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TITLE : Comparison for different radar sat sensor RADAR SATELLITE SENSOR RADAR stands for Radio Detection

and Ranging by virtue of sending out pulses of microwave electromagnetic radiation this type of instrument can be classified as an active sensor where it is measures the time between pulses and their reflected

dielectric constant). Radar and infrared sensors are complimentary instruments and are often used together to study the same types of earth surfaces. SEASAT Seasat was the first Earth-orbiting satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earth's oceans and had on board the first space borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The mission was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of global satellite monitoring of oceanographic phenomena and to help determine the requirements for an

components to determine distance. Different pulse intervals, different wavelengths,

different geometry and polarizations can be combined to roughness characteristics of the earth surface. Radar wavelengths range less than 1 millimeter to 1 meter. All photos can be called images but not all images should be called photos. Images are acquired digitally are usually not referred to as photographs there is no such thing as a radar photograph.

operational ocean remote sensing satellite system. Specific objectives were to collect data on sea-surface winds, sea-surface temperatures, wave heights, internal waves, atmospheric water, sea ice features and ocean topography. APPLICATIONS OF SEASAT

Radar uses relative long wavelength which allows these systems to see through clouds, smoke, and some vegetation. Also, being an active system, it can be operated day or night. There are disadvantages, such as the non-unique spectral properties of the returned radar signal. Unlike infrared data that help us to identify different minerals or vegetation types from reflected sunlight, radar only shows the difference in the surface roughness and geometry and 1 was GEOSAT The Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) a dedicated US Navy military 1. SEASAT was able to detect the wakes of submerged submarines. 2. The conspiracy theory holds that once this was discovered, the

military shut SEASAT down, with a cover story of a power supply short.

moisture content of the ground (the complex

oceanographic satellite consisting of a radar altimeter designed to obtain closely spaced, precise mapping of the earth's geoid over the ocean. GEOSAT featured an altimeter designed to measure the marine gravity field as accurately as possible. APPLICATIONS OF GEOSAT 1. Geosat is an advanced satellite data technology transfer program for geological applications. 2. To produce geological maps and thematic exploration maps in for mineral or

APPLICATIONS OF ERS-1 1. Radar remote sensing has the

potential to play an important role in agricultural crop monitoring due to its independence from solar

illumination and cloud cover, besides its sensitiveness to canopy geometry and moisture content.

2. The ERS-1 Wind Scatterometer has potential for the monitoring of soil frost and the retrieval of soil

moisture/vegetation water content.

environmental

hazardous areas study. ERS-1 ERS-1 carried an array of earthobservation instruments that gathered

3. The ERS-1 also used for measure ocean surface temperature and winds at sea.

information about the Earth such as land, water, ice and atmosphere using a variety of measurement principles. To accurately

determine its orbit, the satellite included the PRARE (Precision Range and Range-Rate Equipment) and a laser retroreflector. The PRARE was non-operational since launch. The retroreflector was used for calibrating the Radar Altimeter to within 10 cm. ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellite having similar

instrumentation and allowing applications to profit from the operation of both satellites.

Radar Altimeter Characteristics for Various Satellites

6. http://www.esa.int/esaEO/SEMGWH 2VQUD_index_0_m.html

Satellite ERS-1 ERS-2 Geos-3

Frequency (Ghz) 13.50 13.50 13.90

Bandwidth 400.00

Wavelength (m) 0.02 0.02

Range Resolution (m) 0.10 0.1 0.50

Pulse Compression 8000.00 58000.00 30.00

Wave Height

.13 m 25% (4-10 m) 10% (1-20 m) .035 m 10% (1-20 m) 1-2 m .13 m

80.00

0.02

GEOSAT GEOSAT Follow-On SEASAT Skylab TOPEX/ Poseidon

13.50 13.50 13.50 13.90 5.3&13.6

320.00

0.02 0.02

0.10 0.018 0.10 1.00 0.03

30000.00 58000.00 1000.00 13.00 58000.00

320.00 100.00 320.00

0.02 0.02 .0566*amp; .02205

7. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_al l.jsp?arnumber=516410&tag=1 REFERENCES 1. lrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/satellite_missions/li st_of.../seas_general.html 2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SEASAT 3. NASA JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 4. http://www.fas.org/spp/military/progr am/nssrm/initiatives/geosat1.htm 5. http://earth.esa.int/ers/satconc/