A SEMINAR REPORT ON

“QUANTUM TELEPORTATION”

Submitted by: Ridhima Khurana 1508217 EC4 Submitted to: Mr.Virendra Mehla Ms.Purnima Ms.Pinkle

Department Of Electronics & Communication Engineering N.C. College Of Engineering (Israna), Panipat

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Without their encouragement and guidance this work would not have materialized. Pinkle. Ridhima Khurana . Purnima and Ms. I feel motivated and encouraged every time I attend their meeting. I can‟t say thank you enough for their tremendous support and help. I am grateful for their constant support and help. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed and who are contributing to this work. Virender Mehla.Acknowledgement Apart from the efforts of me. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. Ms. was vital for the success of the work. the success of any work depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I would like to show my greatest appreciation to Mr.

Our result confirms the feasibility of space-based experiments. .QUANTUM TELEPORTATION Abstract Quantum teleportation is central to the practical realization of quantum communication. long-distance teleportation has so far only been realized in fibre with lengths of hundreds of metres. well beyond the classical limit of 2/3. By following the Rome scheme. An optical free-space link is highly desirable for extending the transfer distance. An active feed-forward technique has been developed to enable real-time information transfer. which allows a full Bell-state measurement. Although the first proof-of-principle demonstration was reported in 1997 by the Innsbruck and Rome groups. because of its low atmospheric absorption for certain ranges of wavelength. An average fidelity of 89%. Our experiment has realized all of the non-local aspects of the original teleportation scheme and is equivalent to it up to a local unitary operation5. we report free-space implementation of quantum teleportation over 16 km. and is an important step towards quantumcommunication applications on a global scale. is achieved.

THINGS TO COMBAT 15. REAL EXPERIMENTS THAT DO TELEPORTATION 11. BELL STATE MEASUREMENT THE TELEPORTER EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS TELEPORTATION OF PHOTONS WITHOUT DESTRUCTION CAN THE ATOMS BE ENTANGLED TOO QUANTUM TELEPORTATION USED FOR SUPERLUMMINAL COMMUNICATION 10.CONTENTS: 1. ENTANGLEMENT 3. HUMAN TELEPORTATION 12. CONCLUSION 16. APPLICATIONS OF QUANTUM TELEPORTATION 14. 6. DECOHERENCE 13. 9. TELEPORTATION  CLASSICAL TELEPORTATION  QUANTUM TELEPORTATION 4. 8. INTRODUCTION 2. 5. 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY .

in which a machine took captain Kirk from one place to another instantaneously without having to physically travel the distance . if you do something to one entangled particle. The spookiness is that the particles carry information about the interaction. Basically.Introduction Quantum Teleportation is an exciting new area of physics that deals with teleportation of sub-atomic particles and photons. On hearing the word „teleportation‟. no matter how far apart the particles are. i. despite the distance between them. So. Entanglement involves a relationship between the possible quantum states of two entities such that when the possible states of one entity collapse to a single state as a result of suddenly imposed boundary conditions.” This is made possible by entangling quantum particles. Quantum entanglement neither requires the entangled particles to come from a common source nor to have interacted in past. . the first thing that comes to our mind is the Star Trek movie. no matter where or how far away the entangled entity is located.e. a similar collapse occurs in the possible states of the entangled entity. a scene from star trek What is „Entanglement‟? Entanglement is a property of atomic particles in which two particles at a great distance are in some way intertwined. it will have the same effect on the other. quantum teleportation is a bizarre shifting of physical characteristics between the nature‟s tiniest particles. What actually happens is what Einstein called “spooky action at a distance. any effect on one particle is simultaneously felt in the other particle as well. no matter how far apart they are.

. We call the states of those two electrons entangled. a measurement on one particle automatically determines the state of the second – even if the particles are widely separated. Thus. though is probably impossible in practice. their polarizations are the opposite of each other. Individually. Quantum Teleportation provides a way to "beat" the Uncertainty Principle and make an exact copy. Another perhaps more reasonable alternative would be to scan all the information about Captain Kirk's physical state. teleportation of much smaller objects like individual spins is not only possible. the mechanism that beats the Uncertainty Principle is the same one used to beat it in the Quantum Correlation experiments we examined when we discussed Bell's Theorem. but has been accomplished in the laboratory. Whatever happens to one photon is the opposite of what happens to the other. If two quantum particles are entangled. Captain Kirk de-materialises on the Enterprise.This can be expressed in a simpler way with respect to photons. the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle means that it is impossible to obtain this complete information about Kirk. We shall also see that although the collapse of the state for the two measurements in the correlation experiments occurs instantaneously. Teleportation In Star Trek. Before we were discussing Quantum Correlation experiments in which we were measuring the spins of two separate electrons whose total spin was zero. an unanswered question is whether the transporter physically disassembles Captain Kirk. When two photons are entangled. Note that in either case the transporter needs to have complete information on Kirk's physical state in order to reconstruct him. moves the atoms from his body to the planet. and each lab has a box. What is teleportation? Roughly speaking. It turns out that human teleportation appears possible in principle. The goal of teleportation is to take any object that is placed in Box A and move it to Box B. However. when Captain Kirk is beamed from the starship Enterprise to the surface of a planet. In particular. Our goal here is to explain both how teleportation is done and why it is interesting. Nevertheless. the teleportation can not occur faster than the speed of light. As we shall see. and transmit that information to the planet surface where it is used to construct a new Captain Kirk out of raw materials found on the planet. and then re-materialises on the planet. Of special interest to science fiction fans (among others) is human teleportation. and then reassembles them. an entangled particle has properties (such as momentum) that are indeterminate and undefined until the particle is measured or disturbed. they have opposite luck. where a brave telenaut (whom we shall call Jim) enters Box A and uses the teleportation machine to travel to Lab B. it seems that the best the transporter can do is make an approximate copy of him on the planet surface. On the TV show. there is a Lab A and a Lab B.

From the point of view of the copy at B. but a fax machine nonetheless. We buy a shredder and attach it to the fax machine at A so that it destroys the originals after they pass through the fax. A giant 3-D fax machine. however there is no reason why we can't build very very accurate fax machines. The first objection that you could raise is that we now have two copies of Jim. But remember that the surviving copy at B was made before the "original" at A was put into the shredder. Presto exchange-o. let's not worry about the effects of quantum mechanics. But that shouldn't be a problem. Into the fax machine at A goes Jim and out of the fax machine at B we get a copy of Jim. Now no trucks can get through. Now it is true that the copy at B will never be perfect. he entered the box at A and exited at B and no pain was ever felt. . To make the problem both possible and interesting let's allow a single telephone line between universes A and B. which may not be ideal. Can we do teleportation? As stated above the problem is trivial and the solution is called a truck. Can we teleport Jim from A to B now? What we are trying to build now is essentially a fax machine. so let's build a wall between labs A and B. Will this be painful for Jim? Maybe (hence the title brave telenaut). We are now in the situation pictured in Figure I. Certainly a standard fax machine has a fairly poor resolution. then there is nothing that can be done to move things between the two universes and our poor telenaut Jim will be forever stuck in Lab A. But this is an easily fixed problem. that is. and unload the cargo into box B. if this wall is perfect and separates Labs A and B into two different universes. we drive the truck over to lab B. Even if we used a truck to transport an object from A to B.Classical teleportation Let's start by assuming that the world is perfectly classical. Unfortunately. A second objection is that we are only getting an approximate copy of Jim at B. So we run Jim through the shredder at A and now there is only on copy at B. the object that arrives at B would be slightly different from the one that left A. We load the cargo of box A onto a truck. we have teleportation! But that is not the solution we really wanted.

So can we build a classical teleportation device as described? The answer appears to be yes. 1: The setup for teleportation Along the way it will be shaken a bit or it might get hit by some cosmic rays which will change the state of a few atoms. just like a regular fax machine would not be used to transmit blank papers. That doesn't mean that it is easy. We always assume that we have the appropriate matter and energy available in Lab B and our goal is simply to assemble it into the pattern of the object placed in Box A. That is. Our goal should be that the errors that appear when we teleport Jim via the fax machine should be comparable to the changes that would have occurred when moving Jim in a truck. . From the point of view of a physicist there is no reason why this shouldn't be possible. It would be an incredible engineering feat to build a giant 3-D super-accurate fax machine. But it really is just a difficult engineering problem.FIG. An important thing to notice is that our giant fax machine is not intended to transfer matter and energy. a few very very small errors should be acceptable.

. each with a box. Again. it was not until the publication of a 1993 paper by Bennett. The upgrade in status from impossible to very very hard may not be very significant to those who would like to actually build such a device. however the uncertainty principle basically guarantees that we will never obtain enough information to rebuild even a modestly good copy of Jim. You can think of the phone as measuring all signals as they pass through the phone. traveling at say 99% of the speed of light is possible but very hard to do. It appears that even before running Jim through the shredder. Transmits the results via the phone 3. we could measure the momentum but then not the position. which we thought to be impossible. If this phone allows sending quantum information back and forth. and realize that there is a problem. The two labs will be separated by a wall and only connected by a phone.In effect. the measurement process will likely destroy the only good copy without obtaining the required information to rebuilt Jim anew. Reconstructs the original from the received description. there is an alternative procedure that effectively realizes teleportation in the quantum world. Crepeau. Jozsa. But to a physicist it makes a world of difference. That is some 70 years after the formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics! Effectively we realized that quantum teleportation. then the problem of quantum teleportation becomes relatively trivial. Fully measures the state of the input 2. We could measure the position of all the particles forming Jim but then we wouldn't get a chance to measure the momentum of those particles. What is the fax machine supposed to do? 1. . One can also envision a mixed strategy where we measure some positions and some momenta. We have to be careful in specifying what kind of phone. The surprising result of quantum teleportation is that even though the "measure and reconstruct" procedure does not work. It is similar to the classical case when we allowed trucks to move objects between A and B. and we will try to move the contents of box A to box B. What is the difference between the two notions? Traveling faster than the speed of light is impossible..Quantum teleportation But now we remember that the world is quantum mechanical. what we are asking here is can we use our standard classical communication tools to transmit the state of a quantum system. In fact. we will have Labs A and B. Step 1 is already impossible in a quantum world because of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. is only very very hard. and is a very exciting discovery. Brassard. which is almost identical to the setup for classical teleportation described above. The interesting case is when the phone allows only the passage of classical information. All standard phones are classical phones. So let me begin by describing the setup for quantum teleportation. Alternatively. Peres and Wootters that we realized quantum teleportation was possible.

The only way to teleport an object to Lab B is to destroy the object at Lab A. So returning to our brave telenaut Jim. because quantum information cannot be copied. otherwise we wouldn't have bothered using teleportation from A to B in the first place. In any case.Thus far our setup for quantum teleportation is equal to the one for classical teleportation. The goal is to make sure that the spin of the electron in Box B after teleportation is equal to the spin of the electron in Box A before teleportation. That is. Now we have the problem of sending one of the particles to Lab B. Roughly speaking an entangled state is a pair of objects that are correlated in a quantum way. one essentially has to start with both particles in the same laboratory. then whatever is destroyed at in Lab A could not have been a copy of Jim. Think of two friends who lived nearby. but now one is moving away. In the quantum case. However. and so on. but this process would destroy one entangled state to create another entangled state. In principle. and carried them to their respective laboratories. In principle this is difficult. if they had never met in person and have no friends in common (who could have met with both of them) then quantum teleportation becomes impossible. They can create some entangled states that the friend who is moving can carry with him when he leaves. teleporting to say a distant planet or to some other place we have never had contact with is impossible. which will be destroyed by the teleportation procedure. We won't care if the momentum and position . Our goal below will be to describe the teleportation of the spin of a single electron. he can teleport to the labs of the friends of his friends of his friends. and the copy of B survives the teleportation process in a pain free manner. and we could have chosen to end up with two copies of Jim. In the quantum case this is not possible. However. At that time the scientists from the two labs met. but it has to be transported without the use of teleportation. The only solution is that sometime in the past the wall that separates Lab A and Lab B must not have been there. Labs A and B must begin with something called an entangled quantum state. he will be able to teleport to the labs of his friends. the idea is that one difficult journey from A to B can allow in the future many quick transfers from A to B. let's say Lab A. we could use quantum teleportation to send this particle to B. we have to worry about how the first entangled state is created. since as we mentioned above it is destroyed when used. But also he could use two teleportations to travel to the labs of people whom he has never met personally. But it seems like this step was optional. created a large number of entangled states. However. Similarly. It can be renewed by meeting in person and then carrying entanglement back from Lab A to Lab B. one can say that if there can ever be only one copy of Jim at any time. But there is one important difference. but who are friends of his friends. Philosophically. The entanglement requirement poses a second problem. we shall place a single electron in Box A and a single electron in Box B. In the classical case we decided to run Jim through the shredder in Lab A after faxing him to lab B. Below we will describe a specific example known as the “singlet state" of two spins. and then they can use those to teleport things back and forth. a net gain of zero. To prepare an entangled state of two particles. Entanglement is effectively a resource that is slowly depleted as teleportations occur. let us first explore the consequences of this extra requirement for quantum teleportation. I should mention one last important detail of quantum teleportation. However.

and later the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. . albeit with a difference of a factor of 2 in the angles being used. although we regularly pointed out that the same situations exist for the polarization of light. its position. which reflect one-half of the light incident on them and transmit the other half without reflection. The entanglement means that if we measure a beam of. Here we shall prepare pairs of entangled photons with opposite polarizations. And those different spins states are related to the polarization of the light when we think of it as a wave. E1 photons with a polarizer. Similarly if E1 does not pass its filter its companion E2 will not. These mirrors are sometimes called beam splitters because they split a light beam into two equal parts. which is the quantum generalization of a bit. say. The fact that we may talk about light polarization in almost the same way that we discuss electron spin is not a coincidence.(relative to the box) of the electrons are the same. Bell-state measurements In previous discussions we almost always talked about the spin state of electrons. However. Here we will reverse the situation. Earlier we discussed the Michelson-Morley experiment. A spin is equivalent to one qubit. although the arguments also apply to spin states of electrons. We shall call this the teleportation of a spin. momentum and spin) of an electron. it turns out that the spin is already a fairly interesting quantum mechanical object.. It may seem like this is a much weaker goal than teleporting the full state (i. Whether a particular photon will pass the filter is random. we shall call them E1 and E2. one-half of the incident photons will pass the filter. regardless of the orientation of the polarizer. and mostly talk about polarization states for photons. You will recall that for both of these we had half-silvered mirrors. However the techniques described below can be extended to teleport positions and momenta as well. It turns out that photons have spins which can exist in only two different states.e. if we measure its companion E2 photon with a polarizer oriented at 90 degrees relative to the first. then if E1 passes its filter E2 will also pass its filter. Furthermore.

Meanwhile. So sometimes both photons will end up going up and to the right as shown. to the beam splitter. The E1 photon incident from above will be reflected by the beam splitter some of the time and will be transmitted some of the time. This is the photon whose properties will be transported. Similarly. we prepare another photon with a polarization of 450. . as shown. Similarly for the K photon that is incident from below. sometimes both photons will end up going down and to the right. We time it so that both E1 and K reach the beam splitter at the same time.We direct one of the entangled photons. we label it K (for Kirk). and direct it to the same beam splitter from the other side. say E1.

This means that the two photons have become entangled. we know the polarizations of both of them. perhaps surprisingly. but perhaps both were transmitted. the case of one photon ending up going upwards and the other downwards occurs. 25% of the time. the opposite polarization of the prepared 450 one. . for a single pair of photons incident on the beam splitter. So although we don't know which photon is which. both downwards. as shown. If we have a large beam of identically prepared photon pairs incident on the beam splitter. the photon E1 has now collapsed into a state where its polarization is -450. or one upwards and one downwards.But sometimes one photon will end up going upwards and the other will be going downwards. and the consequent interference between the two photons. Perhaps both photons were reflected by the beam splitter. Which of these three possibilities has occurred can be determined if we put detectors in the paths of the photons after they have left the beam splitter. the mixture of polarization states of E1. in the case of one photon going upwards and the other going downwards. but can be explained by the phase shifts the light experiences when reflected. we cannot tell which is which. This will occur when either both photons have been reflected or both photons have been transmitted. Also somewhat surprisingly. However. The explaination of these two somewhat surprising results is beyond the level of this discussion. This is because the photons have become entangled. Thus there are three possible arrangements for the photons from the beam splitter: both upwards.

Thus the teleportation does not occur instantaneously. say. Although this collapse of E2 into a 450 polarization state occurs instantaneously. The Original State of the Teleported Photon Must Be Destroyed Above we saw that the K photon's state was destroyed when the E2 photon acquired it. 450 and the other photon at 22. Then we could measure the polarization of one of the photons at. E2. the Quantum Teleportation is similarly independent of the distance. now has a polarization of +450. Then we would know the polarization state of both photons for both of those angles. . Quantum entanglements such as exist between E1 and E2 in principle are independent of how far apart the two photons become. the Bell-state measurement resulted in the circumstance shown. We have teleported the information about the K photon to E2. But since the two photon system E1 and E2 was prepared with opposite polarizations. Thus.50. This has been experimentally verified for distances as large as 10km. Note that the teleportation has destroyed the state of the original K photon.The teleporter Now we shall think about the E2 companion to E1. and in these cases we have collapsed the state of the E1 photon into a state where its polarization is -450. 25 percent of the time. we haven't achieved teleportation until we communicate that the Bell-state measurement has yielded the result shown. so we end up with two photons with identical polarization states. Thus the state of the K photon has now been transferred to the E2 photon. Consider for a moment that this was not the case. this means that the companion to E1.

A few science fiction writers consider teleporters that preserve the original. confirmed the intuitions of the majority of science fiction writers by showing that perfect teleportation is indeed possible in principle. using a celebrated and paradoxical feature of quantum mechanics known as the EinsteinPodolsky-Rosen effect. until one reaches a point where the object's original state has been completely disrupted. teleportation was not taken seriously by scientists. still without having extracted enough information to make a perfect replica. which forbids any measuring or scanning process from extracting all the information in an atom or other object. and it would destroy the original in the process of scanning it. it would seem that a perfect copy cannot be made. but only if the original is destroyed. because it was thought to violate the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. the more it is disturbed by the scanning process. the more accurately an object is scanned. But the six scientists found a way to make an end-run around this logic. . Until recently. This sounds like a solid argument against teleportation: if one cannot extract enough information from an object to make a perfect copy. Experimental analysis In 1993 an international group of six scientists.As we saw in our discussion of Bell's Theorem. except that it would work on 3dimensional objects as well as documents. and the plot gets complicated when the original and teleported versions of the same person meet. Thus any teleporter must destroy the state of the object being teleported A teleportation machine would be like a fax machine. including IBM Fellow Charles H. Bennett. the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle says that this is impossible: we can never know the polarization of a photon for these two angles. According to the uncertainty principle. it would produce an exact copy rather than an approximate facsimile.

This subtle kind of information. while causing the remaining.In brief. unlike any material cargo. so what has been achieved is teleportation. and even unlike ordinary information. which one wishes to teleport. What? Can it really be correct to say "first with C and then with A"? Surely. can indeed be delivered in such a backward fashion. the delivery vehicle must visit A before C. also called "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation" or "entanglement". Boris Podolsky. unscanned. in order to convey something from A to C. . it is possible to maneuver C into exactly the same state as A was in before it was scanned. into another object C which has never been in contact with A. not the other way around. unscannable kind of information that. they found a way to scan out part of the information from an object A. Later. has been at least partly understood since the 1930s when it was discussed in a famous paper by Albert Einstein. not replication. A itself is no longer in that state. and Nathan Rosen. the unscanned part of the information is conveyed from A to C by an intermediary object B. part of the information to pass. by applying to C a treatment depending on the scanned-out information. As this figure suggests. which interacts first with C and then with A. having been thoroughly disrupted by the scanning. But there is a subtle.

At the sending station object B is scanned together with the original object A which one wishes to teleport. Object B is taken to the sending station. extracting partial information about it. but remains more or less intact after the scanning process. In quantum teleportation two objects B and C are first brought into contact and then separated.In the 1960s John Bell showed that a pair of entangled particles. can exhibit individually random behavior that is too strongly correlated to be explained by classical statistics. The scanned information is sent to the receiving station. where it is imprinted on some raw material (e. The scanned information is sent to the receiving station. which were once in contact but later move too far apart to interact directly. thereby providing strong evidence for the validity of quantum mechanics. yielding some information and totally disrupting the state of A and B. . paper) to produce an approximate copy of the original. while object C is taken to the receiving station. which neatly explains them. where it is used to select one of several treatments to be applied to object C. Experiments on photons and other particles have repeatedly confirmed these correlations. thereby putting C into an exact replica of the former state of A. This figure compares conventional facsimile transmission with quantum teleportation.g. In conventional facsimile transmission the original is scanned.

or at least very very fast. one atom in ground state and the other atom in excited state. physically separated so that the entanglement is non-local. a photon bouncing back and forth. enabling researchers to study an individual quantum object with a new level of non-invasiveness. However. „Eating up‟ or absorbing photons to study them is not required by fundamental quantum mechanics laws and can be avoided with the QND technique demonstrated by French researchers. .Teleportation of photons without destruction In June 1999 the act of measuring a photon repeatedly without destroying it was achieved for the first time. Previously. such as the polarization of photons. thus far we haven't discussed the speed at which teleportation should occur. such as the production of two correlated photons when a single photon passes through a special crystal. Scientists are working towards breaking this challenge. Physicists have long realized that it is possible to perform non-destructive observations of a photon with a difficult-to-execute technique known as a „quantum nondemolition‟ (QND) measurement. Can quantum communication? teleportation be used for superluminal If we tried to define a colloquial notion of teleportation it would probably have two main properties: That objects move from A to B without “passing" through the space in between and that it be done instantaneously. namely. physicists obtained entangled particles as a by-product of some random or probabilistic process. in the deterministic entanglement process for atoms. the other atom instantaneously presents itself in excited state-the result of second atom wave function collapse thus determined by the result of the first atom wave function collapse. researchers in France (Dr Haroche Etal) demonstrated first QND measurement of a single quantum object. Researchers in Paris have achieved progress at the macroscopic level by entangling pairs of atoms for the first time. the atom in ground state. As opposed to teleportation of only two states of a quantum particle. the researchers trap a pair of beryllium ions in a magnetic field. However. However much complexity is involved in the teleportation of atoms due to their complex structure. The experimental apparatus produces two entangled atoms.after many years of experimental effort. Can the atoms be entangled too? Atoms also can be entangled. our teleportation schemes satisfy the first property. When a measurement is made on one atom. say. the new research would allow all quantum states to be teleported. Roughly speaking.

Real experiments that do teleportation A number of groups conducted experimental realizations of the quantum teleportation procedure described above in the years 1997 and 1998. if you can teleport one spin. the process would likely not be pain-free. In many cases Labs A and B were the left and right side of a table. That is. though. In principle. The message will travel at the speed of light from A to B. The basic idea of such a proof is to check that. Unfortunately all modern theories of physics predict that both faster than light travel and faster than light communication are impossible. then you can teleport many spins simply by repeating the experiment in series many times. teleportation might be significantly slower than light travel if the measurement and reconstruction procedures are slow. After all. no matter what state is being teleported. However. using a variety of different systems such as the spin (or polarization) of photons and the spin of atoms. if you get to see as your feet are slowly measured and disassembled. these experiments were sufficient to convince most physicists that teleportation of spins is possible. However. we are somehow instantaneously modifying the spin in Lab B. The reason distance becomes relevant has to do with the distribution of entanglement which becomes harder as the separation between the two labs increases. A second related problem is the storing of entanglement which can only be done for very short periods. Whether or not this is a good description of what is going on depends which interpretation of quantum mechanics is used to describe the system (there are actually many interpretations of quantum mechanics which describe the above process in very different ways). the distance has been increased in one experiment to 600 m. At first glance. our version of teleportation cannot be instantaneous and does not allow for travel faster than the speed of light. But this roughly only works on disjoint spins. However. there seems to be a way to use the teleportation procedure for superluminal communication.Teleportation as defined here requires sending a message from Lab A to Lab B using a regular phone. Since 1997 there have also been many improved versions of the teleportation experiment. In fact. and the spins were teleported roughly 50 cm. if we are teleporting a person (or some other system that is not static) then the measurement and reconstruction procedures need to be performed nearly instantaneously. all interpretations of quantum mechanics agree on one fact: that such tricks cannot be used for superluminal communication. For instance. To teleport a single object comprised of many spins is still out of reach of present day experiments. at least until such a time when the correction operators have been applied. by measuring the spins in Lab A. and the accuracy of the teleported state has also been slowly improving. when averaged over all the outcomes obtained in Lab A. Therefore. so in practice most early experiments distribute the entanglement only moments before it is to be used for teleportation. Therefore the measurements in Lab B cannot convey any useful information. any measurement done in Lab B will always yield 50-50 outcomes. .

i.000.000. free radicals would not be a major problem and their possible loss may not affect any part of the anatomy. In principle.e. This information is so large that even with the best optical fibers conceivable it would take over a hundred million centuries to transmit all the information! There are some 1029 matter particles comprising a human person. if not sooner. quantum effects in the neurons of the brain. each of which has position and momentum degrees of freedom in addition to spin. we should see experiments that teleport large numbers of spins. though. If we forget about recognizing atoms and measuring their velocities and just scale that to a resolution of one atomic length in each direction. we might also need to teleport the photons. Taken one at a time. the information amounts to about 1032 bits.In the future.000 bits. through radio waves) to the place where the body is reconstructed by another machine. It is likely that this will happen within the next 30 to 50 years. if a practical quantum computer is ever built then the same technology would likely allow us to teleport a few thousand spins. . Certainly. and photons. gluons and other energy particles comprising a person. The main three sub-atom constituents would be free radicals. about ten CD-ROMs) to give the full three-dimensional details of a human down to one-millimeter resolution in each direction. Bottlenecks. Human teleportation Teleportation is the name given by the science fiction writers to the feat of making an object or person disintegrate in one place while a perfect replica appears somewhere else. velocity. Human teleportation would require a machine that measures the position. The visible human project by the American National Institute of health requires about 10 GB (=1011=100. and type of atoms throughout the body of a person and then sends that information ( say.

the final answer to whether teleportation of people is possible even in principle must wait for the formulation of a complete theory of physics. is actually still a controversial subject. consciousness or spirit that permeates the human body that cannot be described by science. One way these exchanges of information can occur is via a quantum phone. but it does leave the nagging question of why does it feel like we are constantly measuring the world? Of course. Roughly speaking.e.Teleporting all that is going to be significantly harder than a few thousand spins. the alternative is to do teleportation using a regular phone. I would roughly divide people into three schools of thought. In the future it is likely that quantum computers (i. But when such phones are not available. . and so it is quite possible that something interesting will happen when a large enough system is examined. any object that is capable of performing quantum measurements cannot itself be a quantum object. it is also true that presently it is very hard to experimentally study large quantum systems. hundreds and maybe even thousands of spins will be teleported in practice some day. and therefore cannot be teleported using quantum teleportation. It is probably a good guess that teleportation of humans will never be possible. The mathematics for this process works out quite nicely. as we should be able to determine at what point do objects stop being quantum mechanical. and this appears to the observer as if a measurement was performed. a device capable of sending and received quantum messages. The first group of physicists would argue that there is a soul. that is. What happens is that the observer becomes entangled with the system he is measuring. Unfortunately. In this view. in this view by definition we are prevented from using science to determine if teleportation is feasible. In the meantime. In principle. one can ask if there any applications for teleporting thousands of spins? The answer is probably yes. At the moment there is neither any experimental evidence for such observer objects nor even a consistent theory that could describe them. Are we at least sure that it is possible to teleport humans in principle? While most scientists expect that ten. A second group of physicists would disagree with human teleportation because of something known as the measurement problem. and therefore in principle can be teleported. The third school of thought (which I am partial to) would say that all objects big and small are quantum mechanical.. such a belief will have experimental consequences. On the other hand. one which unifies relativity with quantum mechanics. small numbers of particles are quantum but at some point when you combine enough particles you end up with a classical or observer object. which cannot be described by the laws of quantum mechanics. What happened with the measurement problem? I would argue that measurements never actually occur. the teleportation of a human being. even in principle. These computers will need to exchange quantum information. So don't be surprised if some day in the next 100 years you see a quantum teleportation device for sale in your local computer store. computers capable of processing quantum information) will be built and may even be as ubiquitous as classical computers are today.

Applications of quantum teleportation    Quantum computer (computer that has data transmission rates many times faster than today's most powerful computers).. Suspended animation (by creating a copy many years after the information was stored). And it may prove to be impossible in the future.e. Introduces a certain level of error in the exchange of quantum information between the systems. environmental noise) through stray interactions with the object.) . Decoherence    Object‟s quantum states degrade when information leaks to or from the environment (i. Backup copies (creating a copy from recently stored information if the original was involved in a mishap. But let‟s not confine our vision of teleportation only to human body. If teleportation proves successful.Why not objects? Teleportation of human body as a whole involves lots of complexities. Fundamentally Limits q-Teleportation. This development may also be expanded towards macroscopic objects because the atomic structural arrangement of their atoms will be comparatively simpler than of human body. which involves much less risk. rigid bodies could be teleported in useful ways. We can teleport objects (non-living things) from one place to another.

Things to combat    Difficult to fathom what is future for human teleportation. Consciousness. . weapon platform. We are away from being able to teleport and entangle bulky objects( technical equipments. and the spirit or soul. memories and dreams. communication devices). atoms of size 1012 are entangled and teleported. and spirit/soul be successfully and accurately teleported or not? Conclusion   With the advancements. memories and dreams. Effects of the q-Teleportation process on the human consciousness.

com www.wikipedia.google.Bibliography www.com .

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