Image or mirage?

The quest for consumer preference
Businessline (Feb 17, 1999): 1.
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So too with Birla as a brand name. Yet the competitive advantage derived from such an identity has now been well recognised. As most Indian companies and more especially their advertising agencies grapple with the challenge of creating a new, superior, winning image for themselves, there is belated recognition that both brand and company images are hot properties. This is indeed truer even if the management were to think of eventually selling either entity. Besides, the reputations of products and companies form strong entry barriers to new competition. The amazing continued strength of some durable Indian brands like Thums Up, Dabur and HMT testify to this. Considerable research and experience in this area have produced a profusion of literature and terminology on the subjects of branding, brand management, brand equity and so on. What does it show? I believe what it demonstrates is the naivete of thinking that image alone drives overwhelming preference for foreign brands. Several other things, more real than imaginary, do matter. Like price, relative performance, design, functionality and relevance to Indian market. If the price for instance is beyond the reach of even the so-called target consumer, not to mention the average Indian, then even the strength of the brand does not appear to confer a great benefit. In other words, ultimately all value has to be an equation: matching what the brand delivers with what is expected from it. And the latter is even more if the product is a long- term investment and a highticket item such as a car. Image on the other hand, often turns out to be just that - a hope, a myth or a fiction. Until it is supported by the appropriate blend of product strategy, positioning and communication, the mere "say so" of the manufacturer is not sufficient for the customer to adopt a brand.

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Bike owners' upgrade to drive compact car sales
Businessline (Jun 27, 2004): 1.
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This partly explains the success of Maruti Udyog's positioning of 'Maruti 800 for Rs 2,599' targeted at two-wheeler owners. The scheme launched in mid-March 2004 in a tie-up with the State Bank of India allows aconsumer to purchase a Maruti 800 at an EMI of Rs 2,599 for a seven-year loan. This was one of the findings of the 2004 Motorcycle Total Customer Satisfaction (MTCS) study conducted by TNS specialist division, TNS Automotive. There is also a note of caution for motorcycle manufacturers as the survey finds a strong preference for makes currently not available in the market. According to the study, Honda, which is set to launch its motorcycles in the Indian market in OctoberNovember this year, finds a strong preference. The preference is significant among the owners of executive and premium bikes, particularly from those owning Yamaha and Hero Honda, the study states.

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Cite Company/organization Maruti Udyog Ltd Title Bike owners' upgrade to drive compact car sales Publication title Businessline Pages 1 Number of pages 0 Publication year 2004

Publication date Jun 27. All Material Subject to Copyright.) Last updated 2010-07-07 Database ABI/INFORM Complete Sss .proquest. 2004 Year 2004 Publisher Chennai Publisher Asia Intelligence Wire from FT Information Place of publication Chennai Country of publication United Kingdom Journal subject Business And Economics Source type Trade Journals Language of publication English Document type PERIODICAL ProQuest document ID 221843780 Document URL http://search.Asia AfricaIntelligence Wire. Financial Times Information Limited .com/docview/221843780?accountid=62745 Copyright (Copyright 2004.

4 (2006): 283-302. as symbolic and emotional attachment to consumer and as a match with consumer's social and personal norms ([2] Ahmed et al.Brand origin in an emerging market: perceptions of Indian consumers Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers Hide highlighting Zhongqi Jin and Bal Chansarkar. N M. Paurav Shukla Introduction Country of origin (CO) effect was recognised as an important phenomenon in international trade at least one hundred years ago ([19] Peris et al. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 18. Using paired t -test. and this allowed one to extend existing country of origin (CO) research to brand of origin research. Furthermore. It has been found that CO influencesconsumer perceptions in at least 3 dimensions: as a purchasing cue for quality indication. 1965) and indeed has become one of the most widely researched areas in the discipline ([17] Papadopoulos and Heslop. It has drawn great attention in the consumer buying behaviour literature since 1960s ([9] Ditchter. the CO effect is criticised as one of the least understood phenomena ([26] Verlegh and Steenkamp. Guided by recent advance in social identity theory and social motivation theory. But the changing nature of the concept requires careful steering and nurturing if companies want to attach a positive value to its brand via brand origin association. . Kondap. . average consumer preference of brand origin was analysed fordifferent product categories. The results implied that brand origin is a useful concept for companies engaging in an emerging market such as India. [23] Schooler. 1962. For example. 2002). Abstract (summary) TranslateAbstract This study aims to examine the usefulness of the brand origin concept in shaping the perceptions of Indian consumers. 1996). a dynamic iterative model of brand origin recognition is proposed. 1999). The results demonstrated that most consumers can recognise the brand origin correctly but the power of recognition decreases when the brand has a long history of "localization". 1993). Six hypotheses were tested using a sample of 145 consumersfrom west of India. Distinguished trajectories of consumer perceptions of foreign brands and domestics brands were projected. the concept is increasingly under scrutiny ([24] Thakor and Kohli. the Sony . 2002). Despite over forty years research. A factor analysis with varimax rotation for determining band images was also carried out. in an age of intensive international competition and globalisation. Full Text   TranslateFull text Turn on search term navigation Emerging paradigms in the Indian marketplace.

and a BMW 7series car travelling on the same roads in India.What are the implications of such brand-country associations? . Japan. 1996). 2003). 2005). India. 2001). we address the following research questions: . In the context of consumers in India. [26] Verlegh and Steenkamp (1999) concluded that the CO effect is not affected by multi-national production. Yet it is perceived as a Japanese product. India is the second most populous country in the world with an estimated population of 1. Given the increasing trend in globalisation. The country of manufacture of Sony Walkman becomes less important than the cultural value associated with the Sony brand. It is therefore critically important to understand consumer perceptions in such a vast and growing market ([7] Business Week. for example.Walkman might be designed in the USA. We select five countries in this project as basis of comparison: UK. 2000). it is not unusual to see that a bullock cart. and fashion clothes. India is also culturally very different from the West. . the consumption of wine. However. a bicycle. chocolate. do consumers use brand origin rather than simply CO as a purchasing cue? . 1999). Some scholars have argued that the concept of CO should be replaced by a more appropriate culture of origin or brand origin concept ([24] Thakor and Kohli. And a new generation of young Indians are struggling to embrace Western consumerism against the values of self-denial embodied by Mahatma Gandhi ([8] Dhillon. The rationale of selecting such five countries will be described in detail later in the methodology section. The connotations associated with such different layer and depth of product-country image as "made/designed/assembled/distributed/sold-in" make conventional CO research less relevant ([11] Ger et al. India consumers demonstrate different perhaps unique purchasing behaviour due to these differences ([4] Batra et al. 2005) and it may within a decade be the most populous country. manufactured in Thailand but sold in Europe.What are the determinants of brand origin identification? Does social motivation or social identity play a role? . . Recent studies have shown that culture of origin or brand origin could be a more influential cue in determining consumer purchasing behaviour ([16] Lim and O'Cass. 2001).08 billion ([21] Population Clock. Due to the diversity of the population. there are few empirical studies evaluating the importance of brand origin ([25] Thakor and Lavack. 2003) and even fewer studies looking at the issue from an Indian perspective ([3] Bandyopadhay. From a recent meta-analysis of forty-one studies into CO effect.Is there such a thing as brand origin? In other words. As a developing country. China. and USA. it is inevitable that the perceptions of India consumers are influenced by the presence of brands from different countries.

Finally. By brand origin association we mean the activities or processes that consumersare engaged in to associate the brand with images of a particular place or region or country. See Article Image. detailed comparison between UK brands and India brands is presented. region or country to which the brand is perceived to belong by its target consumers.To understand the difference of consumer perceptions between India and developed countries. we propose a conceptual framework of brand origin recognition combining three themes of research: social motivation theory. social motivation theory. the definition makes it possible to link the concept of brand origin as part of brand image and therefore provides an embedded theoretical base for researchers to explore the concept not simply as a purchasing cue but as an integral part of branding theory and mechanism.]. Our conceptual framework is drawn from three theoretical backgrounds: social identity theory. Then we empirically test the hypotheses proposed using a sample survey of India consumers. We argue that brand origin association is motivated from people's social desire to move from an intrinsic orientation to an extrinsic orientation and their desire to identify themselves to be socially acceptable and identifiable by peers or certain groups of society. it stresses consumer perceptions of a brand relating to its origin. and consumerperceptions regarding different product categories and different brands from five countries are explored. the image of the brand. Secondly. social identification theory. The definition is different from conventional CO definition in at least two aspects: first of all. and CO research. we use UK as a typical example given that India has had a long association with UK and consumers has a good general knowledge of the country. A simplified mechanism of brand origin recognition is illustrated in Figure 1 [Figure omitted. It has a direct impact on perceptions of the brand and ultimately. where the product is actually produced may not be as important as the perceived birthplace that consumers affiliate the brand to. In other words. Firstly. Social motivation theory . The paper is organised as follows. Conceptual framework We adopt the definition of brand origin from [24] Thakor and Kohli (1996) which is referred to as the place. The image of the brand often provides information rewards which reinforces people's social desire to simplify or summarise beliefs regarding a particular brand. Brand origin association activities become less important when such social desire or motivation is no longer necessary or the brand becomes such a commodity that no longer provides positive competence information awards for consumers to associate the brand with its origin. and CO research. brand origin recognition is a dynamic iterative process.

(2000) argued that such effort could be stronger in developing countries where a growing number of middle . the availability and widespread promotion of brands provide great opportunities for consumers to differentiate themselves via their choice of brands ([8] Dhillon. Therefore. favourable public images. consistency among their cognitions. 1991). In other words. brand recognition is also a process of symbolic representation with which individuals could use to enhance their status of display. people tend to associate brands with countries consciously or subconsciously irrespective of where the actual products or components of the products are made. where minimization of efforts may be more important than novelty and stimulation ([20] Pittman and Heller. 1989). 1987). This can be partly explained by social identity theory ([13] Hogg. . p. First of all. People tend to associate brand origin to certain characteristics of the brand such as quality. people maintain the value they hold and tend to match those values with the image of the brand. or to increase their overall competence ([4] Batra et al. cognitions. . The association becomes weaker over time as the brands are produced locally. evaluations. It helps individuals to shift their focus from intrinsic orientation to an extrinsic orientation. and attributions about issues and events. and values. 2005). Consumers associate brands with countries where the brands are originally developed rather than with the countries the brands are produced. brand origin concept only makes sense if only there is an intention from consumers who link brands to countries ([11] Ger et al.Social motivation theory has received much attention in the last two decades ([10] Geen. In addition. the categorisation from which they belong to and to be recognised as part of ([6] Burgess. while compounded by other factors such as familiarity of the consumers with the brands or countries ([12] Han.1". [4] Batra et al. We propose that: H1 . Finally. According to [22] Pyszczynski et al. 1992). There are several motivational aspects which activate a brand recognition process. brand origin recognition is a process of cognitive evaluation in which brand origin acts as a reward or incentive to simplify matters. Individuals want to make sense in the increasingly complicated world and one way of doing this is from the shift to social identity. The opening up of markets in developing countries. and benign beliefs about the world in which they live. Social identity theory Brand origin recognition is a complicated process. there is a tendency of using extrinsic cue (such as countries or places) to replace intrinsic features (such as price or performance). 2000). Individuals shift their focus from personal to social identity. "convincing evidence now exists that people are motivated to obtain (among other things) positive evaluations of themselves and the groups to which they belong. (1997). 1999). to overcome their insecurity and inferiority. 1999). Indeed. which influences their perceptions. Social identity theory defines self in terms of personal identity and social identity. price.

1995. From the early 1980s to 1990s. their social status. Most important of all is the recognition that national images are powerful stereotypes that influence behaviours in all types of target markets. H3 . which orients toward great awareness of social status and freedom of choice.g. we therefore propose that: . [5] Bilkey and Nes (1982) provide an excellent review of this stage of research. Perceived consumer social status differ between those who classify brand origin successfully and those who classify it incorrectly. Several meta-analyses of the research results are available for this stage of research ([18] Peterson and Jolibert. Brand origin evaluations are related to income: higher income individuals will show higher prejudice towards foreign products. CO research flourished in the last four decades. We therefore propose: H2 . which is gradually being replaced by a class system where social disparity and inequity are increasing. CO research was broadened to include the viewpoint of some developing country consumers. it is perceivable that different consumers classify brand origin with a different degree of success related to their knowledge level of different countries. major research constructs of CO research were developed and used (e. CO research Since [23] Schooler's (1965) seminal work on the subject. In the context of India. H4 . and their income level as suggested in [16] Lim and O'cass (2001) and [1] Ahmed and d'Astous (2001). 1989). In line with past research in CO. They summarised nine categories of major findings from existing literature. the country has had a long tradition of a caste system. [12] Han.class consumers increasingly assert themselves and stress the importance of positional values. The first twenty years of CO research (from early 1960s to early 1980s) mainly focused on research into CO as a product evaluation cue for consumers from developed countries such as USA and the UK. [17] Papadopoulos and Heslop (2002) built a database of over 750 major publications in this area. Perceived consumer knowledge level differ between those who classify brand origin successfully and those who classify it incorrectly. both meta-analyses concluded that the CO effect was least understood and the research findings were difficult to be of any practical use apart from seemingly obvious CO effect and stereotypes. Given such difference in social identity and desire. Although the main conceptual base of development at this period is still focused on consumers from developed countries. 1999). Although the research into CO was extensive. [26] Verlegh and Steenkamp.

(1993) used a 16 item preference points which was demonstrated in a form of trajectory. Brands from the UK are perceived as unreasonably priced than those from India. it is important to find out such trajectories of brand preferences from which consumers associate different brand origin with. 2000). Brands from the UK are perceived to be significantly different from those of India. many practices from the UK are still viewed as from the West. 1989). foreign to Indian consumers. It is therefore important to identify such trajectories from an emerging market point of view. we extend the trajectory curve of CO into brand origin comparison under the context of India. In general we propose. and therefore. Familiarity with CO provides a stable. In particular. Nonlocalness provides a predicable evaluation cue for Indian consumers. H6b . [19] Peris et al. [4] Batra et al.g. In the meantime. We would therefore expect a similar effect of brand origin from that of CO. e. . For historical reasons. Due to long-term colonial control in the past. especially among those consumers which are recognised as (or. middle class consumers ([4] Batral et al. many customs and habits from the UK became part of Indian culture. H6 . a curve linking the 16 preference points. Brands from the UK are perceived more expensive than those from India. as have some products or brands from the UK. Consumer preference of brand origin is associated to product category. Mixed feelings of Indian consumers towards the UK is relevant here in at least two aspects: foreignness and localness. we assume that H6a . . Following from [19] Peris et al. people from India generally have in-depth knowledge of the UK and also mixed feelings towards the former colonial power. (2000) further suggested that the majority of past research was focused on the viewpoint of consumers from developed countries. Similar to the dual-country comparison method used by [19] Peris et al . (1993). aspiring to be) social elite or well-educated. However. the effect of such national images varies depending on the situation and it does not dwell on a single point. high tech product is preferredfor brand origin of a developed country. whereas brand origin of a local nature is preferred when the brand belongs to a product category associated with domestic produce such as agriculture products or souvenirs.(1993).H5 . we compare the differences inconsumer preference between brands originating mainly from the UK and India. Assuming that there are associations between brands and countries. sometimes not necessarily a source of resentment but rather a source of aspiration. whereas the perceptions of consumers of developing countries may be different due to significant differences in social motivation and social identity. summarise effect as documented in the CO literature ([12] Han.

No significant difference was found between the invalid 35 respondents and the 145 entered into data analysis in terms of age. People in India are proud of their ownership of India brands than UK brands. H6n . Brands from the UK are perceived to have better performance than those from India. to the post-graduate students on full time and part-time programmes in a reputable institute of management in Mumbai. . we focused our efforts on the consumers of one country i. Brands from the UK are perceived more technically advanced than those from India. Brands from the UK are perceived to have higher quality that brand from India. Brands from the UK are perceived to be more exclusive than those from India H6e . Research method To be comparable with previous research on CO orientation. social status. H6d . H6k . Of a total of 180 respondents. Brands from the UK are perceived more reliable than those from India. H6l . (1993). H6f . H6h . H6j . Brands from the UK are perceived more luxurious than brands from India. A self-completion questionnaire was administered during September 2003. H6i . Brands from the UK are perceived to have an upper class image than those from India. Brands from the UK are perceived to have better appearance than brands from India. gender. H6g . H6o . Brands from the UK are perceived to be of modern design whereas brands from India are perceived as more traditional in terms of design style. India. Brands from the UK are perceived to have more choices than those from India. Brands from the UK are perceived to be mass produced whereas brands from India are perceived more towards hand-made. Brands from the UK are perceived more innovative whereas brands from India are perceived as more imitative.H6c . however. Given the complicated nature of the brand origin concept. 145 were entered into the data analysis. H6p . H6m .e. India. we followed the methodology as described in [19] Peris et al. Brands from the UK are perceived to have better workmanship than those from India.

choice of brands originating from a country. Cola. which included both global and local brands: cars.for example Maruti car. personal computers. The cohort as such represents upper class. preferences. Sony. soft drinks. Toyota. We also conducted factor analysis to identify the underlying factors about the perceptions of brands among the consumers. and USA. and mostly working as middle executives. and fashion clothing. The characteristics of our sample are shown in Table I [Figure omitted. identify relevant variables (such as social status and income). Pairwise differences of perceptions of brands originating from India and UK were tested using the t -test. We tested the bivariate correlations among different brand characteristics for both India and UK. feelings about brands originating from India and UK and association of brands with a country. we conducted a chi-squared test of association for categorical variables such as identification of country of brand origin with income. similarity between countries. Averageconsumer preference of brand origin across the five countries for different product categories was plotted to study the underlying patterns of brand preferences. sex. pharmaceutical (Crocin) and fashion brands (Arrow and Levi). The information collected includes the socio-economic characteristics of respondents such as: age.]. and Microsoft). After initial statistical analysis.and household income. The respondents were asked perceptions of brands from five countries: India. frequent consumption (Brook Bond. We examined the respondents' preferences of brand origin when buying each category of products. We conducted preliminary statistical analysis to generate the sample profile. See Article Image. Japan. marital status.preferences for brand origin in different product categories. and Ford). (1993). Amul. Nescafe. The brands were selected on the basis that they corresponded to different product categories: consumer durables (Maruti. Japan was selected as a developed economy with a link for joint venture for production in India. The instrument measuring feelings about characteristics of brand perception was adopted from [19] Peris et al. consumer brands. technological (Siemens. . and Cadburys). and social status. Colgate. For further analysis in conjunction with the respondents' perception andpreferences. UK was chosen because of its long traditional relationship with India and USA to represent for its role in globalisation. The five countries were chosen due to following reasons: India and China were selected to represent large emerging economies with extensive internal markets. China. Other areas investigated are: knowledge about economic development of each of the five countries. UK. and gross annual income. We used varimax rotation to facilitate the interpretation of the factors. Brand preferences were measured for the following categories. educated.

We asked the consumers to rate on a seven-point semantic scale their feelings regarding brand characteristics about brands originating from both the countries: India and UK. Further. using the uniform distributionfor preferences. See Article Image. See Article Image. therefore. which is also revealed in other research (e. developed countries (UK.] that the variables are interdependent forboth countries as these correlations are statistically significant. Then. We have taken. It shows from Tables II and III [Figure omitted.] shows the average preferences for different products. we present the preference chart first. the correlations are significantly stronger for the UK than for India. the average would be 3. 2001). We examine the preferences of each type of product. This clearly indicates a pattern of brand preference forIndia consumers. China is least preferred for almost all products and this is a reflection of consumers' knowledge of the products from China and China's limited export trade with India. consumers prefer brands (shoes and jeans) from the USA (developed country) even though they are manufactured in China or India (emerging countries). we test the six hypotheses proposed earlier.Results In line with [19] Peris et al. Figure 2 [Figure omitted. the deviations below 2 and above 4 to indicate significant changes from the average of 3. Brand origin association . We. we plot the chart using brand origin with product category.g. But instead of using CO against product category. (1993). USA. and Japan) are most preferred except for tea (produced predominantly in India) where India is most preferred. If each country had equal preference. Further. ordered from 1 ("most preferred") to 5 ("least preferred"). For most products. Respondents were asked only to indicate their preferences of brand origin when buying each category of products. conducted factor analysis to identify the underlying relationships and these are discussed later. which is followed by further factor analysis of consumer preferences of two brand origins. we aim to measure the preference of Indian consumers for the brands developed in the five countries. The results of the inter correlations are shown in Tables II and III [Figure omitted. See Article Image. Preferences for brands in specific product categories In this section. [3] Bandyopahyay.].

we did not find a significant difference in consumer knowledge level between those who classified brand origin successfully and those who classified them incorrectly. The negative result here may be due to the fact that the majority of the respondents could recognize correctly the brand origin of the most of the brands provided. See Article Image. We analysed the respondents' gross monthly income with the outcome of the question: "given a choice of buying a comparable domestic or foreign brand which would you normally choose?" Table V [Figure omitted.99 per cent level of significance. Colgate. though major brands manufactured locally are not identified to the same accuracy. Ford. This confirms the hypothesis (H4 ) that brand evaluations are related to consumer's income and that higher income . In their study. and Colgate) for which there was no significant difference in correctly identifying the brand origin. Cadburys. does not show any significant association. The analysis of the brand perception with social status in our sample.] below shows the results. and consumersocial status does not differ significantly when classifying the brand successfully. and most of them had a good knowledge of these five countries.] shows the association of income with brand preference. Siemens.1996) and this is reflected in the resultsfor Cadburys.55) between the household income and preference for domestic or foreign brands is statistically significant at 10 per cent level of significance. both higher income groups and lower income groups (Canadian consumers) show similar preference towards products made in newly industralised East Asian countries. and that the chi-squared test is statistically significant at 99. H2 was not supported. The test of association (χ2 = 5. Association between brand origin identification and social identity We used the status of the respondent (executive and non-executive) as proxy for social status and analysedconsumer perceptions for four brands (Nescafe. The results are as expected: the major brands are correctly identified with the country from which they originate. Table IV [Figure omitted. and Maruti which were initially imported in India and now are manufactured locally. Therefore. Therefore. See Article Image. The association observed changes over time ([24] Thakor and Kohli.We carried out a chi-squared test of association between association of brand and the CO for a group of 15 selected brands and a test of proportion of recognition for each individual brand. Nescafe. The association becomes weaker overtime as the brands are produced locally. [1] Ahmed and d'Astous (2001) showed that evaluation and choice are not related to income. The analysis confirms our first hypothesis ( H1 ) that consumers associate brands with countries where the brands are originally developed rather than with the countries the products are produced. Similarly. contrary to the expectation. H3 is not supported.

Therefore. A 7-point semantic scale was used to measure the relative positioning about these characteristics. Further. products from industrialised/developed countries are preferred to the products from less-developed countries.]). However. the table shows that the preference of foreign brands increases with the income. The analysis shows a statistically significant association between the brand and the choice of a developed country such as Japan and the USA. . and that brands from developed country (UK) are perceived to be superior and preferred to those from a less than developed country (India). the brands are associated with the country and that the preference is for a developed country (Japan and USA) is confirmed.] shows the outcome. Table VII [Figure omitted. This is indicated by bold figures in the table. The chi-squared test statistic with 12 degrees of freedom is 174. It is generally claimed ([18] Peterson and Jolibert. See Article Image. the latter has no significant effect on product beliefs and global product attitude. In addition. being 40 per cent at the lower level rising to over 60 per cent at the upper end of the income. See Article Image. See Article Image. 1995) that large samples will produce statistically significant results. 2000).] and Figure 3 [Figure omitted. The outcome is in agreement with [1] Ahmed and d'Astous's (2001) original proposition but contradicts their outcome. The outcome is in conformity with the results found previously ([2] Ahmed et al. 1993). We used the average relative differences about the feelings respondents have on certain characteristics of brands originating from India and UK. . This means that such brands have a high level of recognition and acceptability.groups show preference towards foreign brands. A paired t -test was conducted for these characteristics and the test on all the characteristics shows that statistically significant differences exist (H6a to H6p ). the magnitude of . Brand origin and consumer preferences [14] Hui and Zhou (2003) have shown that when there is congruence between the brand origin and country of manufacture. Thus a brand which is inexpensive will be allocated a number towards 7 and towards 1 if was considered to be expensive. .1 and the null hypothesis that there is no association between the product/brand and the country is rejected (Table VI [Figure omitted. the preference of the respondents in relation choice of the country to high technology durable products was used. To test H5(Consumer preference of brand origin is associated to product category). 2002). It is known that respondents generally show a preference for internationally known products ([19] Peris et al. The findings here provide an illustration of the difference of perceptions between consumers from developed countries and developing countries regarding foreign products ([4] Batra et al.

A03 Good workmanship-Poor workmanship. A05 Technically advanced-Technically backward. A07 Luxury items-Necessary items. A09 High quality-Low quality. A08 Innovative-Imitative. A14 Good performance-Poor performance. A10 Modern design-Conservative design. A04 Exclusive-Common. Factors determining brand images We conducted a factor analysis with varimax rotation for the list of brand characteristics for both India and the UK . Varimax rotation was used to facilitate the interpretation of the factors. A06 Reliable-Unreliable. A13 Good appearance-Poor appearance. A11 Handmade-Mass produced. . A15 Wide choice of sizes and models-Limited choice of sizes and models. A12 Pride of ownership-Not much pride of ownership. Attributes used in factor analysis A01 Expensive-Inexpensive. We used semantic differential scales on 16 attributes as shown below.the t -test statistics and its significance clearly shows that these results are not due to chance in spite of the large sample size (n = 124). A02 Reasonably priced-Unreasonably priced.

The third factor explains 11.0 per cent of the variation. 1960). five factors were extracted with total variation explained being 56 per cent. and exclusiveness (0. five factors were extracted with the total variation explained being 56per cent. we call this first factor "competitiveness".83). From these results.62). we followed the criterion of preserving those factors whose eigen values were greater than one ([15] Kaiser. and is represented by a series of variables with their respective loadings: reliability (0.78).66). and performance (0. design (0.] below. The final factor explains 7. quality (0. The second factor explains 12 per cent of the variance. and is represented by a series of variables with their respective loadings: pride of ownership (0.66).73).77). For the UK. pride of ownership (0. To determine the number of factors.A16 For upper class-For lower class.67). See Article Image. and reliability (0. technically advanced (0.0 per cent of the variation. and is represented by a series of variables with the following factor loadings: production (0. The second factor explains 16 per cent of the variance and is represented by a series of variables with the following factor loadings: innovativeness (0. The first factor explains 13.54).0 per cent of variance and consists of following variables with loadings: innovativeness (0. The resultant outcome was as follows: For India.57).73). technically advanced (0. appearance (0. We call this factor "design". we shall call this first factor "personality". and performance (0.] below.69).9 per cent of variance and consists of the following variables with loadings: design (0.55).60).58).62). workmanship (0.6 per cent and consists of expensiveness with loading of (0. The second factor we call "technical superiority".70). and reasonably priced (0.56).55). corresponding factor loadings and the eigen values are shown in Table VIII [Figure omitted. From these results. The second factor we call "market suitability". The contribution of the factors. and choice of sizes and models (0.66). We call this factor "innovative".77). . appearance (0. The contribution of the factors with corresponding eigenvalues is shown in Table IX [Figure omitted. The first factor explains 10. See Article Image. class (0. The fourth factor explains 11.56).

We call this factor "luxury". hand made.1 per cent and consists of reasonably priced with loading of (0. and meant for the lower class. they found that the perceived country of corporate ownership counts. However. Our research also shows that the brand origin is dynamic. That is probably because these two brands were . Brand origin. common. Brand origin serves as a simplification of the increasingly complicated CO concept. subject to change.2 per cent of variance and consists of the following variables with loadings: expensiveness (0. such strong association with brand origin may be diluted given the time and effort a company has invested in localization.80) and exclusiveness (0. mass produced but unreasonably priced. good reliability for upper class to be proud of ownership with good appearance. It is.The third factor explains 13. multi-nation orientated. To put it simply. therefore. In contrast. technically backward. we found that brand origin is an identifiable feature for India. on the other hand is the perception of consumers regarding where the brand/product comes from. The fourth factor explains 10. The results. in our survey a significant proportion of respondents regarded Cadburys and Colgate as local brands. and is manifested in our conceptual framework. country of manufacture of a product is a fact that is determined by where the product is produced. This is as expected. good design. good performance. The brands in India are therefore perceived to be reliable. Our results demonstrated that even the most salient brands can change their brand origin wittingly or unwittingly.50). customers. good performance. good quality.1 per cent of variance and consists of following variables with loadings: workmanship (0. This could be further explained by [25] Thakor and Lavack's (2003) research. show that in an era of increasing globalization. however. therefore. the brands in UK are perceived to be technically advanced.consumers associate brands with countries where the brands are originally developed rather than with the countries in which the products are currently produced. For example. luxury items (0. Discussion and conclusions In this study. In other words.76). In other words. And the association becomes weaker over time as the brands are produced locally. imitative. as we have seen in this study to brands such as Cadbury and Colgate. and design (0. and reasonably priced. The brands.65). The fifth factor explains 7.e. We call this factor "social class". in which they suggested a hierarchy of information where consumers are highly influenced by knowing the country where the brand is owned and less influenced by knowing where the product is made. are perceived to be of poor design.83).84). brand origin may be a useful replacement for the more general concept of CO given that the CO for one single product becomes most likely plural i.

good quality. they have lost their "foreignness" of appeal. The results can also indicate a way to extend the framework of [25] Thakor and Lavack (2003). But our results provide a more detailed trajectory description. In particular. This is consistent with [3] Bandypadyay (2001). many respondents take localized UK brands as brands originating in India. brand origin tends to be a valid concept from what we found in this survey. Respondents in the survey align well with the concept. the difference is understandable. That is. the more favorable wereconsumers towards products made in China and in the ASEAN countries. Interestingly. we found that brands from a developed country (UK) are perceived to be superior and preferred to those from a less than developed country (India). To summarise. We further found two clearly different trajectories ofconsumer perception towards brands originating in the UK and those from India. [4] Batra et al. hand made. our results extend Bastra et al . good reliability for the upper classes to be proud of ownership but mass produced. and ours is from India a developing country. and as such higher income groups show preference towards foreign brands. and meant for the lower classes. apart from exploration of the direct linkage between perceived brand origin and its consequences. we found that just over than half of the sample preferred foreign brands to comparable local brands and brands in India are perceived to be reliable. Most important of all. (2000) concluded that as a consumer's admiration of an economically developed country's lifestyle increases. and reasonably priced but to be of poor design. a developed country. it is worthwhile to explore the moderating effects of demographic factors such as income and social status. Considering that their respondent base is from Canada. and their production has become localised for a long time. the effect of perceived non-localness of the brand on brand attitude becomes more positive. Similar to [4] Batra et al. good design. This implies that global companies can take advantage of such confusion and use it as . and unreasonably priced. Dhillon (2005) described the admiration of economically developed countries lifestyle by higher income young executives in India. At a first glance. technically backward. the findings seem to contradict results from [1] Ahmed and d'Astous (2001) in which they found that the lower the income. imitative. the brands in UK are perceived to be technically advanced.introduced to India years ago. In contrast. It is found that consumers generally tend to link a particular country with a brand irrespective of where the brand/product is made. (2000). Therefore. We also found that brand evaluations are related to consumer's income. good performance.'s (2000) results by providing a direct linkage between income and brand origin effect. many new variants of these two brands have been developed to cater for the needs of local consumers and therefore.

A. Further development of the construct therefore remains an important research topic for the future. This is necessary at the initial development stage of a concept. the brand origin concept should be considered in a wider framework such as brand image.P. Our research. Vol.K. our research is not without limitations. Vol. "Canadian consumers' perceptions of products made in newly industrializing East Asian countries".. S. Fang. International Journal of Commerce and Management. especially when the dynamic nature of the construct is considered. 11 No. J. 2. pp. But brand origin is more than simply an association of a brand to a place or a region.. and cultural differences within the developing country context. development. 3. T. the concept could be multiple-dimensional. pp. S. .P. An interesting research direction for the future is therefore. and Hui. 1. Secondly. "Country-of-origin and brand effects on consumers' evaluations of cruise lines". 279-302. 1. i. 3. Vol. to consider these extrinsic factors such as cultural differences and their moderating effect on brand origin association and its consequences as a purchasing cue. religion differences. Ling. Johnson. A. production. Finally. Indeed. etc. pp. promotion. the concept of brand origin needs to be developed further. we used it in a conventional sense. 54-81. (2001). our sample is based on only one country. References 1. India. International Marketing Review. Currently. brand equity.U. However. Z. Bandyopadhyay. Ahmed. Business week The authors thank Dr Paurav Shukla and Professor Ifan Shepherd for their helpful comments to an earlier version of the paper. and d'Astous. "Competitiveness of foreign products as perceived by consumers in the emerging Indian market". It would be useful if a multi-country comparison is made given various regional differences. Ahmed. provides a useful guidance for companies competing in India market to find a suitable image of presentation. 11 No.e.important purchasing cue. 53-65.W. 19 No. (2002).. (2001). Competitiveness Review. and corporate identity. comparable to the concept of CO. C. therefore. First of all. given the difference in brand ownership.

26. and Christensen. Advances in Consumer Research. J. Batra. Ger. Vol. 9. "The world customer". "Social identity in an emerging consumer market: how do you do the wash may say a lot about who you think you are". The Sunday Times. (1991). Ramaswamy. 26.. 10. G. (2000). D. Alden. (1962). 5. 1. "Country-of-origin effects on product evaluations". 83-95. pp.4. 8. E. S. Steenkamp. Vol. W. 2. and Nes. E. "Experiential nature of product-place images: image as a narrative". 377-99. 11. Annual Review of Psychology. Journal of Consumer Psychology. V. Dhillon. R. 9 No. S. (1982). 89-99.. S. 40 No.. (2005). 42. Vol. 3 April. Vol. Burgess. 4. Geen. 8 December. Business Week (2003). . Askegaard. pp. 165-9. pp. Advances in Consumer Research. Bilkey. 113-22. Dichter. "India's new rich go on spending spree". . pp. A.. "Effects of brand local and nonlocal origin on consumer attitudes in developing countries". Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. and Ramachander. pp. (1999). Vol. 13 No. 6. (1999). pp. "Social motivation". "The rise of India". Harvard Business Review. 170-75. R. A. 7.

pp. "Country-of-manufacture effects for known brands".F. 133-53. S. L. K. Brand Management. 26 No. 131-42. 20. Hogg. Journal of Marketing Research. 9 No. 15. 10 No. Peris. and Heslop. European Journal of Marketing. "Country image: halo or summary construct". Lim. Vol. NY. XXVI. Papadopoulos. (1995). Vol. N. May.M. 13. Journal of Product and Brand Management. M. 12. International Journal of Advertising. B. The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity. "A meta-analysis of country-of-origin effects". Newman. 4-5. L. and Chansarkar. Bigne. pp. M. . C. pp. Vol..P. Kaiser. Fourth Quarter. pp. Vol. (2001). R. 222-9. Peterson. and Zhou. (1989). pp. (2003). "Aspects of Anglo-Spanish perceptions and product preferences arising from 'Country of Origin' image". Vol. (1960). 18. and Jolibert. 1/2. Educational and Psychological Measurement. New York. 19. 294-314. 17. A. 2. pp. Harvester Wheatsheaf. Vol. 14. E. 4.12. Han. "The application of electronic computer to factor analysis". A. Hui. "Consumer brand classifications: an assessment of culture-of-origin versus country-of-origin". (1992). H.K. K.A. 120-36.M. "Country equity and country branding: problems and prospects".. (1993). 16. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 141-51. pp. (2002). and O'Cass. 37 No.J. 883-900.

Thakor. (1997).asp (accessed on 30 March 2005). Vol. Journal of product and Brand Management.F. pp. Psychological Inquiry. pp. pp. pp. (2003). 21. T. 1.V. pp. 3. A.S. Journal of Marketing Research. and Kohli. Pittman.medindia.D. M. Vol. "Why do we need what we need? A terror management perspective on the roots of human social motivation". 22. Journal of ConsumerMarketing. and Steenkamp. Annual Review of Psychology. 24. 38. 20.V. P.W. 6. Population Clock (2005). 461-89. R. M. 26. (1987). J. "Social motivation". 23.S. Vol. (1965). 27-42. and Heller. 521-46. (1999). pp. 4. and Lavack. "Effect of perceived brand origin associations on consumer perceptions of quality". "A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research". T. 12 No. C. 13 No. (1996). Pyszczynski. Vol. S. J. and 8 No. Appendix About the authors . 25.. available at: www. Schooler. Greenberg. Vol. Verlegh.20. "Brand origin: conceptualization and review". "Product bias in the central american common market". Thakor. 1-20. J. Journal of Economic Psychology. 394-97. 394-407. Vol.

au. The Burroughs. He is currently also a senior visiting Professor at NMIMS. and consumer behaviour. London.M. N. Government of India. Middlesex University Business School. Best Teacher of Management by Bombay Management Association. Narsee Manjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies. India. Narsee Manjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies. UK. Kondap. priority of executive development and profiling students in Higher Education. The Burroughs. He has received awards including Best Innovation in Teaching Award of Association of Indian Management Schools (AIMS). 2000 and Best Member Award of ISTD (2001-2002).Zhongqi Jin is a Senior Lecturer at Middlesex University Business School. is a member of Bombay Chamber of Commerce and Industries and Indian Society for Training and Development (ISTD). Bal's recent consultancy projects include marketing research and strategy development work for a high-profile Japanese plaza. His research interests are in the fields of innovation management. and a national pharmaceutical company.M. India Illustration Figure 1: The dynamics of brand origin recognition process Figure 2: Consumer preference of brand origin from different product categories Figure 3: Brand preference: a perception of two countries . a large aerospace maintenance company. He has worked with national and multinational companies. AuthorAffiliation Zhongqi Jin and Bal Chansarkar. London NW4 4BT. He teaches in the field of marketing and innovation. product development. a deemed university in Mumbai. India. University of Bath. Deemed Bal Chansarkar is a Visiting Professor in Statistics. UK N.M. London NW4 4BT. Contact details: N. London. Kondap. Dr Kondap is a consultant and a trainer and the Vice-Chancellor of NMIMS Deemed University. Contact details: Dr Zhongqi Jin. He is a Rotary Chair Professor of Non-Profit Organization and is on the Advisory Committee of Ministry of Power. Kondap is a Post Graduate Engineer with Masters in Marketing Management. Middlesex University Business School. Deemed University.jin@mdx. Middlesex University Business School. 2000. Zhongqi Jin is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: z. Middlesex University Business School. He is the author/co-author of over thirty journal articles and conference papers on marketing in consumer patterns of buyer behaviour. Mumbai. He holds a PhD from School of management. Vile Parle(w). Contact details: Dr Bal Chansarkar. He is the author of 10 books on national planning and statistics.

Market research. 9179: Asia & the Pacific Title Brand origin in an emerging market: perceptions of Indian consumers Author Indexing (details) . Brands. Studies. Statistical analysis. Discriminant analysis. 9130: Experimental/theoretical. Emerging markets Location India Classification 7100: Market research.Table I: Sample profile Table II: Correlation of brand characteristics: India brands (N =145) Table III: Correlation of brand characteristics: UK brands (N =145) Table IV: Identification of brand origin Table V: Association between income and brand origin identification Table VI: Country preference for products/brands Table VII: Pairwise differences of perception of brands originating from India and UK Table VIII: Rotated matrix and factor loadings for India Table IX: Rotated matrix and factor loadings for UK Copyright Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2006 Word count: 7167 Cite Subject Rule of origin.

N M Publication title Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics Volume 18 Issue 4 Pages 283-302 Publication year 2006 Publication date 2006 Year 2006 Publisher Patrington Publisher Emerald Group Publishing. Limited Place of publication Patrington Country of publication United Kingdom Journal subject Business And Economics ISSN 13555855 Source type Scholarly Journals Language of publication English Document type .Kondap.

Brands.proquest. Market research DOI 10. Discriminant analysis. Raymond and Indus League. the market was almost completely in the hands of the unorganized sector.1108/13555850610703254 ProQuest document ID 227364870 Document URL http://search. Keeping this requirement in mind. 2 (Apr-Jun 2007): 92-106. Saha. Emerging markets. Statistical analysis. Rule of origin. this industry has been estimated to be of size around $4bn with an annual growth rate of around 9%. the present study has been so organized as to know from a survey work how the dress preferences are associated with the lifestyle and age and whether there is any . Dilip. In the organized Copyright Copyright Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2006 Last updated 2010-06-10 Database ABI/INFORM Complete Changes in Women's Dress Preference: An In-depth Study Based on Lifestyle and Age Roy.Feature Document feature References. it had very few branded players like Allen Solly. Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers Hide highlighting Abstract (summary) TranslateAbstract Indian women's wear industry is a lucrative one to explore. In terms of value. To fill up this sizeable vacuum and avail the growth opportunity. Goutam.Diagrams Subfile Studies. marketers need to know the emerging dynamics of Indian women's mindset. South Asian Journal of Management 14.Tables. Earlier.

These changes may benefit the existing players of this industry fortheir future corporate planning. in fact. These findings have led us to suggest some changes in the current strategy of the existing players of women's wear industry. It may also help the new entrants in knowing the consumers better and for enjoying the competitive advantage. The analysis has revealed that dress preferenceis. Further. this industry has been estimated to be of size around $4bn with an annual growth rate of around 9%. INVITATION TO WOMEN'S WEAR INDIANWOMEN'S WEAR INDUSTRY Even in the western countries. it was both a pointer of financial strength and social rank. during 1950s fashion had been the prerogative of the rich. But in the near future the level of democratization in women's dress . it has been noticed that there is some degree of democratization in dress preference. the market was almost completely in the hands of the unorganized sector. In India. there is always a lag response. Raymond and Indus League. it had very few branded players like Allen Solly. These findings have led us to suggest some changes in the current strategy of the existing players of women's wear industry. In terms of value. But during 1970s American women and their European counterparts started participating in fashion race irrespective of their financial conditions (Walsh. Further. in fact. It may also help the new entrants in knowing the consumersbetter and forenjoying the competitive advantage. In the organized sector. positively associated with lifestyle and age. These changes may benefit the existing players of this industry for their future corporate planning. the present study has been so organized as to know from a survey work how the dress preferencesare associated with the lifestyle and age and whether there is any change in the style and culture ofIndianwomen. To fill up this sizeable vacuum and avail the growth opportunity. it has been noticed that there is some degree of democratization in dress preference. That fashion race led to democratization of dress style forwomen. Earlier. 1979). Only the wealthy women could afford to frequently change their dress style. It has also been observed that preference for casual dress is having significant locational effect. The analysis has revealed that dress preference is.change in the style and culture of Indianwomen. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] Full text   TranslateFull text Turn on search term navigation Headnote Indianwomen's wear industry is a lucrative one to explore. positively associated with lifestyle and age. marketers need to know the emerging dynamics of Indianwomen's mindset. Keeping this requirement in mind. It has also been observed that preference forcasual dress is having significant locational effect. Forrich women. and a face of femininity.

and style may attain the same height as in the west.1% in 2002-03. many other brands such as Benetton. Madura Garments launched a line of readymade women's western wear under the brand name 'Allen Solly Women's Wear. Also. 2007). The fragmented Indianapparel sector has an estimated 27. So there is a needforconducting organized research to know the apparel sector in a methodical way. Thus. is of size around $4 bn with an annual growth rate of around 9% as revealed by the study conducted by KSA Technopack (ICMR. the readymade garment industry is characterized by fragmentation and the scene is not at all different in India too. In fact. This state may be achieved through implementation of meticulously drawn business strategy backed by purposeful research. Case No.2% in 2004-05 (Vaish and Kohli-Khandekar. Wills Sports and Black Berry's launched exclusive women's wear in the country.' It is the first effort from a men's wear brand to enter into a women's wear market. It may further be pointed out that women's wear in India consists of western women's wear and ethnic women's wear. Indianwomen's wear industry is an interesting area to be studied. Later Indus League launched women's wear under the Schuller's range. Also. 21% in 2003-04 and 24. Earlier. Some analysts have . there is a rush to enter into this segment. First important transition happened in September 2002 when the leading Indianapparel company. 17.000 domestic manufacturers. it deserves a close attention from industrialists and researchers because of limited information available on players operating in the unorganized sector of this industry. most of the national level branded players were present only in the men's wear segment. it is still in the evolving stage and can be shaped strategically. 48. (Narang. Mango. As far asconsumerspending is concerned. clothing and footwear accounted for14-2% of the total consumerspending in 2001-02. in terms of value. The vision statement prepared by IndianCotton Mills' Federation has projected that the industry has the potential to reach a size of $85 bn by 2010 (Goswami. Apart from these. world over. Especially. Figures quoted are more of the industry estimates rather than of any organized research. yet it may be claimed that theIndianwomen's wear industry. Though concrete data on the total size of the industry is difficult to collect. This rush is also due to the fact that the market is in the hands of a large number of players from the unorganized sector and a very few branded players. Raymond entered this segment with its designer range 'Be'. the former having the steady growth rate of around 15-20% per annum. 2006). The steady increase in consumerspending on clothing and footwear invites in-depth research to advance knowledge fordelivering sustainable growth in these sectors. G042). 2006).000 fabricators (job contractors) and around 1000 manufacturerexporters. In view of this moderate to high rate of growth.

which is characterized by heterogeneity and increasing personalization in consumerbehavior patterns. lifestyle is emerging as an effective consideration to understand significant and wide-ranging changes in today's society. the lifestyle and age of Indianwomen have been proposed to be two basic attributes forcarrying out the causal study (Malhotra. it is the real challenge to women's wear industry to know their consumerswell and decide whether they will focus on westernized women's wear or traditional Indianattire or both. showing how trends in clothing are related to caste. which are now entering into this women's garment market with limited knowledge and exposure. and raised a larger cultural debate about the nature of Indianidentity. 2007). therefore interesting to know how Indiansare expressing their identity through dress preference. It requires an in-depth study on the changes in women's dress preference. the focus group. on the other hand. They have highlighted the need fora clear design direction and the Indianwomen's wear industry cannot remain an exception. level of education. Thus. end result can hardly be sensational. They examined the relationship between self-esteem and the rejection of brands in the context of fashion consumption by young professionals. It is. If the design does not match the users' requirements. Indianwomen's dress preferencewill be a subject of greater interest. and has been considered by Banister and Hogg (2004) as an important motivational drive forconsumption involving the acceptance and rejection or avoidance of symbolic goods.serious doubts about the success of these companies. The current research work is aimed at meeting this need of the industry. Lifestyle partially stems out of self-esteem. smart clothing applications and the next generations of clothing are in general struggling to enter the mass market because the consumers' latent needs have not been correctly recognized. and urbanization. . has been chosen as a classical socio-démographie attribute. Age. In fact. Thus. However to carry out a more focused study. there exists an information gap. purchasing criteria and lifestyle. Here. Women's dress material is very much a part of fashion goods and hence lifestyle is an important considerationforexamining the interlink between the set of dress choices and the set of lifestyles. According to Ariyatum et al. 2002). there is a need to identify the design directions of the fashion wear by conducting a survey on women. So. Their observation stressed upon the importance of understanding negative symbolic consumption while marketing high involvement products such as fashion goods. (Gonzalez and Bello. WOMEN AND STYLE What does one wear? The answer lies in the fact that through one's choice of dresses one manages and expresses one's identity. Tarlo (1996) made a detailed study on sartorial style in India from the late 19* century to the present. (2005).

women are definitely style leaders in this field too. notions of 'us and them' are present. and these are related to the process of 'becoming a clubber'. and dress evolutions of Indianwomen and men are analyzed. It may be noted that the profiles and roles of Indianwomen. The new generationIndianwomen are to be studied from this point of view of becoming a clubber. especially of those belonging to the middle class. 16% in the West India and 20% in the South India. A study on global teenage lifestyle in Asian societies stated that each generation of teenager has its own culture shaped by familiar western themes and values. They are: . Units. This anomaly has also resulted in this research interest to explore on the one hand Indianwomen's lifestyle-cum-dresspreferenceand to study on the other hand the Indianwomen's wear industry and its basic characteristics. firstly due to their increasing ability to influence purchase decision making in home front and secondly due to their growing purchasing power. who associate themselves with premium and differentiated branded products. 1999) . she is educated and in many cases she is employed also. it may be found that women are having more varieties of dresses and are more adaptive to changes. So. 2003). She is a major factor in all purchase decisions of the family. 2003). and not in the periphery of her behavior (Bijapurkar. There are other characteristics. MacRae's (2004) findings suggest that in cultural groups. is that it is in the core of the woman's mind. INDIANWOMEN CHANGES IN INDIANWOMEN Though presented in a different context. In fact. the middle class woman is an active partner in the family. a powerful influencer. there is a need of serious study on new generationIndianwomen. She is also the image builder. (Ramaswami and Namakumari. 12% in the East India. dress variations. The percentage of working women is now 7% in the North India. She is actually the family's purchasing agent formost of the products. in respect of a majority of purchases. which can be associated with new Indianwomen. Today. have been undergoing significant changes. She is no longer confined to the four walls of the kitchen. Particularly in the urban areas. she is particularly the sole decision maker and in the rest of the cases. She has acquired a place in society by virtue of her education and employment. irrespective of region of study. national culture and shared historical experiences (Wee. form the 'us' group. a gentler and less individualistic form of feminism.It is felt that the Indianwomen should draw the greater attention of the corporate planners and researchers. in the context of Indianwomen. Rise of womanism. and she is the cashier and budgeter. But strangely in women's wear industry there is comparatively less number of organized players. If dress preferences. Like many other fields.

Aesthetic sense of grooming: Sense of beauty. Quality as well as cost conscious: The middle class woman is a quality conscious as well as cost conscious buyer. she is the point of focus. She is generally fashion loving but is seldom fashion crazy. Aware of current developments: The middle class woman possesses a good awareness of the changes taking place in her environment. Seeker of leisure time: The middle class woman also seeks leisure. and this new age woman's lifestyle. There is always a need to study and understand this new age. So. An undercurrent of tradition always flows through her personality. special emphasis may be laid on some selected patterns. A study by Grey Worldwide indicates that women in India are moving from being frugal to being guilt free materialistic. Multitasking: Multitasking has become a common feature in Indianwoman's life. form and harmony is a strong motivational force behind her purchases. 2005). and in the outdoor advertising. she bargains. and she compares one brand with another along the dimensions of price as well as quality. But she is not averse to switchingover. and the centre of attraction. The balancing between the new and the old concepts is an important aspect of her lifestyle. It may vary according to . That is why many marketing communications appeal to this motive. Indianmedia have recognized the importance of Indianwoman as the queen customer. Her education and social background make her a discriminating buyer. Surfs Lalitajee may be the best representative ofthat class of women. Her growing education level and ever increasing media exposure have contributed to this development. Theoretically speaking. She needs more time forherself. Their lifestyles are also changing. in the most of the advertisements on TV. fast food. While focusing on consumerlifestyles. She effectively tackles numerous jobs at workplace and at home and she does it perhaps better than her male counterpart (Hattangadi. INDIANWOMEN AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIFESTYLES Indianwomen are changing. and processed food are reducing Indianwoman's kitchen time and increasing her leisure time. lifestyle is a constellation of individual characteristics that reflect certain behaviors. Timesaving household gadgets.Cautious. She often crosschecks the price details with other stores. in print media. but likely to switchover: The middle class woman is generally a cautious buyer. The decision makers at homes are mostly young women of age 18-35 years.

the US in the 1990s had tolerated considerably more diversity than in the 1950s when lifestyles were more homogenous (Lindquist and Sirgy. sex. lifestyle influences many aspects of behavior. including participation in social groups and relationships with others. . These lifestyles are projective in nature and can be used to project the demand patterns. the entire society cannot be viewed as a homogeneous whole. However. SELECTED CONSUMERLIFESTYLES To analyze dress preferenceaccording to consumerlifestyle. Forexample. consumerlifestyle can be categorized into five categories as listed here: (1) Voluntary simplicity (2) Me generation (3) Blurring gender role (4) Poverty of time and (5) Component lifestyles. Lifestyle has the following characteristics: LIFESTYLE IS A GROUP PHENOMENON A variety of factors. They are cautious. They are more concerned with product toughness than appearance. influence an individual's lifestyle. Voluntary simplicity: Voluntary simplicity is a lifestyle that stems out of eco-environmental awareness. more importance is attached to rational appeals rather than the esteem appeal of the product. Lifestyle varies according to sociologically relevant variables. people give emphasis on product durability and simplicity. conservative and thrifty shoppers. These include such determinants like age. Further. social class and region (Lindquist and Sirgy. towards work. and believe in conservation. Under this lifestyle.sociologically relevant variables such as age. ethnicity. sex. A person's lifestyle ensures a certain consistency in her behavior. social class and region. The rate of social changes also has a great connection with variations in lifestyle. As a result. 2003) in nature. ethnicity. Knowledge on one's conduct in one aspect of life may enable the marketers to predict how she is likely to behave in other fields. there is a need to classify Indianwomen's lifestyles into some important groups. These concepts have been explained briefly as: 1. 2003). In fact. a study on lifestyles of even a few women respondents may help us to inform about the style of a large social group. The natural question that arises is whether the lifestyle implies a central life interest or not. They don't buy expensive items and stick to products forlong periods and rarely eat out or go on prepackaged vacations. In their perception. towards leisure or towards religion. The central life interest may be observed in terms of attitude towards life. A distinct lifestyle may be identified when some activity or interest influences other related or unrelated activities.

program VCRs and use software packages. A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE CURRENT WORK OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY Objective of this research is to examine whether lifestyle and age are individually and jointly associated with dress preferenceof Indianwomen or not and also whether there is style-wise democratization or not. exercise and grooming. Component lifestyle: Growing complexities in the social environment lead more people to employ component lifestyle. 5. engage in trash recycling (self imposed simplicity). To test the conjecture that these attributes are highly associated. share grocery shopping and take care of kids forsome part of the day (blurring gender role) and eat dinner out quite regularly (time poverty). Consumerswith this lifestyle want to take care of themselves without thinking about responsibility and loyalty towards others. In fact. They are more concerned with nutrition. component lifestyle is a hybrid lifestyle. Significant association between lifestyle and age with women's dress preferencemay help the women's . 3. 4. Blurring gender role: Since many women have been taking up outdoor jobs. quick to cook items. Me generation: Me generation lifestyle stresses self-fulfillment and self-expression by accepting less pressure forconformity and greater interest in diversity. People may stay with their parents (family values). the empirical approach has been adopted and primary data on dress preferencesofIndianwomen have been collected in selective cultural pockets. Poverty of time: The prevalence of working women. In the quest forfinancial strength and security they get constrained by less free time. Men do more shopping and household work. They buy expensive carsand costly apparels and frequently visit full time stores. churned out of other four lifestyles. Their attitudes and behaviors vary from situation to situation. while more women are learning how to drive cars.2. more men are getting involved in different household roles which were previously played by their wives. The effect of location on dress preferencehas also been examined. This is leading to blurring of gender role. In these respects. and readymade garments. They are more interested in product appearance than product durability. the long distances between their homes and the work places and the large number of people opting forsecond jobs have contributed to a poverty of time lifestyle in many households. take jogging (me generation). This lifestyle leads people to greater use of time saving products like processed food. They hardly go by an overall lifestyle philosophy. women are gradually participating in so-called man jobs.

and the other attribute is either lifestyle. both forcasual and working dresses are to be examined. To conduct these tests. taken in equal proportions. large sample Chi-square statistic forlack of association has been considered. To test these conjectures in the light of the given data. from the cities of Delhi. the effects of locations on dress preference. To ensure this culturewise representation.wear industry to know its consumersbetter and prepare dresses according to changes in lifestyle and also according to age. So . If such a preferencecan be established. any women's wear company may get primary knowledge in the subject and enjoy competitive advantages by introducing changes according to the need and liking of the consumers. it has been proposed to measure the extent of association in terms of Tschuprow's coefficient (Gun et al. FORMULA TO BE USED Collected data are to be presented in α two way classified form where one attribute is dress preference.. it has been proposed to test the null hypothesis that dress preferenceis not associated with any of these attributes under consideration and this test is to be carried out separately forworking dress and casual dress. Dress preference forparticipation in formal gatherings and in workplaces may differ from dresspreferencein informal participations. Aligarh has been considered as a representative of the traditional culture and Lucknow has been selected as a representative of fusion of these two extreme cultures. the key attribute of the study. quota sampling has been adopted where Delhi. Lucknow and Aligarh. METHODOLOGY Sampling design: To collect primary data on the subject of this study. to form a representative sample of the different types of cultural backgrounds. or age. a survey was conducted among 600 women. Also. given a situation dress preferencemay be associated with age and lifestyle. Using this information base. the alternative hypothesis is the presence of association. In case of any negation the conclusion will be polar opposite. 2002). In case the association is established. Delhi has been taken as a representative of the modern culture. Aligarh and Lucknow constitute three strata. It is also proposed to test the hypothesis on preferred dress forboth working situation and casual situation by examining whether irrespective of age and lifestyle at least 50% of the women prefer a particular dress. In each case. Lastly. Hypotheses to be tested: The starting conjecture to be tested is that dress preferencevaries from situation to situation. the democratization of dress style can be inferred.

The expression of Tschuprow coefficient is as follows: T = [χ^sup 2^/n{(fc-l)(m-l)}"2] /2 The extent of democratization will be examined via large sample Z-test forproportion. And the effects of location will be examined in terms of chi-square test forhomogeneity of multiple-proportions. As pointed out under research methodology. f^sub ij^ = number of observations in i-j th class. the chi-square formula being the same as in the case of test forassociation. χ^sup 2^^sub observed^ > χ^sup 2^^sub a. H^sub a^: the presence of association between the two attributes. If there are m levels of one attribute and k levels of the other attribute with f^sub ij^ as the number of observations forthe ith level of first attribute and j'h level of the second attribute then the test statistic can be expressed as: χ^sup 2^ = n[ΣΣ(f^sub ij^ )^sup 2^ /f^sub io^. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS DERIVEDTABLES Based on 600 women covered in our study α master table has been formed from which four derived tables have been worked out. n = number of sample observations. . one is forcasual dress and the other is forformal dress. To measure the extent of association the Tschuprow coefficient is to be used. the main objective of the research is to examine the nature of associations and to measure the same. These derived tables present the two way classified data on dress preferencecovering both working dress and casual dress. Foreach tabular presentation.e. Table 2 presents lifestyle versus casual dress preference. it is proposed to test the null hypothesis. Table 1 presents lifestyle versus working dress preference. The decision rule is to reject H^sub 0^ if the observed value of χ^sup 2^ is greater than the critical value i. f^sub oj^ = i^sup -th^ row total. In case H^sub 0^ is rejected. Table 3 and Table 4 are the corresponding presentations with lifestyles replaced by age as the one attribute and dress preferenceas the other attribute. two types of preferenceshave been considered. f^sub oj^ = j^sup -th^ column total.(k-1)(m-1)^ where α is the level of significance..far as dress preferenceis considered. χ^sup 2^ = Chi-square statistic. H^sub 0^: lack of association between the two attributes against the alternative hypothesis.f^sub oj^ > 1] where. there are reasons to believe that attributes are associated.

063. 0. Thus. 0.5 is appreciated.715. The corresponding right tail test has a critical value 1. 2. the null hypothesis that this proportion is 0. however. the proportion vector is (0. First three of these coefficients are high enough to indicate a very high level of association between dress preference. the Chi-square values forage and dress preference(casual and working) come out as higher than the tabulated value of Chi-square corresponding to its degree of freedom. Unfortunately it is of the .6449 at 5% level of significance. Forthe former case.5)/[the square root of]{p(l-p)/n}. Forn =600 and p = 0. it may be concluded that dress preferences(both casual and working) are associated with lifestyle and age. 3 and 4 are presented in Table 5. Here again. and lifestyle and between working-dress preferenceand age. democratization in the work-place dresspreferencecan be observed. p over the average mark of 0. Chi-square values are calculated. the two proportion vectors fordress preferences. It describes the attributes tested forassociation. It may be noted that since number of rows and number of columns are unequal Tschuprow's coefficient has crossed 1 . one arising out of workplacepreferenceand the other arising out of casual preferenceare to be considered. both formal and informal. where Z = (p-0.Statistical tests have been carried out on each of the four derived tables presented and the summarized results of table 1.073. We have calculated the Tschuprow's coefficient forthese four cases (Table 6). and the corresponding tabulated values along with degrees of freedom. the observed value of Z-statistic is 11. Our specific observations/ conclusions are described here. TEST FORDEMCK)RATIZATION To carry out analysis on the level of democratization. 0.5 large sample test forproportion based on Z-statistic has been carried out. Similarly. Hence. SOME SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS Associations between lifestyle and dress preference(casual and working dress) and age and dress preferenceshave been tested. the upper desirable limit. So. To test forsignificance of this proportion. there are reasons to claim that dress preferencesand lifestyle are significantly associated.5 is rejected and the alternative that it is significantly greater than 0. The Chi-square value forlifestyle and dresspreference(casual and working) comes out as higher than the tabulated value of Chi-square corresponding to its degree of freedom. Association between casual dress preferenceand age is. there are reasons to claim that dress preferencesand ages are significantly associated. value of the Chi-square test statistic.7 1 5. Thus.715) with maximum preferenceshown forthe category Varies from rime to time' with a proportion 0.148.666. moderate.

i. The corresponding right tail test has a critical value 1.330) with higherpreferenceshown forthe category 'salwar' with a proportion 0. the proportion vector works out as (0. From Table 8. at 5% level of significance. according to location. From Table 7 the observed value of the chi-square statistics has been obtained as 12. the null hypothesis that this proportion is 0. That means. which is much greater than the tabulated value 5.116. over the average mark of 0. Forn = 600 and p* = 0. 65% of voluntarily simplistic women are having some inclination towards component lifestyle.65% of the sample women believe in component lifestyle. as observed previously. the observed value of Chi-square statistic has been obtained as 72. large sample testforproportion based on Z-statistic has been undertaken.991 for2 d. Thus. Hence.5)/[the square root of]{p'(l-p')/n) . It has been noted from the literature that in US more people prefer a component lifestyle (Evans and Berman 2003).5 is rejected and the alternative that it is significantly greater than 0. To examine the significance of this proportion. 30.542 for6 d.67.e. The following two tables present dress preferences. which are tabulated.856. Thus.5 is appreciated. It is not a choice based on lifestyle and age only.65% of the sample women believe in voluntary simplicity and the rest follow the other lifestyles.670.f. working dresspreferencedoes not depend much on the local culture. . the observation of the current research is in line with the emerged lifestyle of the western world.670.501. which is less than the tabulated value 12. at 5% level of significance.f.6449 at 5% level of significance. when they choose their dresses.5. Thus. it can be concluded that location-wise preference fordress is not significant. it depends on both lifestyle and age. The preferred dress is salwar. 0. there is significant democratization in the casual dress preferencealso. where_Z = (p* -0.situation-dependent type. Forthe case of casual dress. Considering these two facts we may conclude that component lifestyle is coming out as an emerging trend of Indianwomen's lifestyle. This implies that preference forcasual dress is having effects of local culture. the first one covering working dress and second one covering casual dress. 65% woman want to vary their dresses from time to time or from situation to situation. the traditional Indiandress. Even in case of voluntary simplicity. p*. CONCLUDING REMARKS SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS It is interesting to note that the 3 1 . However.. the observed value of Z-statistic is 8.

Tremendous media exposure has taken upper middle and middle class Indianwomen closer to their American counterparts. 4.driven lifestyle. To manage component lifestyle.COMPONENT LIFESTYLE: A NEW FOCUS From the mentioned research observation. product lines of the company may go formultiple focuses i. through minor modifications wherever needed. gofora tracking in summer holidays (Me generation). Some strategies are suggested forthe benefit of the women's wear industry to manage component lifestyle and to meet age -wise requirements of women consumers. They will offer prayer fortheir kids (simplicity). Company's women's casual wear range must have many variants according to location. and age and lifestyle wise need of the consumers. marketers may go forwesternized women's wear along with ethnic women's wear. one may think of some generic strategies. In near future. Indiansociety is going to see more versatile women. 1. Salwar kurta may be redesigned and marketed both as an office -wear and as a casual travel wear. generally took place in US in the 1970s or 1980s. The change. Product range of women's wear manufacture may be designed according to the age group of the customer. Indianwomen are more flexible towards changing situation. Ethnic women's wear (saree and salwar kurta) is an area that demands forhigher focus forbetter growth in future. use instant foodfortheir family's breakfast (poverty of time). . which came to India in 1990s. and go to market to buy vegetables (blurred gender role). as there are only a few organized players. That means.e. But nowadays this time lag is getting reduced drastically. which the leading players of women's wear industry may consider with company specific alterations. it may be concluded that the component lifestyle has emerged out as one of the most important lifestyle-segments of Indianwomen. So. there was a time lag between Indianand American socio-cultural changes. managing women consumersof component lifestyles is going to be the real challenge for Indianwomen's wear industry as these consumersdon't have any fixed philosophy of life.. 2. and any rigid lifestyle of their own. as dress preferenceof Indianwomen is significantly associated with age. They are not dominated by any fixed ideology. 3. In the 1980s and 1990s. SOME STRATEGIES FORWOMEN'S WEAR INDUSTRY To manage component lifestyle and age wise preferenceof Indianwomen.

No. No. 4. "Allen Solly-Entering the IndianWomen's Western Wear Market". No. Vol. 6. 37. Holland R. 11. IndianJournal of Marketing. "The New Change Wave . No. Biztantra. European Journal of Marketing. "Apparel Shopping Orientation of Urban Indians: A Study on Kolkata". Vol. The World Press Private Limited. Evans J R and Berman B (2003). 199-210. 1 1. 5.7. pp. Fundamental of Statistics. Harrison D and Kaz T (2005). pp. IndianJournal of Marketing. Malhotra N K (2007). pp. Marketing Research. Journal of Youth Studies. 10. Ariyatum B. Vol. "Notions of Us and Them: Markers of Stratification in Clubbing Lifestyles". pp. 4. Case No. 239242.References REFERENCES 1. Vol. European Journal of Marketing. 1. Gonzalez A M and Bello L (2002). Vol. pp. . "A Study on Branded Men's Wear". New Delhi. 3-9. "The Construct Lifestyle in Market Segmentation: The Behavior of TouristConsumers". pp. 13. Bijapurkar R (2003). No. 36. 38. 3. 7. 25-33. 2. Journal of the Textile Institute. Gun A M. Marketing in the 2 1 * Century. an Applied Orientation. Pearson Prentice Hall. Goswami P (2007). Times of India (January 12). "Negative Symbolic Consumption and ConsumersDrive forSelfesteem: The Case of the Fashion Industry". Lindquist J D and Sirgy M J (2003). MacRae R (2004). Biztantra. 36. 96. 7. 8. Kolkata. Vol. 1. 9. G042. Narang R (2006). "IndianWomen". Hattangadi V (2005). No. Gupta M K and Dasgupta B (2002) . pp. Banister E N and Hogg M K (2004). 7. ConsumerBehavior. ICMR Case Collection: Marketing Cases. New Delhi. The Economic Times (July).'Womanism'". No. 55-71. 850-868. "The Future Design Direction of Smart Clothing Development". 4. 12. 51-85.

"Return to the Fast Lane". Vol. Burdwan University. Golapbag. 17. Businessiforld (March 6). Macmillan India Private Limited. Chicago. 1220: Social trends & culture. India. Rajiv Academy forTechnology and Management. 2. 365-375. Clothing industry. Burdwan. Journal ofConsumerMarketing. AuthorAffiliation Dilip Roy* and Goutam Saha** AuthorAffiliation * Professes Department of Business Administration. Women Location India Classification 7100: Market research. Mathura. Marketing Management Pianning. Walsh M (1979). India. No. New Indexing (details) Cite Subject Age. "An Exploration of a Global Teenage Lifestyle in Asian Societies". 9179: Asia & the Pacific. 34-42. No. Preferences. Tarlo E (1996). 4. Vol.9130: Experiment/theoretical treatment. Studies. pp. E-mail: goutam_saha007@redifimail. Implementation and Control. E-mail: dr. 66. Wee T T T (1999). Uttar Pradesh. 18. Lifestyles. 8620: Textile & apparel industries . 15. Vaish N and Kohli-Khanderker V (2006). 16. West Bengal. 299-313. "The Democratization of Fashion: The Emergence of the Women's Dress Pattern Industry". Clothing Matters. pp.14. ** Assistant Professor.Ramaswami V S and Namakumari S (2003). 16. Journal of American History. University of Chicago Press Publication.

Goutam Publication title South Asian Journal of Management Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 92-106 Number of pages 15 Publication year 2007 Publication date Apr-Jun 2007 Year 2007 Publisher New Delhi Publisher AMDISA Secretariat Place of publication New Delhi Country of publication India Journal subject Business And Economics--Management ISSN 09715428 . Dilip.Title Changes in Women's Dress Preference: An In-depth Study Based on Lifestyle and Age Author Roy. Saha.

Our multivariate analysis of variance shows differences in terms of brand excitement. 2 (Summer 2009): 111-127.Equations. Women. Consumers' Brand Personality Perception of Automobiles from China and India Fetscherin. Clothing industry. Multinational Business Review 17.proquest. consumers' brand perception of automobiles from China and India. Preferences ProQuest document ID 222712422 Document URL http://search.Tables Subfile Studies. Age. this paper provides an explorative study of the I country of origin effect on U.S. and brand . brand competence. Toncar. Marc. The question arises how they will be perceived by consumers from those countries.S. Using the multi-dimensional brand personality scale. Copyright Copyright AMDISA Secretariat Apr-Jun 2007 Last updated 2010-06-09 Database ABI/INFORM Complete Country of Origin Effect on U. Lifestyles. brand sophistication. Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers Hide highlighting Abstract (summary) TranslateAbstract Chinese and Indian car manufacturers are entering developed markets.Source type Scholarly Journals Language of publication English Document type Feature Document feature References.

S. this paper provides an explorative study of the I country of origin effect on U. The question arises how they will be perceived by consumersfrom those countries. Keywords: Country of origin. Canada. and more charming than the U.S. India. The U. . consumers' brand perception of automobiles from China and India. automobile. car.caris perceived as more successful than the Indian car. New Zealand. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] Full text   TranslateFull text Turn on search term navigation Headnote Abstract: Chinese and Indian carmanufacturers are entering developed markets. caris perceived as more successful than the Indian car. As with the globalization of production. The U. car. Using the multi-dimensional brand personality scale.S. Our multivariate analysis of variance shows differences in terms of brand excitement. and outdoorsy than the Indianand U.S. and upper-class than the Indian car. and outdoorsy than the Indian and U. up-to-date. Our results indicate that the Chinese car is perceived to be more daring. brand personality. this convergence of consumer tastesinitially seemed largely restricted to developed country markets including the United States. brand competence. car. brand sophistication. car. Australia. successful. China. The globalization of markets refers primarily to the belief that consumersin seemingly diverse countries and cultures are becoming more similar to each other and can therefore be treated as relatively homogenous markets fora broad range of products. and brand ruggedness.S. Our results indicate that the Chinese caris perceived to be more daring. the output of these facilities was then exported to the home country or to other developed countries. more intelligent. The globalization of production initially arose from developed country manufacturers' desire to obtain low cost manufacturing by locating their facilities in developing countries with substantially lower cost structures. emerging markets INTRODUCTION The globalization of production and marketing that has occurred in the last three decades has resulted in dramatic changes in the products that are manufactured and the markets in which they are sold. and upper-class than the Indian car. and more charming than the U. and Japan. up-to-date.S. more intelligent. Western Europe. successful.S.ruggedness. Typically.

And while these carmakers have been unable to meet U. This paper provides an important contribution to the existing literature in country of origin research. focusing on the product category of automobiles from China and India. has seen the emergence of large. Kimes 2008). have successfully entered developed country markets like the United States (Essoussi and Merunka 2007). already sells sedans in Europe (Kimes 2008).000 units in 2006 (India Autos Report 2006). it seems appropriate to investigate how consumersin developed country markets will perceive carsthat are manufactured in developing countries by developing country manufacturers and especially how their carbrands are perceived (Fetscherin and Sardy 2008). auto manufacturers from China have made no secret of their intentions to compete in the global automobile market (Toncar and Fetscherin 2007). and has already overtaken Germany to become the third largest automotive producer in the world behind Japan and the United States (OICA 2008). Indianautomotive exports reached almost 300. Examples include Lenovo and Haier from China and Tata from India. In light of these developments. it assesses carsfrom two emerging automotive manufacturing countries. First. but some. Many of those companies are producing and selling lowinvolvement products primarily in developing countries. Second. emerging market country manufacturers are primarily selling their products domestically and only a few have began to export their cars(Alon et al. China and India. Illustrative of this trend is the fact that in 2008 there were 29 Chinese and 7Indiancompanies in the Fortune 500 list compared to 16 and 5 respectively in 2005 (Fortune 2008). Nanjing Automobile Industry Corporation (NAIC) bought bankrupt MG Rover in 2005 forover USD 90 million. However. both expect to enter the U. Brilliance Auto. Some Chinese automotive companies have begun to export their carsand/or make foreign direct investment (FDI). In 2008. however.S.S. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this increasingly important issue. Forhighinvolvement products like cars.000 Chinese carsexported worldwide (Fetscherin and Sardy 2007. The Indianautomotive industry in general and the automotive components sector in particular is one of the fastest growing sectors of Indianeconomy (Pillania 2008).3 million vehicles in 2007. a 22% increase over 2006. 2008).8 million carsand commercial vehicles in 2007. Both Geely and Chery have publicly targeted the U. there were over 310. China produced over 8. market soon. it is probably a matter of time before they follow the example of Japan and South Korea and firmly establish themselves in foreign markets. Current total production in India was over 2. While these export figures are still relatively small by industry standards and there are still many challenges to overcome formanufacturers from both countries. we use a multi-dimensional scale that provides rich insights . efficient world-class manufacturers and marketers from emerging market countries (Pillania 2009). a smaller Chinese carmaker. In terms of FDI. a topic not dealt with in previous research. market forexport growth.The first decade of this century.forexample.S. including Haier. emission and safety standards.

especially considering that an increasing number of products are produced and sold in various countries. Jun. and across product categories. automotive industry is facing. a great deal of research has been aimed at informational cues that provideconsumersa means of evaluating products (Bilkey and Nes 1982). market.. A few studies suggest (Mohamad et al. 2000.consumers. Finally. . Brands from countries with a favorable image typically find that their brands are more . Verlegh and Steenkamp 1999.S. Biel 1993). making the scenario used in this research even more likely. 2007) that consumerswill assess a product based upon its "made in. Han andTepstra 1988). Other research suggests that country of origin has symbolic and emotional meaning to consumersand can relate to feelings of national identity (Botschen and Hemettsberger 1998. Yassin et al. Chinen. Other factors that contribute to the hierarchy are culture and political climate (Wang 1978). Beginning with Dichter (1962). Often. it is a very timely and relevant paper in the context of the current financial problems that the U."label and conclude whether the product is"superior" or "inferior" in accordance with their perception of that country. LITERATURE REVIEW Country of Origin Extensive research has been directed towards whether or not country of origin affects product evaluations. Hampton 2000). Others suggest that products originating from less developed countries are subject to a greater country of origin effect and are evaluated less favorably than products originating from more developed countries (Bilkey and Nes 1982. A hierarchy of biases has been observed in evaluations of products from developing countries based upon a positive relation between product evaluations and the country's level of economic development (Bilkey and Nes 1982. The results vary among countries. Amine and Shi 2002).into not only whether there are differences in consumerbrand perceptions but where the differences arise. country of origin acts as a cognitive cue from which consumerscan infer beliefs about a product based upon their beliefs about the country from which the product originates (Verlegh and Steenkamp 1999). Research studies find that overall product evaluation is influenced by country stereotyping and this impactsconsumerevaluation of products from that country (Bilkey and Nes 1982). The potential collapse of one or more of the Big Three U. which is developed by the images and associations of brands to a certain country (Shimp et al.S.S. automakers increases the likelihood that carsfrom emerging market countries will begin to appear in the U. Wang and Lamb 1983. This leads to the idea of country equity. 1993. The country of origin of a product is one cue that has grown increasingly important as movement towards globalization of production and marketing has intensified.

Pelton. 1993). crystal. Empirical studies have shown that consumershold different sets of beliefs across product categories and that their attitudes toward products from a given country vary by product category (Bilkey and Nes 1982. and Italy and it shows that country of origin stereotyping is present in the New Zealand new carmarket and that it is often a determining factor in the buying process (Lawrence et al.S. fresh fruit and vegetables (Hooley et al. the majority of the studies have focused on the comparison of product categories. bicycles. Another study examines New Zealand consumers' attitudes towards carsfrom Japan. Research has also shown that the country of origin effect is product category-specific. Only a few studies have done an in-depth investigation of the country of origin effect of carsfrom multiple countries. Strutton. 1992). and their underlying product attributes using a convenience sample of graduate students. clothing.S. consumerstowards automobiles from the . and watches (Roth and Romeo 1992). Examples include comparing carswith appliances. 1988). and toiletries (Darling and Kraft 1977). While many studies have discussed the product category ofcars. beer. Pappu et al. carpets. pharmaceutical products (Mffenegger et al. perfume. The results indicate that COO effects are relatively minor when a multi-attribute approach is used (Johansson et al. 2007). and Lumpkin (1994) examine the opinions of U. Germany. and toys (Peris et al. 1985). and refrigerators (Al-hammad 1988). 2006). as is the case of Chinese and Indian carbrands in the U. Han 1989). the USA. TVs (Han and Terpstra 1988. Another study investigates American consumers' attitudes towards American and Japanese carsin which undergraduate students are asked to rank-order their likelihood of purchasing an automobile from the USA and Japan and their corresponding percentage of American and Japanese workers in producing that car. The implications of a favorable country image therefore become extremely important to brands that have yet to be established in a given market. Germany. PCs. 1993). shoes. Positive product category associations have been shown to exist forsome categories and negative associations forothers (Roth and Romeo 1992). they will use the country's image as a product evaluation cue (Maheswaran 1994). air conditioners. One study assesses carmodels from Japan. One research study found that a favorable country image can lead to brand popularity and subsequently to consumerbrand loyalty (Kim and Chung 1997). This presumes that consumers' product perceptions infer from stereotypical beliefs about the country from which the product originates (Erickson et al. cameras and calculators (Yaprak 1978). France. 1984).readily accepted than brands from countries with a less favorable image (Yassin et al. and wine. 1980). Roth and Romeo 1992. There is a strong preference for carsmade by American companies and an even stronger preference forcompanies that employ mostly American workers (Levin et al. Researchers have also found that when consumersare not familiar with a country's product.

More recently.S. Their findings support the assertion that COO influences consumers' product evaluations. Moreover. (2) brand excitement. little is also known about how consumers' brand perception varies. and (5) brand ruggedness. and generalized measurement scale. and Mexico. The results of Brodowsky et al. (2004) suggest that manufacturers need to leverage their country-brand images to appeal to those customers who recognize a particular country's ability to design high quality cars. and Costley (2000) investigate the COO of Toyotas made in Japan.USA and Japan. (4) brand sophistication. multi-dimensional. consumers' brand perception of Chinese and Indian cars. Secondly. To help understand the many facets of a brand. The results indicate that product country images and ethnocentrism have a significant impact on the consumers' intention to buy. Spain. They find that both groups of consumershold stereotypical images about different countries and the images affect the way in which the countries' products are evaluated. and South Korea. The five dimensions are: (1) brand sincerity. Aaker's (1996) extensive research led to the development of a reliable. and the UK. it . Malaysia. while a great deal of research has been conducted investigating country of origin effects of cars. Specifically. Enomoto. valid. Piamantopoulos et al. (3) brand competence. regardless of their country of assembly. (1995) compare British and German consumerswith regard to carspurchased from France. We investigate this issue using the multi-dimensional brand personality scale (Aaker 1996) as the dependent measure to capture the differences in consumersbrand perceptions. Japan. Figure 1 outlines the five brand personality dimensions with the underlying 15 facets and 42 measurement items. Brand Personality Building a global brand is the aspiration of both Chinese andIndianautomotive companies. no study has investigated and compared U. We choose this measurement scale fortwo main reasons. investment properties. The results indicate that American consumersfavor Japanese automobiles in terms of the dimensions of style. Baker and Michie (1995) examine British cardrivers' perceptions of and attitudes towards carsfrom Japan. As can be seen from the discussion above. We use brand personality as a dependent measure to capture the effects and variability of the country of origin effect on consumersbrand perception of automobiles from China and India. we turn to the concept of brand personality. this scale is widely accepted as an appropriate method and tool of measurement in the field of consumermarketing research. and quality. conceptualizingconsumers' brand perception using the brand personality dimensions allows us to capture a variety of different facets of a product. First. Chinen. the USA.

S.helps us assess the perceived similarities and differences in brand perception of U. CONCEPUTAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESES As mentioned. market.S. including 15 facets and 42 measurement items. H5: The brand competence perception varies by country of origin of the car. The underlying hypotheses of our first hypothesis (Hl) studied in this paper can be expressed as the following: H2: The brand sincerity perception varies by country of origin of the car. then dimension. Given that brand personality is conceptualized as a five dimensional construct. The following figure illustrates the research framework used.S. brand personality is a multi-dimensional construct with five dimensions. H3: The brand excitement perception varies by country of origin of the car. Chery. especially forChinese and Indianautomobiles since these carsare not yet known and available in the U. The dimensions will be used to assess the similarities and differences in the brand perceptions of U. H4: The brand sophistication perception varies by country of origin of the car. India. 2006). consumersto automobiles manufactured in China. the United States. No hypotheses were made in this paper regarding the impact of the country of origin on brand awareness as it would be difficult to experimentally manipulate consumers' perception with respect to brand awareness. The sums are divided by the number of items within a facet or dimension to form average scores that can theoretically range from 1 to 5. . and the United States. India. The items are scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The following general hypothesis is assessed in this paper: H1: The perceived brand personality varies by country of origin of the car. consumersof automobiles manufactured from China. Hl can be subdivided into micro-related predictions addressing each of the five dimensions of brand personality. or Tata (without providing the country of origin) and then testing their brand awareness would not provide meaningful results (Pappu et al. and as a control group. asking consumersif they are aware of a certain Chinese or Indianautomotive brand such as Geely. Forexample. They are summed within each facet. The empirical study designed to examine the proposed hypotheses is described in the next section. H6: The brand ruggedness perception varies by country of origin of the car.

RESEARCH METHOD Research Design and Data Collection An experiment is developed to test the hypotheses. Automobiles are selected because it is a product category in which we expect a significant country of origin effect. We have chosen China and India because they are the largest emerging market countries, and they have well-developed auto manufacturing companies that are entering developed country markets. We have chosen the United States as the third country because the U.S. is the largest automobile consumermarket in the world. In addition, U.S. consumersare accustomed to selecting from among both domestic and foreign manufactured automobiles. Similar to previous studies (Johansson et al. 1985; Hooly et al. 1988; Stoltman et al. 1991; Roth and Romeo 1992; Peris et al. 1993; Levin et al. 1993; Allred et al. 1999; Pereira et al. 2005), undergraduate and graduate students participate in the experiment and are randomly assigned to one of three experimental treatment groups. Subjects in all three groups are told that a new automobile is going to become available in the United States. They are provided with information that includes two photos and a description of the automobile's features. They are asked to read and complete a survey related to this situation. All three experimental groups receive identical information with one important exception, the country of origin of the car. The first part of the survey includes a description of the automobile and photos. The second part includes the 42 brand personality scale items (Aaker 1995). Subjects are asked to assess their perception of the carbased on each of the 42 items using a five point Likert-scale. RESULTS The participants in the experiment include 129 subjects, with 43 in each group. With regards to the brand personality scale, only those scale items that are completed by all respondents are included in our analysis. Consequently, five out of the 42 items are dropped due to missing data. Other studies (Caprara et al. 2001; Ekinci and Riley 2003) have also dropped items. Prior to data analysis, the reliability of the brand personality scale is assessed. The overall scale and the five dimensions exhibit acceptable reliability, with an overall Cronbach Alpha of 0.92. The Cronbach Alpha foreach of the dimensions is 0.74 forbrand sincerity, 0.88forbrand excitement, 0.82 forbrand competence, 0.72 forbrand sophistication, and 0.83 forbrand ruggedness. Differences in consumerperception are analyzed by country of origin of the automobile using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The dependent variables are the five brand personality dimensions. MANOVA assumes homogeneity of variances. Levene's Test forequality of variances is

used to test this assumption. The results are significant at a level of p=0.01; [brand sincerity F=4.121, p=0.046; brand excitement F=0.261, p=0.611; brand competence F=0.255, p=0.615; brand sophistication F=2.685, p=0.105; and brand ruggedness F=1.856, p=0.177]. This indicates that the variances are approximately equal. MANOVA also assumes thatforeach group, the covariance matrix is similar. Box's M tests MANOVA's assumption of homoskedasticity using the F-distribution. The Box's M test forthe brand personality dimensions are not significant at 0.05 level [F=l,393, p=0.74], indicating that the observed covariance matrices of the dependent variables are equal across groups. Country Differences The results of all multivariate hypothesis tests associated with the experimental design are summarized in Table 1 below. Several statistically significant results are obtained and our results therefore support not only H1 but also H3, H4, H5, and H6. The results show that the set of brand personality dimensions varies according to the country of origin. The "multivariate tests" section simultaneously tests each factor effect on the dependent groups. This is the most important table of output. Posi hoc multiple comparison tests are conducted to investigate further significant univariate group differences among means (see Table 2), using Tukey's (1953) honestly significant differences (HSD) method. Univariate tests show that each of the brand personality dimensions (brand sincerity, brand excitement, brand competence, brand sophistication, and brand ruggedness) vary significantly by the country of origin of the car, giving further insight into how the carsare perceived differently by U.S. consumers. Difference by Brand Items In an effort to gain further insights into the different perceptions of the subjects, we consider their responses at the individual scale item level. Subjects in the three groups differ significantly in their responses to many of the scale items representing the brand excitement dimension. With regard to eight of the eleven items, the Chinese caris mainly perceived as being more daring daring, trendy, exciting) and up-to-date up-to-date, contemporary) than the Indianand U.S. car. Brand competence, the third brand personality dimension, is assessed using six scale items. Of the six items, four are perceived significantly differently between the three groups. Overall, the Chinese caris mainly perceived as more intelligent intelligent) and successful successful, leader, confident) than the Indian car; and the U.S. caris perceived as being more successful successful, leader) than the Indian car. The

fourth brand personality dimension, brand sophistication, is assessed using six scale items. The Chinese carmainly is perceived as being more upper class upper class, glamorous, good looking) than the Indian carand more charming than the U.S. car. The final brand personality dimension, brand ruggedness, is represented by five scale items. Paired contrasts indicate that the Chinese caris perceived as more outdoorsy masculine, western) than the U.S. carand to some extent the Indian caras well. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The purpose of this study is to examine the brand perceptions of U.S. consumerstoward imported automobiles from two emerging automobile manufacturing countries - China and India. Forcomparison purposes, this experiment also collects consumerperceptions of a U.S. manufactured automobile. The results shed some light on the issue and suggest interesting managerial implications. There are three central findings in this research. First, country of origin clearly influences consumers' brand perceptions. The Chinese, Indian, and U.S. carsare perceived quite differently by the experimental subjects, in spite of the fact that the photos and information provided to each group are identical with the exception of the stated country of origin of the car. The differences manifest themselves in four of the five brand personality dimensions: brand excitement, brand competence, brand sophistication, and brand ruggedness. Second, the concept of brand personality and its related dimensions seem very useful in assessing not only the overall effect of the country of origin (COO) on the brand perceptions of consumersbut provides additional information about how and where these differences are perceived. The multi-dimensional scale gives important insight into where exactly the differences reside. Finally, these results suggest that in terms of brand building, Chinesecarsare perceived as having the "foundation" of providing exciting, competent, and sophisticated products. The same cannot be said about Indian cars. In this regard, the results are quite consistent. In many instances, the Chinese caris perceived as having "more" of the personality characteristic than the Indian car, and in some cases, more than the U.S. car, as well. However, it is important to note that the items in the brand personality scale are not vector scaled. That is to say, "more" of a characteristic does not mean "better" and less of a characteristic is not"worse."Similarly,"more"of a characteristic does not suggest a higher purchase intention. A more reasonable interpretation of these results is that the Chinese cargives the perception of having a stronger, more established personality. In some sense, our results can be interpreted as prescriptive, suggesting areas of relative similarity and difference between U.S., Chinese, and Indian cars. Indianmanufacturers of cars, and perhaps of other high involvement products as well, may wish to consider the dimensions by which their products differ significantly from Chinese and/or U.S. products. They might consider developing product

further research should not only take into account a broader base of respondents from other countries. Building Strong Brands. New York: The Free Press. It is conceivable that our results may have been slightly different had these five items been included.S. Future research should make use of a broader U. but also different automotive manufacturers from different geographical regions such as Eastern Europe and South America to assess the similarities and difference between consumerbrand perception of automobiles from other emerging markets. since our results suggest that the Indian caris perceived as less intelligent. 1988. Therefore. consumerbase as well as samples from different countries to more fully understand consumers' brand perception of imported carsfrom China and India. As such./ouma/ of Marketing Research 34(3): 347-356. Given the impressive growth and development of world class manufacturing in emerging market countries like China and India. and Chinese products. UK. Al-hammad. 1996. J. 1995. With that said. Indianmanufacturers may wish to develop marketing strategies that attempt to address and change these perceptions. thesis. Second. Forexample. cultural and attitudinal analysis with particular references to UK suppliers. and upper-class than the Chinese car. J. A.P. While this paper offers an exploratory glimpse of potential issues facing emerging market country carmanufacturers from China and India. It would also be interesting to compare consumerperceptions of other emerging market carmanufacturing countries such as Malaysia or Brazil. University of Bradford. consumers' brand perceptions of their products to be more similar to perceptions of U. our subjects do represent at least part of the target marketforthese cars. First. Dimensions of brand personality. there are some limitations. it is important to begin to understand the likely consumerperceptions of high involvement products originating from these countries. this paper is based on an experimental stimulus and setting.S. Finally. Future research might also investigate the interaction between pre-knowledge of consumersof other Chinese-made brands and products and how this influences the brand perception and purchasing behavior of consumers.repositioning strategies that attempt to change U. References REFERENCES Aaker. we use an experimental design with one product group and one homogenous group of relatively small size fora total of 129 total respondents. the results should be interpreted with caution and are more suggestive than conclusive. A study of the Saudi Arabian market forselected imported manufactured goods . successful. . Aaker. Ph. we must note that five of the 42 items in the brand personality scale are not used in this economic.A.

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the International Journal of Advertising. and European Journal of International Management. Multivariate analysis. Mark Publication title Multinational Business Review . Automobiles Location United States--US. among others. Youngstown. China. Journal of Brand Management International Journal of Market Research. Brand image. Youngstown State His research has appeared in the Journal of Advertising. Mark Tancar. e-mail: mftoncar@ysu. Indexing (details) Cite Subject Rule of origin. international marketing and branding studies. Impact analysis. Consumers' Brand Personality Perception of Automobiles from China and India Author Fetscherin. India Classification 7100: Market research. Marketing Department. Consumer behavior. 9130: Experiment/theoretical treatment Title Country of Origin Effect on U. Studies. Marc. the Journal Brand Management. OH 44555. Management International Review. and the Journal of International ConsumerMarketing. 1300: International trade & foreign investment. International Marketing Review. 9179: Asia & the Pacific. His recent research has been published in International Marketing Review.S.Marc Fetscherin is an Assistant Professor of International Business and Marketing at the Crammer Graduate School of Business (Rollins College) as well as an Asia Programs Visiting Scholar at Harvard University. His research interests are in international business. Toncar. 9190: United States. 8680: Transportation equipment industry. Williamson College of Business Administration. the Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. Phone: +1 330-941-7256. United States.

Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 111-127 Number of pages 17 Publication year 2009 Publication date Summer 2009 Year 2009 Publisher Bingley Publisher Emerald Group Publishing. Limited Place of publication Bingley Country of publication United Kingdom Journal subject Business And Economics--International Commerce ISSN 1525383X Source type Scholarly Journals Language of publication English Document type Feature .

2 billion people are getting richer fast. Full Text   TranslateFull text Turn on search term navigation Companies are scrambling to decode the Indian consumer . a consultant based in Delhi. Its 1. Plenty of consumergoods firms are betting on India.References Subfile Studies. Rule of origin. John Cook School of Business. Impact analysis. Yet in 10 to 15 years India's economy could be as big as China's is today. says Suhel Seth. Automobiles. But they would love to amass consumer goods the way China's middle class does. The Economist 400. He is half right. Multivariate analysis. but does not like to admit it.proquest. Boeing Institute of International Business Summer 2009 Last updated 2012-02-07 Database ABI/INFORM Complete Business: The other Asian giant. 8745 (Aug 6. 2011): 58-59. The Chinese market for cars and many other sophisticated consumer goods is ten times larger than India's. Indian consumers Anonymous. Indians show no obvious hankering to be censored. silenced or deprived of the vote.Document feature Diagrams. Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers Hide highlighting Abstract (summary) TranslateAbstract India wants to be like China.Tables. Brand image ProQuest document ID 194171463 Document URL http://search. Consumer behavior. Louis University. Chinese people are three times richer Copyright Copyright St.

He plans to invest $450m to double Nestle's capacity by expanding existing dairy plants and building a new one in Himachal Pradesh. He is half right. Milk production has increased 50-fold. long enough to get its corporate head around the subcontinent's extraordinary complexity--and also to spot some obvious things. so its growth rate could soon outstrip that of rapidly ageing China.2 billion people are getting richer fast. silenced or deprived of the vote. the chairman of Nestle India. Mr Waszyk tries to find products that appeal to more or less everyone. Chinese people are three times richer thanIndians. it is hard to keep milk chilled from pail to lips).500 dialects and a multitude of faiths. The farmers are better off. started in 1961 as a small collective. a tall Sikh in a pink turban. where the milk is tested and weighed. too. One of them. Yet in 10 to 15 years India's economy could be as big as China's is today. the world's biggest food company. but does not like to admit it. churning out everything from dahi (yoghurt) to chocolate bars. among other things. but supply is iffy because of India's awful roads and patchy chill chain (ie. Indians show no obvious hankering to be censored. Nestle India runs seven factories. With 1. The Swiss firm has been in India for almost a century. Unlike China's population. One collection-point manager." says Suhel Seth. Take Nestle. But they would love to amass consumer goods the way China's middle class does. less well educated states in the east. The farmers were poor."INDIA wants to be like China. Plenty of consumer-goods firms are betting on India. Today Moga works with 100. India's regions vary widely. is a position of great honour. Helio Waszyk. Running one of these collection points. who taught the farmers. agronomists and other experts. how to irrigate their fields to produce better feed and healthier cows. . more literate areas around Mumbai and Bangalore to the poorer. their calves are stronger. India's will stay young and energetic for years to come. The Chinese market for cars and many other sophisticated consumer goods is ten times larger than India's. India is more culturally diverse than China. such as Indians' love of milk. admits that rising food prices keep him awake at night. Its 1. from the richer. Nestle brought in vets.000 farmers who bring their milk twice a day to 2.815 refrigerated collection points. with 180 local farmers supplying milk to the factory. Demand for dairy products is voracious. in Moga in the northern state of Punjab. so their beasts were weak--nearly twothirds of calves died around the time of birth. a consultant based in Delhi. says his family is in Canada but he would not dream of quitting his job to join them.

Nestle studies Indian tastebuds carefully. Its "Project Shakti" recruited 45. Hence the recent takeover of Namaste Laboratories. Hindustan Unilever.500 visits to Indian homes. The firm thus spends less time than Nestle studying local culinary habits. is under way. During "Project Epicure" five years ago. Dabur's boss.000 poor rural women as sales agents. skin cream and other health and personal-care products.8% rise in its net profit for the second quarter. Not bad. Paul Polman. (A fresh survey. which is perhaps why Nestle's Maggi two-minute noodles are universally popular. thinks that as a company from an emerging market Dabur will do best in other emerging markets. These women perform a useful public service by teaching their neighbours about basic nutrition and hygiene. beating analysts' expectations. Sunil Duggal.3 billion rupees. to 17. and more time trying to work out the right package sizes and prices--Indian consumers are highly price-sensitive. Dabur wants to expand in Africa. but local rivals are chomping at its tail. rich and poor. a family-owned firm based in Uttar Pradesh. to 2. to 6. has 55% of the market for fruit juice and cranks out truckloads of shampoo.63 billion rupees ($394m) and a 9. It is one of the relatively few Indian consumer-goods firms that have expanded outside India. "Project Gastronomy". These snacks were launched with pedestrian flavours such as Masala and Chicken. . to see how people cook and eat.) Nestle sells more packaged foods than any other firm in India. turning them into micro entrepreneurs. is doing even better than Nestle. Mr Duggal smiles that a third-world company bought a first-world firm to crack another third-world market. On July 28th it reported that profit for April to June increased by 18%. On July 30th Nestle India reported a 20% increase in total sales. Unilever's newish chief executive. Hindustan Unilever understands the need to get close to the customer. chiefly in the Middle East and Africa. Dabur. a subsidiary of the Anglo-Dutch consumer-goods colossus. a quarter of its sales are abroad.14 billion rupees. After two takeovers of foreign firms. Like Nestle India. the biggest Indian consumer-goods maker. and are now available with exotic ones such as Thrillin Curry and Tricky Tomato. an American firm that makes hair products forAfricans and African-Americans. Unilever has the advantage that people's preference for soap and shampoo varies much less from place to place than their taste in food.Nearly every Indian likes carbohydrates and spices. lessons about the importance of hand-washing stimulate demand forUnilever's soap. By a happy coincidence. it made 1. recently decided to put the bulk of the company's resources behind growth in its more commoditised product lines.

But unlike China. Pankaj Ghemawat at IESE. it was planning to kill the brand. International. but then again it might not. which has become endemic. Business growth. too (Copyright 2011 The Economist Newspaper Ltd. about 400m Indians still live on less than $1. One big difference is that Indians do not have the same preference for foreign brands that Chinese consumers show. The big bosses at head office in Atlanta. but many are ill-educated. the boss of Hindustan Unilever. sees three big challenges for India's future. All rights reserved. But Coke's local managers soon realised Indians preferred Thums Up. a business school in France. India risks social strife." says Anil Gupta at INSEAD. so it has a welltested way to change governments peacefully. who prefer their products to be the same everywhere. 67% of women are illiterate. 1110: Economic conditions & forecasts. Retailing industry. The second is skills: Indians may be young and energetic. As the wealth gap yawns. India is a democracy. Market strategy Classification 7000: Marketing. Economic growth. the leading Indian cola.) Word count: 1144 Cite Subject Consumer goods. Illustration Caption: If only we had clean water. Consumer behavior. And the third is inclusive growth. Indian consumers Indexing (details) . were aghast. 9179: Asia & the Pacific. But Coke now gives Thums Up plenty of shelf space next to its own bottles. The first is corruption. a business school in Barcelona. When Coca-Cola bought Thums Up. 1220: Social trends & culture. 8390: Retailing industry Title Business: The other Asian giant.Nitin Paranjpe. says one cannot simply assume that Indian consumers in 15 years will be just like Chinese ones today.25 a day. "Democracy and demography are India's big assets. While growth overall has been impressive. in Bihar. That might change.

Economic History.Author Anonymous Publication title The Economist Volume 400 Issue 8745 Pages 58-59 Publication year 2011 Publication date Aug 6. 2011 Year 2011 Section Business Publisher London Publisher The Economist Intelligence Unit Place of publication London Country of publication United States Journal subject Business And Economics--Economic Systems And Theories.Business And Economics--Economic Situation And Conditions ISSN 00130613 CODEN .

) Last updated 2011-08-10 Database ABI/INFORM Complete . Business Copyright (Copyright 2011 The Economist Newspaper Ltd. All rights reserved. Retailing industry.proquest. Consumer goods. Consumer behavior. Economic growth. Market strategy ProQuest document ID 881488254 Document URL http://search.ECSTA3 Source type Magazines Language of publication English Document type General Information Document feature Graphs Subfile International.

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