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International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 27, No.

20, 20 October 2006, 45134528

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data over Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand using fast Fourier transform
S. K. PAL{, T. J. MAJUMDAR*{ and A. K. BHATTACHARYA{ {Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur721 302, India {Earth Sciences and Hydrology Division, Marine and Water Resources Group, Remote Sensing Applications and Image Processing Area, Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad380 015, India
(Received 14 July 2005; in final form 24 February 2006 ) Digital filtering of ERS-2 SAR data using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) has been attempted over Singhbhum shear zone (SSZ) and its surroundings for extraction of linear and anomalous patterns. The results show that numerous lineaments as well as drainage patterns could be identified and demarcated by FFT digital filtering method. Major as well as several minor drainage patterns are easily detectable from the filtered image, which are structurally controlled and not observed in the original map. Comparison of the present interpretation of the study area to existing geological map/earlier interpretation has been done effectively. This technique was found to be more effective in identifying the lineaments using ERS SAR data compared with using Landsat imagery over the study area. The present study reveals that maximum lineaments occurring in the north of SSZ are NNE, NNW and NW trending, while maximum lineaments occurring in the south of SSZ are NE, ENE, WNW, and NW trending. The demarcated geological structures may have a great significance to locate the hidden ore/mineral occurrences. The existences of various mines, such as Baharagora, Mosaboni, Surda, Narwa, Bhatin, Jadugoda, Rakha, and Tatanagar along the shear zone, correlate well with the interpreted results.



Linears are naturally/culturally occurring features observed in remote sensing imagery. They are seen in remotely sensed images as a simple or composite linear feature on the surface. Their parts align in straight or slightly curving relationships that differ distinctly from the patterns of adjacent features in various combinations of stream patterns, tonal changes or tonal vegetation and topographic alignments. Presumably, a lineament expresses a subsurface phenomenon (Sabins 1997). Lineaments, which may be continuous or discontinuous, under certain circumstances, may be regarded as the surface manifestation of fault and fracture zones. These have been linked with local or regional tectonics and used as potential zones for oil, gas and mineral exploration (Rakshit and Swaminathan 1985, Mah et al. 1995, Majumdar 1995, Sabins 1999, Briere and Scanlan 2000, Chernicoff et al. 2002).
*Corresponding author. Email:
International Journal of Remote Sensing ISSN 0143-1161 print/ISSN 1366-5901 online # 2006 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/01431160600658172


S. K. Pal et al.

Radar is an active system which illuminates the surface with a beam of microwave radiation. Radar is most sensitive to surface roughness and soil moisture differences (variation in the complex dielectric constant which is a measure of the electrical properties of surface materials). Radar can penetrate the surface micro-layer in the soil covered areas (Prost 2001). Lineaments are extremely well manifested on SAR images, and on several occasions structural features; for example, fractures, folds, faults etc. have been detected, as well as extended in SAR imageries. Also, look angle and direction have a major impact on the response and manifestation of surficial features in SAR imageries. Earlier results have shown that RADARSAT-1 C-band horizontally polarized images have been very useful for geomorphology, geological structures and rock units mapping (Singhroy and Molch 2004, Harris 1984, Lowman et al. 1987, Masuoka et al. 1988). The SAR image is more effective than optical imagery for studying features such as surface roughness and topography. This is due to variation in radar backscatter as a function of wavelength (C-band , 5.6 cm), incident angle and polarization. Useful information on terrain morphology and surface relief (related to geological structure) is provided by SAR imagery, due to effect of radar backscatter sensitivity to slope angle and to shadow effects caused by topographic relief (ERS-2 SAR website). An image transform (viz. FFT, Hadamard, Haar) is a 2D spectrum derived from the decomposition of the image data which can be utilized to extract features from images (Pratt 1978, Majumdar 1995, Majumdar and Mohanty 1999). 2. Geological setup of the area

The regional geotectonic/geological map (Saha 1994) of the study area derived from Landsat imagery and ground data has been presented in figure 1. The area has been extensively surveyed using ground-based geological (Dunn 1929, Sarkar 1963, Naha 1965, Saha 1994) techniques. It has a major tectonic element (Singhbhum Shear Zone) that separates the cratonic block (Singhbhum-Orissa Iron Ore Craton) in the south from the Proterozoic mobile belt (Singhbhum Mobile Belt) in the north. It runs in a northward dipping direction along a northwardly convex arcuate belt for a length of more than 160 km from Bharagora in the east to Chakradharpur in the west. The Singhbhum Shear Zone occurs as a curvilinear belt with an EW trend. Singhbhum rocks, like those of other Precambrian terrains, have undergone many phases of deformation and metamorphism. Rocks to the south of the Singhbhum Shear Zone are relatively less metamorphosed compared with those to the north. Rocks of Dhanjori Group are exposed in the southern part of Singhbhum Shear Zone. This group consists of conglomerate, arkose, quartzite and lava flows. The equivalent of the bottom part of this succession is identified as the Singhbhum Group to the north of Singhbhum Shear Zone. Similarly, the equivalent of lava flows in the north is called Dalma Lava. Dolerite dikes have intruded in the Singhbhum Granite and occur mostly in the southern part of Singhbhum Shear Zone. 3. Data sources and area of interest

ERS-2 SAR Path Radiance Image (PRI)/Precision Image (Path: 0842; Row: 0198) of 30 September 2002 over the Singhbhum Shear Zone and its surroundings, covering an area between latitudes 22u159N to 23uN, and longitudes 86uE to 86u459E, has been used in this study (shown in the box in figure 1). The Precision Image is a path oriented and system corrected product, being the basic product used

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data


Figure 1.

Geological map over the study area (after Saha 1994).

for a variety of remote sensing applications. Scene size is 100 km in range direction and at least 102.5 km in azimuth direction. Spatial resolution is 25 m in range direction and 15 m in azimuth direction. The registration of SAR imagery with the rectified IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite)-1C imagery has been accomplished through image-to-image co-registration using nearest neighbourhood re-sampling technique. The rectified precision image has been transformed from spatial domain to frequency domain, i.e. Fourier transformed image using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. Thereafter, power spectrum has been generated from this Fourier transformed image. This power spectrum has been edited to enhance the linear and anomalous patterns, such as, structural and tectonic configuration of the area. Singhbhum, particularly the western part, is full of hills alternating with valleys, steep mountains, and deep forests on the mountain slopes. Singhbhum contains best Sal forests and the Saranda (seven hundred hills) forest area is well known world over. Climatologically, the study area may be divided into three seasons: Winter from November to February, summer from March to May, and the rainy season from June to October. The cold season is delightful while it is unpleasantly hot in the summer season with hot westerly winds prevailing. On account of the barrier of hills in the southeast, the atmosphere is generally dry. The rainfall is the highest in July and August. Monsoon generally breaks in the second week of June. December and January are the coldest months while April and May are the hottest. The soil in Singhbhum has been classified mainly into three groups: rocky, red and black soils. Rocky soil remains practically uncultivated. Red soil is spread


S. K. Pal et al.

throughout the area: it is sandy and loamy and has poor fertility. Black soil is very fertile. Rice is the main crop. Howrah-Nagpur and Rajkharsawan-Chaibasa-Gua railway lines are mainly used for mineral transportations. Apart from them, there are a number of forest roads. Singhbhum is rich in natural resources, both for minerals and forest produce. 4. Methodology

The steps involved in enhancing a digital image, f(x, y), using frequency domain technique are: (i) to compute Fourier transform F(u, v) of f(x, y) by FFT method, (ii) to multiply the obtained F(u, v) with a filter function H(u, v), and finally (iii) to take the inverse Fourier transform of G(u, v), i.e., product of F(u, v) and H(u, v). The flowchart for digital image enhancement using FFT method has been presented in figure 2. Interpretation of the FFT filtered imagery by visual pattern recognition of surface features resulting from variations in radar backscatter in the source image as well as from differences in surface roughness and topography, is carried out by studying tone, and textural variations (Masuoka et al. 1988, Paganelli et al. 2003, Singhroy and Molch 2004).

Figure 2.

Schematic diagram for FFT filtering technique.

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data 4.1 Fast Fourier transform


Fast Fourier transform (FFT), a classical image filtering technique, is used to convert a raster image from the spatial domain into a frequency domain image. The FFT calculation converts the image into a series of two-dimensional sine waves of various frequencies. The Fourier image can be edited accordingly for image enhancement such as sharpening, contrast manipulation and smoothing. Sharpening is achieved by using a high-pass filter whose function is to attenuate low frequencies, whereas image smoothing is done by low-pass filter. Sometimes combination of both low-pass as well as high-pass filters, known as band pass filter, is used. In the frequency domain, the high-pass filter is implemented by attenuating the pixel frequencies with the help of different window functions, viz. Ideal, Bartlett (Triangular), Butterworth, Gaussian, Hanning and Hamming etc. (ERDAS 2001). Let us consider a function f(x, y) of two variables x and y, where x50, 1, 2, , N 2 1, and y50, 1, 2, , M 2 1. The function f(x, y) represents digital value of an image in the xth row, yth column; M and N are the maximum numbers of rows and columns in the image which are multiple of two. Then the forward Fourier transform of f(x, y) is defined as (Gonzalez and Woods 1992, Jahne 1993) F u, v~ X X 1 M{1 N{1 f x, y exp{j2pux=Mzvy=N MN x~0 y~0 1

p for u50, 1, 2, , N21, v50, 1, 2, , M 2 1 and j~ {1; u and v are the frequency variables. The inverse Fourier transform of F(u, v) returns to f(x, y) which is defined as f x,y~
M{1 N{1 X X u~0 v~0

F (u, v) expj2p(ux=Mzvy=N)

for x50, 1, 2, , N 2 1, and y50, 1, 2, , M 2 1. Equations (1) and (2) are known as frequency transform pair. 4.2 Interpretation of ERS SAR FFT filtered imagery

The dielectric constant of a rock at radar wavelength is specially influenced by the water content of the rock. Dry rock has a dielectric constant of the order of 38, whereas that of water is 80. With increasing moisture content in the rock the dielectric constant will increase almost linearly. De Loor (1982) has given a general review of dielectric properties of wet materials. The depth penetration in soil and rock material is inversely related to the dielectric constant, but directly to the radar wavelength used. In moist rocks and soils the depth penetration will be only skindeep. In dry sand area a reasonable penetration can be obtained with the use of radar of longer wavelength (Koopmans 1983). The most important radar parameters for lineament mapping are: (i) look direction, which determines the preferential enhancement of the terrain; (ii) incidence angle, which affects the topographic enhancement; and (iii) spatial resolution, which affects the amount of fine structural detail to be seen (Harris 1984). Rock type (lithology) has no obvious effect on radar return in the area with forest cover as is the case in Singhbhum. However, structure and major lithologic units can


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be delineated through their topographic expression (Lowman et al. 1987, Sabins 1999). The filtered images have been interpreted for identification of structural features, lineaments and fracture/fault planes. The lineaments are readily identifiable surface features due to tone, contrast and textural variations associated with topographic variation, lithological transition, and drainage patterns, whereas fracture planes and (or) fault planes are linear features along the offset between sets of lineaments. The resulting lineaments have been analysed in regional geological context, compiled, and plotted on Rose diagrams to outline the variability in strike directions. The identified lineaments have been compared with the known regional structural trends.

Figure 3. Filtered enhanced image of the study area after IFT of filtered power spectrum using (i) low-pass filter with Butterworth window (D053500, LFG51, HFG50) and (ii) highpass filter with Ideal window (D0550, LFG50, HFG51).

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data 5. Results and discussion


ERS-2 SAR path radiance data of the study area has been transformed into Fourier image using FFT. Fourier image has been edited in frequency domain and then transformed back to spatial domain to get the enhanced linear and anomalous patterns. In order to band pass the particular frequency range through this Fourier magnitude image (power spectrum), lower frequency components of radius 3500 (D025u2 + v2) has been suppressed using a low pass filter with the help of Butterworth window function (low frequency gain, LFG51.5, high frequency gain, HFG50) and high frequency components of radius 50 has been suppressed with the help of Ideal window function (LFG50, HFG51.5). Finally the filtered spectrum is transformed back to spatial domain to obtain the Fourier filtered image (figure 3). Similarly, some other band pass filters have also been tested with different radii, viz., using various window functions (figures 4 and 5) for better topographic as well as

Figure 4. Filtered enhanced image of the study area after IFT of filtered power spectrum using (i) low-pass filter with Butterworth window (D053500, LFG51.5, HFG50.3) and (ii) high-pass filter with Ideal window (D05100, LFG50, HFG51.5).


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Figure 5. Filtered enhanced image of the study area after IFT of filtered power spectrum using (i) low-pass filter with Gaussian window (D054000, LFG52, HFG50.1) and (ii) highpass filter with Ideal window (D05300, LFG50, HFG52).

surface features enhancement, which aids in interpretation of lineaments expressed by physiographic features, surface geology transitions and/or associated vegetation coverage variations. The filtered images exhibit numerous linear and anomalous patterns over the study area (figures 35). The interpreted linear and anomalous features have been overlapped on the enhanced SAR image (figure 6). Finally, the interpreted map of the lineament and drainage patterns in the study area has been prepared and presented in figure 7. However, since the look-direction is towards west in ERS SAR image with descending (NS) passes, main features including the Singhbhum Shear Zone, Dalma Thrust Belt, Rakha mines area (Dhanjori formation), and the Subarnarekha river which are almost perpendicular to eastwest direction have been enhanced (figures 1, 6 and 7). Also, rock type (lithology) has no obvious effect on radar return in the area with forest cover as is the case in Singhbhum (Lowman et al. 1987, Sabins 1999). But orientation of radar look direction to the topographic and tectonic grain of the terrain is useful for studies in structural geology (Harris 1984).

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data


Figure 6.

Overlap of structural features on the FFT enhanced ERS-2 SAR imagery.

The topographic enhancement reflected by brightness contrast, texture and tonal variation between Singhbhum-Orissa Iron Ore Craton in the south and Singhbhum Mobile Belt in the north, interpreted as Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ). The structural mapping of the study area has been divided into two major parts, north of the Singhbhum Shear Zone and south of the Singhbhum Shear Zone. In the southern part of SSZ, WNW, NW, and NNW trending lineaments and NE trending fractures/faults are delineated by brightness contrast and texture variation over the Dhanjori group of meta-volcanics and meta-sediments. The NE, NNE, ENE, and NW trending lineaments are observed over Singhbhum granite and Gurumahisani Group (figures 6 and 7). Besides, a few folds having closures towards the east with axial plane traces running EW have been identified in the southern part of SSZ. In the northern part of SSZ, lineaments over the Dalma Volcanic have been traced along the major Dalma fold. These lineaments have NW, NNW, NE, and NNE trends. Some NE and NW trending fractures/faults have been delineated across these lineaments. Another prominent shear zone has been identified due to high


S. K. Pal et al.

Figure 7. image.

Structural map of the study area as interpreted from the FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR

tonal and textural variations between Dalma Volcanic and Singhbhum Group. Kuilpal granite in the centre of Singhbhum group occurring north of Dalma Volcanics, has been demarcated by the distinct lineaments. Some folds having closures towards south with axial plane traces trending NS, are observed over the Dalma volcanic range, whereas some other folds, having closures towards east, with

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data


axial plane traces running EW, are identified over the Singhbhum group in the north-west part of the study area. High contrast and darker tone emphasize the main drainage pattern of the study area. Summary of lineament orientations is presented in table 1. The synoptic Rose diagrams of lineaments and fractures/faults orientation have been presented in figure 8. A total of 805 structural features have been identified, out of which 695 are linear features (lineament/fault/fracture) and 110 are folds/curvilinear features. The identified linear features have vector mean of value 88 with circular variance 0.59 and circular standard deviation 78. The number of linear features identified in the north of SSZ is 382, which have a vector mean of value 156 with circular variance 0.32 and circular standard deviation 49, whereas the number of linear features identified in the south of SSZ is 313, which have a vector mean of value 81 with circular variance 0.27 and circular standard deviation 45. The identified linear features in the north of SSZ have greater circular variance as well as greater standard deviation than that of linear features in the south of SSZ which clearly indicate that the rocks in the area north of SSZ have undergone several phases of deformation compared to the rocks in the area south of SSZ (Sarkar and Chakraborty 1982). From the overall study, it is clear that maximum lineaments occurring in the north of SSZ are NNE, NNW and NW trending, while maximum lineaments occurring in the south of SSZ are NE, ENE, WNW, and NW trending. The major river in the study area, Subarnarekha, as delineated from the filtered SAR imagery is observed to be running almost parallel along the northern boundary of SSZ for some distance, and then following intermittently in between the SSZ and Dalma volcanic (figure 6). High contrast and darker tone emphasize the main drainage pattern of the study area. It can be concluded that the major river, Subarnarekha and its tributaries, are structurally controlled. Some short length seasonal streams

Table 1. Summary of lineaments orientation as identified from FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR imagery. Lineament trend Total number of lineament 26 81 70 65 57 14 313 92 51 55 50 50 84 382 725 Vector mean Circular variance 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.27 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.32 0.62 Circular standard deviation (u) 9 9 9 9 8 7 45 9 8 9 8 9 7 49 82

North-northeast North-east East-northeast West-northwest North-west North-northwest Total lineament to the south of SSZ North-northeast North-east East-northeast West-northwest North-west North-northwest Total lineament to the north of SSZ Total lineament

South of SSZ 18 46 77 105 134 163 81 North of SSZ 15 42 72 106 135 163 156 92


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Figure 8. Synoptic Rose diagram representing different lineament trends interpreted on FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR imagery.

are also found to be structurally controlled in the south-western part of the study area as observed from the digitally enhanced image. Subarnarekha river crosses Dalma volcanic ridge near Burudhi at an obtuse angle, while one tributary of the Subarnarekha river, Dudh Nadi crosses the Dhanjori volcanic ridge almost orthogonally, which indicates the existence of a prominent fractures/faults in this region (Geological Survey of India 1998). In addition, numerous fractures/crossfractures/faults have also been mapped over the study area from the filtered SAR imagery, as can be seen from figures 6 and 7. These demarcated structures have great significance from the economic point of view since they can be host to various mineralized bodies along the weak zones. The various mines, such as, Baharagora, Mosaboni, Surda, Narwa, Bhatin, Jadugoda, Rakha, and Tatanagar are along the shear zone, which are also identifiable from the processed SAR image. The structural interpretation map of a part of the present study area, as generated by Majumdar (1995) using FFT techniques on Landsat imagery and the

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data


Figure 8. (Continued.)

corresponding Rose diagram have been presented in figures 9 (a) and (b), whereas the structural map of the same area interpreted from the present study and the corresponding Rose diagram are shown in figures 10 (a) and (b). The comparison of figures 9 and 10 reveals that the present study is more effective for delineation of structural features. 6. Conclusions

The present study shows that digital filtering technique using fast Fourier transform on ERS SAR imagery is an effective tool for extraction of linear and anomalous

Figure 9. (a) Structural interpretation map of a part of the present study area carried out by Majumdar (1995) on Landsat imagery using FFT techniques. (b) Synoptic Rose diagram.


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Figure 10. (a) Structural map of the same area as interpreted in the present study. (b) Synoptic Rose diagram.

patterns in a tectonically disturbed area. The present study reveals that maximum lineaments occurring in the north of SSZ are NNE, NNW and NW trending, while maximum lineaments occurring in the south of SSZ are NE, ENE, WNW, and NW trending. Also, numerous linear features, faults/fractures and folds could be identified and demarcated using this technique on SAR imagery which may have a great significance to locate the hidden ore/mineral occurrences. Since a number of transformations have occurred during last 1800 Ma in SSZ because of collisions of two plates, identification of these linears and comparison with earlier results will be helpful for tectonic studies in this region. Corresponding Rose diagrams are very helpful for quantification of lineament occurrences. Major, as well as several minor, drainage patterns which are structurally controlled, are easily detectable in the filtered image. It is found to be more suitable and effective in delineating lineaments, as well as drainage patterns, in the study area using ERS SAR data than that obtained earlier from Landsat imagery using the same FFT technique. However, cultural linears/systematic noise patterns will also be extracted which need to be discarded during final interpretation. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the anonymous referees for their critical comments and suggestions for the improvement of the manuscript. They are also thankful to Dr R. R. Navalgund, Director, SAC, Dr K. L. Majumder, Deputy Director, RESIPA/ SAC and Dr S. R. Nayak, Group Director, MWRG/RESIPA for their keen interest in this study. Thanks are due to Shri R. Bhattacharyya and Shri S. Chatterjee, ESHD for their help at various stages of this activity.

Extraction of linear and anomalous features using ERS SAR data References


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