The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army in the Pre-Modern Period Author(s): Timothy May Reviewed work

(s): Source: The Journal of Military History, Vol. 70, No. 3 (Jul., 2006), pp. 617-635 Published by: Society for Military History Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4138118 . Accessed: 10/03/2012 11:58
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The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army in the Pre-ModernPeriod
Timothy May

Abstract Often the armies that emerged from the steppes of InnerAsia are viewed as throngs of horse-archers who overwhelmed their opponents throughsheer ferocityor superiornumbers.The typicalobservation about their military abilityis that as nomads they were natural warriorsinuredsince birthto ridingand archery in the harsh climate of the steppe. While this view has an element of truth,the armies were actually better trained than is generally assumed. This article examines the trainingof InnerAsian armies. Althoughit focuses on the Mongols, it also explores the antecedents and evolution of training techniques across InnerAsia.

ONE of the biligs, cerned the

or maxims, of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) contraining of the army: Just as ortaqs [merchants] come with gold spun fabrics and are confident of making profits on those goods and textiles, military commanders should teach their sons archery, horsemanship, and wrestling well. They should test them in these arts and make them audacious and brave to the same degree that ortaqs are confident of their own skill.1

1. Rashid al-Din, Jami'u't-Tawarikh: Compendium of Chronicles, vol. 2, trans. William Thackston (Cambridge, Mass.: HarvardUniversity, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1998), 297; Rashid al-Din Tabib,Jami' al-Tawarikh, Timothy May is an assistant professor of history at North Georgia College and State University in Dahlonega, Georgia, where he teaches Middle Eastern and Central Asian History. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin-Madison where he wrote his dissertation, The Mechanics of Governance and Conquest: The Rise and Expansion of the Mongol Empire, 1185-1265. He is also the author of The Mongol Art of War (South Yorkshire, U.K.: Pen and Sword Publishing, forthcoming).
The Journal of Military History 70 (July 2006): 617-36 ? Society for Military History *

617

"Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army-II. David Ayalon. 1975). as they were nomads. N. 437. would do well to observe the methodology of J. they learned to ride and shoot arrows from an early age. David Ayalon. David Ayalon. Southern (Rochester. Allsen. 1983). 2d ed. "The Position and Power of the Mamlfik Sultan. Warfare in the Latin East. David Ayalon. much of this is due to the relative availability of source material. given that copious amounts of research have been devoted to the training of European knights. likk ed. "Mongolian Princes and Their Merchant Partners. as well as those of other medieval military systems. "Discharges from Service. Addied. Mongols. Verbruggen. C. and to a lesser extent to the training of the Mamlfiks of Egypt and Syria. see Thomas T. Yapp (London: Oxford University Press. 19-40. reprinted in Ayalon.." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 15 (1953): 203-28. Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages from the Eighth Century to 1340.: Cornell University Press. "Merchant Associations in Yiian China: The Ortogh." Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 2 (1980): 321-39. In many respects. David Ayalon. Nevertheless. and Society in the Middle East. trans. David Ayalon. Smail. and Eunuchs (London: Ashgate 1988). The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages From the Eighth Century to 1340. M. R. 618 * THE JOURNAL OF ." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 38 (1975): 237-49. Banishments and Imprisonments in Mamluk Society. this neglect of an integral component of a military establishment is odd. John France. Verbruggen. N. 1999). Mitchell and Co. thus giving them adequate competence as warriors. or merchants. Verbruggen in his modern classic. about whom we have more information than other Inner Asian groups." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 15 (1953): 448-76. 1997). David Ayalon. Colonel Sumner Willard and R."Asia Major 2 (1989): 127-54. P.Y. 1000-1300 (Ithaca. Gunpowder and Firearms in the Mamluk Kingdom: A Challenge to a Medieval Society (London: Vallentine. Crusading Warfare. 2.: Boydell. there is virtually nothing demonstrating in detail the training of the Mongol warrior. 1192-1291 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1992). V. historians of the Mongols." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 16 (1954): 57-90. including war games.3 The typical observation concerning the training of the Mongols is that.2 Of course. Holt. Elizabeth Endicott-West. For the Mongols.TIMOTHY MAY- Considering the importance that Chinggis Khan (d. Outsiders in the Lands of Islam: Mamluks. "Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army-III. W. 1097-1193 (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press 1995). 1227) placed on military training." Asia Major 2 (1989): 83-126. F. J. J. Parry and M. Bahman Karimi (Tehran: Iqbal. Outsiders in the Lands of Islam. in which he closely examines the equipment and training of the medieval knight." in War. David Ayalon." Israel Oriental Studies 2 (1972): 25-50. For more information on the ortaqs. 1956). 3. it is surprising that the training of the army is often overlooked in the study of the Mongol Empire or other Inner Asian powers. "Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army-I. "Mamlikiyyit: (A) A First Attempt to Evaluate the MamlfikMilitary System.Y. E. F. "Preliminary Remarks on the MamMilitaryInstitution in Islam.The Art of Warfare. 1200-1260.Technology. Christopher Marshall..

13th Century tionally. 3 vols. 27-28. The primary meaning appears to mean rank. 1912.-:::-~:: : ::::: vF: 40. John Andrew Boyle (Seattle: University of Washington Press. Ta'rikh-i-Jahatn-Gusha.und Timuridenzeit. 1937). : Ak?r That ":::. 1:19-20. 4. Gibb Memorial Series (Leiden: Brill. row. J. Mirza Muhammad Qazvini. 1916.4 In the practice of the nerge the Mongols would fan out over several miles forming a circle. trans. 1997). Tiirkische und Mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen. 4 vols. Ala al-Din Ata Malik Juvaini. Gradually this circle would close and contract until all of the animals were trapped within this ring of men and horses. E."in d: ?: . for jerge.. (Wiesbaden: F. or perhaps even a military column. Ala al-Din 'AtaMalik Juvaini. W.- The Trainingof an InnerAsian NomadArmy A :. Of 4f Eurasia. Unter Besonderer Beriicksichtigung alterer Neupersischer Geschichtsquellen. their maneuvers were based on the practice of the nerge. 1:291-93.tlaw Ow. Steiner. vor Allem der Mongolen. which was essentially a mass hunt often referred to as the battue.ed. 1963-75). See Gerhard Doerfer. MILITARY HISTORY * 619 .: . Genghis Khan: The History of the World Conqueror. The nerge is also referred to as the jerge or jdirge in the Mongolian and Muslim sources.

However. John de Piano Carpini. Yaacov Lev (Leiden: Brill. C. Dawson (London: Sheed and Ward. the gap served as a trap." in Warand Society in the Eastern Mediterranean. ed. By leaving a gap in their encirclement. much as animals were permitted to flee during the nerge. Because of their archery skills and great mobility. although certainly beneficial. "Mongol Society and Military in the Middle East: Antecedents and Adaptations. ed. the Mongols did not require superior numbers of troops to encircle an enemy. 100-101. The nerge was then adapted to warfare and applied through several techniques. in which the wings of the Mongol army would wrap around the opposing army so that they overlapped. Sirah al-Sultan Jaldl al-Din Mankubirti (Cairo: Dairal-Fikr al-Arabi. so skilled warriors could do the same while encircling the enemy. the enemy would resist stubbornly. During war. In addition to making it possible to attack the enemy from multiple angles. it appears to 5. the Mongols allowed a safety valve in order to let the enemy escape. 1895). Rather. as in the nerge. the enemy rarely could maintain any semblance of effective defense once they chose to escape. Like the traditional nomadic tactic of the feigned retreat.. the Mongols created a seemingly innocuous hole that appeared to be a means of escape for those enclosed by the Mongol ranks. this was not required. Mohammed En-Nasawi. the nerge was not an innovation on the part of the Mongols.5 As in the nerge. 6.TIMOTHY MAY After the Khan. or double envelopment. The Mongols carried out this practice at Bukhara in modern Uzbekistan and then again at the battle of Mohi along the Sajo River in Hungary. forming a dense mass from which none could escape. the surrounding of enemy forces allowed the Mongols to employ another tactic. 74." 620 * THE JOURNAL OF . Jr. The most obvious was the encirclement of the enemy. killed a few animals. John Masson Smith. 7th and 15th Centuries." in The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. however. the warriors gradually tightened their circle around the enemy. or ruler. Often discarding their weapons in their haste. 36-37. "History of the Mongols.6 Just as skilled hunters were able to hold their positions to herd or direct the route of animals.Histoire du Sultan Djelal ed-din Mankobirti. Houdas (Paris: l'fcole des Langues Orientales vivantes. 1953). Realizing that when cornered. 1996). however. 0. however. It is thought that large numbers were required to perform this maneuver and maintain the noose around the enemy. trans. 253. Some animals were allowed to escape in a symbolic act of clemency. the fleeing troops quickly discovered to their detriment that the Mongols simply pursued and hunted them. A hunt of this size naturally required excellent communication and discipline in order to maintain the circle in addition to preventing animals from escaping until the appropriate time. could reliably be achieved with superior numbers. Muhammad ibn Ahmad Nasawi. Smith maintains that "encirclement. 1955). others would begin their hunt.

the left on the inside."s Indeed. divided into two moiras instead of the usual three. province and fortress they came to. The Khitan. At times the Mongols used it as a tactic on a broader front in an invasion. GeorgeT. but also as training for mil7. MILITARY HISTORY * 621 . Maurice's Strategikon: trans. the refugees strained its resources.7 The use of the nerge on a larger scale. however. After the capture of the city of Vladimir in 1237. This used to be part of the cavalrygames in winter quartersduringMarch. One moira consisted of 2.000 men. First. Universityof Pennsylvania Handbook of Byzantine Military Strategy. may have been a Mongol innovation. they ride into the opposite section of one another'sline. Second. during the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) of northern China. One tiiman is 10.000 to 7. even during the medieval period. depending on the era. The Byzantines. The two flanks of the meros move out as though beginning an encircling maneuver. it cut off the principal city from communicating with other strongholds that might be expected to give aid. refugees from these smaller cities would flee to the last stronghold.000 to 3. and surrounding an open space. They were gradually replaced by other nomadic groups. advancing toward one another. Not only did the reports from these defeated cities and the streaming hordes of refugees reduce the morale of the inhabitants and garrison forces of the principal city. 1984). "they turned back from there and held a council. used hunting not only for the practical purpose of feeding their troops. Avars. Thus. as the circle contracted. but in addition. Jami'u't-Tawarikh: Compendium of Chronicles. The impact of the nerge was great. The Scythians were an Iranian or proto-Turkic steppe nomadic group that inhabited the southern steppes of Russia during the ancient period.The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army be a standard tactic used in steppe warfare as indicated in this depiction of Scythian drills by Byzantine Emperor Maurice (582-602) : The Scythian formationis one in which the [units] are all formed in the same manner. commonly referred to all nomads regardless of location as Scythians. They should be drawn up in one line. the Scythians could be Huns. not with some of them arrangedas assault troops and some as defenders. Continuingalong in a circle. Rashid al-Din. Typically three moira formed one meros. Bulghars. taxing food and water reserves and thus undermining the defense of the city. the right wing on the outside. Dennis (Philadelphia: Press. 2:327. as they did during the invasion of the Rus' lands. populations fled toward the center. as in former times.000 men.000 men. Meros were 6. 61. The Rus' city of Vladimir was located about 200 kilometers east of Moscow. however. Maurikos. typically a key city. The Mongols were not the only Inner Asian group that considered hunting a valuable technique in military training. 8. or Turks. deciding that they would proceed tiimain by tiimin in jairgeformation and take and destroy every town.

that would most likely charge their antagonists. KarlA. 11. particularly during the winter hunt. History of Chinese Society: Liao (907-1125) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. The Parthian shot was performed by riding away from the intended target while twisting backwards to the target and firing. See p. History of Chinese Society.""11 Steppe nomads were not the only ones to consider hunting an excellent opportunity to train their soldiers. his most obvious recourse was to put distance between himself and the animal. such as bulls or lions. and in some cases."10 Indeed. as well as the northern part of the PRC. Karl A. reexamines the use of horses in warfare in preclassical antiquity. By being able to turn and shoot. Liao Shih. When a hunter with a bow was charged by such a beast. 119. Although all horsearchers from the steppe employed this technique. Indeed. like so many others. while the pursuer would be shooting into the wind. 1949). The importance of the hunt in military training was so great that the Chinese inhabitants of the empire were forbidden to hunt. one Liao emperor once said. based on his observation of nomadic armies. In 907 they conquered much of northern China from the Song dynasty. the origin of the term seems to have come from its devastating use against the Roman armies of Crassus at Carrhae in 53 BCE by the horse-archers of the Parthian empire (250 BCE-225 CE). Robert Drews. in Wittfogel and Fang. 165-67. Maurice noted that it was very much like a Scythian battle formation. Maurice's Strategikon. 10. the Parthian would in effect be shooting a bow with a wind at his back. It is a means of practicing warfare. Indeed. "Our hunting is not simply a pursuit of pleasure. Early Riders: The Beginnings of Mounted Warfare in Asia and Europe (New York: Routledge. the hunter not only fended off the animal. 565. trans. 2004).12 9. They used lines of horsemen as the Mongols did in the nerge and eventually encircled the game. one of the classic tactics among horse-archers. He demonstrates that it gave its user a significant advantage: "If both the Parthian and his pursuer were riding at a gallop. was then applied to military tactics. Robert Drews has concluded that the Parthian shot was perfected by hunting dangerous animals. the Inner Mongolian autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Byzantine Emperor Maurice advised his generals to use hunting to perfect tactics and strategies. Drews examines. 568. the infamous "Parthian shot. 12.MAYTIMOTHY itary maneuvers. The Khitans were a proto-Mongolgroup. This work is essential for anyone interested in the development of mounted warfare. Wittfogel and Fang Chia-Shang." may have originated as a hunting technique. 622 * THE JOURNAL OF . Wittfogel and Fang Chia-Sheng. Their empire comprised much of what is now modern Mongolia. As previously mentioned. 102. the Byzantines referred to basically any steppe nomadic group as Scythians. Maurikos. Liao Shih [History of the Liao]. 126-29. but also enhanced his hunting and military skills.9 Indeed. Drews believes that this hunting technique.

To single out the Mongols as "the Nation of 13. Tafrij al-Kuruibft Tadbir al-'urfib (Cairo: American University at Cairo Press. John Masson Smith. 1898). they were quite familiar with them and the composite bow they used. 14. The fact that the Mongols also became competent horsemen and archers due to daily practice almost from birth is also undeniable. 316-17. Indeed. A History of the Art of War: The Middle Ages from the Fourth to the Fourteenth Century (New York:Burt Franklin. 103. the Mongols carried out operations on several fronts. Also see p.. Finally. While some scholars would argue that the Mongols were inferior soldiers who achieved victory due to overwhelming numbers or less-able opponents.13 The Mongols' ability to operate in disciplined units certainly gave them an advantage but is not enough to explain their amazing military feats. on some fronts. MILITARY HISTORY * 623 . France. Apparently. They gained from this great experience which was not [duplicated] by others. Certainly the nerge contributed to producing a well-disciplined force capable of complex maneuvers over a broad front. so that they struggled together against the enemy. " 'AynJalfit: Mamluk Success or Mongol Failure?" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 44 (1984): 345. if they were indeed truly inferior and Song soldiers. the size of the army did not automatically result in victory. Although this could be accomplished by large armies.14 It is unlikely that the Mongols could have established the largest contiguous empire in history even with overwhelming numbers." Because the Armenians had several encounters with Kipchak Turks and other nomadic horse archers. Western Warfare..The Trainingof an InnerAsian Nomad Army The complex coordination of units and exercises involved with the nerge enabled the Mongol warriors to function as a single unit on the battlefield. 1961). 202. we must ask what other factors were involved. 'Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Ansi al-An'ari. One must also con(960-1279) sider that at the beginning of their conquests. One source noted that: The Mongolsfrom among the Turkishpeople accustomed their people [to fight as] a single squadron of cavalry. they did not operate with the same degree of precision as the Mongols. How did the Mongols practice their archery? We know that the Armenians called the Mongols "the Nation of Archers. Mongol armies were fairly small for their theater of operation. particularly as the Chinese Jin (1125-1234) Empires produced even larger armies. 77. Jr. the Mongols certainly did not possess vastly superior numbers against the Jin Dynasty of northern China or against the Khwairazmian Empire (1194-1224) in Central Asia and Iran. Retiring [from the battle] and returning [to it] was denied to each of them. The seasonal migrations of the nomads also enhanced their discipline as did the practice of coordinated moves across great distances. Also see Charles Oman. although other Inner Asian forces used similar tactics. neither explanation is fully convincing. However.

624 * THE JOURNAL OF . The Mamlfikswere typically Kipchak Turks."s The historian must search for other evidence to determine how and why the Mongols became so proficient that they could. or rulers. The Mamlfiks would also drive the Crusaders out of the Middle East in 1291. See the following: Ayalon." Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 12 (1949): 269-399. instituted a strict regimen of training for their new recruits. "Preliminary Remarks on the MamlfikMilitary Instititution in Islam". provide data from which to derive a clear picture of their military. Frye. as well as under the Ayyubids in the thirteenth century. the Mamlfiksdeposed the Ayyubids in Egypt and established a sultanate that would go on to defeat the Mongols at Ayn Jalfit in 1260. or Saladin. Eventually they received manumission and then joined a corps of warriors fiercely loyal to their former masters. it is not enough to use sources directly related to the Mongols of the thirteenth century. have often been linked to the Mongols by ethnic and linguistic ties as well.16 Second. The Mamlfiks of Egypt. R. particularly under the first few Sultans. who had been purchased as slaves by the various members of the Ayyubid Dynasty. The Kipchak Turks occupied much of the southern portion of modern Russia. These units were often the elite forces in various Muslim armies. S. in addition to scholarly works. "Mamltikiyyidt: A (A) First Attempt to Evaluate the Mamltik Military System". from these societies we may derive additional information that clarifies the methods that the Mongols used in training their soldiers.MAY---TIMOTHY Archers" indicates that the Mongols were more proficient with this weapon than other nomads. P. Humphreys. 16. as these provide scant information directly related to the training of the Mongol army. "The History of the Nation of the Archers by Grigor of Akanc. 17. R. before being imported to Egypt and Syria. founded by Salith al-Din. Ayalon. The Mamlfik Sultanate of Eygpt and Syria came into existence in 1250. N. which was typically how the southern Russian steppes were known during the medieval period. They were taught the rudiments of Islam and trained as warriors. "The Emergence of the Mamluk Army. in addition to ruling part of Mongolia during the Liao Dynasty. S. To determine the origins of the Mongols' success. In addition. while most of the MamlGfksduring the thirteenth century originated from the Dasht-i Kipchak. replacing the Pechenegs as the dominant steppe group in the region." Studia Islamica 45 (1977): 67-100. in the aftermath of the disastrous Second Crusade.Ayalon. since both originated in a steppe element: the Khitans. surpass other Inner Asian nomads. thus allowing them to establish dominion over Syria and Palestine. it is necessary to examine sources on the training of the Mamlfiks of Egypt and Syria as well as of the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty. Dasht-i Kipchak is Persian for the Kipchak Steppe. Gunpowder and Firearms. They were pastoral nomads who moved into the region during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. in at least one chronicler's opinion." Only when the recruits had 15. these sources. Blake and R. Thus. This has been documented in detail in numerous works. or Kipchak Steppe. R. and thus perhaps to establish a paradigm to compare with data relating to the Mongols and steppe societies in general. After a rebellion in 1250.

underwent similar training. D. the Mamlfik recruit was not even allowed to shoot. he also learned to treat sick and injured horses. and how to use it while holding the reins. War. Latham." Studia Islamica 46 (1977): 147-82. and fencing. trot. 18. 154-57. even in full armor. They practiced mounting and dismounting on wooden horses and with weapons drawn. the recruit learned to canter. Rabie. Knights in Christendom. the recruit could then practice shooting. Also. at least in the Carolingian period. they trained in these four areas: equestrian arts. Under the guidance of a mucallim. the Mamlfik shot at a gourd affixed to Humphreys.20 As one can surmise. "The Training of the Mamlik FAris. Hassanein Rabie. Finally. or instructor. Thus the Mamlfik recruit gradually began to use more powerful bows. "The Training of the MamlfikFdris. The Medieval Warhorse: Origin. while riding. C. While learning to use the lance. 21. the Mamlufks in their prime were possibly the best-trained warriors in the medieval world." 158. For the purposes of this study. As with all of the fighting arts. After these steps were mastered. or gourd. Al-qabaq is a Turkic word meaning gourd.19 The process of learning archery was exceedingly long and arduous. Development. the recruit was taken out into the desert to shoot before being considered qualified. Only after successfully completing all four branches of training was the recruit considered afdris. and Redevelopment (London: Thames and Hudson."Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 32 (1969): 258. MILITARY HISTORY * 625 ." in Parry and Yapp. "Notes on Mamlfk Horse-Archers. part of their training in archery originated from their homeland in the steppes. Despite the refined techniques in which they were drilled. 20.. archery. and gallop while using a saddle. how to tilt. 19. H. Instead he merely had to work on his grip and on the motion of drawing and releasing the bow string. See R. Once he had perfected these movements. Ibid.21 Essentially.s18 In the equestrian training. From here he learned to mount and dismount while carrying a lance.."154. 14-15. At first. The next step allowed the recruit to shoot arrows. Davis. but without using arrows. the Mamlfiks learned how to leap upon their horses. Once he graduated to a real horse. lancing. only the equestrian and archery training is relevant. the Mamliks had manuals written with detailed instructions. Rabie. The Mamlfik recruit began with a model horse and then moved on to a real one. they practiced using weapons from horseback. Technology. J. "The Training of the MamlGkFaris. 1989). and Society in the Middle East. or cavalryman. and then he practiced with stirrups. Finally. the recruit then learned how to use the lance as a weapon and how to hurl it. One element of their training was the drill of the al-qabaq. the Mamlk was advised to saddle his own horse. "The Emergence of the Mamluk Army. for which the pull of the bow was increased.The Trainingof an InnerAsian Nomad Army reached their majority did they actually begin military training.

thus enabling him to use a Parthian shot. According to one Mongolian. J. Other contests include the sarampai kharvaa. or qighaj. . the rider would shoot upwards and often from different angles. 261. D.24 Latham wrote his work on the Mamlfik horse-archers in the late 1960s. Due to the height of the pole. . A simple training drill like this very well may have originated from the steppe.22 A simple extension of this practice was the Mamlfik drill of shooting the qipaj. More recent information from the modern era bolsters Latham's argument concerning the steppe origins of many of the Mamlfik drills. In addition. attached by a thong. states: AlthoughI have hitherto been unable to turn up any written account of its early history. 23. 24.. the revival of many archery contests that had been repressed during the Communist era may shed some light on earlier such competitions. Ibid. The mounted archer attempts to hit the first one while advancing upon it. One could easily substitute a bag or other item for the gourd. This also may have been how the Mongols learned to use their bows to full advantage. Indeed. 258. who has contributed much to the study of archery in the Islamic world. 263.23To accomplish this. three leather balls are mounted on poles. Ibid. the most difficult part is controlling the 22. One such contest is known as the bombog kharvaa. Then the reins could be slipped over the pommel of the saddle or held by the third finger of the drawing hand. and amusement. thus giving him a better vantage point.. if acceptable the hypothesis may be carried a stage further with the suggestionthat a pole surmountedby a suitable target as simple as a bundle of ragsand strawwouldbe erected by a nomadic encampment and used for the purposes of instruction. This drill was similar to al-qabaq. Latham. in which the archer shoots at a target while riding at a gallop. The reins could be held in this manner because the Mamlfiks used a thumb ring and the index finger to draw the bow string.It also allowedthe archerto use a higher pull weight. there seems no reason to doubt the assertion that "shootingthe gourd"was introducedto the MiddleEast from Central Asia where it was practiced by the Turkmens and Mongols . the Mamlfiks practiced holding the reins of their horses while shooting.. They tied knots to shorten the reins and to unify them into one strand. In it. 626 * THE JOURNAL OF . then the second as he rides by it. as the string did not cut into his fingers. but involved the rider's shooting downward at a target as he rode by. and the final ball after he has ridden past it. including the Parthian shot. a rider often rose in his stirrups. Ibid. or ball shooting. allowed the string to slide off of the archer's thumbwith less friction. In modern Mongolia.practice. often made of polished stone.TIMOTHY MAY a pole. The thumb ring.

25 Consideringthis.mongoliatoday.comissue/7/archery.downwhicha singleriderand his horsewouldgallop in a straight line. the most likely 25. letting off one shot at the target two-thirds of for the dexterity with the bow.unlikethe Mongols. Further supportingthe probable steppe origin of the al-qabaq drill is the analysis of Mongoltactics and MamlUfk training by John Masson Smith. particularlyduring the stress of combat. Mamlfiks not practicethe repeated "chargeand-shoot" tacticsusedby the Mongols because. Without appropriate training. "AynJalfit: Mamluk Success or Mongol Failure?" 322. from131 to 284 Practice yardsin length. Jr. is that they did not possess enough horses to carry it off. necessitating the strings of horses that the Mongolsused. The main reason. However. the constant charging and retreating could easily exhaust a horse through the course of battle. could not keep galloping they long enoughto make such tactics worthwhile.alreadydescribed. 26.making By InnerAsianstandards was a rudimentary withthe shooting-[one source] tionswiththe horsein conjunction of in movement shooting groups and andno practice coordinated by The did horse-archers. in the manner of the sixteenth-century caracole. which is done entirely with the knees as both hands are occupied with the bow while the reins are tied to the saddle. but providing no training in evolusays only that the rider should not let the horse run into the pole- off the waydownthe fieldandthen slowingandturning the course.html .by indicating that the Mamlfiksdid not train in "chargeand shoot" tactics. Smith wrote: of tookplaceon fields. particularly compared to the Mamlfiksof Egyptwho defeated them at Ayn Jalfit in 1260. it is likely that contests such as these were commonplace for entertainment purposes if not for actual military training. While it is impossible to determine at this time if the Mongols made training such as the bombog kharvaa a standard exercise for their army."Mongolia Today 7 (2002): http://www. or "charge and shoot." used by pistol-wielding European cavalry. Smith. Smith indirectly demonstrates that a great deal of practice would be needed in order to conduct this tactic. The intention of Smith's study was to demonstrate that the Mongols were inferior and poorly trained soldiers. shooting several arrows while charging. MILITARY HISTORY * 627 . A high degree of coordination and discipline would be required to maintain any semblance of coherence as wave after wave of cavalry performed this attack. why the Mamlfiksdid not do this.26 Smith contends that the Mongols essentially performed this drill in combat. "Old Songs of Arrows. this exercise. and then retreating while another wave of Mongoltroops performed the same action. In regardsto the Mamlfiks'training. according to Smith. Indeed.The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army horse. it is highly probablethat the al-qabaq drill used by the Mamlfikswas of steppe origin.

filtering withthe defenders together they turnandcharge againstthe enemy. it is unlikely that the Khitans would have viewed hunting as the only means of military training. Indeed.and then turnback into the intervalsor clear spacesin the main line. swords. and spears. 567. at the battle of Ivry in 1590 between King Henri IV (1589-1610) of France and the Catholic League.The moiras. training and practice were necessary in order to perform the caracole effectively in conjunction with other attacks. This is dividedinto feet linedup abouttwoor fourhundred fromeachother. and advised that his own military practice them. Maurice. there is evidence that a caracole-style tactic did exist in the western Eurasian steppes prior to the Mongols. drawnup in a singlebattleline. Then. but the Chinese soldiers in their armies also practiced with catapults. the Byzantine emperor and author of the Strategikon.29 Further evidence that this method of attack required a high degree of training comes from sixteenth-century Western Europe. the Byzantine manual of warfare referred to earlier. the history of the Liao Dynasty. Liao Shih. or heavy cavalry. 533.TIMOTHY MAY result would be mass chaos with retreating riders impeding the advance of the next wave. 29.28 While evidence that the caracole was used among the Kipchaks is demonstrated only in the drills used by Mamlfiks recruited from the Dasht-i Kipchak. Additional evidence that the Mongols did not lack training comes from the Liao Shi. When the Reiters. Wittfogel and Fang. 28. Maurikos. the In anothermaneuver assaulttroopsturnaroundin those intervalsandchargeout against bothflanksof the unit. their maneuvers could disruptthe actions of other cavalry troops who were not accustomed to them.27 degree of sophistication in Khitanadministrationand also the organization and support of their military. Indeed. They were of non-Turkic origin and remained a distinct nation into the fourteenth century. In the Alansystemthe troops. crossbows. the men keeping their originalrelative positions. KingHenri 27. the Khitans also attacked in caracole fashion: one wave advancing Consideringthe high firing.and then retiringwhile another came forth. who used the caracole were used with nonReiter troops. not only did the ethnic Khitans conduct military drills. assaulttroopsadvanceat a gallopas in pursuit. The Alans occupied the steppe region north of the Caucasus Mountains. the Khitansalso held periodic militaryreviews. History of Chinese Society.Maurice's Strategikon.someas assault[troops] someas and are defenders. Much like the Mongols. 628 * THE JOURNAL OF . 62. In the sixteenth century. Duringthese. wrote that another steppe people called Alans performedsimilar tactics.

which indicate some habits of the Khitans that might also apply to the Mongols. Herbert Franke reveals another form of training in his study of Chinese texts. ed. Franke believes that this was practiced by the Mongols as well as the Jurchen. One such argument concerns a comparison of the Mongol military training with that of the Mamlfikfaris. no.30 Other relevant tactics and training methods also existed.32 In many ways. Ronald S."Zentralasiatische Studien 9 (1975): 180. the Mongols were poorly trained." MILITARY HISTORY * 629 . Certain elements of Smith's argument collapse under closer examination.31 As we have seen. conceding. Indeed. very well might have spent his time tending his flocks. throwingthe latter'sattack into disorder and blunting its effect. 32. "Chinese Texts on the Jurchen (1) A Translation of the Jurchen Monographin the San-Ch'ao Pei-Meng Hui-Pien." Sixteenth Century Journal 22. Herbert Franke and Hok-lam Chan (Aldershot: Ashgate. But the danger here was that they often collided with other oncoming friendly cavalry. the Mamlfiks. the due de Mayenne.The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army ordered the 250 Reiters in his pay to dispense with the caracole tactic and charge home with the rest of his cavalry. the League leader. later attributedhis defeat at Ivry precisely to this cause in an effort to shift the blame for the debacle onto others.This was significant. has written two articles which deal with this issue as well as other issues concerning the Mongol military that will be discussed elsewhere at length. "'All the King's Horsemen': The Equestrian Army of Henri IV.. Herbert Franke. John Masson Smith. 31. 1997). one cannot compare a with a random Mongol trooper who. Smith.. could be considered an elite unit. "'Ayn Jalfit: Mamluk Success or Mongol Failure?" 307-45. While practicing with swords. Although the Mongols performed admirably in battle. ranked among the most highly trained warriors in the Middle Ages. By contrast. they. when not serving on military MamlGfk duty. the 30. particularly under Baybars (1260-77). However. however. He believes this was part of a religious ceremony after a sacrifice. in Studies on the Jurchens or the Jin Dynasty. destroying their momentum and renderingtheir weapons useless. Love. "MongolSociety. Smith. Even so. his claim was not without some foundation:after performingthe caracole. that it may have been a form of military training or even a game for recreation. Jr. [the duc's] Reiters did collide with the long lines of chargingLeague lancers. a Manchurian seminomadic people who conquered northern China and established the Jin Dynasty. The Khitans practiced archery while mounted by shooting at willow rods. Professor Smith has vigorously contended that in comparison to the Mamlfiks. for when performingtheir customary maneuver the Reiters always wheeled to the left after discharging their pistols. 1585-1598. 3 (1991): 519. by no means. this comparison cannot be made as the Mamlfiks were an elite force specifically recruited and trained for no other purpose than to serve as soldiers.

1929).33 Military training among the Mongols began at an early age. In addition. and they are given bows to suit their stature and are taught to shoot. trans. they are extremely agile and also intrepid."35 Quite simply. often using an arrow shower. 35.Walter Renfroe. 27-130 (Florence: Apud Collegium S. of 18. the Mongols would have any interest in closing with the enemy except under favorable circumstances. thattime. Iohannesde PianoCarpini. P. Children began their apprenticeships as pages at a very young age and systematically learned to ride and fight until approximately the age of twenty. unless they were charging. little had changed: The men do not make anything at all. with a high are. for they are all. Smith. and their children begin as soon as they are two or three years old to ride and manage horses and to gallop them. 1961). one would not survive in the steppe without being able to ride a horse. Records of the Grand Historian. excellent archers. He wrote that little boys learned to ride on the backs of sheep and practiced archery by shooting at small game: "Thus all the young men are able to use a bow and act as armed cavalry in time of war. the Mamfiks practiced launching their arrows in a shower. with the exception of arrows. that Mongol children learned different fromthe knightlycaste the arts of warat an earlyage. 36. 228.34 The most common example cited for steppe nomads in general originates in Ssfi-ma Chien's (145-85 BCE) account of the Xiong-nu. Davis. Bonaventurae. a typical steppe tactic. Anastasius Van Den Wyngaert. 19. "MongolSociety." 256. they preferred to shoot their enemies.36 33. almost in shock. Jr. In defense of the Mongols.The Art of Warfare. The Medieval Warhorse. While most studies remark. Press. Burton Watson. big and little. but they hunt and practise archery. Considering that all opposing forces could also fire from a fairly stable platform. for males. by which time they had acquired enough physical maturity to bear the weight of the knight's armor. 2:153. Indeed. At HansDelbrtick."History the Mongols. Ssfi-ma Chien. 1990). or Huns. Quite simply. (Lincoln:Universityof Nebraska Verbruggen. fare. 2 vols. Concerning the Mongols. it is unlikely that. 34. 27-28. rather than a flat trajectory.MAY TIMOTHY Mamlafkstruck one thousand times into a clay bar. the more those on the opposing side could use their bows to deadly effect. 49-50."Ystoria in Mongalorum. this is not drastically in Europe. (New York:Columbia University Press. MedievalWarJ. trans." Sinica Franciscana: Itinera et Relationes Fratrum Minorum Saeculi XIII et XIV ed. it is rather odd to compare the swordsmanship talents of the Mongols with Mamliks because the Mongols avoided hand-to-hand combat unless necessary. as they became known in the West. the closer one came." * 630 THE JOURNAL OF . and they also sometimes tend the flocks. mastery of hunting (the handling of a bow) and riding were primary duties. John de Plano Carpini confirmed that by the thirteenth century. they usuallyreceivedknighthood. Carpini. Instead.

much of their ability originated from their previous life on the steppe. R.The Trainingof an InnerAsian Nomad Army This account is corroborated by Chinese sources as well. formal induction into the Mongol military occurred later. Grigor of Akane noted that Mongol censuses registered men between the ages of fifteen and sixty as being suitable for military duty. Mongol males received constant exposure to shooting a composite bow from an early age. MILITARY HISTORY * 631 . Latham and W. The Tayichi'ud were a rival Mongol clan or tribe to the Borjigid from which Temiijin. Ibid. most of them learned how to fight. or Chinggis Khan. Cleaves (Cambridge. Latham and W. but also during a Tayichi'ud attack. Temiijin. 41. During the latter Temiijin also demonstrated that he rode well enough to avoid capture for several days. 39. Although training began at an early age. Nikolai Ts. and ed. and indeed all steppe nomads. Temiijin's brother.1975). and even 100 lbs. Paterson wrote that "Regular practice from boyhood culminated in the archer's ability as a man to handle bows requiring a pull of 60. trans. demonstrated his prowess with the bow not only in that episode. J. 65-66. thus creating an army trained in mounted warfare. D. 1982).39 In addition to becoming an expert riders as well as horse-archers. The Yuan Shi also notes that the age of induction usually ranged 37. In addition. The Song envoy and general Zhao Hung noted that Mongols were born and raised in the saddle. The basic idea was that men served until they were too old to ride or bend a bow in combat. xxv. originated. J. as demonstrated in the murder of his half-brother Bekhtar. the boy who would become Chinggis Khan. from The Secret History of the Mongols. to acquire the requisite strength to pull and hold the string at full-draw. but this was rare. 22-23. 80. Grigor of Akane. From spring until winter they spent their days riding and hunting. trans. Zhao Hung." trans. 25-26. D. 38.. Saracen Archery: An English Version and Exposition of a Mameluke Work on Archery (London: Holland Press. 1970). Blake and R. enabling them.37 Furthermore. Paterson.41 The Chinese source Yuan Shi confirms this but extends the upper age bracket to seventy years old. F.38 Jochi Qasar. could shoot arrows with deadly effect before he attained his majority.40 Although the Mamlfiks underwent extensive training. N. "The History of the Nation of the Archers by Grigor of Akanc. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 12 (1949): 325.. Mass. P. The observations of Latham and Paterson can be applied to nomads of Mongolia as well. Frye. F. Referring to Mamlfik and Turkic archers in the Muslim world. Meng-Da Bei-Lu: Polnoe Opisanie Mongolo-Tatar. to hold them at full draw. 40. one can learn that indeed. The Secret History of the Mongols. Munkuev (Moscow: NAUKA. Francis W." They also mentioned that some could draw a bow with a 160-pound draw.: HarvardUniversity Press.

was the instillation of discipline in the otherwise individualistic nomad warriors. At Mount Gisard." Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 25 (2001): 53-54.44 Thus. Kirghizstan. victory often was snatched away as the apparent winners stopped to plunder and loot the camp or city of the enemy before assuring final victory. the instillation of discipline into the tribes of Mongolia may have been Chinggis Khan's greatest achievement. Crusading Warfare. in 1177. The Kereit were a powerful Turko-Mongoltribal confederation that was centered on the Tula river in Mongolia. 79. Ch'i-Qing Hsiao. he ordered his men to be prepared to regroup at a designated location rather than dispersing across the steppe if they suffered defeat. Founded by refugees of the Liao royal family after the collapse of the Liao Dynasty in 1125.: HarvardUniversity Press. 1978). 632 * THE JOURNAL OF . Qara Khitai was ruled by a predominantly Buddhist minority among Muslim townspeople and shamanistic steppe nomads from 1128 until its collapse in 1218 due to Mongol expansion into the region. 43. 45. Even before his rise to absolute master of the Mongolian steppe. or Temiijin as he was known then.43 In addition to a mastery of archery and riding. he insisted that his men wait until after the enemy was defeated rather than plunder the enemy during the attack. Chinggis Khan. Yuan Shi. depending on the need and number of men required. Chapter 98 in The Military Establishment of the Yuan Dynasty. Qayan of the Kereit. we shall not stop to plunder. 74. those who disobeyed would suffer the consequences: If we conquer the enemy. near Ramla. Indeed. that booty will be ours in any case and we will share it 42. made a radical departure from the traditional method of waging war45:when the Mongols attacked the Tatars at Dalan Nemiirges in eastern Mongolia. Chinggis Khan expected his orders to be obeyed. some were required to stay at home to tend the herds or oversee appanages of the Mongol princes. and perhaps the most important one. In 1202. suffered from this. Michal Biran. he was defeated as his army became too preoccupied with looting. while still a vassal of Toghril Ong-Qan. trans. 72-91 (Cambridge. another key element.MAY TIMOTHY between fifteen to twenty years old. 44. "'Like a Mighty Wall': The Armies of the Kara Khitai (1124-1218). even by his relatives. warfare in the steppes of Mongolia often degenerated into a group of individuals battling other individuals rather than organized military units combating other organized forces. Qara Khitai was an empire formed in Central Asia. Then again. consisting of much of modern Kazakhstan. he lost at Jaffa as his army did not get an opportunity to plunder. Even great military leaders such as Salih al-Din. and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Mass. or Saladin (1138-1193). As in most of the medieval world. Not all men entered the army.42 In contrast. Furthermore. Michal Biran notes that the armies of Qara Khitai began their recruitment around the age of eighteen. Smail. If the victory is complete.

MILITARY HISTORY * 633 . 658 (1260 A.D. A perfect example of curbing the temptations of the Chinggisid princes while distant from the ruler and using the threat of harsh punishment involves an expedi46. 2 vols."47 Anecdotes about the discipline of the Mongols are numerous. no matter how long it had lain there. Henry G. the Shan-yti or ruler of the Xiong-nu. After he felt confident of their obedience and discipline." 118-50. ed. H. it does demonstrate that outsiders or non-Mongols recognized that the discipline of the Mongols and the expectations of their leaders were quite high. one must question how accurate this statement is. 9. 1078-79. in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia.. (Lahore: Markazi Urdu Bord.D. or tribal. H. According to the Persian chronicler Jfizjani. if I should command the sons to slay the father. Jfizjani. Tabakgat-i-NasiriA General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia. did not witness this. 2:117. Without fail."Papers on Far Eastern History 13 (1976): 46-47. 1970). Tabaqdt-i-Nasiri. Chinggis Khan expected absolute obedience to his commands. a Xiong-nu prince who directed his bodyguard to shoot whomever he singled out. ed.2:181. Cambridge 48. they must have been tempted to abandon discipline and to plunder and destroy the paltry forces of a city-state in Rus' or a distant town in China. "The Secret History of the Mongols. Including Hindustan. Tumen.46 Indeed. Jfizjani. few dared to risk offense. from A. Tabaq&t-i-Nasiri.48 But how did they maintain this discipline? Certainly with the great Qayan present.) The Tatars dominated the eastern part of Mongolia and were constant threats and rivals to the Mongols until Chinggis Khan finally defeated them in 1202. killing the old QaYanand thus effectively raising Motun to the throne. Jfizjain recorded that one could leave a riding whip on the ground and only its owner would pick it up.A Thousand Yearsof the Tartars (New York:Dorset Press. trans. He desired his followers to put loyalty to him above all other ties. or emperor. SHM-Rfollowed by the year of publication in Papers on Far Eastern History. Igor de Rachewiltz. without hesitation.1990). Raverty (New Delhi: Oriental Book Reprint Corp.H. "The Xiongnu. Minhij Siraj Jfizjani.) and the Irruption of the Infidel Mughals Into Islam. One of the most commonly held hypotheses is that draconian measures held the troops in check. 194 (810 A. 120. Chinggis Khan declared upon his coronation as Qayan. Nevertheless.Tabakat-i-Nasiri).The Trainingof an InnerAsian NomadArmy among ourselves. Furthermore. This anecdote is also similarly told about Motun. See E. clan. Minhij SiraijJfizjani. 47. 1975). Jfizjaini/Raverty. (Henceforth. Motun'sbodyguard fired. Those who failed to carry out the order were executed. He first pointed at his favorite horse and then at his wife.) to A. it behooveth that. The discipline instilled in the Mongol army permeated Mongolian society. JfizjfLnt/Raverty. and trans. 1987). you should all obey.. considering that he wrote his chronicle from the safety of Delhi. he eventually pointed out his father. of course. 952-53 (henceforth. Denis Sinor (Cam- bridge: University Press. but as the Mongol armies ranged across a continent. Parker. whether familial. The men who do not turn back to the point where we began the attack will be cut down. If we are forced by the enemy to retreat. in 1206: "Ifyou are obedient to my mandates. Tabakat-i-Nasiri.. and Ying-Shih Yii.let us turn back to the point where we began the attack.

Once you have so ordered. In addition. Orkhon. Carpini wrote: If anyone is found in the act of plunderingor stealing in the territory under their power. then whoever transgresses this command shall be seized and beaten. just cut them down on the spot. 50. Send to Us those who transgressOur command if it looks that they are personally known to Us. The Naiman and Merkits were primarily Turkic pastoral nomads who lived in Mongolia in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. if 49. 51. as Yesiigei. and Tula rivers. kidnapped H6'elfin. Martin believes that Chinggis Khan specifically had his son Jochi in mind when he uttered this command as Jochi was fond of hunting and did accompany Siibedei on this particular mission. Chinggis Khan'smother. he prohibited Siibedei from allowing his troops to hunt except in moderation and only in order to maintain their food supply. Outsiders confirmed that the Mongols maintained discipline in the ranks and among officers with draconian measures. as for the many who are not known to Us. H. 634 * THE JOURNAL OF . 19. Chinggis Khan also realized that princes. he is put to death without any mercy. The Merkit-Mongolconflict began before the lifetime of Chinggis Khan. Martin. If this order is issued the soldiers will not be able to gallop on the way. other relatives. from her Merkit husband. This would later result in the Merkit kidnapping B6rte. Even orders on daily routines were to be carried out in strict obedience. princes were unable to usurp the authority of the generals. Again.51Thus. Md. 1950). which means "eight" in Mongolian. Chinggis Khan's father. Rise of Chinggis Khan (Baltimore. but let the horses go with their mouths free. The Naiman.TIMOTHY MAY tion on which Chinggis Khan sent his general Stibedei against the Merkit and Naiman who had fled from Mongolia into what is now Kazakhstan.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Second.49 He instructed Siibedei to spare his remounts so that they would not be overworked and become too lean. dominated western Mongolia until their defeat by Chinggis Khan in 1204. or camp.50 From this command we can determine a few things. or others who might hold his favor could undermine the authority of the general in charge of the campaign by flaunting their own special rank. Chinggis Khan'swife during his youth. if they did disobey the general. then they were either to return to Chinggis Khan's orda. between Lake Baikal and the confluence of the Selenge. Even after the great Chinggis Khan died. He further instructed Siibedei: do not allow the soldiers to fix the crupper to the saddle and put on the bridle. The first is that clearly Chinggis Khan gave his general authority to deal with misconduct and that disobedience was considered a serious crime. 6-7. With their defeat. SHM-R(1980). or one could be sure that a messenger would bring the news of the violation to the Qayan's attention. The Merkit lived in what would now be part of the Buryat Republic in Russia and northern Mongolia. on their own accord. the Naiman led by Giichiiliig and remnants of the Merkit fled from Mongoliainto Central Asia to escape Chinggis Khan's control. D.

. "History of the Mongols. none otherswereused. One is simple loyalty. Decades after Carpiniand Zhao Hung wrote their accounts of the Mongols. Valery Alexeev. Carpini. As Chinggis Khan elevated members from all levels of nomadic society to positions of importance. the rest of the unit must rescue them. if a few members are captured. Henry Yule. harshmeasures. 52." 186-87.as heavyas a peasantcan givewitha bigstick. and they are the best of all for making wide conquests of country. in The Rulers From the Steppe: State Formation on the Eurasian Periphery. if a few men flee as part of an arban. 1993).- The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army theirplans.especially whentheyintendgoingto war. harshness played a role. "History of the Mongols. Also.52 In addition. and which cost the least. "Ofall troops in the world those are they which endure the greatest hardship and fatigue. trans.."55 Thus. and the entire unit does not flee. Henri Cordier. 194. questions the idea that only draconian punishment maintained discipline in the Mongolarmy: Without doubt." 17. 53. 2 vols. Another factor. Carpini. Carpini. then also all are executed. ed. In the end. MILITARY HISTORY * 635 .could have been a sense of destiny. 1:260-61. they ensured that their own units remained disciplined. Carpini.. Gary Seaman and Daniel Marks (Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press."33. 1991). since the Mongolsthought they were destined to control the world. 54. ed."77. anyonereveals he is givena hundred stripeson his back.53The key was that they must function as a unit. But in the conditions of nomadiclife. his followers may have remained devoted to him out of gratitude and loyalty. The Travels of Marco Polo. in truth it was the military trainingthat evolved out of hunting in the steppe that made them perhaps the best warriorsof the premodern period. which is often downplayed. couldwell if lead to the disintegration military of units. (New York:Dover Publications. If an arban flees and the 100 do not flee.. then all are put to death. Marco Polo. In return.MarcoPolo observed. while it is true that the Mongols and other Inner Asian warriors were fine soldiers because of the harsh conditions of the steppe. however. "YstoriaMongalorum.54 Several possible factors could be involved in Alexeev's idea of collective psychology and its role in the discipline of the Mongolarmy. Valery Aleexev. "Some Aspects of the Study of Productive Forces in the Empire of Chenghiz Khan. he noted that in battle."49. 55. It wouldbe farmore realisticto presumethat the discipline the armyrestedon some in deeply held collective psychology. the trainingof the Mongolsoldiers (whether ethnic Monor Turk) produced soldiers whose quality surpassed those of other gol states. "YstoriaMongalorum. or unit of ten.

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