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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An electric generator or electric motor consists of a rotor spinning in a magnetic field. The magnetic field may be produced by permanent magnets or by field coils. In the case of a machine with field coils, a current must flow in the coils to generate the field, otherwise no power is transferred to or from the rotor. The process of generating a magnetic field by means of an electric current is called excitation.
A 100 kVA direct-driven power station AC alternator with a separate belt-driven exciter generator, date c. 1917.
1 Excitation in generators 1.1 Amplifier principle 1.2 Separate excitation 1.3 Self excitation 2 References 3 See also
A field coil may be connected in shunt, in series, or in compound with the armature of a DC machine (motor or generator)
Excitation in generators
Except for permanent magnet generators, a generator produces output voltage proportional to the magnetic field, which is proportional to the excitation current; if there is no excitation current there is zero voltage. A generator can thus be considered as an amplifier: a small amount of power may control a large amount of power. This principle is very useful for voltage control: if the system voltage is low, excitation can be increased; if the system voltage is high, excitation can be decreased. A synchronous condenser operates on the same principle, but there is no "prime mover" power input; however, the "flywheel effect" means that it can send or receive power over short periods of time. To avoid damage to the machine through erratic current changes, a ramp generator is often used.
A self-excited shunt-wound DC generator is shown on the left, and a magneto DC generator with permanent field magnets is shown on the right. The shunt-wound generator
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V. It is a tangent to the open circuit characteristics of the generator at a given speed.I by U. the free encyclopedia http://en. Since this initial current is required for a very short time.L. a house unit providing direct current. Starting Self-excited generators must be started without any external load attached. Even small portable generator sets may occasionally need field flashing to restart. Field flashing If the machine does not have enough residual magnetism to build up to full voltage. The rotor iron retains a residual magnetism when the generator is turned off.II by B. Alternator of 1930s diesel generating set.A. it is called "field flashing". A separately excited DC generator with bipolar field magnets. The shunt generator will build up voltage only if field circuit resistance is less than critical field resistance.wikipedia. This is a small permanentmagnet or battery-excited dynamo that produces the field current for the larger generator. while the magneto output is steady regardless of load variations. where some of the power output from the rotor is used to power the field coils.Wikipedia. ^ Electrical Technology . or older. References   1. which in turn increases the field current. generators. Separately excited generators like this are commonly used for large-scale power transmission plants. until the machine "builds up" to full voltage. ^ Electrical Machines . Self excitation Modern generators with field coils are self-excited. The smaller generator can be either a magneto with permanent field magnets or another self-excited generator. An external load will continuously drain off the buildup voltage and prevent the generator from reaching its proper operating voltage.org/wiki/Excitation_(magnetic) Separate excitation For large. output varies with the current draw.Excitation (magnetic) . The generator is started with no load connected. or rectified current from a source of alternating current power. it is usual for a separate exciter dynamo to be operated in conjunction with the main power generator. the initial weak field creates a weak voltage in the stator coils.Bakshi. This may be a battery. usually provision is made to inject current into the rotor from another source.U Bakshi See also 2 of 3 3/12/2012 9:42 PM . with excitation dynamo above The critical field resistance is the maximum field circuit resistance for a given speed with which the shunt generator would excite.Thereja 2.