You are on page 1of 52


PRESENT The Present Simple is used : To talk about regular activities, routine, habits: - John plays tennis once a week. - We start work at 9 a.m. every day. - Mary eats fish on Fridays.

To talk about tastes: - Peter likes Chinese food. - Julie doesn't like fish. - Their children love chocolate. To talk about facts: - The sun rises in the east. - In Europe, the weather is cold in winter. - Authors write books. The Present Continuous is used : To talk about continuous activities : 1) at the time of speaking : I am reading this page now. 2) around now, in a more general sense : I am learning English this year To talk about planned future arrangements : - Next month I am spending my holidays in Australia. I have already booked my flight. - Our neighbours are coming to dinner tomorrow. They have accepted our invitation.

1.1 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense?

1. Every day Julie _______________ (take) the bus to go to her office. 2. At the moment you _______________ (do) an English exercise. 3. Tom and Julie _______________ (learn) English this year. 4. The Bank __________________ (open) at 9.30 every morning from Monday to Friday. 5. Our cousins ___________________ (come) to see us next Sunday. 6. Tom ______________ (read) the newspaper every morning on the train. 7. Julie usually __________________ (clean) the house on Saturdays. 8. At the moment she _________________ (write) a letter to a client. 9. Julie _________________ (speak) three languages : English, French and Spanish. 10. Today is Sunday. Tom and Julie _________________ (relax) in their garden. 11.Look! He _______________ (leave) the house. 12.Quiet please! I _______________ (write) a test. 13.She usually _______________ (walk) to school. 14.But look! Today she_______________ (go) by bike. 15.Every Sunday we _______________ (go) to see my grandparents. 16.He often _______________ (go) to the cinema. 17.We _______________ (play) Monopoly at the moment. 18.The child seldom _______________ (cry) . 19.I _______________ (not / do) anything at the moment. 20. _______________ (watch / he) the news regularly? 21) Andy sometimes _______________ comics. (to read) 22) We never _______________TV in the morning. (to watch) 23) Listen! Sandy _______________ in the bathroom. (to sing) 24) My sister usually _______________in the kitchen. (to help) 25) My mother _______________ breakfast now. (to make) 26) They often _______________the bathroom. (to clean)

27) Look! The boys _______________ home. (to come) 28) Every day his grandfather _______________ for a walk. (to go) 29) I _______________with my friend at the moment. (to chat) 30) Cats _______________mice. (to eat) 31)I _______________ (not/like) politics. 32) How many languages _______________ (you/speak) ? 33) Where _______________ (you/live) ? 34) What _______________ (you/do) at the moment? 35) I _______________ (not/believe) that you are a millionaire. 36) He_______________ (not/wear) a tie today. 37) He often _______________ (travel) abroad on business. 38) David is in Paris this week. He ______________ (stay) at the Hilton. 39) ______________ (you, meet) your friend today? 40) _______ (you, understand) what I mean? 41) Susan _________ (work) on her project at the moment. 42) She __________ (go) to Switzerland once a week. 43) Does Mike ________ (work) in human resources? 44) This bottle _______ (contain) two liters of water. 45) ___________ (you, realize) how many people there are? 46) The games _________ (start, usually) at 8.00 in the evening. 47) _______________ (I, see) a doctor tomorrow.

1.2 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense? - Build up sentences:

1. He / like watching TV / but / he / not / watch / at the moment / because / he / sleep // 2. What / Wendy / do / at the moment / ? // She / clean / her teeth / bathroom // 3. mother / can ( - ) / help me / now / because / she / cook / kitchen // 4. Where / your cousin / live / ? // She / live / Sydney / Australia // 5. Why / you / eat / sandwich / now / ? // Because / I / be / hungry // 6. Tim / usually / go / work / bicycle // 7. children / play / games / everyday // 8. My brother / can ( - ) / play / tennis / because / he / not / have / racket // 9. How often / mother / cook / pizza / ? // 10. My parents / not / like / roller-skates / because / they / be / dangerous //

1.3 Present Simple or Continuous Tense? - Ask questions for the underlined words:
1. ? George often has a bath. 2. ? Mike eats corn-flakes for breakfast every morning. 3. ? The teacher is writing some examples on the board. 4. ? Tom is watching a film now. 5. ? My parents never smoke cigarettes. 6. ? Peter and Rob go to school by service bus. 7. .? Sam is doing his homework in his room. 8. ? I read two books every month. 9. ?

I cant understand Hans because I dont know German. 10. ? No, Sally isnt writing a letter now.

1.4 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense?

1.Look! Jane (sing) again. She often .. (sing) this song. 2.My father (have) a lot of work to do every weekend. 3.The girls .. (not / talk) now. All of them (watch) a film. 4. you .. (like) watching TV? 5.He .. (usually / go) at 9:00 oclock, but this morning he .. (leave) home late. 6.I . (visit) my grandparents every Friday. My sister. (often / visit) them. 7.The boys . (swim) in the pool now but they (usually / swim) in the sea. 8.She .(write) a letter to her pen-friend at the moment. 9.They . (sometimes / have) lunch at work, but today they . (have) at a restaurant. 10.She cant talk to you. She . (have) a shower. 11.Where Alex (live)?In France. 12.Tom (like / ride) a horse in his free times. 13.The children (play) the piano and (sing) a song at the moment. 14.My mother . (always / cook) in the morning. 15.What (you / usually / do) at weekends? 16.Jane (give) a party today because it (be) her birthday. 17.The lesson (start) at 9 oclock every morning. 18.Adam is in his room now. He . (write) a letter to his pen-friend. He .. (always / write) him a letter.

1.5 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense? - Underline the correct verb form: 1. Sandra writes / is writing a letter at the moment. 2. I usually drink / am drinking a lot of water. 3. Look! He comes / is coming back right now! 4. She always sleeps / is sleeping a lot. 5. What do you do / are you doing now? 6. You study / are studying every day. 7. It rains / is raining every autumn in Romania. 8. It rains / is raining! Take your umbrella! 9. They play / are playing chess now. 10. I dont play / am not playing on the computer every day. 1.6 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense? 1. I ____ a great time on this holiday. Have / am having 2. She's Italian- she ____ from Pisa. Comes / is coming 3. '_____ your meal?' 'Yes, it's very good.' Are you enjoying / Do you enjoy 4. Many scientists believe global warming ____. really happens / is really happening 5. This term, I ____ Latin. Study / am studying 6. ____ to see us next month? Do you come / Are you coming 7. Let me know when you ____ this letter. Receive / are receiving 8. They ____ to do it now. Want / are wanting 9. I _____ it. don't understand / am not understanding 10. Water ____ at a hundred degrees. Boils / is boiling

11. Smoking _____ cancer. 12. I ____ a lot of progress at the moment. 13. It _____ me a lot at the moment. 14. Don't pay attention- he ____ stupid. 15. I ____ up at seven o'clock on weekdays. 16. He _____ silly questions.

Causes / is causing Make / am making Worries / is worrying is just / is just being Get / am getting always asks / is always asking

1.7 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense? - Make the questions:

1. '____________________________?' 'There are three.' 2. '____________________________?' "He lives in Lisbon. 3. '____________________________?' 'No,she doesn't.' 4. '____________________________?' 'They're on the table in the living-room.' 5. '____________________________?' 'It costs $30.' 6. '____________________________?' 'It's mine.' 7. '____________________________?' 'No, I don't.' 8. '____________________________?' 'No, I'm not.' 9. '____________________________?' 'Never.' 10. '____________________________?' 'Because I'm tired.' 11. '____________________________?' 'John does.' 12. '____________________________?' 'It the second road on the left.' 13. '____________________________?' 'Yes, she does.' 14. '____________________________?' 'No, he isn't.' 15. '____________________________?' 'Once a week.'

1.8 Present Simple or Present Continuous Tense?

1. Johnny and Danny in the lake every summer. (to swim) 2. Tom .stamps this year. (to collect) 3. .. you.. songs in the bathroom (to sing) 4. the garden at the moment. (to work) 5. Adam..French and German (to speak) 6. His sister ..lemonade ( to not like) 7. Whats your father doing? My fatherthe car. (to clean) 8. Don't bother me now! I.. (to work) 9. This summer we . to Portugal.(to go) 10.Take an umbrella! It ..(to rain) 11. Look! Junko . into the water.( to jump) 12.Salman is rich .He a Mercedes.( to drive) 13. I you're crazy!( to think) 14. I it. ( not to like) 15. I them. ( to love) 16. I won't go out now because it... ( to rain) 17. .the dictionary! It's not allowed. (not to use) 18.Your train 17.25 from platform 3. ( to leave) 19.My wife coffee for breakfast. ( to prefer) 20.Joanne eight hours a day. (to work) 21.They . to do it now. ( to want) 22.She's Italian.She from Pisa. ( to come) 23. What. you about right now? ( to think) 24. Dave,.. this book .. to you? ( to belong) 25. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (to sleep) 26. Every Monday, Sally.her kids to football practice ( to drive)

27.Water . at a hundred degrees. ( to boil) 28. John English, he is American. (be, not) 29.This term, I .. Latin. ( to study) 30. .you.your meal? (to enjoy) 2. PAST The Past Simple is used to talk about finished actions in a finished period of time. example : Yesterday evening, I played tennis with a friend. In 2005, I started taking tennis lessons. When I was at school, I hated history. Five minutes ago, I finished the report for my boss. Last week I attended a meeting in Tokyo. The Past Continuous tense is used to talk about a continuous action which took place at a specific time in the past. Yesterday evening, at 9 o'clock, I was watching television. It is also used, in sentences with when or while, to refer to an action which was taking place when a shorter, brief action took place. Yesterday evening, while I was watching television, the phone rang. When my husband arrived home yesterday evening, I was cooking dinner.

2.1 Past Simple or Past Continuous?

1. 2. 3. 4. When her husband _______ (arrive) home, Anne _________(watch) television. I __________ (prepare) dinner when the telephone ___________ (ring). What ________________ (you do) when the postman ________(arrive)? Julie ____________ (learn) to drive when she __________ (work) in London. 5. Where ____________ (you sit) when the show __________ (begin)? 6. I ___________ (visit) Athens while I ____________________ (tour) Greece. 7. It was when he ___________ (cross) the street that John___________ (fall). 8. What ________(you see) while you ______________ (wait) for the bus? 9. Where ____________ (you go) when your car ___________ (break) down? 10. Julie __________ (meet) Peter when she ___________ (walk) in the park. 11. What _______ (be) the flight like? 12. When she first_______ (meet) him he was studying law. 13. We _______ (swim) in the river when it started to rain. 14. My father _______ (be) angry because I'd failed my exams. 15. Her parents_______ (dance)at the ball when the burglar broke into their house. 16. We _______ (not be) on holiday last week. 17. _______ (be it) difficult to find a new job? 18. I _______ (find) my camera this morning. 19. She _______ (drink) two glasses of mineral water. 20. I _______ (cook) while Carol was doing the washing up. 21. I_______ (lose) my glasses on the way home. 22. I _______ (not have) time to see my parents last week. 23. My brother _______ (go) to the theatre three times last month. 24. I _______ (have) a shower when my sister arrived. 25. Jane _______ (not be) at home yesterday evening. 26. I_______ (see)Lucy in the morning.

27. The weather _______ (be) bad so we did not go out. 28. I _______ (finish) my work at 7 yesterday. 29. At 5 o'clock I _______ (do) my homework. 30. I _______ (watch) TV when the phone rang.
31.While Tom _______ (read) , Amely _______ (watch) a documentary on TV. 32.Marvin_______ (come) home, _______ (switch) on the computer and _______ (check) his emails. 33.The thief _____ (sneak) into the house, _____ (steal) the jewels and_____ (leave) without a trace. 34.Nobody _______ (listen) while the teacher _______ (explain) the tenses. 35.While we _______ (do) a sight-seeing tour, our friends_______ (lie) on the beach. 36.He _______ (wake) up and_______ (look) at his watch. 37.When the post man _______ (arrive), my father _______ (have a shower) 38.While my brother _______ (study), my grandma _______ (make) some muffins 39.I _______ (go) to the doctor 2 days ago because I _______ (have) a terrible headache 40.When I _______ (be) 10, I _______ (eat) a sandwich every evening 41.He _______ (miss) the train because he _______ (talk) with some friends 42.The thieves _______ (come) into the house while the man _______ (sleep) 43.I _______ (drink) a glass of water at eleven. I'm not thirsty now 44. _______you _______ (write) the composition last week? 45.My mother _______ (not/be) at home when she _______ (fall) down the stairs 46.George _______ (fall) off the ladder while he _______ (paint) the ceiling. 47.While Tom _______ (cook) the dinner, the phone _______ (ring). 48.Ann_______ (wait) for me at home when I _______ (arrive) yesterday. 49.Tim _______ (take) a photograph of me while I _______ (not /look). 50.What _______ (you/do) at this time yesterday'? 51.I _______ (see) Carol at the party. She _______ (wear) a really beautiful dress. 52.I _______ (break) a plate last night. I_______ (do) the washing up. 53. _______ (you/watch) television when I_______ (arrive)? 54. Last night I _______ (read) in bed when suddenly I_______ (hear) a scream. 55.We _______ (not/go) out because it _______ (rain). 56. We _______ (do) our homework while our mum_______ (cook) dinner. 57.I_______ (see) Jim in the park. He_______ (sit) on the grass and _______ (read) a book. 58.Sally _______ (eat) dinner last night when someone _______ (knock) on the door. 59.I began to study at seven last night. Fred _______ (come) at seven-thirty. I _______ (study) when Fred _______ (come). 60.While I _______ (study) last night, Fred _______(drop by) to visit me. 61.What ___you ____ (do) when I _______ (call) you last night? 62.I _______ (sit) in a cafe when you_______ (call). 63.When you _______ (arrive) at the party, who_______ (be) there? 64.Susie _______ (watch) a film when she _______ (hear) the noise. 65.Yesterday I ____ (go) to the library, next I _____(have) a swim, later I _____ (meet) Julie for coffee. 66.We _______ (play) tennis when John _______ (hurt) his ankle. 67.What _______ (they/do) at 10pm last night - it was really noisy? 68.He _______ (take) a shower when the telephone_______ (ring). 69.He _______ (be) in the shower when the telephone _______ (ring). 70.When I _______ (walk) into the room, everyone_______ (work). 71.It _______ (be) a day last September. The sun _______ (shine) and the birds _______ (sing) . I _______ (walk) along the street when I _______ (meet) an old friend. 72.He _______ (live) in Russia when the Revolution _______ (start). 73.When her train _______ (get) to the station, we _______ (wait) on the platform. 74.He _______ (be) so annoying! He _______ (always leave) his things everywhere. 75.On holiday we______(visit) Rome,______(see) the Vatican, and______(spend) a few days at the beach.

76.Why _____you ________ (stand) on a chair when I _______ (come) into the room? 77.They _______ (live) in Germany when they _______ (be) young. 78.At 7pm yesterday, we _______ (listen) to music. 79.When I _______ (leave) the house, it _______ (snow). 80.He _______ (work) in a bank when he _______ (meet) his wife.

2.2 Past Simple or Past Continuous? insert ago, yesterday, last, while, when, as, on, in, at
1) Tommy's father worked in that office _______2 years 2) The plane was flying _______8 p.m. 3) My best friend went to London_______ month 4) _______I was having dinner, my sister was having a shower 5) _______did the supermarket close? 6) Your aunt studied German _______2001 7) Rose played in an orchestra _______ she was 12 years old 8) Jason was swimming _______his girlfriend was drinking a coke 9) The TV broke _______26th October 10) _______did he deliver the shopping? 11) My father's friend had a baby _______ 12) The suspect can't have committed the crime. He was having dinner in the restaurant _____that time 13) My cousin bought the PSP _______ he was in London

2.3 Past Simple or Past Continuous? - Which sentence is the correct one? 1) a) The men were studying on the new project all day yesterday b) The men was studying on the new project all day yesterday c) The men studied on the new project all day yesterday 2) a) When were you finishing your project? b) When did you finish your project? c) When were you finish your project? 3) a) You didn't be in the party yesterday b) You didn't were in the party yesterday c) You weren't in the party yesterday 4) a) My sister watched TV while his husband was playing with the children b) My sister was watching TV while his husband was playing with the children c) My sister was watching TV while his husband played with the children 5) a) The students were talking when the teacher was arriving b) The students talked when the teacher was arriving c) The students were talking when the teacher arrived 2.4 Past Simple or Past Continuous?
James Ellis _______ (go) on a business trip last week. He _______ (visit) some customers in Frankfurt. He _______ (leave) home early on Monday morning and _______ (take) a taxi to the airport. He _______ (get) there at about 8 o'clock. He _______ (check in) and _______ (go) to the airport lounge. He _______ (buy) a newspaper and _______ (go) to get a coffee. He_______ (drink) his coffee when he _______ (see) an old friend, Bob. He _______ (be) very surprised that Bob _______ (be) in London and _______ (find out) that he _______ (be) (start) a new job in the city. As they _______ (speak) they _______ (hear) an announcement. "Would all passengers for the 9.30 flight to Frankfurt please go to boarding gate 10". James _______ (say) goodbye to Bob and as they _______ (leave) Bob _______ (give) him his business card and _______ (ask) him to phone when he _______ (return) from Frankfurt. After _______ (board) James _______ (put) his briefcase in the overhead locker and _______ (sit) down. During the flight, James _______ (do) some paper work and_______ (speak) to the woman sitting

next to him, while they_______ (speak) the flight attendant _______ (bring) breakfast. When the plane _______ (land) in London, it was almost 11 o'clock. James _______ (take) a train to his hotel. Then he_______ (walk) to the customer's office. He _______ (get) there at 1.00 pm and_______ (go) to the reception desk. The receptionist _______ (ask) him to wait. While he _______ (wait) she _______ (offer) him a drink. He and his customer _______ (talk) all afternoon. When Bob _______ (get) to his hotel at 7 o'clock that night, he _______ (phone) his wife and then _______ (go) to the hotel restaurant.

2.5 Past Simple or Past Continuous? 1. I ________ - I didn't hear you come in. was sleeping / slept 2. I ________ to see her twice, but she wasn't home. was coming / came 3. What ________? I was watching TV. did you do / were you doing 4. Robin Hood was a character who ________ from the rich and gave to the poor. Stole / was stealing 5. Hey, did you talk to her? Yes, I ________ to her. was talking / talked 6. I ________ home very late last night. Came / was coming 7. How long ________ the flu? did you have / were you having 8. ________ a good time in Brazil? Yes, I had a blast! Were you having / Did you have 9. We ________ breakfast when she walked into the room. Had / were having 10. Last month I decided to buy a new car, and today I finally ________ it. bought / was buying 11. I ________ when the waitress took my plate. still ate / was still eating 2.6 Past Simple or Past Continuous? - Whats the question?
how what where how long what kind of who how many when why

1. ..Who did you visit .? I visited my cousin. 2. .? We talked about my job. 3. .? She went to the beach. 4. .? She met her friend. 5. .? They spoke Russian. 6. .? They swam in the ocean. 7. .? He had dinner at 8:00. 8. .? I baked an apple pie. 9. .? She cried because her dog ran away. 10. .? I stayed for a week. 11. .? I came home by train. 12. .? He ate three hamburgers. 13. .? He left the restaurant at 9:00. 14. .? She wrote a letter to her mother. 15. .? They studied all morning. 16. .? We took a lot of photographs. 17. .? We sent a postcard to our teacher. 18. .? He fell asleep during the lecture. 19. .? I lost my wallet while I was skating. 20. .? They covered their eyes because they were scared.

The Present Perfect is used to refer to actions which take place in an unfinished time period up to now. The Present Perfect Simple is used to refer to the finished part of a continuous action. ex : So far in my English course I have learnt new vocabulary.I have revised some grammar rules. (My English course is not finished, but I have finished some of the lessons) Example : Today, it is now 2 p.m. At 9 o'clock this morning you started revising your English. Today is not finished, so you can say "I have been revising my English since 9 o'clock." (You are still revising, so the continuous form is used.) You have done part of the revision work, which is not finished, so at 2 p.m. you can say: "So far today, I have revised tenses and irregular verbs." (You do not mention any specific time; you refer to today which is not finished.) N.B. If you refer now (2 pm) to the morning, for example, which is finished, you must use the Past Simple. ex : This morning I revised tenses and irregular verbs. The Present Perfect Continuous is used to refer to an action started in the past which continues today. ex : I have been learning English since September. (I started in September and I continue to take lessons today.)

3.1 Present Perfect Simple or Continuous? - Each sentence has one or two mistakes.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. How long are you learning English ? How many cigarettes have you been smoking this afternoon ? I am working here since 1995. Ive had my watch since a long time. How many years are you living in London ? Mark is exhausted. He is playing tennis since two hours.. Sophie is doing very well at school since the beginning of the year. I have worn this sweater since 9 oclock this morning. I know Laura for many years. Peter is attending English classes since two years. My best friend has always been hating fish. How many chapters of the book did you read so far ? I am waiting for the bus since a long time. I have listened carefully to the teacher since the beginning of the lesson. How long are you a member of the tennis club ?

3.2 Present Perfect Simple or Continuous?

1.I ________ (play) football for five years.

2.My team ________ (win / only) two matches so far. 3.The others ________ (be / always) better. 4.Are we not there yet? We ________ (walk) for hours. 5.But we ________ (cover / only) an area of five miles so far. 6.I ________ (finish/just) my homework. 7.I________ (work) on this essay since two o'clock. 8.Jane ________ (go out) with Bob for seven years. 9.Martin ________ (date) three girls this week. 10.How long ________ (wait / you) for us? 11.We (know) them for 15 years. 12.They ________ (watch) TV for 3 hours. 13.He ________ (have) this car for 20 years. 14.We ________ (work) for 7 hours without a break. 15.How long ________ (you / learn) English? 16.Mr Smith________ (be) in hospital for 5 days. 17.Steven ________ (hear) a mouse squeak all night. 18________.(you / see) Brona? 19.She ________ (prepare) dinner for two hours. 20.Don't worry, they ________ (touch / not) your gameboy.

3.3 Present Perfect Simple or Continuous?

A: ________ (you / play / ever) tennis? B: I ________ (play / only) tennis once or twice. And you? A: I ________ (learn) tennis for two years. B: ________ (you / take) part in any competitions yet? A: ________I (participate) in four contests this year. B: ________ (you / win) any prizes so far? A: No, I_______ (win / not) anything yet. I'm not that good yet. _______ (you / enter / ever) a contest? B: I ________ (swim) for seven years and I ________ (receive / already) some trophies.

3.4 Present Perfect Simple or Continuous?

Daughter: Mum, Jane________ (phone / just) to ask if I will go to the cinema with her. May I? Mother: ________ (you / do) your homework yet? Daughter: Well, I ________ (do) it for about 2 hours now, but I ________ (finish / not) it yet. Mother: If you________ (complete / not) your homework, you cannot go. School comes first. Remember, you ________ (promise) me to study harder this year. Daughter: But mum, I ________ (work) really hard this year and I________ (improve / already) in Maths and Chemistry. Mother: But that's only because I ________ (push / always) you to do something. Daughter: But I also need a break some time. Look, I ________ (be / not) to the cinema for two months. May I go? Just this once.

3.5 Present Perfect Simple or Continuous?

Tom: Hi Ana. I ________ (try) to ring you several times today. Where ________ (you / be) ? Ana: I ________ (be) at home all the time. But I ________ (clean) the house all day, so maybe I didn't hear the phone ring. Tom: ________ (you / clean) everything now? Ana: No, not yet. I ________ (tidy / not) up the kitchen yet. But why are you here? Tom: Don't you remember? Jane ________ (invited) us to her birthday party and we ________ (buy / not) a present for her yet. Ana: Oh, that's right. ________ (you / find out / already) what she wants?

Tom: Well, she ________ (learn) Spanish for a year and wants to spend her next holiday in Mexico. Maybe we could get her a guide book. Ana: That's a good idea. There is a good bookshop in the big shopping centre. I________ (see) some nice books about Mexico there recently.

4. Past or Perfect?
The Present Perfect is used to link the present and the past.The Present Perfect is used : 1. To talk about an action which started in the past and continues today. For and since are used to express duration. I have lived here for 10 years.I have lived here since 1998.(I arrived here 10 years ago and I am still here.) 2. To refer to past events in an unfinished period of time : I have written two letters today. (Two letters are written but today is not finished.) 3. To talk about recent events that have just happened or been announced : There has been a plane crash near the coast. (We know the event took place but we don't know when.) 4. To talk about a past action with a result in the present : I've broken my arm. I can't drive. (= because my arm is broken now) 5. To talk and ask about experiences or accomplishments up to the time of speaking, but at no specific time. " I'm a writer. I've written 9 books." " Have you ever written a biography?" "No never." The Past Simple is used to talk about past events which happened in a finished period of time. The Past Simple is used : 1. When the period of time is finished : I wrote two letters yesterday. (Yesterday is finished.) 2. When the time is mentioned, either a precise time in the past, or a time expression which clearly situates the event in the past: I lived in the country ... until the age of 6 ... when I was young ... from 1985 to 1992 ... before we moved to London ... a long time ago NB : As a general rule, if you can answer the question "when?", use the Past Simple

4.1 Present Perfect (simple or continuous form) or Past Simple?

1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tom (go)__________ to the cinema yesterday. John is playing a game of tennis. He (play)______________ for 2 hours. I (book)__________ the tickets two weeks ago for the concert in Vienna. The teacher (speak)____________ English since the beginning of this lesson. In your life, how many countries (you-visit) _______________? The Bank (open)__________ a branch in new shopping centre last month. The bus is late and Julie is cold. She (wait)__________ for 10 minutes. Caroline (work)__________ here between 2003 and 2006.

9. Before boarding, John (buy)_______ a book to read during the flight. 10. So far today, I (learn) ____________ several new words in English.

4.2 Present Perfect - Past Simple - Each of the sentences below has a mistake.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. I have visited New York two months ago. Anne isnt here at the moment. Shes been to London. In your life, how many different countries did you visit? Theyve opened the new shopping centre last week. How many pages did you read so far this week ? When have you bought your car? Ive lived in London since 5 years. Ive seen that film last Friday. His English improved a lot this year. In his last job, Peter has travelled to Germany every month. Julie has worked here between 1997 and 1999. How many films did you see this month ? When has Mary arrived ? Before leaving for Boston, I have bought a good dictionary. So far I didnt receive a reply to my invitation. I live in a house I have bought 7 years ago. The man who lives next door wrote four books about his travels. I have been listening to the recording several times today. Did you ever taste a cereal called quinoa? How many new words did you note down so far in this lesson? Caroline has been visiting Hong Kong five times already. Ive seen that programme on television last night How many times have you been asking for an explanation? My English improved a lot this year. In her previous job, Julie has spoken English a lot. Jack has worked here between 1996 and 1999. How many times did you go to the theatre this year? How long ago has Emma taken up golf? When I was 6 years old, I have got a bicycle for Christmas. So far I didnt make too many mistakes. Tony is still watching TV. He has watched it for 3 hours. I hate red meat. Since I was a child I have been hating it. How long have you attended these classes? There is no lesson today. The teacher has been on holiday. I can relax now. I finished this exercise!

4.2 Present Perfect or Past Simple?

.Mother: I want to prepare dinner. ________ (you / wash) the dishes yet? Daughter: I_______ (wash) the dishes yesterday, but I _______ (have / not) the time yet to do it today. Mother: ________ (you / do / already) your homework? Daughter: No, I ________ (come / just) home from school. Mother: You ________ (come) home from school two hours ago! Daughter: Well, but my friend Lucy________ (call) when I ________ (arrive) and I ________ (finish / just) the phone call. Mother: ________ (you / see / not) Lucy at school in the morning? Daughter: Yes, but we________ (have / not) time to talk then.

4.3 Present Perfect or Past Simple?

1. A: Did you like the movie "Star Wars?" B: I don't know. I________ (see, never) that movie. 2. Sam ________ (arrive) in San Diego a week ago. 3. My best friend and I ________ (know) each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a week. 4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He ________ (write) ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway. 5. I ________ (have, not) this much fun since I________ (be) a kid. 6. Things ________ (change) a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first________ (start) working here three years ago, the company ________ (have, only) six employees. Since then, we ________ (expand) to include more than 2000 full-time workers. 7. I________ (tell) him to stay on the path while he was hiking, but he ________ (wander) off into the forest and ________ ________ (be) bitten by a snake. 8. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss) the bus this morning. You ________ (be) late to work too many times. You are fired! 9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he________ (see, never) the ocean. He should come with us to Miami. 10. How sad! George________ (dream) of going to California before he died, but he didn't make it. He (see, never) the ocean. 11. In the last hundred years, traveling ________ (become) much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it ________ (take) two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip ________ (be) very rough and often dangerous. Things ________ (change) a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours. 12. Jonny, I can't believe how much you________ (change) since the last time I________ (see) you. You ________ (grow) at least a foot! 13. This tree ________ (be) planted by the settlers who________ (found) our city over four hundred years ago. 14. This mountain________ (be, never) climbed by anyone. Several mountaineers________ (try) to reach the top, but nobody ________ (succeed, ever) . The climb is extremely difficult and many people ________ (die) trying to reach the summit. 15. I ________ (visit, never) Africa, but I________ (travel) to South America several times. The last time I ________ (go) to South America, I________ (visit) Brazil and Peru. I ________ (spend) two weeks in the Amazon, ________ (hike) for a week near Machu Picchu, and ________ (fly) over the Nazca Lines.

4. 4 Present Perfect or Past Simple?

1 Joji ________ in Tokyo for five years, but he left in 1993. lived / has lived 2 The Titanic ________ in 1912. sank / has sunk 3 Somebody ________ my bicycle! Now I'll have to walk home. stole / has stolen 4 Gerry ________ off his bike three times this month. fell / has fallen 5 Chika ________ from university last July. graduated / has graduated 6 I ________ the movie Titanic three times. I'm going to see it again tonight. saw / have seen 7 I ________ to work every day for the last six weeks! walked / have walked 8 When Young Hee was a child, she ________ in Seoul. lived / has lived 9 Ouch! ________ my finger! I cut / I've cut 10 I ________ my key yesterday, so I couldn't get into the house. lost / have lost 11. When __________ the company? have you joined / did you join 12. _______________ in Pakistan? Did you ever worked / Have you ever worked 13. That's the best presentation ______________ I didn't hear / I've ever heard 14. He's the most difficult customer ____________ I never dealt with./ I've ever had to deal with. 15. ______________ to him last week. I spoke / I've already spoken 16.I look so brown because ______from a trip to Barbados I came back / I've just come back 17. It's obvious that ________________ this report. you haven't read / you didn't read

18.He ___________ there when he was a child 19.I ____________her since last year 20.They ____________ a few minutes ago

has lived / lived haven't seen / didn't see left / have left

4.5 Complete the sentences using adverbs of time.

1. I _____ arrived ten minutes ago. a) just b) yet c) still 2. I havent finished my essay _____. a) just b) already c) yet 3. I moved to Chicago about five years_____. a) anymore b) ago c) already 4. Ive only worked two hours, and Im _____ tired. a) yet b) already c) anymore 5. I'm _____ at the college. Ive been there three years. a) ago b) anymore c) still 6. I don't know my way around _____, but Im learning. a) yet b) just c) already 7. I bought a house, so I dont live in an apartment _____. a) anymore b) yet c) just 8. This book is so easy to read that Im _____ in chapter 10. a) ago b) still c) already 9. I hired someone today, so Im not accepting applications _____. a) anymore b) already c) yet 10. I _____ heard on the radio that a big snow storm is coming our way. a) ago b) just c) anymore

4.6 FOR, SINCE OR AGO? 1. This house needs cleaning. We haven't cleaned it _____months. 2. I think I can't possibly learn Chinese. I've studied it _____ two years and I still can't have a sensible
conversation. 3. Jim and Kevin first met ten years _____ 4. Where were you? I've been waiting _____ two hours. 5. I don't see my family very often. I haven't seen them _____Christmas. 6. Louise has been learning Greek _____ she was fifteen. 7. Helen lived in London long time _____but she has been living in Madrid forsinceago last summer. 8. My parents have had the same car _____ ages. They bought it at least fifteen years _____ 9. Fred has been phoning his boss _____ lunchtime but he can't get through. 10. I'm fed up with this rain. It's been raining _____ hours.

4.7 JUST, YET, STILL, ALREADY 1. It's 11 and Mark hasn't _____got up 2. It's 11 and Mark _____ hasn't got up 3. I'm expecting him but he _____ hasn't turned up 4. I'm expecting him but he hasn't turned up _____ 5. He left his job but he has _____ found another 6. He left his job but he _____ has found another 7. Are you _____ doing your homework? 8. Mr Green has _____ left his office 9. My new hairdrier didn't work properly. I've taken it to the shop _____ and got a refund 10. I don't _____ know his phone number 11. I don't know his phone number _____ 12. Have you seen Brad Pitt's new film _____? 13. Have you seen Sam? He _____ has come looking for you 14. My friends went to the theatre but I didn't go with them because I've seen the play _____ 15. Do you_____love me? 4.8 Since & For

1. I haven't seen them ...... ages 2. I have been living here ...... July 3. He worked there ....... several years 4. I haven't seen him ...... last week 5. It's been a long time ....... I've had such a good meal in a restaurant 6. He hasn't been able to work ...... the last three weeks 7. They've known about it ...... a long time 8. He hasn't worked this hard ..... he was at school 9. I haven't seen her ..... a fortnight 10. They haven't been here ..... 1993

5. Past Perfect
The Past Perfect Simple is used to refer to actions which took place before a specific time in the past. ex : Yesterday, between 4 pm and 6 pm, Paul played a game of tennis with a friend. His mother arrived at 6 pm. When his mother arrived, Paul had finished the game. The Past Perfect Continuous (had been playing) is used to refer to a past continuous action. ex : Before his mother arrived, Paul had been playing tennis with a friend.

5.1 Past Perfect (past perfect simple or continuous).

1. When their mother arrived home, the children ___________ (finish) their homework. 2. The meeting ____________ (start) when I arrived at the office. 3. Julie didn't watch the film because she _____________ (see) it before. 4. The mechanic ______________(repair) her car when Mary arrived at the garage. 5. Caroline was tired when she left the office because she_________(work) all day. 6. David was playing tennis. When his father arrived, he _________(play) for 2 hours. 7. When the dessert arrived, Anne wasn't hungry; she ___________(eat) too much. 8. It was my first flight. I ________________ (never fly) before. 9. The dentist was angry because John _________ (forget) the time of his appointment. 10. On the day of his exam, Joe was ready. He ________________ (revise) for weeks.

5.2 Past Perfect or Simple Past?

1. I __________ (study) Japanese before. 2. She __________ (bake) a lot before she __________ (open) her shop. 3. We __________ (have) a lot of trouble because we __________ (lose) our passports. 4. Brian __________ (know) many people at the club because he __________ (be) there many times. 5. They __________ (study) English before they __________ (move) to Canada. 6. You __________ (enjoy) the movie because you __________ (read) the book. 7. She really __________ (like) him because he __________ (help) her. 8. Amy __________ (get) ready before she__________ (take) the test. 9. We __________ (get) into the restaurant only because we __________ (reserve) our places. 10. I __________ (be) to India before 1986. 11. They__________ (have) a lot of trouble before they finally __________ (succeed). 12. Chris __________ (own) that car for 5 years before he __________ (sell) it. 13. Sharon __________ (be) very sick until she __________ (stop) eating junk food. 14. I __________ (be) in Greece for 7 months before I __________ (move) to Spain. 15. He _______ (save) a lot of money before he_______ (buy) the house. 16. She _______ (never be) to the North Pole until 2002. 17. They _______ (never fight) before they _______ (move) together. 18. He _______ (never break) anything before he _______ (start) to crawl. 19. When we _______ (arrive), we _______ (discover) that the bus _______ (leave).

20. When I _______ (call), she_______ (go) to sleep. 21. Ashley _______ (never meet) him, so she _______ (want) more details. 22. He _______ (never kiss) a girl, so he _______ (be) embarrassed. 23. Patrick _______ (save) a lot of money before he _______ (buy) the house. 24. They _______ (go) some place, because they _______ (be) not there when I _______ (arrive). 25. It _______ (be) too late, because the car _______ (sell) to someone else. 26. You said_______ (say) you _______ (be) to Turkey 5 times. 27. They _______ (tell) us they _______ (paint) the entire apartment. 28. The boss _______ (tell) us he _______ (hire) some new staff. 29. Jason and Amy _______ (eat) before they _______ (come) to see you. 30. I had _______ (have) all the papers, but I _______ (lose) them

The Future Simple (I will go) is used : * for predictions : what you think will happen or what is certain to happen : You are going on a long flight. You can say: "I will be tired after my long journey". * for spontaneous decisions or offers (a decision made at the time of speaking): With a group of friends, the phone rings. You say: "I'll answer it!" The Future Continuous (I will be going) is used to refer to a future continuous action. * You are going on a long flight. You can say, for example: In two hours' time, I will be having lunch on the plane/ I will be flying over London/ I will be reading a newspaper/ I will be sleeping/ I will be watching a film, etc. BE+GOING TO is used to express your will or intention. It can also be used to express future events which you are quite certain will happen. This is stronger than a prediction. I'm going to try again next week. ; He's going to be late. The Present Tense Continuous is the most neutral way to express the future in spoken English. It has no special feelings or nuances attached. In written English WILL may be substituted. We're going home at 5 o'clock. ; I'm taking a test this afternoon. The Present Tense Simple refers to fixed or scheduled events in the future. These events are not usually under your control. I start work on Monday. ; The conference ends on Friday To be ABOUT TO + V refers to the immediate future. It means that something will happen without delay. (Note: NOT about to has a completely different meaning.) We're about to start. ; I'm about to switch this off.

To be to+v is a formal expression used to refer to events involving important people. It is often seen in
news reports. The president is to visit Japan in November. The prime minister is to attend the summit in Halifax next week. The Future Perfect Tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8. They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time. English also uses must, should, can, may and might in a similar way:

Must expresses the highest degree of obligation and commitment (I / you must go) and is temporally nearest to present time in its expression of futurity ("I must go now.") Should (the subjunctive form of shall in this context) implies obligation or commitment to the action contemplated. Can implies the ability to commit the action but does not presuppose obligation or firm commitment to the action. May expresses a relatively low sense of commitment (I may go) and is the most permissive (You may go); it can also suggest conditionality (I may go [if I have time]). Might expresses a very low sense of commitment or obligation (I / you might go if I / you feel like it).

6.1 Future tenses using - will, going to, Simple Present or Present Progressive.
1) The train ___________ at 11:45. (to leave) 2) We ___________ dinner at a nice restaurant on Saturday. (to have) 3) It ___________in the mountains tomorrow evening. (to snow) 4) On Sunday at 8 o'clock I___________ my friend. (to meet) 5) They ___________ to London on Friday evening. (to fly) 6) Wait! I ___________ you to the station. (to drive) 7) The English lesson ___________ at 8:45. (to start) 8) I ___________ my sister in April. (to see) 9) Look at the clouds - it ___________ in a few minutes. (to rain) 10) Listen! There's someone at the door. I ___________ the door for you. (to open) 11. They __________ (drive) to New York tomorrow morning. 12. I hope the weather__________ (be) nice 13. I offered him this job. I think he __________ (take) it. 14. I promise I __________ (not tell) your secret to anyone. 15. Take your umbrella with you. It __________ (rain). 16. They __________ (play) cards this evening. 17. I __________ (go) to the cinema tomorrow. 18. They __________ (fly) to Seattle next summer holidays. 19. I __________ (invite) 50 people to the party and I hope everyone (come). 20. That exercise looks difficult. I __________ (help) you. 21. __________ he (go) to the football match? 22. Are you sure they __________ (win) the match? 23. She probably __________ (stay) till Thursday. 24. He __________ (not leave) tomorrow. 25. We think he __________ (come) home late in the night.

6.2 Future tenses using - GOING TO or WILL future.

1. I think Susan _________ in love with Mike. (fall) 2. John_________ to his new CD all evening. (listen) 3. It's late. I hope we _________ the bus. (not miss) 4. I think the police _________ the burglars. (arrest) 5. _________the new words this time, Peter? (you learn) 6. Jane and Sue_________ a present for mum's birthday. (buy) 7. I hope you _________ me with the dishes, Julie. (help) 8. Next summer we _________ at a campsite near a lake. (probably stay) 9. We _________ to Scotland this summer. (go) 10. I promise, I _________you tomorrow. (phone) 11. Maybe he any time next weekend. (not have)

12. She __________________ a baby next April. (have) 13. I hope the train _________ delayed. (not be) 14. They_________ the exam. (probably pass) 15. The sky is cloudy and grey. It _________. (rain)

6.3 Future Tenses Review

1. Peter (is / is going to be) fifty next Friday. 2. Oh no! I've broken the vase. What (am I going to say / will I say)? 3. Jack (is having / will have) a dinner party next Saturday. 4. By the time you arrive, I'll (have been / be) working for two hours. 5. John hasn't eaten. - Don't worry (I will make / I am going to make) him a sandwich. 6. We'll go out for dinner when he (gets in / will get in). 7. Unless he arrives soon, we (will not go/ are not going) to the party. 8. (I will be studying / I will have studied) at 9 tomorrow evening. 9. (We will have finished / We will finish) by 9 o'clock. 10. Look at those clouds! It (is going to rain / will rain)!

6.4 Future Tenses - simple future, future continuous, or future perfect:

1. Tomorrow I ________ (paint) all day. will be painting / will paint / will be paint 2. By the time we get there, the store ________ (close). will close / will have closed / closed 3. I ________ (see) you tomorrow at 3:00 PM. will see / see / will be seeing 4. After we finish this video, I ________ (see) all of this director's movies. will see / will be seeing / will have seen 5. Can I come over in an hour? No, I ________ (clean) the house. will clean / will be cleaning / clean 6. This time next week I ________ (drink) wine in Argentina. will drink / drink / will be drinking 7. She doesn't realize what kind of person he is, but she ________ (find out). will find out / will be finding out / will have found out 8. She insulted me. I ________ (speak) to her again! will never speak / will never be speaking / will have never spoken 9. If he continues drinking so fast, he ________ (drink) the whole bottle by midnight. will drink / will have drunk / will be drinking 10. She ________ (tell) me when her birthday is. will not have told / will not be telling / won't tell

6.5 The Future and Modal Verbs Test Sometimes more than one alternatives is possible
1. If you look carefully, you ---------- find writing scratched on the glass. (a) can (b) are going to (c) shall (d) will 2. I think it ---------- soon (a) is going to rain (b) rains (c) will rain (d) is raining 3. Wait here until I --------- you. (a) will call (b) am calling (c) am going to call (d) call 4. I won't be able to meet you next week, I ---------- in London for a few days. (a) will be staying (b) will stay (c) stay (d) am staying 5. Next month I --------- Derek for 20 years. (a) know (b) will have known (c) am knowing (d) will have been knowing 6. I ---------- with the performance, but I got flu the day before. (a) was to have helped(b) helped (c) was to help (d) had helped 7. You ---------- mad if you think I'm going to lend you any more money. (a) should be (b) are supposed to be(c) must be (d) ought to be 8. I-------- happy to see him, but I didn't have time. (a) will have been (b) would be (c) will be (d) would have been 9. We---------- Switzerland four times during the 1970s.

(a) used to visit (b) would visit (c) visited (d) will visit 10. "Why isn't Tim here yet?" It --------- be because his mother is ill again. (a) may (b) can (c) might (d) could 11. If I hadn't come along at that moment, Jim --------- the one arrested instead of the real thief. (a) might have been (b) may have been (c) can have been (d) could have been 12. Jenny---------- leave the hospital only six hours after the baby was born. (a) was able to (b) could (c) can (d) is able to 13. The car broke down and we --------- a taxi. (a) must have got (b) have to get (c) had to get (d) must get 14. You --------- whisper. Nobody can hear us. (a) needn't (b) don't have to (c) mustn't (d) need to 15. Althrough he didn't have a ticket, Ken -------- come in. (a) could (b) can (c) might (d) was able to

7. Tenses revision 7.1 Fill in the spaces using the most appropriate tense form for each gap.
1. A: You seem energetic! B: Really, I_______ (exercise) for some time. 2. A: What _______ (you, do) when the robbery took place? B: I _______ (change) a light bulb that had burnt out. 3. Mike _______ (use) the same PC for more than three years. He is thinking of upgrading it. 4. If it _______ (snow) tomorrow, we _______ (go) skiing near Vesuvis. 5. This is the second pill I _______ (take) to make me sleep. 6. Sami started his business in Spain three months ago. When he returns to Trkiye next July, he_______ (spend) nine months there. 7. Mary _______ (not, call) me since she_______ (leave) the city. 8. Karen _______ (live) in Hong Kong for more than two years. In fact, she_______ (live) there when the political takeover occured. 9. By the time the police_______ (arrive) , the robbers_______ (run) away. 10. The book writes that the Maya tribes founded an advanced civilization in the forests of the Yucatan; nevertheless, their culture____ (disappear) by the time Europeans first ____ (arrive) in the New World. 11. Hey.. Be quiet! The boss_______ (come) . 12. It_______ (snow) all day. I hope it stops by noon because I wish to go to the market. 13. Listen Ed, I don't care whether you _______ (miss) the bus this morning. You_______ (be) late for meetings too many times. This is my last warning. 14. We are fed up with storm and those dark clouds! We expect, when we_______ (wake) up tomorrow morning, the sun _______ (shine) . 15. When Hasan arrived at the cafe, I _______ (wait) for him for half an hour. 16. I _______ (not, hear) of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. 17. During the past 50 years, traveling _______ (become) much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it_______ (take) two or three months to cross Africa by wagon. The trip _______ (be) very rough and often dangerous. Things_______ (change) a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now you can fly from Ankara to Tokyo in a matter of hours. 18. Your English_______ (improve) . You _______ (watch) television programs and_______ (study) grammar every day since you first arrived in London. It is apparent that you will be fluent very soon. 19. When Ted _______ (arrive) home last night, he discovered that Hilary_______ (prepare) a beautiful candle-lit dinner. 20. Do not forget that if you _______ (need) to contact me sometime next week, I _______ (stay) at the Hilton in Istanbul.

7.2 Fill the gaps with the correct tenses.

1.I _______ (learn) English for seven years now.

2.But last year I_______ (not / work) hard enough for English, that's why my marks _______ (not / be) really that good then. 3.As I______ (pass / want) my English exam successfully next year, I_______ (study) harder this term. 4.During my last summer holidays, my parents _______ (send) me on a language course to London. 5.It _______ (be) great and I _______ (think) I _______ (learn) a lot. 6.Before I _______ (go) to London, I_______ (not / enjoy) learning English. 7.But while I ____ (do) the language course, I ___(meet) lots of young people from all over the world. 8.There I_______ (notice) how important it _______ (be) to speak foreign languages nowadays. 9.Now I_______ (have) much more fun learning English than I _______ (have) before the course. 10.At the moment I _______ (revise) English grammar. 11.And I_______ (begin / already) to read the texts in my English textbooks again. 12.I_______ (think) I _______ (do) one unit every week. 13.My exam_______ (be) on 15 May, so there _______ (not / be) any time to be lost. 14.If I _______ (pass) my exams successfully, I_______ (start) an apprenticeship in September. 15.And after my apprenticeship, maybe I _______ (go) back to London to work there for a while. 16.As you_______ (see / can) , I_______ (become) a real London fan already. 17. My sister _______ (buy) him a dog for his birthday last week. 18. Marceau and Yanis _______ (go) to the cinema last Monday. 19. Brunella _______ (sit) behind the door when we were looking for her. 20. Annelore _______ (break) her umbrella yesterday. 21. They said they were tired and _______ (go) upstairs to sleep. 22. Johanne _______ (just lose ) her keys on the pavement . 23. Ccile _______ (ride) a horse when she went to the circus. 24. The Scottish people _______ (build) their detached house near the beach years ago. 25. Jean _______ (see) many boats over the see, when she was on holiday. 26. I _______ (read) Romeo and Juliet when I was 10 years old. 27. It's a great pity you not_______ (come) to Brighton with us last Saturday. As you never _______ (see) the sea before, it _______ (be) a new experience for you. 28. By the time I _______ (complete) my studies next month, I _______ (live) in London for nearly a year. I not _______ (think) I _______ (stay) any longer after that. 29. It's odd that you_______ (mention) his name. I just _______ (think) about him and _______ (wonder) what_______ (become) of him. 30. I not _______ (call) on him just yet if I _______ (be) you, as I don't think he _______ (get) home from work. 31. He said he _______ (wish) he _______(be able)_______(see) you before he_______(leave). He _______(like)_______(say)goodbye personally.He_______(hope)you _______(accept) his apologies. 32. _______ (Be) you sure there_______ (be) no one in the room next door? I _______ (can swear) I heard someone _______ (talk) in there. 33."Mr Smith not _______ (work) here for four years. _______ (Be) you sure you_______ (get) the right name?" "Quite sure. He _______ (ring) me only yesterday, and I certainly not _______ (come) here if he not v(ask) me to." 34.Not until we_______ (arrive) at his house we_______ (discover) that he_______ (be) on holiday, and that we _______ (waste) our time in _______ (call) on him. 35.It not _______ (take) very long_______ (get) here after all. We not _______ (need) _______ (take) a taxi. We could_______ (save) the money we _______ (spend) and _______ (have) dinner on the train. 36.It's high time you_______(make)up your mind about_______(choose) a career. If you not _______ (decide) soon, you never _______ (settle) down to anything. 37.By the time the firemen ______ (arrive), the house ______ (be) ablaze from top to bottom, but it ______ (be) clear that if someone ______ (give) the alarm earlier, they might ______ (stand) a chance of ______ (save) the building. 38.I wish you______ (tell) me last week that you ______ (come) to London. If I______ (know) in time, you not ______ (have to) stay in a hotel.

39.Why you not______ (tell) me you______ (can) lend me the money? I not ______ (need) (borrow) it from the bank. 40.The driver said he not______ (can) (understand) why the car______ (break down) during the race. It ______ (undergo) thorough testing before ______ (be) entered in the competition. 41.It's time we ______ (go). If we not______ (leave) now, we ______ (miss) the last train. 42. ______ (Be) you cut off while I______ (talk) to you just now? You ______ (be)? I think something must ______ (go) wrong with the telephone. 43.The manager______ (talk) to an important customer at the moment but he______ (be) free______ (see) you presently. ______ (Like) you ______ (take) a seat for a few minutes? 44.I know I ought______ (write) to you before, but I ______ (be) so busy recently that I not ______ (have) time for ______ (write) letters. I ______ (telephone) you instead, but I ______ (forget) your number. 45.When I last ______ (see) him, he ______ (live) in London. He______ (tell) me then that he ______ (think) of ______ (emigrate) to Australia, and he may well ______ (do) so by now. 46.I______ (be) very excited at the prospect of ______ (go) (ski). It ______ (be) the first time I ______ (try). I think there's nothing like______ (ski) for______ (make) a holiday enjoyable. 47.I wish you______ (let) me ______ (know) you not ______ (be able) to come to dinner. I certainly not ______ (go) to all this trouble if I ______ (know). 48.He said he not ______ (want) (see) the film as he______ (hear) that it______ (be) not as good as the critics (suggest). 49.It's just as well we ______ (bring) a guide-book with us. If we not______ (have), we ______ (be) completely lost. 50.You can't ______ (remember) ______ (tell) him how to get here. If you______ (have), he ______ (arrive) long before now.

7.3 Fill the gaps with the correct tenses

1. We______ (sit) down at a free table and waited for the waiter. 2. I ______ (always eat) caviar in expensive restaurants. 3. She ______ (have) a baby this week. 4. I ______ (see) her at the museum last Sunday. 5. My late father______ (always leave) the keys in his car. 6. I'll show you my new camera or______ (you already see) it? 7. He ______ (make) a lot of new friends since he's been living in London. 8. 'I ______ (think) she is beautiful.' 'Yes, she is gorgeous.' 9. We ______ (spend) our holidays by the sea this winter. 10. She ______ (take) her briefcase and left. 11. We were asleep when our son ______ (come) home. 12. Yesterday evening at 11.30 we ______ (dance) at the local disco. 13. I______ (always make) mistakes in grammar. 14. He______ (throw) the old glasses into the rubbish bin last week. 15. ______ (you go) to the cinema next Wednesday ? 16. She______ (begin) to panic. Tell her that she should stay calm. 17. ______ (you already write) to your grandparents? 18. What ______ (be) the flight from Prague to London like? 19. This is the first time I ______ (flow) in a jumbo jet. 20. I______ (know) him since I met him at school. 21. ______ (she wear) the nice coat when you saw her? 22. ______ (Thomas work) ? No, he is on holiday. 23. 'How long ______ (you study) biology?' 'For six months.' 24. 'What time ______ (Ann come) ?' 'An hour ago.' 25. 'Where______ (your parents live) ?' 'In a village near London. They have always lived there.' 26. 'Where are you going on holiday?' 'I don't know. We______ (not decide) yet.' 27. 'Where's Jill?' 'She ______ (have) breakfast at the moment.'

28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

Can you swim? No I ______ (never swim) . Carol invited us to the party but we______ (not go) . We had other things to do. I ______ (never eat) bananas. I ______ (not go) to the cinema last night. I was too tired. I saw Lisa at the museum when I was going to restaurant but she ______ (not see) me. Jack is from New York. He______ (live) there all his life. My favourite country is Thailand. I ______ (be) there four times. She speaks English but she ______ (not speak) Italian . Somebody ______ (steal) my watch at the swimming pool last week. They ______ (build) a new power station at the moment. When I was buying the stamps somebody______ (call) my name. Where______ (be) you yesterday? Who______ (invent) the washing machine?

Present + Present (what is recommended in this situation) Present + Future (possible future situation) Past + Conditional (imaginary situation) Past Perfect + Conditional Perfect (the accident occurred but I didn't see it) If you see an accident, call a doctor! If I see an accident, I will call a doctor. If I saw an accident, I would call a doctor. If I had seen the accident, I would have called a doctor.

8.1 Conditional Type 1

1.If Caroline and Sue prepare / prepares / will prepare the salad, Phil decorate / decorates / will decorate the house. 2.If Sue cut / cuts / will cut the onions for the salad, Caroline peel / peels / will peel the mushrooms. 3.Jane hoover / hoovers / will hover the sitting room if Aaron and Tim move / moves / will move the furniture. 4.If Bob tidy / tidies / will tidy up the kitchen, Anita clean / cleans / will clean the toilet. 5.Elaine buy / buys / will buy the drinks if somebody help / helps / will help her carry the bottles. 6.If Alan and Rebecca organise / organises / will organise the food, Mary and Conor make / makes / will make the sandwiches. 7.If Bob look / looks / will look after the barbecue, Sue let / lets / will let the guests in. 8.Frank play / plays / will play the DJ if the others bring / brings / will bring along their CDs. 9.Alan mix / mixes / will mix the drinks if Jane give / gives / will give him some of her cocktail recipes. 10.If they all do / does / will do their best, the party is / are / will be great.

8.2 Conditional Type 1

1.If you ______ (send) this letter now, she______ (receive) it tomorrow. 2.If I ______ (do) this test, I ______ (improve) my English. 3.If I ______ (find) your ring, I ______ (give) it back to you. 4.Peggy ______ (go) shopping if she______ (have) time in the afternoon. 5.Simon ______ (go) to London next week if he ______ (get) a cheap flight. 6.If her boyfriend ______ (phone / not) today, she ______ (leave) him. 7.If they ______ (study / not) harder, they ______ (pass / not) the exam. 8.If it______ (rain) tomorrow, I ______ (have to / not) water the plants. 9.You ______ (be able/ not) to sleep if you______ (watch) this scary film. 10.Susan ______ (can / move / not) into the new house if it ______ (be / not) ready on time.

8.3 Conditional Type 2

1.If I would play / played the lottery, I would have / had a chance to hit the jackpot. 2.If I would hit / hit the jackpot, I would be / were rich. 3.If I would be / were rich, my life would change / changed completely. 4.I would buy / bought a lonely island, if I would find / found a nice one. 5.If I would own / owned a lonely island, I would build / built a huge house by the beach. 6.I would invite / invited all my friends if I would have / had a house by the beach. 7.I would pick / picked my friends up in my yacht if they would want / wanted to spend their holidays on my island. 8.We would have / had great parties if my friends would come / came to my island. 9.If we would like / liked to go shopping in a big city, we would charter / chartered a helicopter. 10.But if my friends' holidays would be / were over, I would feel / felt very lonely on my lonely island.

8.4 Conditional Type 2

1.If we ______ (have) a yacht, we______ (sail) the seven seas. 2.If he ______ (have) more time, he ______ (learn) karate. 3.If they ______ (tell) their father, he ______ (be) very angry. 4.She ______ (spend) a year in the USA if it ______ (be) easier to get a green card. 5.If I ______ (live) on a lonely island, I______ (run) around naked all day. 6.We ______ (help) you if we______ (know) how. 7.My brother ______ (buy) a sports car if he______ (have) the money. 8.If I ______ (feel) better, I ______ (go) to the cinema with you. 9.If you ______ (go) by bike more often, you ______ (be / not) so flabby. 10.She ______ (not / talk) to you if she ______ (be) mad at you.

8.5 Conditional Type 3.

1.If the midfielders would have passed / had passed the ball more exactly, our team would have had / had had more chances to attack. 2.If the forwards would have run / had run faster, they would have scored / had scored more goals. 3.Their motivation would have improved / had improved if they would have kicked / had kicked a goal during the first half. 4.The fullbacks would have prevented / had prevented one or the other goal if they would have marked / had marked their opponents. 5.If the goalie would have jumped / had jumped up, he would have caught / had caught the ball. 6.If the referee would have seen / had seen the foul, he would have awarded / had awarded a penalty kick to our team. 7.Our team would have been / had been in better form if they would have trained / had trained harder the weeks before. 8.The game would have become / had become better if the trainer would have sent / had sent a substitute in during the second half. 9.If it would have been / had been a home game, our team would have won / had won the match. 10.If our team would have won / had won the match, they would have moved / had moved up in the league.

8.6 Conditional Type 3.

1.If you ______ (study) for the test, you ______ (pass) it. 2.If you ______ (ask) me, I ______ (help) you. 3.If we ______ (go) to the cinema, we ______ (see) my friend Jacob. 4.If you ______ (speak) English, she ______ (understand) . 5.If they ______ (listen) to me, we ______ (be) home earlier.

6.I ______ (write) you a postcard if I ______ (have) your address. 7.If I ______ (not / break) my leg, I ______ (take part) in the contest. 8.If it ______ (not/ start) to rain, we ______ (walk) to the museum. 9.We ______ (swim) in the sea if there ______ (not / be) so many sharks there. 10.If she ______ (take) the bus, she ______ (not / arrive) on time

8.7 Mixed Conditionals

1.If the company offered me the job, I think I _________ (take) it. 2. I'm sure Liz will lend you some money. I would be very surprised if she _________ (refuse). 3.Many people would be out of work if that factory _________ (close) down. 4. If she sold her car, she _________ (not / get) much money for it. 5.They're expecting us. They would be disappointed if we _________ (not / come). 6. Would George be angry if I _________ (take) his bicycle without asking? 7.Ann gave me this ring. She _________ (be) terribly upset if I lost it. 8.If someone (walk) in here with a gun, I'd be very frightened. 9. What would happen if you (not / go) to work tomorrow? 10.I'm sure she (understand) if you explained the situation to her. 11.I (give) you a cigarette if I had one, but I'm afraid I don't. 12.This soup would taste better if it (have) more salt in it. 13.If you (not/go) to bed so late every night, you wouldn't be so tired all the time. 14.I wouldn't mind living in Toronto if the weather (be) better. 15.I'd help you if I (can), but I'm afraid I can't. 16.If I were you, I (not/marry) him. 17.We would gladly buy that house if it (not/be) so small.

8.8 Mixed Conditionals

1) If Peter _________ (have) more money, he _____________ (buy) a new car. 2) What _____________ (you do) if you ______________ (see) an accident? 3) Where ______________ (you live) if you _____________ (have) a choice? 4) If Caroline _________ (arrive) late for a meeting, her boss ________ (be) angry. 5) If his parents _________ (come) to visit him, John ________(bring) them to the theatre. 6) Where __________ (you go) if you ___________ (can take) a week's holiday? 7) If Julie _________ (speak) better English, she _________ (find) a better job. 8) If Paul's boss __________ (invite) him to lunch, he ________________ (accept). 9) If I _____________ (lose) my wallet, I ______________ (report) it to the police. 10) What ______________ (happen) if you ________________ (miss) your flight?

8.9 Mixed Conditionals

1. If he comes, we will go to lunch. we would go to lunch. we went to lunch. 2. I would buy a new house if I have a lot of money. if I win the lottery. if I inherited a million dollars. 3. If she misses the bus, I take her to school by car. I would take her to school by car. she have to walk. 4. If I had known you were in town, I would buy you some flowers! I would have bought you some flowers. I will buy you some flowers. 5. If he studies a lot, he might pass the exam. he would pass the exam. he is going to pass the exam. 6. I would get a new job if I was you. if I am you. if I were you.

7. He will surely fail his exams if he not work harder. unless he begins to study. if he weren't serious. 8. She would live in New York now if she stays. if she had stayed. if she was to stay. 9. They would have bought that new car if they had had the money. if they had the money. if they were having the money. 10. I leave on Saturdays if she will come to visit. if she comes to visit. if she won't come to visit. 12. If he were President, he would help the poor more. he will help the poor more. he would have helped the poor more. 13. If they had had enough good sense, they would move to Santa Monica. they would have moved to Santa Monica. they would had moved to Santa Monica. 14. She will go crazy if you leaves her. unless she leaves you. if she don't leave you. 15. If this storm gets worse, we will have to go inland. we have to get inland. we must to go inland. 16. Watch out! If you touch that cable, you will get a shock. you shocked. you had a shock. 17. I might have had time if you needed my help. if you had asked me for help. if you ask me for help. 18. I'm afraid I can't understand you if you speak unclear. unless you speak more clearly. if you don't speak clear. 19. She would have gone if she had been in your position. if she were in your position. if she was in your position. 20. You would certainly have been angry if you discovered what he knew. if you had discovered what he knew. if you had discovered what he had known.

8.10 Mixed Conditionals

1 What would you do if it will rain/ would rain/ rained on your wedding day? 2 If she comes I will/ would /would have call you. 3 If I eat peanut butter I get /would get/ would have gotten sick. 4 What will you do if you fail/ you would fail /you will fail the history exam? 5 If they had not taken/ take /would take the car I would have driven you. 6 If it snows will you /would you/ would you have still drive to the coast? 7 He would have gone/ go/ going with you if you had asked him. 8 If I won a million dollars I would buy /will buy /would have bought my own airplane. 9 If I forget her birthday Andrea gets /would get/ would have gotten upset. 10 Jacob will pick you up at school if it will rain /rains /rained.

8.11 Mixed Conditionals IF or UNLESS (sometimes either can be used)

1 - ___ you are caught drinking and driving, you will lose your licence. 2 - ____ you stop smoking, you'll be seriously ill. 3 - I won't be able to do it ____ you help me. 4 - ____ you stop making that noise, I'll call the police. 5 - ____ you're late, I'll leave without you. 6 - ___ he gets caught, he'll make a fortune. 7 - ____ he gets caught, he'll go to jail. 8 - I won't do it ____ you agree to help me; I'm not doing it alone. 9 - ___ she pays up, we're going to be in real trouble. 10 - ____ we get the cheque today, we must bank it.

11 - She'll never agree to that ____ you accept her suggestions. 12 - ____ they're late again, I'll be furious. 13 - I don't want to go out ____ it's raining- I hate getting wet. 14 - We'll be in trouble ____ it goes wrong.

9. WISH wishes about the present and future

1. We use 'wish' + past simple to express that we want a situation in the present (or future) to be different. I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.) I wish I had a big car. (I don't have a big car.) I wish I was on a beach. (I'm in the office.) Future: I wish it was the weekend tomorrow. (It's only Thursday tomorrow.) 2. We use 'wish' + past continuous to express that we want to be doing a different action in the present (or future). I wish I was lying on a beach now. (I'm sitting in the office.) I wish it wasn't raining. (It is raining.) Future: I wish you weren't leaving tomorrow. (You are leaving tomorrow.)

wishes about the past

We use 'wish' + past perfect to express a regret, or that we want a situation in the past to be different. I wish I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot.) I wish they'd come on holiday with us. (They didn't come on holiday with us.) I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.)

wish + would
We use 'wish' + would + bare infinitive to express impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action. I wish you would stop smoking. (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.) I wish it would stop raining. (I'm impatient because it is raining and I want to go outside.) I wish she'd be quiet. (I am annoyed because she is speaking.)

Important points
1. To simply express that you want something to happen in the future (not talking about wanting an action or situation to be different, and not talking about impatience or annoyance) we use 'hope', not 'wish'. I hope it's sunny tomorrow. I wish it was sunny tomorrow. x I hope she passes her exam next week. I wish she were passing her exam next week. x I hope the plane doesn't crash tomorrow. I wish the plane wouldn't crash tomorrow. x

2. We can use 'wish' + infinitive or 'wish' + object + infinitive to mean 'want' in a formal situation. I wish to leave now. (+ infinitive) I wish to speak to your supervisor please. (+ infinitive) I do not wish my name to appear on the list. (+ object + infinitive) 3. We can use '(I) wish you' in fixed expressions. I wish you a happy birthday. We wish you good luck in your new job.

9.1 Choose the correct answer.

1 I don't have anything to smoke. I wish I knew more people. I wish I had more time. I wish I had a cigarette. I wish I knew something about cars. 2 Simon has gone on holiday and I really need to speak to him. I wish I was twenty again. I wish I was better-looking. I wish he was here. I wish I could as I love visiting Spain on holiday. 3 Girls don't like me because I'm ugly! I wish I was twenty again. I wish I was better-looking. I wish I had an interesting one. I wish I could as I love visiting Spain on holiday. 4 I don't have much time. I wish I knew more people. I wish I had more time. . I wish I knew something about cars. I wish I understood it better. 5 My computer is old and slow. I wish it were possible as it is a country I love I wish I had a more powerful one I wish I lived in a hotter country. I wish I finished earlier. 6 It's really cold here. The climate is awful. I wish I knew more people. I wish I had more time. I wish I lived in a hotter country. I wish I understood it better. 7 I'm lonely. I wish I knew more people. I wish I wasn't working. I wish I knew something about cars. I wish I understood it better. 8 Mark and Sally are going to India but it's not possible for me to go with them. I wish it were possible as it is a country I love. I wish I had a cigarette. I wish I lived in a smaller country. I wish I finished earlier. 9 I feel really old. I wish I was twenty again. I wish I had a more powerful one I wish I had an interesting one. I wish I could as I love visiting Spain on holiday. 10 My job is really boring. I wish it were possible as it is a country I love I wish I saved more money. I wish I had an interesting one. I wish I finished earlier.

9.2 "I wish, if only"

1. Bruce wishes he ____ (have) more money so he could buy a new sweater. 2. I wish I ____ (be) taller so that I could be in the basketball team. 3. I wish you ____ (stop) watching television while I am talking to you. 4. I wish you ____ (do) that. It annoys me. 5. I wish the holidays____ (come) so we could go off to the seaside. 6. Of course Tom wishes he ____ (come) with us to Paris, but he has to stay here. 7. I wish we ____ (go) to the match on Saturday but we're visiting my uncle. 8. I wish you ____ (keep) your mouth shut yesterday. Now Mary knows

9. If only I ____ (lose) all my money. Now I'm broke. 10. Peter is always late. If only he ____ (turn up) on time for a change!

9.3 wish+ Past Perfect

1. I wish I ______ not ____________ the answers. (to lose) 2. They wished they ______ not _____________ the appointment. (to forget) 3. He will wish he __________________ us the book. (to show) 4. Will they wish we __________________ them some food? (to give) 5. We wish it _______________ yesterday. (to snow) 6. She wished she ______ not _________ the window. (to open) 7. I wished I _______________ the news. (to hear) 8. You wish you _______________ what to do. (to know)

9.4 wish+ Past Simple

1. I wish it _________ possible to finish the work tonight. (to be) 2. Will he wish he ______ ready? (to be) 3. She wished she _________ how to sing. (to know) 4. We wish they ____________ to come with us. (to want) 5. You wished you ___________ better. (to feel) 6. They will wish it _________ warmer. (to be) 7. Does he wish he ____________ younger? (to be) 8. I wish I _________ the subject more interesting. (to find)

9.5 wish+would
1. They wished she __________________ the arrangements. (to make) 2. He will wish you __________________ him. (to help) 3. She wishes the mail _______________. (to come) 4. We wished they _________________. (to hurry) 5. You will wish the door _________________. (to open) 6. They wish we _________________ for them. (to wait) 7. I wish you _________________ to me. (to write) 8. Will she wish you _______________ her? (to join)

9.6 wish+ Past Perfect, the Simple, or would (the underlined adverbs indicate the time)
complete 1. I wish he ___________ here now. (to be) 2. I wish that you _____________ here yesterday. (to be) 3. We wish you ________________ tomorrow. (to come) 4. You will wish you ______________ earlier. (to leave) 5. They wished he _________________ with them the next day. (to come) 6. We wish you ________________ yesterday. (to arrive) 7. I wish that he ______________ us next year. (to visit) 8. She wishes that she ___________ at home now. (to be) 9. You wish that he ______________ you last week. (to help) 10. He will always wish he ____________ rich. (to be) 11. The boy wished that he ____________ the competition the next day. (to win) 12. She will wish she _____________ the arrangements earlier. (to make) 13. I wish the weather ____________ warmer now. (to be) 14. We always wished we ____________ fluent in other languages. (to be) 15. They wish he ________________ them next week. (to telephone)



1 I wish I ___________________ drunk and kissed Samantha. (get NEGATIVE) 2 I wish it ___________________ so much. The garden's turned to mud. (rain NEGATIVE) 3 If only I ___________________ there, I wouldn't have got a fine. (park NEGATIVE)

Wanting changes
4 If only I ___________________ more time for my hobbies. (have) 5 I wish it ___________________ more often in Valencia. (rain) 6 I wish I ___________________ to go to your nephew's wedding. (have NEGATIVE)

7 I wish you ______________ so much. You're a complete idiot when you're drunk. (drink NEGATIVE) 8 If only it ___________________ . The garden's as dry as a bone. (rain) 9 I wish Samantha ___________________ her hair more often. It looks so greasy all the time. (wash)

10 I wish you ________________ so horrible to your brother. He's a really nice bloke. (be NEGATIVE) 11 I wish the council _____ that beautiful old house. It was part of the town's heritage. (demolish NEG.) 12 If only I ______________the money to go to Jon's wedding in The States. (have) 13 I wish I _______________ her she'd put on weight. She hates me now. (tell NEGATIVE) 14 I wish you ______________ to your mother like that. (speak NEGATIVE) 15 If only we _________ a Hewlett Packard printer. The cartridges are so expensive. (buy NEGATIVE) 16 I wish Jorge _______ so fast. It's only a matter of time before he kills someone. (drive NEGATIVE)

9.8 correct verb tense

1.Alice didn't get a good grade. She wishes she (work) _______ worked had worked harder. 2.Tom likes football very much. He wishes he (become) _______ became had become a professional football player. 3.He was running very fast when he had a heart attack. If only he (not/run) _______ hadn't run didn't run so fast. 4.She's keen on computers. She wishes she (study) _______ studied had studied computer science next school year. 5.I am sorry I dont know how to use the computer. If only I (know) _______ knew had known how to use it. 6.I stayed late at work and missed the last bus. I wish I (stay) _______ did not stay had not stayed at work late

9.9 correct verb tense

1 She failed most of her exams, and now she wishes she __________ harder. Works worked would work had worked 2 I had to get the bus to work every day. I wish I __________ a car. have got had would have had had 3 The weather's terrible today. I wish it __________ a bit warmer. Is was would be had been 4 It really annoys me that you never do anything around the house! I wish you _____ from time to time.

wash up washed up would wash uphad washed up 5 I missed my English class yesterday because I went to the doctor's. I wish I __________ it. don't miss didn't miss wouldn't miss hadn't missed 6 The last bus always seems to leave early. I wish the driver ______ until the right time before leaving. Waits waited would wait had waited 7 My sister will have to cancel her party next week. She wishes she __________ cancel it, but she's broken her leg. doesn't have to won't have to didn't have to wouldn't have to 8 We went to a new restaurant for lunch and I've been feeling sick all afternoon. I wish we _____ there. Go didn't go wouldn't go hadn't gone


Used to is a modal verb expressing frequent or continuous action in the past. * It refers to past habits and states that do not exist today, something that you did regularly in the past but no longer do today. * It exists only in the past Examples of use: - Tom used to drink coffee. Now he prefers tea. - Julie used to fly from Paris to London. Now she takes the Eurostar. - I used to drive to work. Now I take the underground. To be used to something means to be accustomed to something. To get used to something means to become accustomed to something. 'Used to' is followed either by a noun or by a verb ending in -ing. * noun : I am used to noise. I am used to hard work. * verb : I am used to living in a noisy street. I am used to working hard. 'Used to' refers to something that was strange before, and has become familiar, something that you have learned to accept. It is used with the verbs BE and GET in all tenses: past, present, future & conditional. - Now that I live in France, I am used to driving on the right. - Since I moved to the city, I have got used to noise. - Before I came to France, I wasn't used to drinking wine. - This computer is new. I'm not used to it. I will get used to it soon. - I wasn't used to the weather. It took me some time to get used to it.

9.1 Used to, get used to & be used to 1. I'm not used to ____ up this early. get / getting 2. I used to ____ a lot. read / reading 3. You'll have to get used to ____ on the right when you live there. drive / driving 4. I didn't use to ____ it, but I do now. like / liking 5. I found it hard to get used to ____ in such a hot country. live / living 6. Where did you use to ____ when you visited? stay / staying 7. It took me a while to get used to ____ the language. speak / speaking 8. I used to ____ hard when I was a student. work / working 9. Have you got used to ____ it yet? do / doing

10. I'm not used to ____ so much tea. drink / drinking 11. I like it now, but I ____. didn't use to / didn't used to 12. I find it hard _____ to the dark evenings in winter. used / get used / to get used 13. It took me a while to get used to ____ on a continental keyboard.type / typing 14. I _____ to being spoken to like that! am not used / don't get used / used 15. I ____ play football on Saturdays when I was at school. was used to / used to 16. Before I started cycling, I _____ go to work by bus. used to / got used to
17. I haven't studied for ages and I'm finding it hard to get used to _____ every day. study / studied / studying 18. I couldn't _____ used to the food. because / get 19. He never _____ behave like that. used / used to 20. It's taking me a long time to ____ speaking Norwegian. used to / get used to

9.2 Used to, get used to & be used to

1. Caroline _______________ (have) a walkman, now she has an ipod. 2. We haven't seen Bob very often since he got a promotion. He's very busy. He _____________________(not be) so busy. 3. I've just got my first job. It's exciting but I'll have ___________(work) regular hours. 4. It is difficult for Tom to drive in England. He ____________________ (drive) on the left-hand side of the road. 5. When Peter was young, he ________________ (ride) a bicycle to school. 6. People from India usually find our food tasteless.They___________ (eat) spicy food. 7. Computers ____________ (be) very expensive. Now the prices are more reasonable. 8. English has become international. Businessmen ___________ (speak) English at international meetings. 9. During my childhood, I ____________ (spend) a lot of time with my grandparents. 10. Maria ____________ (think) that she would never __________ (live) in New York.

9.3 Choose the correct form

1. Do you mind if I ______ your phone? A am using B use C used D get used to 2. If you go to live in Britain, you __________ on the left. A 'll have to get used to drive B 'd have had to get used to C 'll have to get used to driving D 'd have to get used to 3. I _______ to play football when I was young. I'm too old and fat to play now. A got used to B use C was used to D used 4. Pepe Juan was in London for a year. He liked England but he ______________ the insipid food and the disgusting coffee and of course, the miserable weather. A could ever get used to B could never get used to C couldn't ever get used to D wasn't used to 5. The queue in the baker's ___________ to be so bad but now it's terrible. It must be that new chapata bread they bake. It's delicious. A use B was used C didn't use D didn't used 6. I've been getting up early every day for years but I ________ to it. A use B 'm already used C used D 'm still not used 7. At first it was difficult for her to speak in French all the time but she _________ to it now. A was used B uses C gets used D 's used 8. After the holidays it takes me a week __________ up early again. A to be used to getting B to get used to get

C to get used to getting D to be used to get 9. People ________ Internet yet but in a few years time everybody will be surfing around like crazy. A isn't used to using B are used to using C don't use D aren't used to using 10. Jim doesn't have a girlfriend now but he __________ . A used to B didn't use to D was using to


When do you use the GERUND? (ex : doing) When do you use the INFINITIVE? ( ex : to do)

After verbs that express likes/dislikes : After verbs that refer to a future event : like, love, enjoy dislike, hate don't mind, can't stand ..... doing After certain other verbs, such as : admit appreciate avoid consider delay deny finish imagine involve keep (on) mention miss postpone suggest ........ doing want, hope, intend would like, promise ......... to do After certain other verbs, such as : afford agree arrange choose fail happen help learn manage offer refuse seem .............. to do

After prepositions : interested in ... instead of ... good at ... before ... after ................................... doing

After adjectives : glad (ex : glad to know...) pleased (ex : pleased to meet you...) disappointed (ex : disappointed to hear...)

After "too" & "enough": too difficult easy enough ..................... to do

After certain expressions : it's no use ... it's no good ... there's no point in .............. doing

The verbs : begin/start/continue can be followed by the gerund or the infinitive with little or no change in meaning. The verbs : stop/try/remember can also take both, but the meaning changes.

10.1 Gerund or infinitive?

1. It's obvious he's only interested in (make) ______________ money. 2. Anne couldn't find a taxi so I offered (drive) ____________ her to the station. 3. I managed (book) ________________ two seats on the morning flight 4. I promise (send) ____________you our new brochure as soon as it's available. 5. Peter was delighted (meet) _____________a former colleague at the conference. 6. I avoid (take) ____________the car whenever possible, especially in big cities. 7. We finished the job by (work) _______________ 12 hours a day. 8. Bob sent a report to the Chairman instead of (attend) __________the meeting. 9. A lot of people dislike (drive) _______________ at night. 10. I intend (speak) _______________ to my boss about your complaint

10.2 Choose the correct forms

1 I am interested ______ your class. to take to taking in taking 2 They enjoy_______ movies. watching watch to watch 3 She refuses_____ to her mother listen to listening to listen 4 We agreed ______ together. working to work worked 5 I need ______. studying to study in study 6 I'm curious ______ to Africa. about traveling to travel traveling 7 They postponed _______ the game because of rain. playing to playing at play 8 They want ______ good grades. getting to get to getting 9 Michael Jordan is good _______ basketball. playing at playing with playing 10 I regret not _______ my parents. hug with hugging to hug 11 The criminal admits _________ the money. on taking take to take 12 Many drivers avoid ______ in traffic. driving to drive to driving 13 The gambler was angry _______ his money. with lose to losing to lose 14 Good teachers always offer ______ their students. help to help helping 15 I would like _______ a movie. to see seeing to seeing 16 The president wishes ______ violence. to ending on ending ending 17 She is sick _________ in traffic. of driving to drive driving 18 We feel like ________ pizza. eat with eating to eat in took to watching listening to working to studying on travel at playing get in play hugging taking drive at losing to helping see to end at driving eating

19 We look forward ________ the Olympics. at watching to watching with watch 20 I am bad __________. on ice skating at ice skate at ice skating 21 She dislikes ________ junk food. to eat with eating eating 22 I can't imagine _______ out of an airplane. jumping at jumping to jump 23 The boss would like __________ more. us to work we working us work 24 They allowed ______ home early him to go he to go him going 25 We invited ________ with us. him come them coming she to come

watching with ice skating eat jump him working we to go them to come

In normal everyday English, inversion is used : to make questions : does he? can you? after so, neither, nor : so do I, neither do I, nor do I. In written English, as well as in a very formal style, inversion is used in the following cases : 1. After negative adverbial expressions : Under no circumstances can we accept cheques. In no way can he be held responsible. At no time did she say she would come. 2. After adverbial expressions of place : Round the corner came the postman. On the doorstep was a bunch of flowers. 3. After seldom, rarely, never, in comparisons : Seldom have I seen such a beautiful view. Rarely did he pay anyone a compliment. Never had I felt so happy. 4. After hardly, scarcely, no sooner, when one thing happens after another. Hardly had I begun to speak when I was interrupted. Scarcely had we started our meal when the phone rang. No sooner had I arrived than they all started to argue. 5. After adverbial expressions beginning with 'only'. Only after the meeting did I realize the importance of the subject. 6. After exclamations with here and there. Here comes the winner! There goes all our money!

11.1 Inversion

Ex. : She at no time said she was vegetarian. At no time did she say (that) she was vegetarian. 1. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed . 2. I have seldom heard such a talented singer. 3. If John had known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian restaurant. 4. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agent's advice. 5. He had never felt so depressed. 6. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers' lost property. 7. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony. 8. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife's face. 9. She never at any time said that she was allergic to cats. 10. The restaurant cannot accept animals under any circumstances.

11.2 Inversion
Ex. If I were in your position, I would pay close attention. Were I in your position, I would pay close attention. If it had been raining, we would have used our umbrellas. Had it been raining, we would have used our umbrellas. 1. If he were here, he would lend us his car. 2. If I had remembered their address, I would have sent them a card. 3. If we were not waiting for a telephone call, we would go downtown. 4. If they had recognized her, they would have spoken to her. 5. If I had been intending to go shopping, I would have let you know. 6. If you had seen the movie, you would have liked it. 7. If it were not snowing, we would go out. 8. If he had been shoveling the walk, we would have seen him.

11.3 Inversion
1. We have seldom fished so much here. (Seldom...) 2. They are in no way responsible for what occurred last night. (In no way...) 3. You should not on any account take these pills when you drink alcohol. (On no account...) 4. She not once offered us her help. (Not once...) 5. I did not became aware of what was going on until I saw her weeping. (Not until...) 6. She agreed to go out with him only when he bought her some flowers. (Only when...) 7. We little realised the dangers that were awaiting us. (Little ...) 8. He was so tired that he slept for fourteen hours. (So tired ...) 9. My delight was such that I bought everybody a drink. (Such...) 10. I love him to such an extent that I would even give my life for him. (To such an extent...) 11. They not only supply us with food, but also with drinks. (Not only...) 12. We had no sooner eaten it than we had a terrible stomach-ache. (No sooner...) 13. I had hardly gone to bed when the telephone rang. (Hardly...) 14. She took him to the zoo and to the cinema as well. (Not only...) 15. If you should need a good make-up remover, please let me know. (Should...) 16. If I were to win the first prize in the national lottery, I would no longer work. (Were...) 17. If you hadnt flooded the engine, it would have started at once. (Had you...) 18. If my parents should need me, I will never let them down. (Should...)

19. If I were in your place, I would try to be more assertive. (Were...)

20. My brother went off without saying a word. (Off...) 21. Her toys were along the corridor. (Along the corridor...) 22. The castle stands on a hill. (On a hill...) 23. Your chance to speak out is now. (Now...) 24. You shouldnt in any way consider him as your worst enemy. (In no way...) 25. You must on no account upset your parents. (On no account...) 26. Mr and Mrs Adam live across the bridge. (Across the bridge...) 27. I was so scared that I could not even scream. (So scared...) 28. The horrific view of the massacre was in front of us. (In front of us...) 29. The canyon lies behind those mountains. (Behind those mountains...) 30. He only then became aware of the dangers of the jungle.(Only then...) 31. She had scarcely begun to study when her boyfriend rang the bell. (Scarcely...) 32. I wont go trekking with him. (No way...) 34. My terror was such that I couldnt move. (Such...) 35. I had no sooner switched on the dishwasher than it broke down. (No sooner...)


Can - Ability: Julie can swim. - Permission : Can I come with you? ('May' is also used) - Offers : Can I help you? Could - Possibility: That story could be true - who knows! - Past ability : Julie could swim when she was four years old. - Permission : Could I use your phone please? - Requests : Could you tell me the way to the station please? May - Possibility : The President may come to visit our offices tomorrow if the meeting finishes before 5pm. - Permission : May I borrow your dictionary? Might - Slight possibility : We might win a prize but I doubt it!
- Past form of 'may' in reported speech. The President said he might come.

Should - Advice : You should take an umbrella. It's starting to rain - Logical deduction : John has revised all day. He should be ready for his exam. Ought to - Advice : You ought to write to your grandmother. - Logical deduction : Here's 30. That ought to be enough for a taxi. Shall - Offers and suggestions with 'I' and 'we' : Shall I order a taxi? Shall we begin the meeting now? Will - Future tense auxiliary : Tomorrow I will be in New York. - Invitations/offers : Will you join us for coffee? Won't you come in?

Perfect Modal Verbs - Modal + Have (Infinitive) + Past Participle

1. must have done = we are almost sure something happened in the past Jane wasn't feeling well yesterday. She must have caught a cold. Bill didn't answer the phone when I called him. He must have fallen asleep. 2. can't have done = we are almost sure something did not happen in the past She can't have forgotten to send you an invitation. I gave her your address. They can't have gone to bed late. They were very tired. 3. may / might / could have done = it is possible that something happened in the past but we aren't sure. Laura hasn't arrived yet. She may/might/could have missed the bus. I didn't see Paul at work. He may/might/could have been ill. 4. could have done = we had the ability to do something in the past but did not do it.

You could have told us about the new project! She could have called me when she arrived but she forgot. 5. should have / ought to have done = (a) it was the right thing to do but we didn't do it. (b) we expected something to happen but it didn't. You should have told him the truth. They ought to have received the cheque by now. 6. would have done = we wanted to do something but we didn't do it in the end. They would have emailed you but the Internet was down yesterday. I would have bought that DVD but I didn't have enough money. 7. needn't have done = it wasn't necessary to do something but we did it. You needn't have gone to the supermarket. I've already done the shopping. The weather was warm and sunny. I needn't have taken an umbrella.

12.1 can, could, may, might, should, ought to, shall, will (Some sentences offer two
possibilities.) 1. The article stated that he ___________ read at the age of three. 2. You ____________ take a sweater in case it gets cold. 3. It's going to rain all afternoon. ___________ we go to the cinema? 4. Scott ________ be 21 at the end of the month. 5. Julie said they traffic was heavy, so she ___________ be late for the meeting. 6. You look a bit confused. ________ I help you? 7. You stole a CD from a friend? You _____________ be ashamed of yourself! 8. I don't know the meaning of this word. _______ I borrow your dictionary?

12.2 Choose the right modal verb

1.There is plenty of tomatoes in the fridge. You mustn't / needn't / may not / should not buy any. 2.It's a hospital. You mustn't / needn't / may not / don't have to smoke. 3.He had been working for more than 11 hours. He must / need / had better / mustn't be tired after such hard work. He may / should / must / had better prefer to get some rest. 4.I could / might / can / must speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Morocco. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I may / can / must / need just say a few things in the language. 5.The teacher said we can / needn't / must / should read this book for our own pleasure as it is optional. But we could / need / needn't / mustn't read it if we don't want to. 6. May / Need / Must / Can you stand on your head for more than a minute? No, I may not / needn't / can't . 7.If you want to learn to speak English fluently, you could / need / needn't / mustn't to work hard. 8.Take an umbrella. It need / should / mustn't / might rain later. 9.You shouldn't / need / needn't / may not leave small objects lying around . Such objects must / need / may / mustn't be swallowed by children. 10.People couldn't / needn't / mustn't / may not walk on grass. 11.Drivers could / must / may stop when the traffic lights are red. 12. May / Must / Should / Will I ask a question? Yes, of course.

12.3 Choose the right modal verb

1.How ______ you have left the bathroom in such a mess ? (A) couldn't (B) might (C) could 2. Mat ______ be lazy but he is certainly not stupid. (D) will

(A) needn't (B) mustn't (C) should 3. I ______ speak Swedish, Dutch and Japanese. (A) can (B) may (C) should 4. I think we are lost. The man ______ have given us the wrong directions (A) might (B) should (C) would 5. You ______ be serious about swimming outdoors in winter. (A) would (B) can't (C) could 6. Plants ______ have sunlight in order to make food. (A) can (B) may (C) must 7. Since our bags are identical you ______ have taken mine by mistake. (A) can (B) will (C) shall 8. Parents ______ take care of their children. (A) may (B) ought to (C) mustn't 9. ______ you excuse me for a moment ? (A) Would (B) Should (C) Must 10. She ______ stay up late if she takes a nap now. (A) mustn't (B) shouldn't (C) can

(D) may (D) shouldn't (D) will (D) might (D) will (D) could (D) shouldn't (D) Needn't (D) used to

12.4 Insert the right modal verb

1. A : I'm hungry. B : But you've just had lunch. You ______ hungry already. ( be ) 2. A : I haven't seen our neighbors for ages. B : No. They ______ away. ( go ) 3. A : What's the weather like ? Is it raining ? B : Not at the moment but it ______ later. ( rain ) 4. A : Where has Julia gone ? B : I'm not sure. She ______ to the bank. ( go ) 5. A : I didn't see you at John's party last week. B : No, I had to work that evening, so I ______. ( go ) 6. A : I saw you at John's party last week. B : No, you didn't. You ______ me. I didn't go to John's party. ( see ) 7. A : When did you post the letter to Mary ? B : This morning. So she ______ it tomorrow. ( get ) 8. A : When was the last time you saw Bill ? B : Years ago. I ______ him if I saw him now. ( recognize ) 9. A : Did you hear the explosion ? B : What explosion ? A : There was a loud explosion a few minutes ago. You ______ it. ( hear ) 10. A : We weren't sure which way to go. In the end we turned right. B : You went the wrong way. You ______ left. ( turn )

12.5 Make sentences from the words in brackets.

1. Don't phone Ann now. ( she might / have / lunch ) 2. I ate too much. Now I feel sick. ( I shouldn't / eat / so much ) 3. I wonder why Tom didn't phone me. ( he must / forget ) 4. Why did you go home so early ? ( you needn't / go / home so early ) 5. You've signed the contract. ( it / can't / change / now ) 6. 'What's Linda doing ?' 'I'm not sure.' ( she may / watch / television ) 7. Ann was standing outside the cinema. ( she must / wait / for somebody ) 8. He was in prison at the time that the crime was committed, so ( he couldn't / do / it ) 9. Why weren't you here earlier ? ( you ought / be / here earlier ) 10. Why didn't you ask me to help you ? ( I would / help / you ) 11. I'm surprised nobody told you that the road was very dangerous. ( you should / warn )

12. George was in a strange mood yesterday. ( he might not / feel / very well )

12.6 Fill in the blanks with a suitable modal verb.

1. You ______ brush your teeth after every meal. 2. The boys ______ train hard if they want to win the competition. 3. If it does not rain tomorrow, we ______ go for a picnic. 4. ______ you like to join me for a trip up Cameron Highlands ? 5. You ______ pay $5 if you want to take part in the contest. 6. ______ I go to the toilet please ? 7. Children ______ respect their elders. 8. Mrs. Tay _______ leave for Bangkok tomorrow for a business meeting. 9. I ______ take a holiday after working tirelessly on this project. 10. Although Daniel is an obedient child, he ______ be rebellious at times.


VERB Infinitive Present Simple : Present Continuous : Present Perfect : Past Simple : Past Continuous : Past Perfect : Future Simple : Future Perfect : ACTIVE To cook I cook food in the kitchen. I am cooking food in the kitchen. I have cooked food in the kitchen. I cooked food in the kitchen yesterday. I was cooking food in the kitchen. I had cooked food in the kitchen. I will cook food in the kitchen. I will have cooked food in the kitchen. PASSIVE To be cooked Food is cooked in the kitchen. Food is being cooked in the kitchen. Food has been cooked in the kitchen. Food was cooked in the kitchen yesterday. Food was being cooked in the kitchen. Food had been cooked in the kitchen. Food will be cooked in the kitchen. Food will have been cooked in the kitchen.

13.1Turn active to passive voice

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Active : They take the child to school by car. Passive : The child ... Active : I saw two armed men in front of the jewellery shop. Passive : Two armed men ... Active : The reporter is announcing the results on the radio right now. Passive : The results ... Active : Emma had done the housework before the guests arrived. Passive : The housework ... Active : The doctor was treating the patient when the ambulance arrived.

6. 7. 8.

Passive : The patient ... Active : The ambulance will take the patient to the nearest hospital. Passive : The patient ... Active : The teacher had announced the results to the students. Passive : The results... Active : Tom will have calculated the cost before the end of the day. Passive : The cost ...

13.2 Fill the gaps with the correct tenses (active or passive voice).
1.In the year 122 AD, the Roman Emperor Hadrian ______ (visit) his provinces in Britain. 2.On his visit, the Roman soldiers______(tell) him that Pictish tribes from Britain's north (attack) them. 3.So Hadrian_____ (give) the order to build a protective wall across one of the narrowest parts of the country. 4.After 6 years of hard work, the Wall ______ (finish) in 128. 5.It ______ (be) 117 kilometres long and about 4 metres high. 6.The Wall ______ (guard) by 15,000 Roman soldiers. 7.Every 8 kilometres there ______ (be) a large fort in which up to 1,000 soldiers ______ (find) shelter. 8.The soldiers______ (watch) over the frontier to the north and ______ (check) the people who ______ (want) to enter or leave Roman Britain. 9.In order to pass through the Wall, people ______ (must go) to one of the small forts that ______ (serve) as gateways. 10.Those forts ______ (call) milecastles because the distance from one fort to another ______ (be) one Roman mile (about 1,500 metres). 11.Between the milecastles there_____ (be) two turrets from which the soldiers_____ (guard) the Wall. 12.If the Wall______ (attack) by enemies, the soldiers at the turrets ______ (run) to the nearest milecastle for help or (light) a fire that ______ (can / see) by the soldiers in the milecastle. 13.In 383 Hadrian's Wall______ (abandon) . 14.Today Hadrian's Wall ______ (be) the most popular tourist attraction in northern England. 15.In 1987, it______ (become) a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

13.3 Rewrite the following sentences so that the verbs will be in the active voice.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. We are taught grammar by Ms Sullivan. He was praised by the teacher. The injured were taken to the hospital by the firemen. The town was destroyed by an earthquake. The teacher was pleased with the boys work. The building was damaged by the fire. By whom were you taught French? You will be given a ticket by the manager. The streets were thronged with spectators. We will be blamed by everyone. The trees were blown down by the wind. The thieves were caught by the police. The letter was posted by Alice. We were received by the hostess. The snake was killed with a stick. The minister was welcomed by the people. He was found guilty of murder. This house was built by John Mathews in 1991.

13.4 Choose the best option

Everybody ___ by the terrible news yesterday.

shocked was shocked Mr. Green ___ at the University since 1989. has been teaching has been taught Not much ___ about the accident since that time. has said has been said A new book ___ by that company next year. will publish will be published He ___ the girl's name now. remembers is remembered The secretary ___ to her new boss yesterday. introduced was introduced Our plan ___ by the members of the committee. is being considered is considered He ___ responsible for the accident. was holding was held A prize ___ to whoever solves this equation. will be giving will be given When the manager arrived, the problem ___ . had already been solved. had already solved.


Direct Speech simple present He said, I go to school every day. simple past He said, I went to school every day. present perfect He said, I have gone to school every day. present progressive He said, I am going to school every day. past progressive He said, I was going to school every day. future (will) He said, I will go to school every day. future (going to) He said, I am going to school every day. Indirect Speech simple past He said (that) he went to school every day. past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day. past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day. past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day. perfect progressive He said (that) he had been going to school every day, would + verb name He said (that) he would go to school every day. present progressive He said (that) he is going to school every day. past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day Direct Speech auxiliary + verb name He said, Do you go to school every day? He said, Where do you go to school? imperative Indirect Speech simple past He asked me if I went to school every day.* He asked me where I went to school. infinitive

He said, Go to school every day.

He said to go to school every day.

Type with interrogative without interrogative direct speech reported speech direct speech reported speech Example Why dont you speak English? He asked me why I didnt speak English. Do you speak English? He asked me whether / if I spoke English.

Reporting Verbs - Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.
+ accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.

Time and place references

now today here this this week tomorrow next week yesterday last week ago 2 weeks ago tonight last Saturday next Saturday then that day there that that week the following day / the next day / the day after the following week / the next week / the week after the previous day / the day before the previous week / the week before previously / before 2 weeks previously / 2 weeks before that night the previous Saturday / the Saturday before the following Saturday/ the next Saturday the Saturday after/ that Saturday

14.1 Direct to indirect speech 1.David : "There is an excellent band playing later on." David said ...
2.Christine : "I saw Amy at the bank on Monday."Christine said ... 3.The driver : "I'm going to turn right at the traffic lights."The driver said ... 4.Jonathan: "I've returned the dictionary to the library".Jonathan said .. 5.The doctor : "I'll send you the results as soon as they arrive."The doctor said ... 6.Caroline : "Will you come to my party on Saturday?"Caroline ... 7.Shop assistant: "Are you looking for something special?"The shop assistant ...

8.Jack : "I'll lend you my grammar book if you think it will help.:

Jack said ...

14.2 Direct to indirect speech

1.He said, "I like this song." He said 2."Where is your sister?" she asked me. She asked me 3."I don't speak Italian," she said. She said 4."Say hello to Jim," they said. They asked me 5."The film began at seven o'clock," he said. He said 6."Don't play on the grass, boys," she said. She told the boys 7."Where have you spent your money?" she asked him. She asked him 8."I never make mistakes," he said. He said 9."Does she know Robert?" he wanted to know. He wanted to know 10."Don't try this at home," the stuntman told the audience. The stuntman advised the audience

14.3 Direct to indirect speech

Helen: I want to tell you something about my holiday in London. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: I went to London in July. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: My parents went with me. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: We spent three days in London. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: London is a multicultural place. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: I saw people of all colours. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: Me and my parents visited the Tower. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: One evening we went to see a musical. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: I love London. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ... Helen: The people are so nice there. Gareth: What does she say? You: She says that ...


a) Defining relative clauses (are not separated by commas).
Defining relative clauses function as adjective equivalent which is essential to the meaning of the sentence. Defining relative clauses define nouns in order to distinguish similar persons or things in order to diminish ambiguity Defining relative clauses relate to known facts in order to explain something new. The man The car A friend The car The man The theft The car The money The son The place The time The reason who / that which/ that whose car whose bumper / the bumper of which who/that I which/that I in which the thieves that he ----- he where they when they why they has sent me this letter is over there was stolen is deformed met yesterday told you about had escaped had put in had brought to hospital stole his car stole his car stole this old car is my friend's brother. is one of his three cars. drives one of his cars now. is his favourite car. needs some help from the police. happened3 weeks ago. contained 5000 . was meant for his son. needed the money for a therapy. was near the hospital. was 9 a.m. isnot known.

b) non-defining relative clauses (are separated by commas)

Non-defining relative clauses do not help us to identify someone or something. They give additional, interesting information which is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. My dad, who His BMW, which Dad's friend, whose wife the engine of That BMW, which Dad's friend, whoI This car, which he His car, in which he for which the The rests, police Dad's friend, who he where many This bent, people when most At night, accidents is 95 years old, is an old German brand, died in 2000, has run 200.000 km, meet only once a year, loves, drove so many km, called a junk dealer, visited at the hospital, died, happen, has worked all his life. is one of his three cars. drives an Opel, too. is all his pride. drives his veteran car in summer. had a crash last week. was totally damaged. were found in the ditch. was not hurt very much. is secured by traffic lights. the road is blocked now.

16.TAG QUESTIONS Positive statement,

Snow is white,

negative tag?
isn't it?

Negative statement, positive tag?

You don't like me,
do you?

positive statement [+]

negative tag [-]

You are English, aren't you? John was there, wasn't he? You like coffee, don't you?

You do like coffee, do n't you? You are coming, aren't you? They will help, won't they? We have finished, haven't we? I can come, can't I? We must go, mustn't we? He should try harder, shouldn't he? positive tag [+]

negative statement [-]

You aren't English, are you? John was not there, was he? You don't like coffee, do you? It isn't raining, is it? They will not help, will they? They won't report us, will they? We have never seen that, have we? I can never do it right, can I? We mustn't tell her, must we? He shouldn't drive so fast,should he?

Some special cases:

I am right, aren't I? You have to go, don't you? Let's go, shall we? He'd better do it, hadn't he?

16.1 Tag Questions Quiz

1 He's still sleeping, is not he? isn't he? wasn't he? 2 You do go to school, do you? aren't you? don't you? 3 Let's go for a walk, shan't we? will we? shall we? 4 We won't be late, won't we? will we? are we? 5 Nobody called, do they? didn't they? did they? 6 They will wash the car, will it? won't they? wouldn't they? 7 We must lock the doors, mustn't they? shouldn't we? mustn't we? 8 I'm correct, amn't I? am not I? aren't I? 9 So you bought a car, did you? haven't you? weren't you? 10 You wouldn't want to invite my Dad, did you? would you? won't you? 11. Teresa is an accountant,___? aren't she? doesn't she? isn't she? She isn't? 12. I am a good worker,___? I am? do I? amn't I? aren't I? 13. Peirre is a grandfather,___? he isn't? isn't he? he is? doesn't he? 14. Kate is a doctor, ___? she is? is she? doesn't she? isn't she? 15. Jacques and Alicia are students, ___? aren't they? are they? isn't he? isn't they? 16. Mario is at work right now, ___? Aren't they? isn't he? is he? isn't she? 17. I'm here, ___? am I not? am not I? amn't I? aren't you? 18. You and I are busy right now, ___? aren't I? aren't we? we aren't? aren't you? 19. It's windy today, ___? am I? aren't they? isn't it? isn't he? 20. I am ready for the next exercise, ___? isn't it? don't I? aren't you? aren't I? 21. You're coming to the party, ___? aren't you isn't you shouldn't you 22. It wasn't very difficult, ___? wasn't it isn't it was it 23. Tom is getting something for Sue, ___? wasn't he isn't he was he 24. It won't be anything expensive, ___? won't it isn't it will it There's some milk in the refrigerator, ___? a. isn't there b. isn't it c. wasn't it We don't need to go to the store today, ___? a. don't we

b. do I c. do we Susan can bring some food, ___? a. won't she b. will she c. can't she The party starts at eight o'clock, ___? a. isn't it b. doesn't it c. does it The movie was very long, ___? a. isn't it b. wasn't it c. was it There's a dictionary on the shelf, ___? a. isn't it b. isn't there c. aren't there There's a lot of noise outside, ___? a. aren't there b. isn't there c. is there Mrs. Smith is sick, ___? a. isn't she b. is she c. wasn't she The dishes are dirty, ___? a. weren't they b. isn't they c. aren't they Steven won't be at the party, ___? a. won't he b. isn't he c. will he The math test was very difficult, ___? a. wasn't it b. isn't it c. weren't they We can go tomorrow, ___? a. won't we b. can we c. can't we I'm early, ___? a. isn't I b. aren't I c. are I This shirt is too big for me, ___? a. isn't it b. doesn't it c. does it Answera

Emily plays the piano well, ___? a. isn't it b. does she c. doesn't she Answerc Your neighbors went on vacation, ___? a. isn't they b. didn't they c. aren't they Answerb

16.2 Complete the sentences with the correct question tags.

1.Mr McGuinness is from Ireland,_________ ? 2.The car isn't in the garage, _________? 3.You are John, _________ ? 4.She went to the library yesterday, _________? 5.He didn't recognize me, _________? 6.Cars pollute the environment, _________? 7.Mr. Pritchard has been to Scotland recently, _________? 8.The trip is very expensive, _________? 9.He won't tell her, _________ ? 10.Hugh had a red car, _________?

an appointment arrangements/plans a discovery a difference/an exception an effort an enquiry fun of something/somebody an impression a mistake money a point a profit progress a promise a speech/a declaration/a statement a suggestion/an excuse/a complaint sure/certain room for something (find place for something)

business one's best the crosswords damage a degree/a course your duty a favour/a good turn good/harm/justice a good job your homework the housework research the shopping a test a translation well/badly work without something

1. If you set up a business, it's generally to _______ money. 2. I can't give the answer right away. I'll have to ______ some research. 3. I'm very pleased with the result. You ______ a great job!

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

When I ________ a mistake, my teacher corrects me and explains why. What are you studying? I'm __________ a degree in history. You'll have to work hard if you want to ________ progress. Stop ________ fun of my accent - it's not my fault! It doesn't have to be perfect - just ______ your best. I've got a toothache. I'm going to ring the dentist to ___________ an appointment. It's not easy to _________ business with people of different nationalities.

MUST The speaker thinks it is necessary. I must buy flowers for my mother (It's her birthday and I decide to do that). "You must take more exercise"says the doctor. (The doctor thinks it is necessary). I must ask my secretary to book a flight for me. (It is important for me not to forget.) "Dogs must be kept on a lead"(Written on a sign in the park = a rule which must be respected HAVE TO Someone else thinks it is necessary. I have to buy flowers for my mother-in-law. (It is not my decision - my husband asked me to do it.) I have to take more exercise. (doctor's orders!) I have to call the travel agency. (My boss asked me to book a flight.)

I have to keep my dog on a lead. (That's what the sign tells me to do.) DO NOT HAVE TO (DON'T HAVE TO) You don't have to tell George = you can tell George if you like, but it isn't necessary. It's your decision.

N.B. In the negative form, the meaning changes! MUST NOT (MUSTN'T) You mustn't tell George = it's important not to tell George = don't tell George

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

My boss needs this report urgently. I _____________ finish it now. "You _________ arrive on time every morning" said the shopkeeper to the new trainee. Julie __________ go to work on foot. The buses are on strike. . Secretaries ________ answer the phone. That's part of their job. "You ________ do your homework" said the teacher. "We__________ invite our neighbours for dinner one day" said my husband. David ________ leave home at 7..30 a.m. in order to get to the office at 9 a.m. "I _______ hurry or I'll miss my flight!" Employees ___________ attend all personnel meetings - it's written in their contracts. "I ________ call my mother - it's her birthday today."

SPORTS & LEISURE ACTIVITIES When speaking about sports and leisure activities, the verbs play, go and do are used as shown in the table below. PLAY - Sports with teams, rules and competitions or tournaments. Badminton; Basketball ; Football ; Golf ; Rugby ; Tennis ; Soccer ; etc. GO - The name of the activity is the gerund form of the verb ( -ing). To camp camping : We often go camping in the summer. To swim swimming: Many children like to go swimming. Dancing ; Hiking ; Horse-riding ; Sailing ; Surfing ; etc. DO - All other recreational activities : Aerobics; Athletics ; Gymnastics ; Judo ; Karate ; Yoga ; etc.

Phrasal Verbs 1 [verb + preposition]

1. Every morning I (stop sleeping) _________ ____ when I hear the alarm clock.

a) wake out b) wake up c) wake in d) wake off 2. On Sundays I can (leave bed) _________ ____ later. a) get out b) step off c) get up d) step out 3. We must (be quick) _________ ____ or we'll be late for school! a) act up b) fasten on c) hurry up d) speed in 4. John helped the old lady to (board) _________ ____ the bus. a) mount on b) get on c) get up 4) put on 5. Julie went to the library to (try to find) _________ ____ a book. a) look out b) look after c) look for d) look up 6. It's time for the news. Let's (start) _________ ____ the radio. a) turn on b) tune in c) turn up d) tune at 7. "Please come in and (have a seat) _________ ____" said the doctor. a) seat up b) seat down c) sit up d) sit down 8. When Dad arrives home, he (removes) _________ ____ his coat. a) puts off b) takes off c) leaves in d) takes out 9. Dad couldn't see very well. " (wear) _________ ____ your glasses" said Mum. a) put on b) put away c) put in d) put up 10. When we arrive at the station, we (descend from) _________ ____ the train. a) get down b) stand down c) get off d) stand out Phrasal Verbs 2 1. When Caroline goes to work, the babysitter (takes care of) _________ ____ the children. a) looks at b) looks up c) looks for d) looks after 2. The babysitter (has a good relationship) _________ ____ well with the children. a) gets out b) gets on c) gets up d) gets in 3. Peter promises he will ( stop) _________ ____ smoking soon. a) give in b) give over c) give up d) give out 4. They (continue) _________ ____ talking when the teacher arrives. a) carry on b) get on c) break out d) remain on 5. The fire fighters came and (extinguish) _________ ____ the fire. a) put off b) let away c) put out d) let out 6. I'll call the shop to (discover) _________ ____ the price. a) find out b) bring out c) turn up d) call up 7. You never forget the place where you (spend childhood) _________ ____ . a) bring up b) raise up c) grow up d) rise up 8. If your car (ceases to function) _________ ____ , you should call a garage. a) stops off b) breaks down c) turns off d) breaks out 9. It's difficult for a plane to (leave the ground) _________ ____ when there is snow on the ground. a) take off b) start up c) lift off d) rise up 10. You must (return) _________ ____ the books that I lend you. a) hand in b) take back c) give back d) pay for