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Development of Phase Shifting
Waldemar Ziomek Krishnamurthy Vijayan Willi Felber

Abstract - Reliability of power systems is enhanced by
employment of large interconnected networks. Effective
control of power flow in these networks is essential for
improving stability and reliability, as well as optimizing
capabilities of such large interconnected systems. The
voltage variation provided by the load tap changers in
transformers can help to control only the reactive power
flow whereas Phase Shifting Transformers (PSTs) are
proven solution for control of the real power flow in
interconnected systems.
In 2004, Pauwels Canada Inc. successfully developed
240 MVA and 150 MVA PSTs for Scottish Southern
Energy, Scotland. This paper describes briefly the general
principle and basic types of PSTs. It also describes specific
details on the design, manufacture and testing process of
the PSTs delivered to Scottish Southern Energy in early
2005.

Index terms – Phase shifters, power transformers
1 OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE OF PSTS
1.1 Purpose
PSTs are primarily used to control the flow of real power
in parallel lines, or interconnected systems, by introducing a
phase angle shift between the primary (Source), and
secondary (Load) terminals. This is achieved by providing a
boost voltage in quadrature (perpendicular) to line voltage.
1.2 Application
One may consider the current distribution between two
parallel lines as shown below
V
S
i
1 Z
1
i
2 Z
2
i
TOTAL
V
L

Fig. 1 Current distribution in parallel lines
i
1
+Ai Z
1
i
2
-Ai
Z
2
i
TOTAL
V
S
V
L
V
L
V
PST
PST

Fig. 2 Current distribution in parallel lines with PST
When the power flows between these two systems, each
i.e., more power flows through the line with lower
usually contrary to efficient system operation. If it is desired
to balance the line currents by increasing the current i
1
by Ai,
and therefore decreasing the current in line 2 to i
2
-Ai, it is
necessary to introduce a circulating current Ai in the system.
This can be achieved by the introduction of a PST in series
with one of the lines (see Fig. 2). The expression for the
circulating current, Ai, is as follows:
1 2
V
i
Z Z
A
A =
+

(1)
where ∆V is the quadrature boost voltage provided by the
PST. This voltage needs to be almost perpendicular to the line
voltage so that control of the real power flow can be
accomplished. By using the on-load tap changers in PSTs, the
voltage ∆V can be varied in steps, or even reversed, so that a
full range of power flow control is possible between parallel
lines.
Another important application of PSTs is the control of the
power flow between two large independent grids. The flow of
active power between two interconnected systems is given by
the equation (2):
V
1
V
2
P
System 1 System 2

Fig. 3 Two independent grids
) sin(
2 1
o
Z
V V
P
·
=

(2)
Therefore, the flow of real power between two systems can
be effectively controlled by varying the phase angle
difference o.
1.3 Equivalent circuit and phasor diagram
Before analyzing the phasor diagram it is essential to be
aware of the following terminologies:
Advance phase angle. The phase angle that results when
voltage. This condition produces an increase in the line’s
source-to-load power flow. Fig. 4 shows the vector diagram
for this case.
2
Retard phase angle: The phase angle that results when the
Load terminal voltage lags the Source terminal voltage. This
condition produces a decrease of the line’s source-to-load
power flow.
Similarly to any transformers, PSTs have inherent
impedance which varies with the phase angle. Generally,
PSTs obtain minimum of the impedance at zero phase shift,
which increases with the phase angle. PSTs can be considered
as voltage sources with internal impedances that vary with
phase angle shift.

i
L

R
PST
+jX
PST

V
S
V
L
V
L

eff

Fig. 4 PST equivalent circuit and phasor diagram

As can be seen in the vector diagram under load condition
(Fig.4), the phase angle shift, |, is affected by the PST’s
internal impedance and load. The internal phase shift | of the
PST can be calculated as follows [2]:
)] cos( ) sin( [
)] sin( ) cos( [
arctan
¢ ¢
¢ ¢
|
PST PST L L
PST PST L
R X I V
R X I
÷ +
÷
=

(3)
Where cos(¢) is the load power factor.
The effective phase shift under load is given by
| o o ÷ =
,
| | | o o + ÷ =
RETARD
,
These relations not only have impact on the transformer
design but also on the selection of load tap changer. The
PST’s rated phase-shift is generally defined at no-load, but as
can be seen from the equations, it is not possible to achieve
no-load angle is exceeded in retard position, overexcitation
will occur in parts of PST.
2 TYPES OF PSTS
The basic types of PSTs can be: symmetrical or non-
symmetrical, single core or dual core, and in single tank or
dual tank. Symmetrical PST: Under no-load the magnitude of
the PST’s source and load voltages are equal, independently
of the phase angle between them. Quadrature: It refers to the
boost voltage introduced by the PST being perpendicular to
the line voltage at one terminal.

Fig. 5 Asymmetrical PST
In this type of PST the quadrature voltage is achieved by
connecting the regulating winding of phase B to the delta
connection point of phase A and B and so on. The advantage
of this type is that it has no exciting transformer. The major
disadvantage of this type is that both the tap changer and
regulating winding are directly exposed to system
disturbances. Special measures are required to ensure their
impulse withstand capability.

Fig. 6 Symmetrical PST

This is an expansion of the non-symmetrical type, which
can be achieved with an additional tap changer.

V
S

i
L
X
PST

i
L

V
L

i
L
R
PST

V
L
eff

o
|

o

3

This is the standard and classical solution with series and
exciting transformers each built on its own core and with
windings electrically interconnected. The delta connected
windings in the series unit are typically split in two parts
within each phase, in order to compensate for unbalance of
currents in corresponding halves of the series windings.
2.4 Single tank vs. dual tank design
Depending on size, voltage class, etc., the Series and
Exciting transformers could be housed in the same tank or in
separate tanks. Obviously, housing in separate tanks has the
disadvantages of being more expensive and that the inter-
connection between the units needs to be redone at site.
3 PSTS FOR SCOTTISH SOUTHERN ENERGY
3.1 Application
In the Scottish power system, two double-circuit 275kV
parallel lines run north to south via the east coast to transport
hydroelectric and wind-based energy. One double-circuit
132kV line runs north to south via the west coast and a single
132 kV line runs north to south via the east coast for the same
purpose. When there is a fault on one of the 275kV lines, the
power tries to flow through the 132kV system since its
impedance is smaller under that condition. This leads to
In this case three PSTs were needed to control the active
(real) power flows in the non-faulted lines so that each of
these lines could be used to its rated capacity without
The PSTs will be bypassed using bypass switch under
normal condition. Therefore, there is possible impulse
condition with both Source and Load terminals connected
together.
3.2 Ratings and special requirements
3.2.1 Basic ratings
Site1 (Fiddes substation):1unit x 150 MVA, 132 kV class,
50 Hz, 550 kV BIL with phase angle shift under load of +/-
15°, using load tap changer with +/-8 steps
Site2 (Errochty substation): 2 units x 240MVA, 132 kV
class, 50 Hz, 550 kV BIL with phase angle shift under load of
+10/-20°, using load tap changer with +/-8 steps
3.2.2 Special requirements
- Transformers to comply with IEC 76 standards.
Requirements specific to PSTs to be as per IEEE C57.135
[2], which are the only available standards for this kind of
applications.
- Dual core with separate series and exciting transformer,
- Dual tank design anticipated due to transportation
limitations. A maximum height of 4.87 m and weight of 220
T is allowed on the roads approaching the final site in UK.
Single tank designs meeting these transportation limits are
acceptable.
- Use of non-linear voltage limiting devices (ZnO discs) to
control internal voltages to be avoided.
- 115% chop wave test required
- Special impulse test required with both Source and Load
terminals connected together to simulate the PST bypass
condition.
- The ratio of zero sequence to positive sequence impedance
to be smaller than 9 (Z
0
/Z
P
< 9)
- 110% overvoltage and frequency variation of 47.5 to 52 Hz
3.3 Design approach
- A classical design concept of a two-core symmetrical
- An extremely compact design concept was applied in order
to house both, series and exciting units in a single tank
while meeting size and weight transportation requirements.
Such compactness was achieved by using tall and slim
design concept with low impedance. Special care was taken
to assure withstand capability against short circuits.
- Series transformer and exciting transformer are built on
separate 3 leg cores with electrical interconnection between
them
- A tertiary delta winding was introduced in the exciting
transformer in order to meet the zero sequence impedance
requirement
- Use of a special dual multi-layer design on the series
transformer delta winding to achieve controlled dielectric
stresses during lightning impulse condition.
- Center-fed exciting winding so that the high voltage
connection with the series winding is made at the center,
away from core ground potential. The two transformer
heights and dimensions were closely matched to facilitate
the interconnection inside the tank
- Fully interleaved exciting winding
- Special two-layer tap winding with leads connected to high
speed resistance-type tap changer.
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3.4 Design details
3.4.1 Basic design
The winding disposition on the two cores is indicated
below.
D
E
L
T
A
S
E
R
I
E
S
L
T
C
2
L
T
C
1
T
E
R
T
I
A
R
Y
E
X
C
I
T
E
R
Series unit Exciting unit

Fig. 8 PST windings layout
3.4.2 Impedance calculation and loss control
FEM based leakage flux analyses were performed to
determine size and position of tank shunts and clamp shunts
(Fig.10).

a)

b)
Fig. 9 Electromagnetic FEM simulations:
a) Series transformer b) Exciting transformer
3.4.3 Dielectric design
Impulse calculations using MLC network-based software
were performed for each of the following conditions: a)
Impulse on S (or L) terminal with the other terminal grounded
b) Impulse on S & L terminals connected (bypassed PST).
For condition b) the center connection point voltage was
estimated to rise to 1034kV during the 550 kV full wave
impulse test.
Electrostatic stress analyses were performed for all critical
locations and special contouring and insulation components
were used wherever necessary.
Design reviews were conducted at every stage of the
development process.

Fig. 10 Typical electric stress plot: Series transformer main gap at
highest stress region
3.5 Manufacturing
- All windings and core were built to close dimensional
tolerance
- Pre-fit of the units inside tank was necessary to make
measurements for final interconnection at center.
- After final housing of the units, special contoured high
voltage interconnection was done by skilled person inside
the tank. Connections were inspected and approved by
Quality Assurance and Engineering by physical inspection
inside tank.
- Special manufacturing process evolved by building a
prototype for the dual multi-layer type delta winding.
Photograph below (Fig.12) shows two units assembled and
housed inside the common tank.

Fig. 11 Series and exciting transformers assembled inside tank
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3.6 Testing
3.6.1 Phase angle measurement
Phase angles were measured according to proposed method
in IEEE C57.135 [2]. The phase shift was also recorded in
oscillogram (Fig.13).

Fig. 12 S and L waveshapes, when S leads L
3.6.2 Dielectric tests
3.6.2.1 Lightning impulse
Low voltage recurrent surge generator tests were
performed with both series and excitation units electrically
connected, to verify impulse voltage calculations. These tests
were carried out with both assemblies outside the tank and
inside the tank. The measured values were close to calculated
values.

S
N
L
S
N
L

Fig. 13 Linghtning impulse test on S (or L) terminal and on S+L
terminals (bypassed PST)

Fig. 14 Low voltage recurrent surge impulse-test. Impulse response
at the exciter T connection point

Besides the impulse test on S and L terminal, a special
lightning impulse test including 115% chop wave condition
were applied to (S+L) connected together. The calculated and
RSG test results at the T point for 1.2/50μs full wave impulse
applied to (S+L) is shown in Fig15 (the calculation did not
include damping due to losses, this is why the calculated
oscillations are sustained while measured oscillations).
3.6.2.2 Induced voltage test
For this test the unit was energized through a set of
temporary test bushings brought out of the tap windings. Both
1-phase and 3-phase induced tests were conducted as per IEC
standard [3].
3.6.3 Loss measurement
In PST the loss distribution in series and exciting units vary
with the phase angle. Typical loss distribution of the
measured values for 240MVA unit is shown in table.

Series unit Exciting unit Total
Zero phase shift
Maximum phase shift

0
21.2

26.8
26.8

26.8
48
Zero phase shift
Maximum phase shift

224.3
224.3

0
268.7

224.3
493
Total loss kW
Zero phase shift
Maximum phase shift

224.3
245.5

26.8
295.5

251.1
541
Table 1 Summary of tested losses on 240 MVA PST
3.6.4 Temperature rise test
With single tank design, temperature rise test for obtaining
the values of oil rise do not pose any difficulties. But
measurement of gradients of each of the windings required
special methods. Gradient of each winding including the LTC
winding was measured either by direct or indirect
measurements as follows:
1. Resistance of Series winding of ST can be measured
directly between S & L ( R+R= 2R in the diagram below)
2. For the Exciting winding it will be an indirect
measurement: S & L terminals to be connected and
resistance to neutral was measured. This will give
resistance of (R/2 + Re) ohms. Since R is known, Re can
be calculated.
3. Resistance of Delta winding and LTC winding are
measured using temporary test bushings connected to
LTC.
Series winding on ST
Exciting
winding
Re [
O
]
R [
O
]
R [
O
]
S L
N

Fig. 15 T-network used to calculate the exciting winding resistance

3.6.5 Test frequency
The phase shifters were designed for frequency of 50Hz to
suit the Scottish system. However, the test frequency at the
Pauwels Canada plant was 60Hz and hence conversion
factors were applied to the tests results in order to get
guaranteed design parameters at 50Hz. Useful guidance was
taken from IEEE Tutorial for the conversion factors [3].
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3.6.6 Test summary
All the tests on both the ratings were successful; all three
units passed all tests first time right.
- The measured phase angles were within 1% of the
guaranteed values.
- The maximum PD level was 33 pC.
- The maximum hot spot temperature rise was 68.5
0
C.
- The special zero sequence impedance ratio requirement of
Zo-open /Z positive was fully met.

Fig.17 Unit under test
4 CONCLUSIONS
As can be seen the design and development of Phase
shifting transformers are unique. It was a challenge to meet
the transport limits with the single-tank design. Considering
various advantages it was worth the efforts since this
approach gives the best satisfaction to the ultimate customer.
All the three units have reached site, passed field testing and
are in operation, energized and under load.

Fig. 18 240 MVA phase shifter on site.
Courtesy of Scottish Southern Energy
5 REFERENCES
[1] W. Seitlinger, “Phase Shifting Transformers, Discussion of
Specific Characteristics”, CIGRE Session 1998
[2] IEEE Std C57.135-2001 “IEEE Guide for the Application,
Specification, and Testing of Phase-Shifting Transformers”, IEEE
Power Engineering Society, 2002
[3] E.G. teNyenhuis, R.S. Girgis, “50Hz to 60Hz conversion
factors for transformer performance parameters”. IEEE/PES
Transformer Committee Tutorial session April 16,2002
[4] IEC standard 60076 IEC: 2000 “Power transformers”.
[5] Axel Kramer “On-Load Tap-changers for Power transformers
by (MR publication)”
[6] Scottish Hydro-Electric Transmission Ltd “Specification for
6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors express their sincere thanks to Scottish
Southern Energy for providing the system details and site
photographs.
Thanks are due to Felber Engineering, Weiz, Austria, for
providing valuable data on critical design calculations.
The authors also acknowledge the support provided by the
management and colleagues at Pauwels Canada Inc.