MAKERERE

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERNG, DESIGN ART AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CIV 4100: CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECT

PROJECT TITLE: DENSIFICATION OF A SOFT SOIL USING ELECTROKINETIC TECHNOLOGY (CHAPTER THREE)

KEESIGA DIANA O8/U/444 208000805
………………………………………. GENERAL SUPERVISOR DR.DENIS KALUMBA

MAIN SUPERVISOR MR.RICHARD KIZZA ………………………………

CO-SUPERVISOR MR.JJUKO SAMUEL ……………………………

Submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of a Bachelor of Science Degree in Civil Engineering

1 Clay soil Disturbed clay soil samples were picked at predetermined intervals from Kampala in Busega besides the Northern By-pass. The bag bulk sampling method was used using a shovel or scoop as the collection device. MUK.2. All samples collected were properly preserved in tight polythene bags such that sample properties and integrity were maintained. This was aimed at obtaining clay with properties as similar as possible to those used by Umutoni.1 Sample Preparation The moisture content of the raw sample was determined prior to treatment to determine the change in moisture content of the sample due to moisture loss during storage. 2011.1 Introduction The objective of this study is to determine the applicability of electrokinetics on a Ugandan clay soil. The soil and water were then mixed using an electrical mixer (figure 3-1) for at least 10 minutes to ensure that the resultant slurry was uniform.3 Experimental Procedures 1. Design. Art and Technology. Moisture content of the resultant slurry was determined to ensure that it’s within acceptable limits. 2010.1 : Methodology 1. Amount of water to be added to the soil to adjust its moisture content to was determined as shown in appendix B-1. MUK. Analysis was then done in the Structures and Soil laboratories at the College of Engineering. This chapter gives an account of the materials. This method was chosen because it’s simple and easy to use for collection of disturbed samples.2 Study Materials and Apparatus 1. and Faculty of Agriculture. and Lule. 1. apparatus and tests that were carried out to achieve the above objective.3. 1. Figure 1-1: Electric Mixer in Use 1|Page .

4V/cm) were applied then 20 volts (1. The fourth setup had no voltage across it since it was the control experiment. Effluent flowing during the experiment was collected in containers placed directly below the cathode end of the testing box.3. This was run for 3 days. A schematic layout of the experimental setup is shown in figure 3-3 below.1.5 V/cm) across the third setup. Across one. Figure 1-2: Experimental Setup Figure 1-3: Schematic layout of each experimental set up 2|Page . Two electrodes (shown in figure 3-5) were vertically inserted into the soil 200mm apart and were then connected to power supplies via copper wires as shown in the figure below.0 V/cm) across the other and 10 volts (0. terminated and same procedure followed for the 7 day and 30 day duration experiments. 28 volts (1.2 Electroosmotic Test Procedure The prepared slurry was then transferred to the testing box (shown in figure 3-6) using a spoon to avoid trapping any air. Each of the setups shown in figure 3-2 below had a different voltage applied across it.

They enabled easy connection to the power supply and ensured that the electrode fits in the testing box. as well as low (material. The first box was encased in the second box to make the soil holding apparatus. and fabrication) costs.8 cm diameter and 4. ease of fabrication to the required form. 1) Electrodes The electrodes (cathode and anode) used had properties similar to those used by Umutoni and Lule former students of MUK.9 cm wide were cut from the hoop iron roll and welded to another hoop iron piece which was 10 cm in length to make the electrode.3 cm and hole of 0. These dimensions were chosen basing on the size of the plastic testing box. the more expensive the experiment thus the used size of the testing box. Figure 1-4: A Pair of Electrodes and a Schematic of an Electrode 2) Testing box Two small rectangular plastic boxes (average dimensions. 207 x 125 x 96 mm) open at the top were used to hold the sample during the experiment because plastic is a poor conductor of electricity.The different components of the set up are explained below. availability. A picture of the plastic boxes is shown in figure 3-3 below. The distance between the three electrode leaves was 2.1 cm long and 1. Figure 1-5: Components of the Testing Box and the Testing box Apparatus 3|Page . Three pieces of hoop iron each 11. Nine holes of 0. Hoop Iron was used to make the electrodes because of its good electrical conductivity.3 cm average spacing were drilled at the cathode side of one of the plastic boxes and a 1cm wide long cut out made on the cathode side of the second plastic box.4 cm diameter was drilled in the top piece where a wire to connect the electrodes to the power supply was tied. Small boxes were used so as to cut down the cost of the model experiment since the larger the model.

3 Analysis of Treated Sample After running the experiment for the set treatment time.3. the cathode end. Moisture content of these samples was determined and the dry density calculated. One had a capacity of 30 Volts (model ED – 300S) and two had each a capacity of 20 Volts Figure 1-6: The Power Supplies and Ammeter Used 1. The electrodes were then carefully removed from the sample taking care not to distort the sample around them. Figure 1-7: Sampling From the Top Cathode Region 4|Page . the power supply was cut. The treated sample was divided into three regions. the middle and the anode end. A shear box cutter (figure 3-4) was then used to obtain samples from the top and bottom of the three different regions.3) Power Supply Three power supplies shown in figure 3-7 below were used in this study. The results obtained were analysed and conclusions were drawn on the effect of electrokinetics on the densification of a Ugandan soft soil.

5|Page .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful