuous factorial manova 2+ categorical 1+ factorial mancova bivariate correlation one-way mancova 1+ factorial ancova one-way manova

determine relationship/ prediction linear combination to predict the DV estimate causal relations among variables create linear combo of IVs of the log odds of being in one group

multiple regression

1+ continuous

2+ continuous

path analysis

dichotomous

2+ nominal or higher

logistic regression

When trying to decide what test to use, ask youself the following... Am I interested in...?: description (association) - correlations, factor analysis, path analysis explanation (prediction) - regression, logistic regression, discriminant analysis intervention (group differences) - t-test, anova, manova, chi square Do I need longitudinal data or is cross-sectional data sufficient for my purpose? Do my hypotheses involve the investigation of change, growth, or the timing of an event? If longitudinal data is necessary, how many data points are needed? (We do not cover these techniques in this class, but your major advisor can direct you to the appropriate procedure.) Is my dependent variable nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio? nominal - chi square, logistic regression dichotomous - logistic regression ordinal - chi square interval/ratio - correlation, multiple regression, path analysis, t-test, anova, manova, discriminant analysis Do I have moderating or mediating variables? A moderating relationship can be thought of as an interaction. It occurs when the relationship between variables A and B depends on the level of C. A=marital satisfaction B=risk of divorce C=amount of resources

Risk of Divorce

Low

High Resources

Low

High

Marital Satisfaction

When resources are low, marital satisfaction doesnt affect divorce, but at high resources, marital satisfaction predicts a greater risk of divorce.

A mediating relationship can be thought of as an intervening relationship. It is one in which the path relating A to C is mediated by a third variable (B). We all know that older drivers, up to a point, are safer than younger drivers. But I'm sure that we

dont think that the aging (some would say deterioration) of the body, or the mere passage of time, somehow leads to safer driving. What happens, as all right thinking people will agree, is that age leads to wisdom, and wisdom leads to safer drivers. Hence wisdom is the mediating variable that explains the correlation between age and safe driving. (Forget the part about the decline in driving related to being way old, that creates a curvilinear relationship and were not going there.) Leerkes and Crockenberg (1999) were studying the relationship between how a new mother was raised by her own mother 20+ years before (A=maternal care) and the new mother's level of selfefficacy as a mother (C=self-efficacy). The idea being that if your mother showed high levels of maternal care toward you, you would feel more confident of your ability to mother your own child. Indeed, the correlation between Maternal Care and Self-Efficacy was .272, which is significant at p < .01. But Leerkes expected that this relationship was mediated by self-esteem, such that if you had good maternal care, you will have good self-esteem (B=self-esteem), and if you have good self-esteem, that will, in turn, lead you to have high self-efficacy. A C

B When A (maternal care) and C (self-efficacy) are entered into the regression equation, A predicts C. When B (self-esteem) is added to the equation, if B predicts C and the A-C relationship declines in value, thats a mediating/intervening relationship.

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