Each section contains a description of the situation (D). Analyze (A) relevant dimensions and theories, explaining how they apply. Youc an then Evaluate (E), giving your opinion based on experience. Be brief; use bullet points; write neatly/legibly. The table of country indexes is attached. Be aware of how many points can be earned for each question so that you spend the appropriate amount of time on each.
PART I (40 points) Short situations and Quotes (4 items)

1. The Watergate scandal was a political scandal during the 1970s in the U.S resulting from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee’s headquarters. The Nixon administration's attempted cover up of its involvement. When interviewed and cornered by the Australian journalist Frost, he was said to yell: “No – when the President does it, it is NOT illegal”. Description: provided in the text Analyse: • Human nature: It is part of Human nature that Power Distance exists in all society; (other possible explanation can be: it is universal that the president has certain power above others; or to a certain extent different parties want to sabotage or spy on each other...etc) • Cultural level: US has low PD (40), Mas (63). • Case/Personality level: Nixon is High PD (putting himself above the law) Masculine (aggressive, competitive) --> Conclusion: Nixon’s personal profile only partly overlaps with his American cultural profile. He is high PD while America is relatively Low PD. E- evaluation: Students’ own opinion about the case

PART II (20 points) Country focus 2-4 items 1. In Italy, 3.1% of working males worked part-time, and in the UK 8.1 %, as compared to 17% in the Netherlands and 10.8% in Denmark (Source: De Mooij, 2009)

Masculinity: Free time, quality of life is more important in Feminine cultures. Males in these cultures may also want to spend more time to share the house hold talks with their partners. --> Conclusion: This ritual (practice) reflects the value of these countries

2. The Italian word “raccomandazione” literally translated is recommendation, commendation or advice. However a better description would be the Italian practice of soliciting favours from people in high places.Italy ranks poorly on the CPI chart (Corruption Perception Index, 2008). It scores a 4.8, ranking the country on nr. 55 between South Africa and the Seychelles

Half of all Dutch companies offer a travel allowance. However. Portugal. words are female (Italian proverb). Belgium and Ireland for example. where public transport is free. whereas in Ireland. however. –-> Conclusion: Italian southern part is more collectivistic and thus can be argued to score lower on this dimension. • Collectivism: Italy scores high on the individualism dimension (IDV 76). The bigger power distance the fewer checks. it is individualistic. “Fatti maschi. employment conditions have to be adapted to the nature of each country. Most Dutch workers receive compensation for their travel expenses which enables them to determine how they use the reimbursement. only the senior management is reimbursed. Italy southern part is more collectivistic and thus can be argued to score lower on this dimension. In the Netherlands. the data from Hofstede is taken from the more individualistic north. 3. the less corruption there will be. This percentage is higher only in Ireland. In the southern part of Italy. –-> Conclusion: Italy should rank higher than 50. Companies that operate across the border must realize that benefits vary locally and are culturally determined. it is individualistic. the data from Hofstede is taken from the more individualistic north. family-business counts for a great part of the country's economy. parole femmine” Facts are male. In Italy this is even required by law. is Finland. . all employees of a company can be reimbursed for travel expenses. D-Description: Provided in the text A . Italy scores high on the individualism dimension (IDV 76). workers in some other countries have employment benefits that are not common in the Netherlands. The only other European country where it is common for employers to cover travel costs. De Volkskrant 14 April 2010 AMSTERDAM .Analyse: . Collectivism: the need to socialize and live interdependently is higher than the need to live dependently. However.• • PD: The wealthier the nation. --> Conclusion: This ritual (practice) reflects the value of southern Italy 4.A study of employment benefits in fifteen Western European countries shows that the Dutch travel allowance is unique in Europe. which indicates that statistically. Whether the lunch allowance outweighs the Dutch travel allowance hasn’t been determined. France. which indicates that statistically. • Masculinity: The clear cut line between the role of men and women --> Conclusion: This symbol (words/ proverb) reflects the value of Italy (40 points) 2 real life case studies PART III Translated from Reiskosten declareren is typisch Nederlands Sander Heijne. workers usually receive a lunch allowance. In Spain. However. To be considered an attractive employer.

 Netherlands and Finland are in general Feminine.  IC: Spain and Portugal may see this ritual of lunch reimbursement as a means to promote group cohesion in the company (colleagues have collective meals together during siesta)--> Conclusion: The case and the Cultural level overlap.• • Human nature/ Universal Level: Companies everywhere should take care of their employees with appropriate benefits and employment condition. Low Power Distance. --> Conclusion: The case and the Cultural level overlap.  France and Ireland may see this ritual of lunch reimbursement as a way to respect individual will to seek private space and time. --> Conclusion: The Case and the Cultural level overlap. Not a dominant value.evaluation: Students’ own opinion about the case • . E. This is a dominant value in this case (travel is free and reimbursed). Cultural level: The level and methods of this care can vary across culture.  Spain and Portugal lean towards Collectivistic  France and Ireland lean towards Individualistic Case level: In this case of travel allowance  MF: Netherlands and Findland are Femininity oriented.  PD: Both Netherlands and Ireland are Low PD (38 and 28) but in this case of travel allowance Ireland is likely to show high PD as only senior managers get reimbursement. Not a dominant value. --> Conclusion: Cultural and case levels do NOT overlap.

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