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Theme/Session: Tropical Clouds, Aerosol and Monsoon Poster

Registration ID: OC-000385

Multi-wavelength Raman Lidar measurements of Aerosols and Clouds over a tropical site Gadanki
Y.Bhavani Kumar National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki, India. ypbk@narl.gov.in
Multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements of aerosols and clouds are presented in this paper. The measurements presented in this paper are obtained using a new lidar observatory that developed by National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), a Department of Space (DOS) Unit, located at Gadanki (13.5N, 79.2E, 375 m AMSL), a tropical site in the southern part of India. The newly developed lidar observatory has the capability to measure the elastically backscattered radiation from the atmosphere at three laser wavelengths namely 1064 nm, 532nm and 355 nm, the N2 and H2O Raman shifted radiation backscatter at 387nm and 408 nm, and the perpendicular and the parallel polarized components of the 532nm backscattered light (with respect to the linearly polarized laser beam direction) simultaneously using three different lidar systems. This paper presents the initial measurements on the lower atmospheric aerosols and high altitude clouds using the new lidar set-up at NARL site, Gadanki, India. 1 Simple backscatter lidar - limitations Simple backscatter lidars have been widely used to study the height distribution of particles and clouds in the atmosphere [1]. These lidars are uncomplicated in configuration and provide the scattering characteristics of particles and clouds in the atmosphere at a particular wavelength. However, the scattering from particles and clouds in the atmosphere are highly spectral dependent. Due to this reason, the measurements using single wavelength lidar have limitation in describing the overall scattering characteristics of atmospheric aerosol and cloud particle. Moreover, the data products derived from simple backscatter lidar are not quantitative owing to the role of two unknowns such as backscatter and extinction coefficients in retrieval [2]. The derivation of backscatter coefficient is based on assumed particle extinction to backscatter ratio (commonly known as lidar ratio) [3], which is hard to achieve from the measurements. The aerosol extinction profile is computed from the backscatter coefficient profile by simply multiplying the backscatter profile with the rangeindependent lidar ratio that was used as input in the backscatter retrieval. As a result, the computed profile of the particle extinction coefficient can become ambiguous, especially in situations where complex layering of aerosols exists in the atmosphere. Hence the need for height-dependent lidar ratio is required for estimation of aerosol extinction from lidar data. Moreover, simple backscatter lidars need calibration at a reference range that must be chosen suitably such that the particle backscatter coefficient in that range is negligible compared to the known molecular backscatter value [3]. 2 Need for Multi-wavelength polarization Raman method At present the available aerosol models are applicable for light scattering by spherical particles only and do not adequately reproduce the scattering by non-spherical particles. This fact imposes serious limitations on the interpretation of the lidar observations of the desert dust and particles due to biomass burnings. Moreover, hygroscopicity is one of key factors influencing the scattering properties of aerosols, and hence simple lidar technique does not allow to evaluate the particle hygroscopic growth factor without perturbing the aerosol or its surroundings. Information on non-spherical aerosol particles distribution in the atmosphere is obtained using polarization sensitive lidars. The depolarization lidars employ a linearly polarized pulsed laser for profiling the atmosphere. In this lidar, laser return signals are measured with two polarization channels that are parallel- and perpendicular-oriented to the laser polarization. These lidars provide total depolarization ratio [TDR] of the scattering volume that is obtained from the ratio of the perpendicular- to the parallel-polarized signal component, which represents the total content of scattering volume (particle + molecular). Aerosol depolarization ratio is another useful parameter to study aerosol microphysics, because deviations from zero can indicate particle nonsphericity [4]. The particle shape critically controls the particles optical property [5] and hence affects the Earth's radiative process [6] as well as the vertical distribution of the particles [7]. For example, ref. [6] reported that direct aerosol forcing may be underestimated by a factor of 3 if particle nonsphericity is neglected when the solar zenith angle is close to zero, based on the field measurement and the model calculation assuming that the particles are massequivalent prolate spheroids. The particle depolarization ratio can be calculated if the particle backscatter coefficient and the respective linear molecular depolarization ratio are known [8]. Spherical particles as water droplets produce a particle depolarization ratio of almost zero in the case of 180 scattering. Dust particles cause a particle depolarization ratio of 25%-35% [3]. Smoke, urban haze, and maritime particles show depolarization ratios of <10%. Ice particles in high altitude cirrus clouds produce to depolarization ratios typically above 40% to 50% [3]. Hence the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosol particles shape information is crucial in climate related studies. Particle extinction is a crucial parameter in aerosol research. A method that involves accurate retrieval of aerosol extinction and backscatter from lidar data, without any prior assumptions, is now established [9]. The method employs the use of molecular trace either from Raman or Rayleigh scattering in addition to the elastic scattering. A lidar method that employs Raman scattering from either Nitrogen or Oxygen in addition to the scattering from aerosol is known as Aerosol Raman lidar (or

Extended Abstract, International conference on "Opportunities and Challenges in Monsoon Prediction in a Changing Climate" (OCHAMP-2012), Pune, India, 21-25 February 2012

Theme/Session: Tropical Clouds, Aerosol and Monsoon Poster Elastic Raman lidar). In this method, particle backscattering and extinction coefficients are determined independently from each other, and thus the height profile of extinction to backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) is obtained as a by-product [9]. The aerosol microphysical properties, such as particle backscattering and extinction coefficient, are required at several wavelengths, because particles suspended in the atmosphere typical range from accumulation mode to fine mode. Hence, measurements need to cover the wavelengths right from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) range. Since Nd:YAG laser is the workhorse of industry, the lidar measurements at wavelengths 1064nm (IR), 532nm (visible), and 355nm (UV) are required for estimating the particle volume and surface density as well as the refractive index in addition to the polarization and Raman measurements. This provides comprehensive unambiguous measurements on microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. 3 NARL mutiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidar For the first time in the country, a multi-lidar set-up with multi-wavelength capability has been established at the boundary layer lidar (BLL) laboratory of NARL for studies on aerosols, clouds, and water vapor distribution in the lower atmosphere. This lidar laboratory has been built under a project with indigenous technical know-how. Presently the BLL laboratory is equipped with Infrared backscatter lidar (IBL), Compact Dual polarization lidar (CDPL) [10] and Elastic or aerosol-Raman Lidar (ERL) [11] together operating at 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm wavelengths respectively for profiling aerosols, clouds and water vapor the lower atmosphere.

Registration ID: OC-000385 lidar systems from altitudes much above the local dust layer. Figure 2 presents the multi-wavelength Raman (MWR) lidar measurements on the lower atmospheric aerosol. Panels shown in Figure 2 represent the derived aerosol backscattering coefficient (ABC) at three different wavelengths (1064, 532 and 355 nm) along with information on total depolarization ratio (TDR) and water vapour (WV) distribution in the lower atmosphere during the period of elevated aerosol transport over the lidar site. The preliminary measurements show that MWR lidar has the capability to provide the microphysical and optical properties of boundary layer aerosol in detail.

Figure 2 Panels shows the altitude profiles of aerosol backscattering coefficient (ABC) at three different wavelengths (a) 1064, (b) 532 and (c) 355 nm respectively along with the (d) total depolarization ratio and (e) water vapor derived from lidars located at NARL site, Gadanki. The lidar data shown is collected during the event of transport of elevated aerosol layer over Gadanki site. The data was collected on 27 April 2010 between 2300 and 2330 LT period. Acknowledgement Dr Y. Bhavani Kumar thanks the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL) for funding the project LIDAR. References [1] J.A. Reagan et al., Proc. IEEE, 77, 433 (1989). [2] J.D.Klett, App. Opt., 20, 211(1981). [3] N. Takeuchi, Laser Remote Sensing, Edited by T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi (CRC Press,2005), 888 p. [4] C.F. Bohren and D.R.Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons,1983), 530 p.

Figure 1 High-level cloud detection using lidar employing multi-wavelengths conducted at NARL site, Gadanki. The simultaneous measurements shown were conducted on 27 April 2010 during the night time period between 2300 and 2330 LT. Figure 1 shows the laser backscatter measurements collected in the zenith direction simultaneously at three different wavelengths namely 1064, 532 and 355 nm using the above said lidar systems. The lidar data shown is collected at Gadanki site on 27 April 2010 during the night period between 2300 and 2330 LT. Figure 1 illustrates the high altitude cloud returns that collected at three different wavelengths using the

[5] P. Koepke, and M. Hess, App. Opt., 27,2422 (1988). [6] C. Pilinis, and X. Li, J. Geophys. Res.,103,3789 ( 1998). [7] H. Liao and J.H. Seinfeld, J. Geophys. Res.,103,31637 (1998). [8] F. Cairo et al., Appl. Opt., 38, 4425 (1999). [9] A. Ansmann et al., Opt. Lett., 15, 746 (1990). [10] Y.Bhavani Kumar, IJCSE, 2, 2684 (2010). [11] Y.Bhavani Kumar, IJAEST, 9, 166 (2011).

Extended Abstract, International conference on "Opportunities and Challenges in Monsoon Prediction in a Changing Climate" (OCHAMP-2012), Pune, India, 21-25 February 2012