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Chapter 2- Invasion and Settlement of North America 1550-1700 1- CHAPTER DETAILS

Alice Tak

A. The Rival Imperial Models of Spain, France and Holland - New Spain= the Spanish began to look towards America to find gold. They plowed through lands and even massacred Indian tribes, such as the Apalachees and the Coosas (by Hernan de Soto) because their excessive obsession over gold. As time went they ended up finding no gold. Due to the failure of not being able to find gold, they turned toward the colonies they managed to obtain. The English and French proved to be obstacles. The French were ordered to be driven out by the king leading to a colossal amount of massacres. To protect the treasure ships, they set up St. Augustine, a Spanish settlement. However, many Spanish military outposts were assailed by the barbaric and violent Indian tribes native to the area (Calusas and Timuacuas). Another tribe known as the Algonquins assailed the missions along the area as well. This relates to the BPQ because since the colonies diffused from different countries, they became such different cultures. -St.. Augustine= A small port set up in the coast of Florida to assist in the protection of the treasure fleet. They wanted to build this fort to help hide the treasures from the English merchants. St. Augustine became the very first American settlement built by the Europeans people. This relates to the BPQs because this represents the start at where many different cultures will be diffused from. -Pueblo Revolt 1680= The Native Americans, at first, didn't heavily mind the Europeans presence due to their tremulous attitude towards their military system and their eagerness to learn the friars spiritual skills. However, as the Indians faced catastrophes, such as disease, and saw no answer from prayers, the began to take action. The refused to become Catholic and tensions were at a rapid inclination. As the tension reached an apex, the Spanish troops forced food and clothing from the Pueblos. Those who resisted and spoke up were killed or raped. When some of the Indians assailed back, 800 men and women, including children, were murdered. Due to the violence and tension, many Spaniards moved out. But soon later the returned again to establish the colony of Santa Fe and continued to extend the mess they started. Indian population took a turn for the downhill. When a drought was egregious to their existence, the Indians thought it was time to act. An Indian by the name of Pope called for retaliation against the Spaniards. Pope and followers killed an estimated 400 Spaniards and left the others fleeing away, tortured missionaries and burnt the foreign crops sowed by Spanish hands. The restored ancestral idols and rebuilt past statues, previously destroyed by the Spaniards. However, the Spanish reestablished control in their lands, but with a rapport, which allowed the Indians religious tolerance and the resistance of forced labor. This relates to the BPQs because it it shows how the two different cultures wanted to gain respect from others. The Indians wanted to overpower the Europeans. -Polygamy= Missionaries from Spain condemned the Indians that favored polygamy, which is the act in which a man has several spouses. If they were to commit this rebuffed law, the Spanish missionaries would usually sell them into indentured laboring as punishment. This relates to the BPQs because this acted as a restraint to limit and actually distort ways of living -The Iroquois (five nations)= Were very aggressive and violent. They had easy access to guns through Dutch traders,who traded guns for fur, in Albany and water (Mowhawk River). They inclination was ground-breaking. They lived in large towns with an hefty population. They were diffused into five nations: the Senecas, the Cayugas,the Onodagas, the Oneidas & the Mowhawks. Very diverse because their captives made around fifty percent of the total population. Took control of the trades with the Europeans. Their extreme diversity led them to accept the Jesuits to live among them. Once some members actually concerted religions, tensions were disclosed. The Christians went with the French and the stagnant believers remained as was.This relates to the BPQs because it shows that the Indians did have enough to overrule some of the European trades. New France- French friars also sought to introduce the 'savage' Indians to their Christian message. Samuel Chaplin found the very first establishment in Quebec, which is now in Canada. New France was established to be a royal colony under the command of Louis IX and he corroborated it. He espoused the clones by providing indentured

laborers in the colonies. However, many people did not immigrate into these novel colonies. There were even actually propaganda that made American life gloomy and conundrum. The system in which Luis IX set up gave some privileges to the citizens. Due to the French citizens unwillingness to give up those rights, they reused to move away from it. Fur was also in high demand in New France. This relates to the BPQs because New France serves as a influential catalyst that help bring many influences to the way colonies ran -The Wayndots= the tribe that was formed by survivors of the Iroquis raids. They escaped to the west and joined other detached members to form this novel tribe. This relates to the BPQs because it shows the effects that the Iroquis had a strong impact on other tribes and that they affected other colonies as well. - Hurons= apart of the Ochasteguins and Algonquins and were enemies of the notorious Iroquis. This relates to the BPQs because it showes the dramatic differences in culture which led to such diversity in living -The Covenant Chain= The accordance of the traditionalist Indians and English administers as a result of the divorce of ties between the Native Americans and French. The traditional Iroquois expelled the French converts from their lands into the west (Lake Michigan). Although victorious, the achievement came with a dramatic price. Over two thousand natives were dead, leading to a rapport between the three countries\villages. This relates to the BPQs because it had affected the way colonies saw each other. - Jesuit Missions= French missionaries sought to convert Indians who did not know the word of God. The Jesuits were a Catholic defense to expel the spread of Pretestantism beliefs in Europe. They took a big step to spread the word to Native Americans. At first the Jesuit French and Indians lived together peacefully because they were curious about the unusual skills they exerted. But soon as they saw no help by prayers, they began to detest the French. Then tensions rose. This relates to the BPQs because this is one step towards a diversion and segregation of taste in living -West Indian Company= The trading system in which the Dutch chartered. The Dutch gave this system exclusive possession of the fur trade in America and the slave trade in Africa. The company founded New Amsterdam, which was the capital of New Netherland. Promised grandiose houses to those who would comply to settle in the Futch colonies to alleviate it's vulnerability to assailments from the English Colonies. The Dutch colonies were pretty much a failure, as sizes were so diminutive, bur was so successful with trading. This relates to the BPQs because it tied colonies and Indians together. Their relationships did have an impact on their cultures. Since trade included foods, cultures were affected by the new foods. -New Amsterdam= found by the West Indian Company. The WSC installed this colony as the capital of the novel established New Netherland, another colony found by the WSC. Even though New Amsterdam had a thriving Trading System due to their exceptional quality and reasonable prices their population plummented. They also had a serene relationship with the local Indians. However, the traders near New Amsterdam were more forceful of their askings of the locals. With anger stored up, the Indians began to revolt and attack. This relates to the BPQs since it shows how these different countries reacted to the new life in the colonies. -Franciscan missions= The military weakness that was manifest by the assailments of the native Americans led Spain to concoct a new method to run their colonies. That method was Christianizing the people of the lands they ruled (Apalachees of Florida and the Pueblo people of New Mexico). French church leaders, or friars, set up missions all across these gamuts. However, the way these friars handled the dispersion of Christian beliefs was not so serene. If these Indians had refused to accept the beliefs the friars forced upon them, they were whipped, their idols were physically crushed and they would face harsh punishment. The Franciscans had brain washed the Indians into being replicas of the Spaniards. They ignored Indian rights and allowed comfortably the ability for Spaniards to take items Indian goods and labor freely. The Indians were also practically mandated to farm the lands juxtaposed to the missions. This relates to the BPQ because the religious influences that these countries such as the French impacted the colonies strongly. The religious diversity also let to the separations of colonies which brought upon tensions in groups B. The English Arrive: The Chesapeake Experience

-Jamestown= Voyagers found in Virginia. It was swampy and out of good care. Many of the Voyagers died off there. Many settlers died therefrom diseases and lack of an abundant supply of food. This relates to the BPQs because it the environment really had some influence of cultural life. -Virginia Company of London= Trading with foreign countries was the company's priority. The company and the men in it strived to find Gold in America. they even went through many trivpbes to ameliorate the hardships to finding them. Since people would resist the move to the colonies, the government went to the extent of offering colossal amounts of land for settlement. This relates to the big picture questions because this exemplifies one of the temperate failures experienced by colonists -headright system= this system gave English migrants the ability to obtain one hundred acres of land when they moved to the colonies. And for every additional indentured laborer or family member they bring, they acquired an additional fifty acres of land. This relates to the BPQs because it demonstrates how some Europeans began to be successful. -House of Burgesses= It installed and made law proposals. It had a branched judicial system. All though they were able to concoct laws, they could be rebuffed by the governor. so it was just a way for members of the colonies to get involved with the community. This relates to the big picture questions because this shaped a striving colony. they were in order and planned out neatly -Opechancanough and Indian Revolt of 1622= As revenge on behalf of his brother Powhatan, Opechancanough came face to face with the land thirsty English men. He captured an English captain by the name of John Smith, but refused to kill him. He refused all English proposals to christianize the people. He soon changed his name to Massatamohtnock and planned an attack. He garnered up twelve Indian tribes and killed around four hundred English colonists. However, the English settlers fought backhand secured peace in their territories. They sold Native American captives into indentured laboring. This relates to the BPQs because it show the tensions between very opposite cultures. -Royal colony= The royal colony consisted of leaders including a governor. The royal colonies were usually made up of church members and appointed by the government back in the origin of country. This relates to the big picture questions because this was the ideas formulated to strive to make an achieving colony -Lord Baltimore= A Catholic aristocratic friend of the English throne successor, Charles I. He was given lands from lining from Chesapeake Bay to the Cecilius Calvert. he also owned Maryland and was able to use the lands in any way he wanted. He also had sufficient power to point officials and other leaders of the colonies. He liked the idea of Maryland becoming a home to Catholic for he was a devoted one. He didn't want to infuse religious tensions into the plan, so he asked for a private development and to prevent offense that might be received by the Protestants of England. Once Christians started to take notice in this religious state, Lord Baltimore issue the Toleration Act, which allowed the right to practice their own religious beliefs. This relates to the BPQs because it the shows the unfair ways in which achievements were reached. - John Rolfe= Was originally arranged to marry Pocahontas, the daughter of a Indian chief, but was expelled out of the deal when he sold tobacco and other goods. This relates to the big picture questions because it shows the tensions that grew within the colonies/tribes -John Smith= Was captured by Opechancanough when he rebuffed the ways of the English settlers, but was generously sparred. This relates to the BPQs because it exlemplifies the tight tensions between the Europeans and Indians. -Life of Indentured Servant= Were valuable to farmers and merchants for they both got affluence from them. They produced much more valued goods than their price paid by the farmers. They worked on the plantation, farm etc. For a Cretan time and was granted free afterwards. Women who got pregnant were accused of not working and got their time protracted. This relates to the big picture question this phenomenon established a state of prosperity and

prestige for new coming farmers and merchants in business. -tobacco economy= Became very significant in colonies such as Maryland and Virginia. People started to enjoy what tobacco had to offer. Some used it as medicine and some just liked the nicotine contained in it. Tobacco let to a rapid economic inclination for it was in high demands with both the Indians and Europeans. This relates to the BPQs because it this was a phenomenon in which people had the oppurtunity to become successful in the trading world. -Toleration Act 1649= This Act allowed more colonist to practice any religion they wished. It became a huge, significant stepping stone for Protestants, etc.. This relates to the big picture questions because this presence of all the religions are bound to create some difficulties in accordance which would basically result in a diverse cultural aspect -English common law= Custom that the laws are concocted only through the judicial system. That law could also change continuously and be edited and refined. It soon became the base of American laws.This relates to the BPQs because it led to an organized government which led to become a successful colony altogether. -Chattel slavery= Owning a human/person and treating it as if he or she was their own property. This relates to the big picture questions because this shows that not all lifestyles were successful in the new colonies, in which was said 'new opportunities exist' -Navigation Acts 1651= Allowed only the English, excluding the Dutch, to pass the ports. Mandated them to ship only to England as well. This relates to the BPQs because it established the organized and respective colony it became. -freeholders= People who have a grasp on land with a house with fee simple. This relates to the BPQs because freeholders became the starters to a more higher standard of living. -Nathaniel Bacon= he was a notorious rebellion leader. He wanted permission to attack a local Indian tribe to force them to give up land but the governor (Berkeley) refused to give commission therefore leading him to lead an attack himself. This brought high tensions amongst him and the government.He was also angry that the governor wouldn't give the landless freemen rights, so he gathered up a colossal mass of followers willing to fight with him. He was arrested but his followers got him released very quick and forced Berkeley to give back rights. He died suddenly and Berkeley took revenge by killing many of his followers. This relates to the BPQs because it showed how the colonies went overboard with the persistent seeking of wealth and success. -Bacons Rebellion= The result of an angry Nathaniel Bacon, who disagreed with the new government. He didn't like that landless freemen could not have privileged right like that of the land owning free men. He also asked the government if he attack a local Indian tribe, but when the government didn't let him he took control to his own hands. He rebelled and killed hundreds of innocent Indians -Gov. William Berkeley= Became the governor of Virginia. once he was re-elected he started to hand out positions to cronies and acquaintances. Once he started to control the government to suit his tastes, many dissidents arose. One of which, Nathaniel Bacon, who led a rebellion rejecting the ways of his ruling. This relates to the big picture questions because this shows the impact the ruler can have on a successful and failing colony C. Puritan New England -Mayflower Compact= the Pilgrims own binding agreement. Since their didn't have a ruler or charter, they started off with a novel set of rules and compacts. This came together to serve as their own little government. The compact was based off the Pilgrim's religion. This resulted to be our first legitimate American Constitution. This relates to the BPQs because it demonstrates the laws and rules that gathered up to create a striving colony. --Congregationalists= the action in which the colonies extracted out the bishops and religious figurines and established common church members as leaders in the colonies. This is related to the big picture questions because it showed how colonies molded the ways of the Europeans into something that they thought suited them better.

-Pilgrims= a group of Puritans from England who had escaped the threats from the king. The King was a devote Catholic and wished to ban all Puritans. With this note, the Pilgrims quickly sought a new colony in America in which they could practice their religion freely. 77 puritans from England were guided by William Bradford. They sailed to their sought after destination through the ship named the Mayflower and landed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This relates to the BPQs because it accounts for their actions which led to a successful life in their eyes. - Puritans= People from England who contained a 'pure' perception on the Christian teachings. They were disposed by the King, who was Catholic, and were dismissed by his officer, William Laud. With this action, they fled to the Americas to be able to practice their religion freely without anxiety. This is related to the big picture questions because it shows that one country had so many opposing views that they had to split in order to keep the peace. -The Puritan Migration= When Puritans of Europe escaped to build colonies in America to practice their religion freely yet keeping their English identity intact. They wanted to keep their religion and faith chastised. Dutiful Puritans including women children and men built the colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay to fulfill their goals. This relates to the BPQs because it was a step closer for the Pilgrims to establish a lifestyle that they desired. With there religious compact intact their colonies were molded to suit their religion and their cultures were based off of that. -Massachusetts Bay Colony= A colony which consisted of around nine hundred members led by the famous John Winthrop. They established this as a settlement to contain and preserve their pure religion. Instead of giving power to the prestige and powerful, they limited the power to those who were active with the church community. They got rid of all the Catholic traditions from England, such as the Bishops and established a government based off of their religion. This is related to the big picture questions because the changes in religion really grew a separation of the same people of the same country. This details on how strong of an impact religion held. -John Winthrop= led the emigration of around nine hundred Protestants when they were dismissed from England's churches. He soon became a leading power in the new Massachusetts Bay government. He did what he did for the benefit of his followers and a preservation of the Christian religion. This relates to the BPQs because it shows the number of people that had moved into their colonies and the impacts they can make to it. - Joint-stock company= it was a organized system of shareholders. established by Winthrop's Puritan society in the Massachusetts Bay colony. This is related to the big picture questions because it explains how their success as a colony might have met its sprout. -Roger Williams= he did not agree with the way the Puritans of Massachusetts bay ruled. He did not agree with the placing of Congregationalism in the colony. He said that it had no good impact on the spiritual lives of the colonist and pilgrims. When he was banished he created his own colony in Boston, named Rhode Island, where others who did not agree with congregationalism gathered. This relates to the BPQs because it shows how the colonies could have led to differ dramatically. -Anne Hutchinson= A mother of seven children and married to a local merchant in the Massachusetts Bay colony. She was a dissident of the views of the Puritans. The thing that she mostly disagreed with is that the Puritans believed that one could earn eternal salvation through good works. However, she argued that, noting back to Martin Luther, that one can only earn an eternal salvation through faith and the grace of God. She then fled to a colony in Boston, led by Roger Williams, another dissident of the Puritan ways. This is related to the big picture questions because this shows where and how new colonies started to diffuse from, causing opposing colony beliefs. -Connecticut= where dissidents of the Massachusetts colony fled to. Connecticut offered a more relaxed society along with an ameliorated farming area, which was also another desire for the migrators. The government was similar to the others but all land owning men got privileges, not just church members. This relates to the BPQs because this again creates a segregation of beliefs therefore leading to very different societies and cultures. -English Restoration= There were many religious wars that occurred in that same moment. One of which that started when William Laud presented the Scottish church with their religious book. Angered by this, they attacked the English.

The English colonist also got in on this and sided with the Scottish. They wanted to support the parliament and eventually Oliver Cromwell led to their success. Although successful, the norm was returned when Cromwell passed away. The English were restored. This is related to the big picture questions because the colonies didn't give up trying to be successful in order to gain authority, even if they soon failed. They had the perseverance. - Yeoman society-Yeoman life was pretty descent. The poorest man of one cit had a two roomed house, eight acres of land and livestock. The money and affluence was not distributed to one leader but to a group of people. Life was successful and ameliorated in most of these colonies. It was a chance for opportunity and success. This is related to the big picture questions because it shows the opportunities these colonist had to be successful in life -superstition and witchcraft in New England= atypical events and catastrophes were said to be cast upon by the powers of unseen supernatural forces such as God or even satan. These forces were seen as spirits, something derived from the Christian teachings. Some had believed the people with the "powers" were just a superstition or prophets. Others claimed that they were the result of the works of the devil. Some were ton trial or killed for the crime of witchcrafting. The most significant form of witchcraft was in the town of Salem. A cadre of young women underwent unusual seizures and claimed that someone had practiced witchcraft on them. With that note just under two hundred people were accused leading to nineteen deaths. This notorious phenomenon also led to the Enlightenment which taught people to see in a more scientific perspective. This relates to the BPQs because it shows some of the downhills and immorality that happened in these 'pure' colonies. -New England town meeting= A significant part of the government in which all male heads of household congregated to discuss social, political and economic laws. This relates to the BPQs because this kind of system assisted in the success of colonies which built up to be, eventually, a thriving country. D. The Eastern Indian's New World -praying towns= Established by Puritans who were persistent on speeding Christianity to the 'savage' Indians. Consisted of 14 colonies with around a thousand converted Indians. This relates to the BPQs because it shows the the impact the Puritan Christians had on the Indians to fulfill their life duties. -Pequots= The English established their colony, New England, on these Indians' lands. They were infuriated and slaughtered the white men who trespassed their farms and treated them unfairly. This relates back to the bog picture questions by demonstarting the crucial impact the Europeans had on the people native to these lands. -impact of Metacom's rebellion= when Metacom, the head of the Wampanoags tribe, lead an attack on the injustice European colonists. They faked a rapport with other tribes to build a stronger, dominant power. They assailed until they ran out of gunpowder and weapons. They were then crushed by the Mohegan and Mowhawk warriors, who were appointed to do so by the English colonists. They destroyed a fifth of all colonies and slaughtered tons. This relates to the BPQs because it shows that even when the Indians triumph the European colonists quickly come to crush them again. this shows how much power and authority they actually had in the colonies and communities. -Fur Trade= Indians were slowly starting to be more independent and detached from European influence, however, they still felt the ominous presence of the European colonist through fur trading. They had exception knowledge about fur trading and would find the best deal before purchasing. They avoided the French's high demands and instead traded with the English and Dutch. Trade was the only way they cow,d get their desired rum and gunpowder. Their cultures sort of became something like a hodgepodge. They were converting to the religions of the Europeans and using goods only produced by the Europeans. This relates back to the BPQs because it shows that the Indians had tensions within, those who wanted to preserve the traditional culture and those taught to live a whole different lifestyle. These small details mosaic up into such diversity in cultures.