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Viridans streptococci

Commensals of mouth and upper respiratory tract -S.salivarius, S.mutans, S.sangius and S.milleri Ordinarily nonpathogenic .Associated with dental caries and sub acute bacterial endocarditis . Grow and form vegetations in congenitally diseased heart , damaged or prosthetic valves . In such cases prior to tooth extraction or other procedures prophylactic antibiotic coverage is essential .Produce alpha haemolysis on BA Oral streptococci -1.Mutans group -S. mutans ,S.sobrinus associated with development of dental caries and endocarditis 2.Salivarius group-S.salivarius-S.vestibularis 3.Anginosus group -S.constellatus ,S.intermedius ,S.anginous 4.Mitis group -S.sanguinis ,S.gordonii ,S.parasanguinis ,S.oralis ,S.mitis ,S.australis Streptococcus mutans -In 1924, Clark isolated streptococci from human carious lesions, and named Streptococcus mutans -First who associated bacteria with dental caries -First to isolate MS from human dental caries-First to produce caries in extracted teeth. -In 1960, Keyes showed that caries-free hamsters develop dental caries only when caged together with caries-active hamsters Proving caries is Infectious and transmissible Streptococcus mutans, make up thirty to sixty percent of the total bacteria inhabiting the surfaces of human teeth, tongue, cheeks, and in saliva -The bacteria are most concentrated in the crevices, pits, and fissures that are a normal part of the teeth and surrounding structures. Virulence factors -Specific adherence to tooth surface using 1. Ag I/II familyAdhere to saliva proteins ,2. Fimbrial adhesion-Adhere to saliva pellicle ,3. Fibronectin binding protein ,4.Glucan synthesisMutans streptococci- St.mutans , St. sorbinus produce glycosyltransferases which converts dietary sucrose to insoluble adherent glucan and subsequent formation of acid leads to demineralization of the tooth enamel and the initialization of caries lesions 5.Glucanbinding protein ,6.Extra storage of polysaccharides ,7.Acidogenicity and Aciduricity 8.Secretes hemolysin,Proteases ,Dextranses , IgA proteases (inactivate secretory IgA by detaching the Fc region of the immunoglobulin) ,

Mutacins protein antibiotics that are bactericidal for other bacteria of closely related species as well as for other gram positive bacteria and Rapid generation time

Isolation -Mitis-Salivarius agar -Blood agar-Alpha hemolytic colonies TYC agar to which the antibiotic Bacitracin is added (TYCSB) -This suppresses the growth of most species but allows S. mutans and S. sobrinus to grow. The inclusion of sucrose leads to the formation of glucans and distinctive colony appearance that aids identification -Streptococcus mutans serotypes c e f ferments Maltose -Streptcoccus sobrinus does not ferment maltose

A simple dip-slide test ) based on MSB selective agar was devised for detection and quantitation of Streptococcus mutans in oral samples. For this test, a bacitracin tablet is dissolved in a vial containing buffered saline diluent. Paraffin-stimulated saliva is collected in this diluent vial. A dip slide which incorporates a modified MSB agar (minus bacitracin) is immersed briefly in the diluted saliva. After addition of a CO2-generating tablet, the screw-cap dip slide is closed tightly in the vial and incubated for two days at 37C and one day at room temperature. S. mutans populations in saliva are estimated by comparison with a colony density chart.