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# The Perforated Universe

A new hypotheses A Hari’s Mind Production

• A new (to my knowledge) & integrated hypotheses of the Universe that explains:
– – – – – – – A new evolutionary model Preponderance of Matter over Antimatter in our universe Its observed Accelerated Expansion Dark Energy Dark Matter Pioneer Anomaly Future possibilities

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• All mathematics have been avoided to make it more understandable to the lay person • Wherever ‘dimensions’ are referred to, it does not include the dimension of time unless explicitly stated. For example, when I say 3 dimensional (or 3d) universe, it refers to our current universe of 3 spatial dimensions and 1 dimension of Time. Thus in this presentation...
This is 1 dimensional (1d) This is 2 dimensional (2d) This is 3 dimensional (3d)

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Refreshing some currently accepted ideas: Gravity as the Curvature of Space-Time
The Gravity Well:
Object ‘attracted’ by the star due to the negative curvature of space-time
Object

Dense Star

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Two dimensional (planar) surface containing a dense 2d object …

…embedded on a 3d substratum.
The 3 d substratum will also have the indentation due to contiguity

2 d planar surface

Spatially 3 dimensional substratum

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What is the effect of this indentation on a 3 d object within the substratum?

3 d object within the substratum

Spatially 3 dimensional substratum

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A closer look...
What was a negative curvature for an object on the 2d planar surface, is positive curvature for an object within the 3d substratum.

Hence, it is repelled
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Now consider the 3d space of our universe perforated with closed 2d voids...much like Swiss cheese. Only in this case, the boundary of each void is a closed 2d membrane (or brane)... ... on which are embedded 2d matter or antimatter. The 2d matter within these perforations have a tendency to repel against the 3d matter outside as well as repel against other such voids around them. This is due to the net positive curvature of these voids with respect to the 3d space outside.
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This repulsive gravitational force may not be detectable over a short range since gravity itself is a very weak force But over the long range they add up to being significant. This could perhaps be the so called ‘dark energy’ causing the accelerated expansion of the universe

Since 3d space itself curves around these perforations, they would be undetectable. The only effect that these voids have on the outer universe is through the gravitational repulsion.
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These perforations may contain both matter and antimatter. These voids are like the holes caused by shrapnel on the surrounding buildings after a huge bomb blast This ‘Bomb blast’ could be the Big Bang.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Before the Big Bang was the Big Separation • The Universe started from Nothingness, by its splitting into equal matter and antimatter universes. • At this point matter/antimatter was spatially unidimensional (a line). • They were both essentially discrete universes moving in opposite directions separated only by dimensionless Nothingness. Nothingness still remained undiminished, yet from Nothingness also evolved unidimensional matter and equal antimatter.
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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Since this was the First Instance of Change, in a sense Time too was created for these emanating universes. • The 2 expanding unidimensional (two dimensional, if you consider time) universes of matter and antimatter, finally closed in on themselves as in the figure below.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
The 1st Big Bang

• The moment the linear universes of matter and antimatter met, the first Big Bang occurred and some matter & antimatter combined and got converted to neutral energy. • The power of this 1st Big Bang, together with the topological ‘closing’ of the trajectories of the 2 (matter & antimatter) universes instantly upgrades both the unidimensional (let us exclude time for the moment) universes to the next dimensional level. That is, 2 dimensional, planar universes.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Only a section of matter and antimatter that comes into immediate contact causes the first Big Bang explosion. • Just as any explosion shoots out shrapnel in all directions, this Big Bang also shoots out its own shrapnel: unidimensional rings of matter and antimatter of varying sizes. • This is due to the ‘splintering’ of those unidimensional sections in the immediate vicinity of the explosion. The sections that are not annihilated. • The splinters immediately curl up and close to form a ring as they are flung into the larger planar universes.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Since these matter/antimatter rings are unidimensional and now embedded in two dimensional space, they do not interact with the surrounding 2 dimensional space or matter except by way of repulsion. • However, as explained earlier, they cause a ‘gravitational repulsion’ on the surrounding 2d matter and also between them. • This adds up over distance and is the main force driving the expansion of the 2 planar universes.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Over time, the larger rings, with their greater repulsiveness, tend to move to the periphery of the two universes, while the finer ones tend to find points of equilibrium within, between islands of matter/antimatter. Microscopic rings could even lie trapped within the matter/antimatter of the 2 universes, since their repulsive effects are too weak to make any difference.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• The larger voids at the periphery continue to push the universes outwards, thus fueling its expansion even further .

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Just as (previously mentioned) the 2 unidimensional (matter/antimatter) line universes, collided to generate the first Big Bang, the two planar universes finally meet after a period of expansion, which results in the second Big Bang.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Again, just as previous, the vast energy release of this Big Bang triggers the next dimensional upgrade. That is, the two dimensional planar universes of matter and antimatter instantly upgrade to their 3 dimensional equivalents, like two flat balloons, suddenly blown up.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• And again, the planar areas of matter and antimatter in the vicinity of those sections that came into contact became splintered and shoot into the now 3 dimensional universes, like the shrapnel of an explosion. • Also, at every Big Bang, more matter is converted to energy

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• But these splinters (or shrapnel) are like capsules of emptiness that are wrapped in a closed 2 dimensional (excluding time) skin. • 2 dimensional Matter is embedded in this skin.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Again, as previous, these closed voids of 2 dimensional space repel each other and cause both the spatially 3 dimensional universes to expand. • This repulsive energy exerted by these 2 dimensional perforations or voids that are scattered in the inter-galactic emptiness throughout our universe is the commonly termed Dark Energy. • It is the cause for the observed accelerated expansion

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• As previous, again the larger spatial perforations (that now resemble enormous bubbles) tend to move to the periphery of the 3 dimensional matter and antimatter universes (one of which we are currently in). • These large peripheral perforations fuel the continued and accelerating expansion of both the universes. • We are perhaps now in this phase.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• Some time in future, our spatially 3 dimensional universe made up of matter will collide with its antimatter counterpart. • Just as previous, this collision will again dimensionally upgrade both the universes. That is, both will then become spatially 4 dimensional. • The proportion of Energy to Matter in the future spatially 4 dimensional universe will be greater than that in the current one. That is, there will be more energy and hence more light, in the future universe.

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The (Modified) Big Bang Theory!
• The dimensional upgrades will cease when all matter/antimatter is converted to neutral energy in the last Big Bang! • What is the dimensional level of the pure-energy universe after that last Big Bang is not known. Perhaps one can speculate based on the Energy to Matter proportion and the age of our current universe.

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On Nothingness
• In The Big Separation, we have seen that from Nothingness emanates the unidimensional Universes, yet Nothingness Itself remains Unchanged and Undiminished. • The Big Separation is not a point in Time. It is a Process that knows no Beginning or End. • It is a Continuous Emanation. • Infinite strands of unidimensional universes of matter and antimatter are continuously churned out by The Nothingness. • The nature of Nothingness is essentially Unknowable.

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On Nothingness
• Below are not definitions of Nothingness, but merely approximations. • Nothingness is the Convergence of All Opposites. Hence it is both Existence and Non-existence equally. • Since Nothingness is both Existence and Non-existence, but Matter and Antimatter are both Existence, The Big Separation becomes the Continuous Flow of Duality. • Although Nothingness can exist (exist itself is a word that is meaningless in the context of Nothingness) at the zero dimensional state, it can also exist equally at any other dimensional level. • But Nothingness is Forever and Unchanging. Hence, at any dimensional level, Nothingness is what remains when Time is eliminated. • Nothingness IS The Substratum. • Nothingness is the Void within the Perforations. • Yet Nothingness is without limits. www.harismind.com

To sum it all up, the timeline of the Universe from the First Big Separation to the future dimensional universe is shown in the next slide…
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Multiple Universes
Since Nothingness can manifest in all dimensional states, infinite unidimensional limbs can emanate from the point (0 dimension) manifestation as typically illustrated here. And each such limb can produce infinite universes of varying dimensions.

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More on the ‘Perforations’
• To be more precise, spatially, the early state of our universe can be compared to a big lump of Swiss cheese tightly covered with a balloon that is full of holes. This balloon covered Swiss cheese is floating in a spatially 4 dimensional void. • The balloon is the 2 dimensional skin of our 3 dimensional universe (again spatially speaking). • The 2 dimensional skin is also perforated with ring shaped holes, which are remnants of the first Big Bang.

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More on the ‘Perforations’
• One most important thing: The perforations are not perforations in matter, but they are perforations in space itself. • Perforations in matter are perceivable to our senses. That is, they can be seen and felt. • Whereas perforations in space are undetectable except for the gravitational repulsion and its indirect effects. But since the perforations within our range are too small and gravitational repulsion, itself is a very weak force, these individual perforations are undetectable even by our most sensitive instruments.

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More on the ‘Perforations’
• Since they are constantly repelled by the matter around them, over time, the perforations tend to collect in the intergalactic spaces that are largely empty of matter. • Most of the larger chunks find their way to the peripheries of the Universe. • Since they repel against each other also, they (the larger voids) tend to be like isolated islands, pushing the universe outwards, thus accelerating its expansion.

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More on the ‘Perforations’
• Microscopic perforations can perhaps exist in any of the Lagrangian points between 2 planetary bodies in our solar system (Sun-Earth, Sun-Mars etc) or even Earth-Moon. It is not necessary, but it is a possibility. Extremely sensitive gravitational detectors may perhaps detect a perforation. This is one way of experimentally confirming the presence of a perforation.

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More on the ‘Perforations’
• It must be noted that even a slight disturbance could cause such a Perforation to drift out of its equilibrium point. • If such perforation does still remain in any Lagrangian point within our solar system, it could even be possible to trap it and transport it to Earth

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More on the ‘Perforations’
• Larger perforations could be present in the outer reaches of our solar system, in the interstellar medium, where gravitational effects from the sun, the outer planets and the Oort cloud cancel each other out. • It could perhaps explain for the Pioneer anomaly, wherein a slight deceleration was experienced by both the Pioneer (10 & 11) crafts in the outer reaches of the solar system.

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Perforations - Pioneer Anomaly Explanation
Shell of Perforations: It exerts a slight repulsive force that accounts to the small deceleration experienced by the Pioneer crafts in their outward journey. It would be like climbing an extremely small gradient by a cyclist. Since the repulsive force is quite small, its effect on larger bodies like the outer planets and their satellites (due to their much greater mass and momentum) would be too negligible to detect. A heavy and powerful train can easily coast through a small gradient without much effect on its speed. But the cyclist would experience a more pronounced deceleration. Besides, the planets are not moving in an outward direction (though their satellites could at times) with respect to the sun.

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Dimensional ‘Density’
• Every time a universe shifts from a lower dimensional state to a higher dimensional state, it becomes much less ‘dense’. • Matter is much less ‘compacted’ in progressively higher dimensions. • Although matter within the universe may have a range of densities, the same type of matter in a higher dimensional universe will be much less dense. For instance, Iron in our spatially 3 dimensional universe will be much denser than its aspect in the 4 dimensional universe. • This ‘density’ is a fundamental property of space rather than of matter

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Dimensional ‘Density’
• Also, all the four fundamental forces gets weaker in progressively higher dimensions. • This results in a much greater range of matter that can exist stably in universes of higher dimensions. For instance, isotopes of matter that cannot exist in our universe can freely exist in the higher dimensional universe. • This provides much greater color, variety & beauty to the higher dimensional universe. • Since the proportion of Energy to Matter is significantly higher in the four dimensional universe of the future, there would be much more light too.

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Dark Matter
• We have seen that Nothingness
– is the Substratum, – can manifest in any dimensional state, – as the Substratum, it is of spatially N+1 dimensions supporting a Matter/Antimatter universe of N dimensions (spatially). Thus a spatially 3 dimensional universe, such as the one we are in now, is supported by a spatially 4 dimensional substratum. The four dimensional substratum could either be time-deficient Nothingness or may even contain matter/antimatter (remnant of a previous cycle).

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Dark Matter
• Also, every single point in a universe of N dimensions is contiguous with its substratum of N+1 dimensions. • Thus, every single point in our 3 dimensional universe adjoins a point in the 4 dimensional substratum.
This is a ‘flattened’ (2d) version of our universe embedded on a 3 dimensional spherical substratum (bulk). You may notice that every point of this flattened universe is touching the spherical substratum on which it lies. Likewise, every single point in our 3 dimensional universe will be touching the 4 dimensional bulk on which our universe is spread out.

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Dark Matter
• The difference in ‘dimensional’ densities would cause matter in the lower dimensional universe cause a greater negative curvature, than if it were stacked up on another universe of the same dimension. • To illustrate the point, consider the figures below. On the left we have two yellow slabs stacked one on top of the other, while on the right we have another yellow slab on top of a light blue slab.

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Dark Matter
• Let’s consider the yellow slabs to be made of denser material than the light blue slab. Say, let the yellow slabs be made of rubber and the blue slab be made of a light spongy material

Denser material

Lighter material

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Dark Matter
• Now let’s embed within the top yellow slabs, heavy metallic spheres of equal weight, as shown below

Heavy metallic sphere of equal weight

Denser material

Lighter material

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Dark Matter

Since the lower supporting slab on the right is much less dense, the sag caused by the metallic sphere is deeper and more pronounced here than the one on the left.

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Dark Matter
• Thus coming back to the picture of our 3 d universe embedded on a 4 d substratum, the gravity well formed by large structures such as galactic clusters and even groups of stars is deeper when considering this effect of ‘dimensional’ densities. • This would, make it seems as if the mass of this cluster is greater than the sum of the masses of its components and as if there is additional (‘dark’) matter. • This ‘extra’ depth of the collective gravity well due to the density difference between our 3d universe and the 4d substratum is what holds the stars within their galaxies and the galaxies within their galactic clusters.

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References
• • • • • • Vanishing Dimension Hypotheses by Jonas Mureika and Dejan Stojkovic The DGP model by Gia Dvali, Gregory Gabadadze and Massimo Porrati The Kaluza-Klein Theory by Theodor Kaluza The Randall-Sundrum model by Lisa Randall and Raman Sundrum General Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein Hierarchy problem in the shell-Universe model by Merab Gogberashvili

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• This is only a hypotheses and may have many errors. Your informed and critical feedback is welcome and would be much appreciated. • Although careful research has been conducted to ensure the ideas described here are original, I make no such guarantees. • Please feel free to comment, however, please be respectful.

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Big things have small beginnings…
From the movie, “Prometheus” due for release in May 2012

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