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Lack of activity destroys the good condition of every human being, while movement and methodical physical exercise

save it and preserve it. ~Plato

Cardiovascular and Respiratory Demands of Physical Activity at Work A Report in OH204: Environmental Physiology, by Ilona Valerie R. Vidamo, PTRP Master of Occupational Health College of Public Health University of the Philippines -Manila Cardiovascular and Respiratory Demands of Physical Activity at Work A Report in OH204: Environmental Physiology, by Ilona Valerie R. Vidamo, PTRP Master of Occupational Health College of Public Health University of the Philippines -Manila

Points of Discussion THEREPORTOUTLINE Overview of the Cardiovascular and the Respiratory System Definition of Physical Activity Physiologic Responses of the Cardiovascular System to physical activity Physiology Responses of the Respiratory System to physical activity IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 3 Points of Discussion THEREPORTOUTLINE Overview of the Cardiovascular and the Respiratory System Definition of Physical Activity Physiologic Responses of the Cardiovascular System to physical activity Physiology Responses of the Respiratory System to physical activity IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 3

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1. Generates blood pressure. 2. Routing of blood. 3. Ensures a one-way blood flow. 4. Regulates blood supply. 5. Transport of gases, nutrients, waste products, and processed molecules. 6. Maintenance of body temperature. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 5 Functions of the Cardiovascular System 1. Generates blood pressure. 2. Routing of blood. 3. Ensures a one-way blood flow. 4. Regulates blood supply. 5. Transport of gases, nutrients, waste products, and processed molecules. 6. Maintenance of body temperature. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 5 Functions of the Cardiovascular System

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. Gas Exchange . Regulation of Blood Gases . Voice Production . Olfaction . Protection IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 7 Functions of the Respiratory System . Gas Exchange . Regulation of Blood Gases . Voice Production . Olfaction . Protection IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 7 Functions of the Respiratory System

Performance of Movements by the Body Physiological Demands are met through changes in the cardiovascular and pulmonary functions GFManalangJr (2012), Work and Energy Expenditure IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 8 What is Physical Activity? Performance of Movements by the Body Physiological Demands are met through changes in the cardiovascular and pulmonary functions GFManalangJr (2012), Work and Energy Expenditure IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 8 What is Physical Activity?

Classifications of Physical Activity: I.LIGHT II.MODERATE III.MAXIMAL IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 9 What is Physical Activity? Classifications of Physical Activity: I.LIGHT II.MODERATE III.MAXIMAL IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 9 What is Physical Activity?

Physiologic Responses to Physical Activity IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 10 Physiologic Responses to Physical Activity IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 10

INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 11 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Amount of blood pumped by the heart in a 1-minute period. Dependent on the Contractility, HR, Stroke Volume CO = HR X SV INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 11 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Amount of blood pumped by the heart in a 1-minute period. Dependent on the Contractility, HR, Stroke Volume CO = HR X SV

INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 12 Cardiovascular Responses Cardiac Output at Rest: Influenced by Neuronal and Chemical Control in the Heart. Influenced by Emotions Greater CO in trained vs persons. INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 12 Cardiovascular Responses Cardiac Output at Rest: Influenced by Neuronal and Chemical Control in the Heart. Influenced by Emotions Greater CO in trained vs persons.

to Physical Activity

untrained

to Physical Activity

untrained

INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 13 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Cardiac Output during Exercise: Systemic blood flow increases directly with exercise intensity. INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 13 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Cardiac Output during Exercise: Systemic blood flow increases directly with exercise intensity.

INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 14 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Relationship between preload and force of cardiac contraction .preload = . contraction force = .SV INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 14 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Relationship between preload and force of cardiac contraction .preload = . contraction force = .SV

CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 15 Cardiovascular Responses In submaximal exercises more than 15 minutes Increased sweating Decreased blood volume Decreased stroke volume Increased heart rate CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 15 Cardiovascular Responses In submaximal exercises more than 15 minutes Increased sweating Decreased blood volume Decreased stroke volume Increased heart rate

to Physical Activity prolonged for

to Physical Activity prolonged for

CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 16 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity If Cardiovascular Drift did not occur in a prolonged, steady-rate exercise, a person must exercise at a lower intensity. CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 16 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity If Cardiovascular Drift did not occur in a prolonged, steady-rate exercise, a person must exercise at a lower intensity.

INCREASED BLOOD FLOW IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 17 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity AT REST: 1/5 muscle 4-7 mL Major portions will go to the digestive tract, liver, spleen, and kidneys. INCREASED BLOOD FLOW IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 17 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity AT REST: 1/5 muscle 4-7 mL Major portions will go to the digestive tract, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

INCREASED BLOOD FLOW IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 18 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity During Activity: 50-75 mL Muscle blood flow accounts for 80-85% in maximum activities. Increased blood flow to the coronary circulation (5-fold increase) and around 20-30% increase in the cerebral blood flow. INCREASED BLOOD FLOW IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 18 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity During Activity: 50-75 mL Muscle blood flow accounts for 80-85% in maximum activities. Increased blood flow to the coronary circulation (5-fold increase) and around 20-30% increase in the cerebral blood flow.

INCREASED IN THE OXYGENCARRYING CAPACITY OF THE BLOOD. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 19 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Especially true for constant exercising. Physiologic Responses can include Increased RBCs. Can also be explained by the OxygenDissociation curve. INCREASED IN THE OXYGENCARRYING CAPACITY OF THE BLOOD. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 19 Cardiovascular Responses to Physical Activity Especially true for constant exercising. Physiologic Responses can include Increased RBCs. Can also be explained by the OxygenDissociation curve.

INCREASED VENTILATION (AS COMPARED TO NORMAL BREATHING) IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 20 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity What is Ventilation? VENTILATION is the process of moving air from the environment into the lungs. Increased activity Increased Oxygen demands Increased Ventilation RR HR INCREASED VENTILATION (AS COMPARED TO NORMAL BREATHING) IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 20 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity What is Ventilation? VENTILATION is the process of moving air from the environment into the lungs. Increased activity Increased Oxygen demands Increased Ventilation RR HR

INCREASED VENTILATION (AS COMPARED TO NORMAL BREATHING) IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 21 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Ventilation is abruptly increased in the beginning phases of the activity and then stabilizes as the activity continues. INCREASED VENTILATION (AS COMPARED TO NORMAL BREATHING) IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 21 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Ventilation is abruptly increased in the beginning phases of the activity and then stabilizes as the activity continues.

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION REACHES MAXIMAL LEVELS IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 22 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity VO2MAX As work rate is increased, oxygen uptake increases linearly. However, there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake and, therefore, above a certain work rate oxygen consumption reaches a plateau. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION REACHES MAXIMAL LEVELS IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 22 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity VO2MAX As work rate is increased, oxygen uptake increases linearly. However, there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake and, therefore, above a certain work rate oxygen consumption reaches a plateau.

IN INTENSE EXERCISE, THE pH RAPIDLY DECREASES. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 23 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Rapid changes occur as a result of increased alveolar ventilation. This frees H+ ions that contribute to pH decrease and increased acidity, which can be regulated by the renal system. H+ ions are secreted into urine and HCO3 ions are retained to maintain the acid-base balance of the body. IN INTENSE EXERCISE, THE pH RAPIDLY DECREASES. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 23 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Rapid changes occur as a result of increased alveolar ventilation. This frees H+ ions that contribute to pH decrease and increased acidity, which can be regulated by the renal system. H+ ions are secreted into urine and HCO3 ions are retained to maintain the acid-base balance of the body.

IN INTENSE EXERCISE, THE pH RAPIDLY DECREASES. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 24 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Anaerobic activities increases the demand for buffering mechanisms and makes the regulation difficult. IN INTENSE EXERCISE, THE pH RAPIDLY DECREASES. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 24 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Anaerobic activities increases the demand for buffering mechanisms and makes the regulation difficult.

ALTERATION IN THE ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 25 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity 1. Initially, Po2 is increased but it will decrease with continuing exercise/activity. 2. pH becomes decreased. 3. Increased CO2. ALTERATION IN THE ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 25 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity 1. Initially, Po2 is increased but it will decrease with continuing exercise/activity. 2. pH becomes decreased. 3. Increased CO2.

The Oxygen Dissociation Curve IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 26 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity The Oxygen Dissociation Curve IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 26 Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity

There are possible hazards on the CV and Respiratory systems that can possibly arise because of physical activity. IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 27

Physiological Alterations Homeostasis Medical Intervention IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 28

What are controls for possible problems that may arise? IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 29 1. Engineering 2. Administrative 3. PPE What are controls for possible problems that may arise? IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 29 1. Engineering 2. Administrative 3. PPE

IN SUMMARY IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 30 IN SUMMARY IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 30

Thank you! IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 31 Thank you! IVRVIDAMO 2012 | OH204 31