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LIST OF FIGURE SOLAR ENERGY 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY 1.2.1 ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNING 1.2.2 AGRICULTURE & HORTICULTURE 1.2.3 SOLAR LIGHTING 1.2.4 WATER HEATING 1.2.5 SOLAR COOKER 1.3 ENERGY STORAGE METHOD 1.4 DEVELOPMENT SOLAR TRACKER 2.1 HISTORY 2.2 TYPES QF SOLAR TRACKER 2.2.1 HORIZONTAL AXLE 2.2.2 VERTICAL AXLE 2.2.3 ALTITUDE-AZIMUTH 2.2.4 TWO-AXIS MOUNT 2.2.5 MULTI-MIRROR REFLECTIVE UNIT 2.3 DRIVE TYPES 2.3.1 ACTIVE TRACKER 2.3.2 PASSIVE TRACKER 2.3.3 CHRONOLOGICAL TRACKER 2.3.4 THIN-FILM SOLAR TRACKER & SOLAR CELL
I 1 2 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 26
27 1. INTRODUCTION 2. TYPES OF SOLAR CELL 28 29
1. 2. 3. 4.
HIGH-EFFICIENCY CELLS MULTIPLE-JUNCTION SOLAR CELLS THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS CRYSTALLINE SILICON
29 31 32 33
1. APPLICATION 2. SOLAR CELL EFFICIENCY FACTOR 3. MATERIAL USED FOR SOLAR CELL DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR TRACKER 1. METHOD OF POWER GENERATION
34 35 40
2. SELECTION OF MATERIAL 3. DETAIL OF EACH COMPONENT 4. ASSEMBLY OF SOLAR TRACKER 5. WORKING OF SOLAR TRACKER 6. COST OF SOLAR TRACKER 7. 1. FUTURE ASCPECT 1. FUTURE ASCPECT 2. CONCLUSION 3. REFERANCES 4.
44 45 52 53 54
55 56 57 58
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.1 4.1 4.2 Title Use of different energy in the word Use of solar energy in the world Architecture Building Farm house Solar lighting Water heating Solar cooker Horizontal Axle Vertical Axle Two Axis Mount Multi mirror reflective unit Thin-film solar tracker Types of solar cells & its efficiency Assembly of base stand Gear box
2. 3.5 Solar Plate Battery Assembly Assembly of solar tracker Page No. 1.3 4. 2. SOLAR ENERGY CONTENTS: 1. 1. ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNING AGRICULTURE & HORTICULTURE SOLAR LIGHTING WATER HEATING SOLAR COOKER INTRODUCTION APPLICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY . 3. 3.4 4. 2. 1.4.
1. [ ~- .
Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere. Once converted its uses are only limited by human ingenuity. selecting materials with . Solar radiation along with secondary solar resources such as wind and wave power. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture. daylighting. hydroelectricity and biomass account for most of the available renewable energy on Earth. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels. to convert sunlight into useful outputs. One such alternative is solar energy. ENERGY STORAGE METHOD DEVELOPMENT 1. 2. with electrical or mechanical equipment. normally the Earth. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun.1 INTRODUCTION In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern. Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the Sun that has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture. thermal energy for cooking. 3.1. solar thermal collectors. Solar power provides electrical generation by means of heat engines or photovoltaic. hot water. convert and distribute sunlight. and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. potable water via distillation and disinfection. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used.
water vapor condenses into clouds. oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds. The Earth receives 174 peta watts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insulation) at the upper atmosphere. wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises. completing the water cycle. and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. causing atmospheric circulation or convection. where the temperature is low. By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy. . Earth's land surface. oceans and land masses. cyclones and anti-cyclones. When the air reaches a high altitude. which rain onto the Earth's surface. producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet. and this raises their temperature. which produces food. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection.
~ .s ~ > ' I ) > ) ) ) .
■ i Coal 2 5% Gas 2 3% I .
Biomass 4% uclear €>°A> Hydro fN .
3% * Geothermal 0.2% B i o f u e l s .5% Wind 0.ir r olar heat 0.
0 . 2 % S o l a r p h o t o v o l .
t a i c 0 . Renewable energy sources are even larger than the traditional fossil fuels and in theory can easily supply the world's energy needs. While it is not possible to capture all. capturing less than 0. 89 PW of solar power falls on the planet's surface. Barriers to further solar generation include the high price .1 Use of Different Energy in the World ~4 As we seen from the above graph solar energy is most wildly use as a nonconversional energy in the world.02% would be enough to meet the current energy needs. or even most. of this energy. 0 4 % 1.
while availability of solar energy is lowest. ~5~ . solar generation is the fastest growing source of energy. This could be overcome by buying power from countries closer to the equator during winter months. Globally. along with demand for solutions to global warming. energy demand is highest in winter. U. Also. have led photovoltaic to become the most likely candidate to replace nuclear and fossil fuels. seeing an annual average growth of 35% over the past few years. Europe. which is a particular problem in high northern and southern latitude countries. Japan. Advances in technology and economies of scale. and India are the major growing investors in solar energy.of making solar cells and reliance on weather patterns to generate electricity. China.S. solar generation does not produce electricity at night.
2 TW 32 TW 86.000 TW Hydro Geothermal .7.
2 Use of Solar Energy in the World .870 TW 15 TW Glob al Solar Wind Consumption 1.
COOLING AND VENTILATION • WATER TREATMENT • COOKING • PROCESS HEAT • ELECTRICAL GENERATION • EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR POWER • SOLAR CHEMICAL • SOLAR VEHICLES .2 APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY • ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING • AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE • SOLAR LIGHTING • SOLAR THERMAL • WATER HEATING • HEATING.1.
C.1 ARCHITETURE AND URBAN PLANNING Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany won the 2007 Solar Decathlon in Washington. D.7 1.2. with this passive house .
When these features are tailored to the local climate and environment they can produce well-lit spaces that stay in a comfortable temperature range. selective shading (overhangs) and thermal mass. The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling tying together solar lighting. who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth. fans and switchable windows can complement passive design and improve system performance.designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate. heating and ventilation systems in an integrated solar design package.3 Architecture Building building design since the beginning of architectural history. Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese. Socrates' Megaron House is a classic example of passive solar design. Sunlight has influenced 1. ~8~ . Active solar equipment such as pumps. compact proportion (a low surface area to volume ratio). The common features of passive solar architecture are orientation relative to the Sun.
More recently the technology has been embraced by vinters. who use the energy generated by solar panels to power grape presses. These walls acted as thermal masses and accelerated ripening by keeping plants warm. Techniques such as timed planting cycles.2 AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE 1. Nicolas Fatio de Duillier even suggested using a tracking mechanism which could pivot to follow the Sun. sloping walls were developed to make better use of sunlight.4 Farm house Agriculture and horticulture seek to optimize the capture of solar energy in order to optimize the productivity of plants.1. .  Applications of solar energy in agriculture aside from growing crops include pumping water. Early fruit walls were built perpendicular to the ground and facing south. During the short growing seasons of the Little Ice Age. brooding chicks and drying chicken manure. French and English farmers employed fruit walls to maximize the collection of solar energy. drying crops. In 1699. the exceptions highlight the importance of solar energy to agriculture. staggered heights between rows and the mixing of plant varieties can improve crop yields. While sunlight is generally considered a plentiful resource.2. but over time. tailored row orientation.
3 SOLAR LIGHTING Daylighting features such as this oculus at the top of the Pantheon.2. The history of lighting is dominated by the use of natural light. in Rome.~9~ 1. The Romans recognized a right to light as early as the 6th century and 1. In the 20th century artificial lighting . Italy have been in use since antiquity.5 Solar Lighting English law echoed these judgments with the Prescription Act of 1832.
HSL systems collect sunlight using focusing mirrors that track the Sun and use optical fibers to transmit it inside the building to supplement conventional lighting. and indirectly offsets non-solar energy use by reducing the need for airconditioning.became the main source of interior illumination but daylighting techniques and hybrid solar lighting solutions are ways to reduce energy consumption. Daylighting systems collect and distribute sunlight to provide interior illumination. This passive technology directly offsets energy use by replacing artificial lighting. the use of natural lighting also offers physiological and psychological benefits compared to artificial lighting.  Although difficult to quantify. ~ 10 ~ . Hybrid solar lighting is an active solar method of providing interior illumination.
The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for 1. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems.2. .6 water heating domestic hot water.4 WATER HEATING Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.1. Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90% of homes using them. In the United States. and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools. the total installed capacity of solar hot water systems is approximately 154 GW. Canada and Australia heating swimming pools is the dominant application of solar hot water with an installed capacity of 18 GW as of 2005. As of 2007. China is the world leader in their deployment with 70 GW installed as of 2006 and a long term goal of 210 GW by 2020.
Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking. drying and pasteurization. concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking.2. panel cookers and reflector cookers.~ 11 ~ 1.5 SOLAR COOKER The Solar Bowl in Auroville. They can be grouped into three 1. India.7 solar cooker broad categories: box cookers. The simplest solar cooker is the box .
The solar bowl is a concentrating technology employed by the Solar Kitchen in Auroville. Fresnel mirrors) to focus light on a cooking container. These cookers reach temperatures of 315 °C and above but require direct light to function properly and must be repositioned to track the Sun. Steam is produced in the receiver at temperatures reaching 150 °C and then used for process heat in the kitchen. Pondicherry. Reflector cookers use various concentrating geometries (dish. Panel cookers use a reflective panel to direct sunlight onto an insulated container and reach temperatures comparable to box cookers. where a stationary spherical reflector focuses light along a line perpendicular to the sphere's interior surface. India. ~12~ . trough.cooker first built by Horace de Saussure in 1767. and a computer control system moves the receiver to intersect this line. It can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 90-150 °C. A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid.
44 TJ in its 68 m3 storage tank with an annual storage efficiency of about 99%. and can deliver domestically useful temperatures (approximately 64 °C). Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or seasonal durations. earth and stone. Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. and energy storage is an important issue because modern energy systems usually assume continuous availability of energy. have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. Massachusetts) was the first to use a Glauber's salt heating system. The Solar Two used this method of energy storage. Solar energy is not available at night. shift timeof-use to off-peak hours and reduce overall heating and cooling requirements. in 1948. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost.3 ENERGY STORAGE METHODS Solar Two's thermal storage system generated electricity during cloudy weather and at night. These materials are inexpensive. Net metering programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they . Phase change materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt are another thermal storage media. The "Dover House" (in Dover.1. readily available. With grid-tied systems. Well-designed systems can lower peak demand. excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid. Thermal storage systems generally use readily available materials with high specific heat capacities such as water. allowing it to store 1. Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts.
Beginning with the surge in coal use which accompanied the Industrial Revolution. ~ 13 ~ 1. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand.  Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs such as the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program in the US and the Sunshine Program in Japan. the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America. However development of solar technologies stagnated in the early 20th century in the face of the increasing availability. energy consumption has steadily transitioned from wood and biomass to fossil fuels.deliver to the grid. The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce. and utility of coal and petroleum. The 1973 oil embargo and 1979 energy crisis caused a reorganization of energy policies around the world and brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies.4 DEVELOPMENT Nellis Solar Power Plant in the United States. Other efforts included the formation of research facilities in the . economy. effectively using the grid as a storage mechanism.
and Germany (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE). now NREL).US (SERI. ~ 14- . Japan (NEDO).
2. 3. ACTIVE TRACKER PASSIVE TRACKER CHRONOLOGICAL TRACKER .3 DRIVE TYPES 1. 3. 5. HORIZONTAL AXLE VERTICAL AXLE ALTITUDE-AZIMUTH TWO-AXIS MOUNT MULTI-MIRROR REFLECTIVE UNIT 2. HISTORY 2.SOLAR TRACKER CONTENTS: 1. 2. TYPES OF SOLAR TRACKER 1. 4.
Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun.1 HISTORY • A solar tracker is a device for orienting a daylighting reflector.4. The sun's position in the sky varies both with the seasons and time of day as the sun moves across the sky. THIN-FILM SOLAR TRACKER 15 2. solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any .
There are many types of solar trackers. but many other approaches are used as well. tracking can substantially improve both the amount of total power produced by a system and that produced during critical system demand periods (typically late afternoon in hot climates) The use of trackers in nonconcentrating applications is usually an engineering decision based on economics. which influence the average year-round system capacity. This makes them especially effective for photovoltaic systems using high-efficiency (and thus expensive) panels. Concentrators. so at least single-axis tracking is mandatory. Compared to photovoltaics. For low-temperature solar thermal applications.fixed position. Typically concentrator systems will not work at all without tracking. owing to the high expense of trackers compared to adding more collector area and the more restricted solar angles required for Winter performance. trackers are not usually used. a movable mirror that reflects the moving sun to a fixed location. Non-concentrating applications require less accuracy. and performance. at the cost of additional system complexity. require a high degree of accuracy to ensure that the concentrated sunlight is directed precisely to the powered device. sophistication. However. which is at (or near) the focal point of the reflector or lens. The required accuracy of the solar tracker depends on the application. and many work without any tracking at all. trackers can be inexpensive. Very large power plants or high temperature materials research facilities using multiple ground-mounted mirrors and an absorber target require very high precision similar to that used for solar telescopes. especially in solar cell applications. . of varying costs. One well-known type of solar tracker is the heliostat.
Single axis trackers usually use a polar mount for maximum solar efficiency. There are two types of dual axis trackers. a single axis tracker increases annual output by approximately 30%. Compared to a fixed mount.2 TYPES OF SOLAR TRACKER Solar trackers may be active or passive and may be single axis or dual axis. . Single axis trackers will usually have a manual elevation (axis tilt) adjustment on a second axis which is adjusted on regular intervals throughout the year.~ 16 ~ ~ 2. polar and altitude-azimuth. and a dual axis tracker an additional 6%.
1 HORIZONTAL AXLE .2.~ 17 ~ 2.
Since these do not tilt toward the equator they are not especially effective during winter mid day (unless located near the equator). . The principal advantage is the inherent robustness of the supporting structure and the simplicity of the mechanism. but add a substantial amount of productivity during the spring and summer seasons when the solar path is high in the sky. a single control and motor may be used to actuate multiple rows of panels. Since the panels are horizontal. depending upon manufacturer. Panels are mounted upon the tube. Inc. Zomeworks (passive) and Power light (active).2. For active mechanisms. they can be compactly placed on the axle tube without danger of self-shading and are also readily accessible for cleaning. Manufacturers include Array Technologies. a long horizontal tube is supported on bearings mounted upon pylons or frames. and the tube will rotate on its axis to track the apparent motion of the sun through the day. Wattsun Solar Trackers (gear driven active). These devices are less effective at higher latitudes.1 Horizontal Axle Several manufacturers can deliver single axis horizontal trackers which may be oriented by either passive or active mechanisms. The axis of the tube is on a North-South line. In these.
~ 18- .
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