INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 1 Group work: Prepare a dialogue with at least five language functions for a role play

. Function 1 – To give compliments Function 2 – To give directions Function 3 – To express emotions Function 4 – To give greetings Function 5 – To ask for permission

The dialogue: A B A : Hello, welcome to F.O.S. May I help you? : Oh, thank you. I would like to find a blouse for a party. Where can I find it? : You can find it on the female section. To get there, walk straight through children section and take left. On your way, you will find the female section. : Thank you for your directions but hey the belts here are really nice. Which belt is suitable for a party? Can you help me? : Yes, of course madam. I think this belt will be the most suitable for a party as for the pattern and the colour of the belt is very fancy. : Oh, great. Thank you for your help. It is very nice to deal with you. : My pleasure.

B

A

B A

.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 2 Prepare a 3 minutes mime (non-verbal communication) of a situation of your choice. Then. the mime will be ended with those two girls that will fight over for the guy. The girl that was being bullied will just obeying with whatever the other two girls been doing and just being sad about it. The mime will start with a girl together with her best friend bullying another girl of her age. The ignored girl will make her move of revenge when the guy is being together with the bullied girl. Situation: The situation is about a love triangle between a guy and two girls. The guy will just ignore the girl instead he is trying to be close with the girl that was being bullied before. Then it will be followed by a scene that a girl of the two girls is trying to flirt with a guy.

dialogues. social interaction. newspaper. etc.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 3 Categorise the similarities and differences between speech and writing in everyday life situations: news. SIMILARITIES Message delivered To convey information Comes from thoughts Needs language Using phoneme Types of communication Can be both formal and informal DIFFERENCES SPEECH Can be two ways communication Can be together with gestures and intonation It has to be two parties at a time By using mouth or orally Influence by accent Not necessarily needed two parties By using fingers Influence by literature WRITTEN One way communication only No gestures and intonation .

he said ―I must see What minister‘s fee be Before Phobe be Phoebe Beebee . See owned a saw And Mr.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 4 Access information from the internet for at least 3 tongue twisters for pronunciation practice in tutorial Week 5. A certain young fellow named Beebee Wished to marry a lady named Phobe ―But‖. Soar owned a seesaw Now. See‘s saw sawed Soar‘s seesaw Before Soar saw See Which made Soar sore Had Soar seen See‘s saw Before See sawed Soar‘s seesaw See‘s saw would not have sawed Soar‘s seesaw So See‘s saw sawed Soar‘s seesaw But it was sad to see Soar so sore Just because See‘s saw sawed Soar‘s seesaw 2. 1. Mr.

A tutor who tooted the flute Tried to tutor two tooters to toot Said the two to the tutor Is it tougher to toot Or to tutor two tooters to toot? .3.

thee. Thus they are distinct phonemes (units of sound. as is demonstrated by the presence of a small number of minimal pairs: thigh:thy. though. than. this. The distribution pattern may be summed up in the following rule of thumb which is valid in most cases: in initial position we use /θ/ except in certain function words.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 5 Access information from the internet to complete a table of five minimal pairs with initial. themself  7 adverbs and conjunctions: there. that. them. ether:either. differences in which can affect meaning). theirs. sibilants and alveolar stops by such minimal pairs as thought:fought/sought/taught and then:Venn/Zen/den. thine. A small number of common function words (the Middle English anomalies mentioned below) begin with /ð/. these. they. A more detailed explanation follows. their. means that /ð/ is nevertheless more frequent in actual use. thus. then. In modern English. /θ/ and /ð/ bear a phonemic relationship to each other. in medial position we use /ð/ except for certain foreign loan words. The words in this group are:   5 demonstratives: the. thy. thence. medial and filial phoneme differences. the constant recurrence of the function words. The vast majority of words in English with ⟨th⟩ have /θ/. Initial position   Almost all words beginning with a dental fricative have /θ/. and almost all newly created words do. those 2 personal pronouns each with multiple forms: thou. as opposed to allophones (different pronunciations of a phoneme having no effect on meaning). teeth:teethe. themselves. However. and in final position we use /θ/ except in certain verbs. thither (though some speakers pronounce thence and thither with initial /θ/) . particularly the. They are distinguished from the neighbouring labiodental fricatives. thyself.

Gaithersburg. everything. wither. Netherlands. Heather.  A few words have initial ⟨th⟩ for /t/ (e. Thomas): see below. Various compound adverbs based on the above words: therefore. nothing. pithy. father. But Rutherford has either /ð/ or /θ/.  A few words have medial ⟨th⟩ for /t/ or /th/ (e. thereafter. further. farther. and the frequent combination -ther-: bother. thereby.g. thereupon. healthy. and similar compound names where the first component ends in '-ther' or '-thers'. smithereens. etc. wealthy. Caruthers. northern. Medial position  Most native words with medial ⟨th⟩ have /ð/. fathom. but worthy and swarthy have /ð/. rather. brother. weather. A few native words have medial /θ/:  The adjective suffix -y normally leaves terminal /θ/ unchanged: earthy. slither. lighthouse): see below. dither. Witherspoon. southern. stealthy. farthing.g.    Preceded by /r/: Worthington. mother. lather. Final position  Nouns and adjectives . Followed by /r/: brethren. thenceforth. either.  Compound words in which the first element ends or the second element begins with ⟨th⟩ frequently have /θ/. something. Southampton.  The only other native words with medial /θ/ would seem to be brothel and Ethel. whether. other. as these elements would in isolation: bathroom. together.  Between vowels: heathen. anything.

smooth have either /ð/ or /θ/. clothe. breath. sheathe. cloth. tithe. scathing as an adjective etc.   Verbs  Verbs ending in a dental fricative usually have /ð/. Nouns and adjectives ending in a dental fricative usually have /θ/: bath. but only /θ/ as a noun. and are frequently spelled ⟨-the⟩: bathe. froth. frothing with either /θ/ or /ð/. tooth/teeth. loathe. sooth. scythe. health. sheath. breathe. hearth. soothe. blythe. . teethe. seethe.   froth has either /θ/ or /ð/ as a verb. loath. scathe. therefore so do bathed. lathe. bathing.  Exceptions are usually marked in the spelling with ⟨-the⟩: tithe. Spelled without ⟨e⟩: mouth (verb) nevertheless has /ð/. lithe with /ð/. booth. wreath. wreathe. scythe. width. writhe. Likewise clothing used as a noun. The verb endings -s. -ed do not change the pronunciation of a ⟨th⟩ in the final position in the stem: bathe has /ð/. -ing. bathes.

Chart 1 shows the English inflectional morphemes and how they are used in speech. It is the morpheme {-able} which means "capable of. These clues are a great way to see which morphemes act as signals for particular parts of speech. Morphemes To make this as simple as possible. The main differene between the two is that derivational morphemes create a new word when attached to a base word. Inflectional morphemes are those which are used to show grammatical relationships and all 8 inflections are all suffixes. worthy of" that gives "readable" the meaning "worthy of reading". There are three kinds of inflectional morphemes: nouns. It is important to note that there are two different kinds of morphemes: inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes. braces are placed around the sound sequences that create morphemes.The chart at the bottom of the page lists Form Clues. In order to distinguish morphemes from words and syllables. . a morpheme is the name given to the the smallest unit of meaning in a language. verbs and adectives.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 6 Access information from the internet on types of morphemes and allomorphs and provide examples. {read} is the independent word meaning "to read". Derivational morphemes are perhaps a little more complex merely because there are more of them. {en-} + {act} + {-ment}= enactment. When these suffixes are attatched to the root or base word the meaning of the base is not changed. There is also a version that you may download and print up for your own reference. For a list of common morphemes. Example: the word "readable" has two morphemes. (ex: "act" has a clear meaning but the meaning of the word changes when the morphemes {en-} and {-ment} are added. We'll look at more derivational morphemes in a bit.

Thus. an allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme. It occurs in several allomorphs depending on its phonological environment. then the first matching case usually "wins". Examples include the past tense and the plural morphemes. such as 'hunted' /hʌntəd/ or 'banded' /bændəd/  as /t/ in verbs whose stem ends with voiceless phonemes other than /t/. despite the fact that the latter is voiceless. assimilating voicing of the previous segment or inserting a schwa when following an alveolar stop:  as /əd/ or /ɪd/ in verbs whose stem ends with the alveolar stops /t/ or /d/. the above conditions could be re-written as follows:    as /əd/ or /ɪd/ when the stem ends with the alveolar stops /t/ or /d/ as /t/ when the stem ends with voiceless phonemes as /d/ elsewhere The fact that the /t/ allomorph does not appear after stem-final /t/. is then explained by the fact that /əd/ appears in that . Allomorphy in English suffixes English has several morphemes that vary in sound but not in meaning. such as 'fished' /fɪʃt/  as /d/ in verbs whose stem ends voiced phonemes other than /d/. For example. after an alveolar stop) to least restrictive. The concept occurs when a unit of meaning can vary in sound without changing meaning.Allomorphs In linguistics. This is a common fact about allomorphy: if the allomorphy conditions are ordered from most restrictive (in this case. in English. a past tense morpheme is -ed. The term allomorph explains the comprehension of phonological variations for specific morphemes. such as 'buzzed' /bʌzd/ Notice the "other than" restrictions above.

which therefore take priority over the general cases listed above. such as "broke" or "was/ were". . the fact that the /d/ allomorph does not appear after stem-final /d/ is because the earlier clause for the /əd/ allomorph takes priority. like the verb "break"). can be seen as still more specific cases (since they are confined to certain lexical items. Likewise. Irregular past tense forms.environment. and the fact that the /d/ allomorph does not appear after stem-final voiceless phonemes is because the preceding clause for the /t/ takes priority. together with the fact that the environments are ordered.

but a word‘s connotation determines when it is used. The denotative or literal meaning of ―home‖ is ― a place where one lives. comes from the other type of word meaning—connotation. The denotation of a word is its explicit definition as listed in a dictionary. you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly. Denotation and Connotation  Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word. synonyms have the same . sometimes venomous reptiles¡Khaving a long. By definition. cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions. and family. Denotative Vocabulary Words are not limited to one single meaning. Connotative vs. denotative. The expressiveness of language. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. Connotation Determines Use The connotative and denotative meanings of words are both correct. ―There‘s no place like home. or the association or set of associations that a word usually brings to mind . which are categorized as either denotative or connotative."  Connotation. definition. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger.‖ she‘s not referring to its denotation. comfort. and dictionary all start with the letter ‗D. legless. Most words have multiple meanings. tapering. Let‘s use the word ―home‖ as an example.‖ Hint: Denotation. however. a residence."¨ For example. the "dictionary definition. The connotative meaning of ―home‖ is a place of security. on the other hand. but the emotions ―home‖ evokes for her and most people. When Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz says. if you look up the word snake in a dictionary.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 7 Access information from the internet on denotative and connotative meaning.

but each elicits a different association in the reader‘s mind. . yacht.denotation or literal meaning. and ferry. For example. Neutral: Sally was an active member of her sorority. these are the sentence meaning shifts when the underlined word is changed: Positive: Sally was an enthusiastic member her sorority. For example. dinghy. Negative: Sally was a fanatical member of her sorority. but almost always have different connotations. the synonyms of ―boat‖ include ship. or shades of meaning. All these words refer to the same thing.

are called hyponyms. Hyponymy is the relationship between each lower term and the higher term (super . e.g. Lexical semantics examines relationships among word meanings. A hyponym is a subordinate. green are kinds of color they are specific colors and color is the general term for them. . red. which shows their relationship with one another.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 8 Access information from the internet on polysemy. Synonymy. meaning related structures of words. hyponymy and antonymy. happy. sad. Lexical field or semantic field is the organization of related words and expressions in to a system. synonymy. This set of word is a lexical field all its words refer to emotional states. afraid. yellow. There are different types of lexical relationsHyponymy Polysemy. e. Blue. depressed.set 1 angry. A study of Lexical Relations The branch of semantics that deals with the word meaning is called lexical semantics. Antonymy Hyponymy Hyponymy is a relationship between two words in which the meaning of one of the words includes the meaning of the other word. It is the study of systematic. green.g. It is the study of how the lexicon is organized and how the lexical meanings of lexical items are interrelated. specific term whose referent is included in the referent of super ordinate term. and it‘s principle goal is to build a model for the structure of the lexicon by categorizing the types of relationships between words. Therefore color is called the super ordinate term and blue. The lexical relation corresponding to the inclusion of one class in another is hyponymy. etc.

A word may have both a hyponym and a super ordinate term. Synonymy Synonymy is used to mean sameness of meaning.Crystal and Dick Hebdige (1979) also defined polysemy. In a lexical field. which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. Hyponymy is not restricted to objects. ‗There is a horse‘ entails that ‗There is an animal‘ Hyponymy often functions in discourse as a means of lexical cohesion by establishing referential equivalence to avoid repetition. F.g. Two or more terms which share the same super ordinate terms are co-hyponyms. Hyponymy is defined in terms of the inclusion of the sense of one item in the sense of another. or nouns. crow . e. hyponymy may exist at more than one level.R.g. A well-known problem in semantics is how to decide whether we are dealing with a single polysemous word or with two or more homonyms. There are several ways in which they differ .Polysemous word is a word having two or more meanings.Palmer concluded saying that finally multiplicity of meaning is a very general characteristic of language. hawk.ordinate). the verb cook has many hyponyms.It is sense relation.foot in :He hurt his foot She stood at the foot of the stairs. Polysemy is used in semantics and lexical analysis to describe the word with multiple meanings. Polysemy When a word has several very closely related senses or meanings . abstract concepts. Lexical ambiguity depends upon homonymy and polysemy. Hyponymy involves the logical relationship of entailment. Synonym is a word. It can be identified in many other areas of the lexicon. fowl as hyponyms of bird and bird in turn is a hyponym of living beings . e.g. e.So there is a hierarchy of terms related to each other through hyponymic relations.g. We thus have Sparrow. e. The sense of animal is included in the sense of lion.

which are identical both in denotation and connotation.Some words may be said to differ only in their emotive or evaluative meanings.The relation of oppositeness is that which holds between the pairs as single:married.e. Also the negative of one member of the gradable pair does not necessarily imply the opposite.tie-untie.1. Antonymy The word antonymy derives from the greek root anti(opposite) and denotes opposition in meaning. 3. It is very hard to list absolute synonyms: words. conceal.Synonyms are often said to differ only in their connotation. 2. Antonyms are divided in to several types-1. Antonymy or oppositeness of meaning has long been recognized as one of the most important semantic relations .gradable antonyms/pairs. 3. quick-slow. Converseness is used to refer to the relationship between buy and sell. 2.e.Some set of synonyms belong to different dialects of language.g.nongradable antonyms/complementaries. Fall .etc. and 3. The denial of one implies the assertion of the other and the assertion of one implies the denial of the other.converse pairs –Another kind of antonymy is forming converse pairs. e. etc. It is the characteristic of complimentaries. Examples-hid. . 5. etc. 4. man:woman. long-short. e. e. rich-poor.g. 4.There is a similar situation but are more problematic one with words that are used in different styles or registers.g.Words are collocationally restricted they occur only in conjunction with other words. Autumn-used in some western countries. big-small.not hot does not mean cold.gradable antonyms/pairs-They can be used in comparative constructions like bigger than or smaller than.nongradable antonyms/complementaries.g.reversives 4.g.converse pairs 1.used in united states. 2. reversives-It is important to avoid most antonym pairs as one word meaning the negative of another.

They may convey the indirect meanings which may be just the opposite to their literal meanings. On the contrary. What are Figuratives? On many occassions. the mind must interpret the data to convert it into meaning.. Such symbolical and metaphorical meanings are called Figuratives. the words may not convey the literal meaning of them. Dagger: To be at daggers drawn – to be deadly enemies . When the human ear or eye receives the message. Let us see few hundreds of such Figuratives here. Example-1: The Phrase Yellow Press does not give the literal meaning that the press which is in Yellow color. words in figurative expressions connote additional layers of meaning. They contain the figure of speech.INDEPENDENT SELF-LEARNING 9 Access information from the internet on at least five figurative expressions and provide their meaning.The Figuratives have been arranged in the alphabetical order. while words in literal expressions denote what they mean according to common or dictionary usage. Here is the list of Figurative Expressions beginning with D. It has the figurative meaning that in the same misfortune or circumstances. Example-2: The Phrase In the same boat does not convey the literal meaning.. Figurative Expression In traditional analysis. it conveys the meaning of The News Papers which publish sensational and unscrupulous stories about crime. Let us see few examples of Figurative Expression to make the point clear. sex etc.

Damocles: To have the sword of Damocles hanging over one’s head – to be in imminent danger of losing one‘s life.) Dare: A dare-devil – a fearless. reckless man Date: Up to date – recent. to live in constant fear of some impending danger Daniel: A Daniel – an imperial judge (Shakespeare. modern Out of date – obsolete Davy: In Davy Jones’s locker – drowned. at the bottom of the sea Day: He has seen better days – He was once prosperous Evil days – a period of misfortune To gain or win the day – to be victorious Halcyon days – a time when there is peace and happiness in the land Dead: Dead beat – quite exhausted Dead broke – penniless To run dead heat – a race in which the contestants came in together . ―Merchant of Venice‖: Daniel I-VI.

A dead letter – something which no longer exists To step into dead men’s shoes – to come into an inheritance. to succeed someone who died? Devil: To give the devil his due – give a person credit for his good qualities however worthless he may be Go to the devil – Be off Devil’s playthings – playing cards Devil’s bones – dice To be between the devil and the deep sea – to be faced with two dangerous situations. each of which is to be dreaded as much as the other. . Dilemma: To be on the horns of a dilemma – to be in such a position that it is difficult to decide what to do.

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