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Terms: Criminology study of criminal behavior and how societys reacts to crime.

. Scientific Method- Critical objectivity 3 sub divisions of criminology: victimology Juvenile Delinquency Penology (corrections) study of control of victims Criminal justice is a field of study focusing on the agents and processes of crime. Criminology is about understanding the causes of crime. How criminal justice is organized in the US. Criminal justice fragmented (nonsystematic) for five reasons: Elected officials Police (3 traditional functions): maintain order, deter potential violators, apprehend violators Police newly added duties: traffic control, counseling, etc. Police are most visible part of criminal justice. Often scrutinized Structure of American courts: state and federal (how it is organized). Trial and appellate (issues of law and not fact). Corrections Demographic of offender: Poor, minority, male, substance abusers, younger, unemployed, unskilled, they go in and out of prison (recidivism) Processes: Investigation- Duties, steps of criminal investigation, crime scene importance Warrant requirements and exceptions. Duties of first police as investigation, duties of investigators, duties of CSI What do use to preserve crime scene. Evidence? Methods involved in processing a crime scene. Photo graphing crime scene etc. Come up with theory of crime. Contaminate of crime scene. Chain of custody Ballistics evidence Death investigation Approx time of death significant Death terms Finger nail scrapings and other fluid tests 49% of reported crimes to cops are investigated Interviewing verse interrogation (adversary situation)

Personal qualities that make for a good investigator: patience, listening skills, communication, body language reading, people skills, organizational skills, and ability to testify well. Arrest: Arrest- a form of dentition Field interrogations Probable cause = reasonable Police factors to make an arrest or not: the availability of alternatives (i.e. detox), attitude of community, culture of practice of police department (ie. Milwaukee and jay walker), personal preferences of supervisors How police end up at crime scene? Dispatch will be a lot more formal. Booking Release after ( 3 ways): pre-release program, ROR, bail Bail bond Surte Criminal court processes Duties of prosecutor ( 6 factors of to prosecute or not) Role of defense lawyer Role conflict Functions of judge. How judge influences police to do their job Jury First appearance (lower court) Charging two methods Indictment Arraignment (trial court) Plea: guilty, non-guilty, no contest Competence tested of defendant Pretrial discovery Disposition Motions Pretrial motions change of venue, gag order, continuance, motion for severance, motion for mistrial Posttrial motions Testimony Witnesses

Direct examination Cross examination Recross examination Rebuttal surrebuttal Objections Criminal trial 3 tools of a prosecutor- testimonial evidence, physical evidence, confession. Defense- testimonial and physical evidence. Jury selection Master jury list Challenge of cause Opening statement Closing arguments Instructions to the jury Who has the burden of proof Standard of proof needed? Beyond reasonable doubt Hung jury Sentencing hearing Presentencing investigation- who conducts it.. probation officer Presentence report Options judge has: incarceration, drug programs Four main goals of sentencing Presumptive sentencing