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By

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Elwageeh

Steel tape

Level ( stadia principle )

Total station

Theodolite GPS

The science, art, and technology of determining the relative positions of points above, on, beneath the Earths surface, or establishing such points. In a more general sense surveying can be regarded as: That discipline which encompasses all methods for measuring and collecting information about the physical earth and our environment, processing that information, and disseminating a variety of resulting products to a wide range of clients.

The surface of the earth is considered to be a plane for all x and y dimensions, All z dimensions (heights) are referenced to the surface of the earths reference ellipsoid(GRS80) or to the mean surface of the earth (mean sea level).
The surface of the earth is considered to be spherical (actually an ellipsoid of revolution)for x and y dimensions. All z dimensions (heights) are referenced to the surface of the earths reference ellipsoid (GRS80) or to the mean surface of the earth (mean sea level).

Plane Survey

Geodetic

Survey

Preliminary

Survey

Data gathering:(distances, elevations, positions and angles) to locate physical features (trees, rivers, roads, structures, or property markers) Data plotted to scale on a map or plan. Differences in elevation (vertical distances), elevations and contours can be plotted.

Layout Surveys

Making on the ground the features shown on a design plan. The layout can be for property lines, as in land division surveying, or it can be a wide variety of engineering works (roads, pipelines, bridges). In addition to marking the proposed horizontal(x and y dimensions) location of the designed feature, reference will also be given to the proposed elevations (z dimensions) reference to MSL.

Control Surveys
Used to reference both preliminary and layout surveys. Horizontal control: placed arbitrarily property lines- roadway centre lines coordinated control stations. Vertical control: benchmarks, permanent points whose elevation above mean sea level have been carefully determined.

1.Topographic surveys: preliminary surveys used

to tie in the natural and constructed surface features of an area. The features are located relative to one another by tying them all into the same control lines or control grid. 2. Hydrographic surveys: preliminary surveys used to tie in underwater features to a surface control line. Usually shorelines, marine features, and water depths are shown on a hydrographic map. 3. Construction surveys: layout surveys for engineering works.

4. Route surveys: preliminary, layout, and control

surveys that range over a narrow but long strip of land (highways, railroads, electricity transmission lines, pipeline and channels). 5. Property surveys: preliminary, layout, and control surveys (determining boundary locations or laying out new property boundaries. (cadastral or land surveys). 6. Aerial surveys: preliminary and final surveys using traditional aerial photography and aerial imagery. 7. Final (as built) surveys: Final surveys tie in features that have just been constructed to provide a final record of the construction and to check that the construction has proceeded according to the design plans.

Aerial photograph showing the Niagra Falls area

Hydrographic map of the lower Niagra River

Provides the distribution of rocks and soils at or near the land surface. Supports decision making in land use.

Seismic Vulnerability of the Puget Sound Region

[PTRL05C01] Surveying for Petroleum Engineers


Module Code: PTRL05C01 Modular weight: 10 Prerequisite modules: Title: Surveying for Petroleum Engineers Examination weighting: 50 %

Reassessment: No restrictions.
Internal Examiner/Module Leader: Prof. Mohamed Elwageeh Semester taught: Two

Key words:

maps, GPS, total station, survey datums, projections.

Date of latest revision: 2010-04-08

Aims

The aim of this module is for the student to acquire the theoretical appreciation, practical skills and understanding of surveying necessary to work with geospatial data and operate in association with land surveyors within the Petroleum Engineering industry.

Intended Learning Outcomes


Knowledge and understanding
On completion of this module students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:
modern surveying instruments and field techniques (total stations and GPS) together with reference frames used for horizontal and vertical control in the processing, presentation and management of geospatial data.

Subject-specific cognitive skills


On completion of this module students should be able to/demonstrate ability in:
computational methods involving survey measurements, coordinates and reference frames; assessing data and reports from land surveys in accordance with requirements, specifications and standards;

Subject-specific practical skills


On completion of this module students should be able to/demonstrate ability in:
extracting information from maps, plans and charts with an understanding of the limitations; utilise specialist software and components within geoscience applications generally that process and manage geospatial data;

Key/transferable skills
On completion of this module students should be able to/demonstrate ability in:
use of spreadsheets for computational work; geometry in 2 and 3 dimensions;

Content maps, charts and plans; levels and levelling; total stations; Angular, length and distance measurements; Traverse, areas, volumes and control surveys; GPS techniques and reference frames; Map projections; Hydrographic survey; Managing geospatial data.

Methods of Learning, Teaching and Assessment Total student effort for the module: 100 hours on average.

In line with the Faculty of Engineering regulations for P and C level modules, an attendance rate of 70% is required to pass this module. Teaching & Learning:
24, 1h lectures. This method informs learning outcomes 1, 2, 3, 7. 12, 1h practical/lab sessions. This method informs learning outcomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Assessment:
Assignments and practical class activities, three pieces of assessment. This method carries 30% of the total mark and assesses learning outcomes 4, 5, 6. A 120 minute unseen written examination. This method carries 70% of the total mark and assesses learning outcomes 1, 2, 3, 7. Reading List Smith J.R. Introduction to Geodesy: The History and Concepts of Modern Geodesy, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 0-47-1166603 (1997) Barry F. Kavanagh, "Geomatics", Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0-13-0322890 (2003) Paul R Wolf and Chuck Ghilani, "Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics", Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0-13-6154310 (2008)