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Sterling Publishinq Co.,
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AcknIDlw~'[edglments

A, heartfeh thank-you to my friends Marieke de Hoop, Paulo IMullatinho, and l is wife Silks Sch reeder; and to MIi ch i kOI YO,$h iha re They alii enco raqed me to write this book and supported me in levery possible way- ,I ha e made a great many wonderful friends throughout 'the, world thanks 'to oriqa mi and for that to 0,1' I a:m 9 ratefu l.
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Photoqraphy: Klaus tipe, D~edorf bei Auqsburq, Germany lrrterior ~ayout: M ~(haell Stieh t lei pzi g,~,Germany

Kas[ahar~, no' h- ,'1Ii\. , , , 1g-: 4 '11""0>-:1 '[Origa m i=,='fiig ich u nd oeometrisch. Engl i's,h] Orl Amazinq origami /Kunihiko Kasahara.
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Published by Sterlinq Publishing Co'mpanYI' Inc. 387 Park Avenue South, N1ew York" N.'y" '10016 First published ln Germany and ,©, 2000 by Augustus 'Ve'Flag itil. der We,ltb ild Ratgeber verlaqe G m b H &. Co. 'KG under the title Origa,mi ~ fig'urlich und oeomeuiscn IEn 9 lish translation @! 2.001 by Sterl in 9 Publ ish iiln'g Co. ~ II c, n Distributed in Canada by_ Steding Publishing (/0 Canadian M,anda Group, One Atlantic Avenu .. Suiite 105 e Toronto; Ontario, Canada IM6K 3E7 ~ ~Distributed i:n Great Brita ina n d Europe by Chris Llloyd 463 Ashley.··· Road, Parkstone, Poole, Dorset, BH1,4 OAX,I' Engiliand -. Distributed iin A"ustra.liia by Capricorn Link (Australia) Pty Ltd. p:o. Box 6651 Baulkharn Hi.lls, Business Centre, INISW21_53, Australia Printed J~n-;--· C-:hin~ All rig'hf5 reserved
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46 Oriqarni and tanqrams 4·8 0114g111a1tanqram -.B-srud'led polyqon 41 Reqular 2. 3 . 58':1 58: ". Regular octaqon . Row's tanqram 1 11 II _' 24.37 Requ lar heptaqon The enswer lies 'in between 38 More "n onconstructib' e" shapes 40 4.:..'~f Spiral -_ s· a P" e·... 9 10 11 13 ~4 14 .2. Goinq farther 36 Rcqu 'ar hexagon 361 36.I Contents Preface Wlhat is oriqami? Ori-gami symbols Paper The link between esthetics and qeometry .8 square in half: ...59' 160 61 " -6. ' A..2 6. Chapter 1 Dividinq AreasDivi d f n g~are (11 s in ha.5 5 6 7 .4 64 Contents '"'.2 32 34 35.. 50 51! 52 54 .aracteri'sti[:s of the reqular pentaqor Drawinq template for the reqular pentaqon 30 Chapter 2. . monument to.20 sha-pes 44 The Super Tanqram . Nestinq bOX:ES The cube and some variations Requ 1ar polyh edrons Cube made of surface modules The five Platonic solids (reqular polyh edrons] 'Three' basic elements of polyhedrons Cube made of corner modules ~ Cube made of edge modules :". sh _ . L 28 28 29 1 Chl. 261 26 28 Box es ···:.ided polyqon Twelve-winqed spinninq top Dividinq seqments into parts Divisior by iteration Shootinq Sterr Reqular octagon Uf[O[ Requl ar penta g'o'n American method Japanese Monkiri method 20 21 1 22 ..37 . 54. I 31' 3. 4·8 .4. . . . and -icosahedron from 30 modules Dodecahedron from 54 'modules . ~' I . 8 . Cube [hexahedron] . Reqular '12=s.8 reqular pentaqon Compass foldinq Eq uil atera 1 tri anql e and square Reqular pentagon . Tetrahedron octahedron. 48 ."[ ~: '15 15 '116 1 [6 '18 ]'9 Vase .. _. 5. I .e Grass ~ Crow Dividin g all gles in thirds S' ar of David Reqular hexagon ".S 56 56 . ~. The Platonio solids: Ftve go(jd friends More edge modules The octahedron: Five variations a.-sided· tOI n-sided polyqon 4·' Two theorems and their proofs 42 Dividinq . Reqular heptaqonsl f7~S'ide'd)1 pyramid . [ . Fun with Geometry The qolden rectangle The impossible becomes possible Another way tO fold .. ~ 0 0 35 Afterword Index .3 6. Frcebel Dividinq anqles in half R"OU 1ett.· "" .2. ..0 Reqular ~16=sided polygon Reqular '1 7'~s]d1led polyqon 4!0 Reqular l.

'. ·4 ..

but durtnq the course of 'my' 40 .ges.. If we fold it accordinq to origami 'rules. in my view. My own personal definition of oriqami is as follows: Origami' is a tradttiona] game of Joldi'ng paper that unites sculptural esthetic aspects with functional and geomletn!c-matherna tical principles. AU explanations. of Preface · What 15 Origami? 5 . 118S2]. without which all arts and sciences would be empty. only touch part of what criqam] i:s. 1 About 150 years have passed since Proebel taught.Preface 'We start off with a S!qU81T'e. however. we place a cornier on top of another corner. the playful aspect is essential to origami arid by 'no means takes away from its si~n]ficaTIce . For 'me. Play and a playful mmdset create joy and enthusiasm. one edge on top of another. reqardless of sex. 1 have heard several contrastinq opinions. Many experts seem to think that ealling it a game belittles the value of origami.. at ls Origami?' Whalt is origami?' This question has kept me occupied for 20 years. We are really applyinq math em af c-all ptin cip 1es for dividinq se'Q111nts. based on Proebel's ideas." am filled vvith pride and joy that 1 have 'belen gi'V~TII the opportunity to publish ..31 qame. which will hopefully gi've them renewed recoqnition.togetlhfr of different aspects that make up the whole..8 brook.piece' of paper. an qles an d areas into equa 1 parts. e Friedrlch Wllhelm August fro eh le]1 ('1782 . and therefore do 11 0t do justice to its wide range of charactenstics and possibilities. 1 am sure this has happened to you as well: 'it is often very difficult to clearly explain a simple 'matter with which you are very familiar. vvhilc'h he used in a playful manner to he-lp' children develop an interest in and understandinq of geomletr:y~ '1myself am neither 81 teacher TIOT a mathema tician. and oriqarni has qrown since then by leaps and bounds. the £IllISWf-T can be found in a kind of symbiosis. but unfortunately have never found a sattsfyinq definition .. '1 sincerely hope that this joy will convey itself to the readers of 'my 'book. 1 1 For 'me. a Gierman teacher. natlcnality. II have searched far an answer to my question inmany encyclopedias and oriqam' books. or lanquaqe. recoqnized the connection between origami and geo'mletry~ He found oriqami a very useful teachinq aid.-'year 'work with oriqami. [Origami! opens UPI interestinq possibiltties fOT people of an a. W'ith respect to my' deflnttion oriqami as .. 1 have come to ~grreat~ry appreciate his ideas. the coming .

. mi Symbols
'Iethe most important oriqami symbols, They are used all over the world, and " basis of the 'folding instructions in this book,
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1 have used simple, square origami papers for all the models shown in this book. 'Whlere an ob onq or a polyqonal shape is needed, 1 will show how to make this from .' a sq,uare pl'ece 0f 'pap1erl _

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7

The link Between Esthetics and Geometry
"Mathematics is the noblest of sciences, the queen of' sciences." How often 1 have d ,.='~ - , e ,"-' '1 - II fillS~, d - -1 h I ea'-'r'd rem'"'alrrks 1ik.,·,e tln ":- 1 1 ,'. lev'e :ope'., a lonqinq for 'mathematics and envied mathe-naridans. '1- wanted nothinq more than to e:njoy' the 'beauty' of math myself
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R@Qlular 111-Si~d@d!P,olygon (Undlecagon) : -I' ~:5 ~m:pOSSLIllei construct a reg u Iar lble to t
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undecaqon usinq a compass and a ruler; T'hhi, book, for the, first tilmJle' e,v,er~explains a simple method of constructtnqthls figure, ('see p, 3:9li

Oriqarni made it possible for me to realize this dream, What is more 1 arr very proud that oriqami makes 'it possible to revive figures that have been prover nonconstructfble by Eudldean means and therefore disappeared - mathematical tables somettmes don't even list them.
For instance the M'O figu,'f'es on the right show two .re"gular polyqons. tr is impossible to cor struct a reqular 1 I-sided polyqon [undecaqon) usinq nothinq but a compass 8'11d a ruler ..The reqular 17sided POitygon (heptadecaqon] can be constructed with the help of a compass and a ruler, 'but this 'is rather complirated, W'ithl oriqami, it 'is not very difficult to construct both these fiqures, What was con sid ered impossible suddenly becomes possible. Oriqami create'S a perfect uni on of esthetics and 'gleomletry" feelings and re.•..:;01:s'.'0- n'.l~n, . '_g Th d t 's 'w"1hC-I'~ a't t-hI1'·.....b0- 0 k -11 OJ l-ll'i s-' " S " ..' •. ':-'_
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Thill! mathematldan and astronomer Carl F'r[ledr~,ch Gaus:s,(1777' - '185 5) proved that it is r .. :--'-=-:,:- ~T. ld possi !lObi to (,On51,_uct 'I a reguI CU"l' 7 _,-::- e d "e ,51 plolygloni' u'sinlg a compass and ,a ruler, Have, you eV'le'lr tried to (~I nst ruct one 1 I'f s 0,. YO,IIlJI 'w'i III kn__ '.' n __iliff' 'icc ult it. ls. Orioam l. h"0': l'w~vAr' ·O,II.·'W·" ~'O.·'W.'·:: d . . _=,1IiiiI _ ~,,_ m,a,Ie.ISS it e,a.sy.
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8 The, Link Between Esthetics and Geometry

3 : 4 : 5!! Gin page 28.. the' divider is formed by the a.' -... Diaqrarns Band C appear to..o ~: 0 -il. b an.. tollowinq the American tradition. from this it follows. but have in fact ve:ry different 'meanings.iBI == 3'-'60· °":'5' . However. ' -'I '-_ ~ :'. .:_.. The areas of a and b have the ratio of 1 : 2. His thee-ern is an important basis for oriqami mathematics..----~~I 'I' B Haqa. there seems to be "£10 1 ''!'" connection between diagram A and diagram B". tan a == 3/4.1 .Kazuol Haqa is a biologist and a pioneer ot the new school of orioami. At first qlance. _\' rJJ LJL -. that: = 3 6. ratios. you wiU find a A b . lit. Haga's Theorem Triangles a.. both are based on the same theorem and on a Vrf:._~. then follows that n:·m-1 :/2 r Dividing Areas 9 .~: II' '. _" • . tJ ~ 7'J. According to 1 ( 3: ~' ...ry similar way of foldinq. This approximation can be prover with the help of Haqa's theorem.d c are slmllar to each other.3:-' 6":. Trlanqle c is an isosceles trianqle and triancles a and b are similar isosceles tria ng Ies... Their sides.':L ~ .ngl~ebisector. practical method for the alpp roximate co nstruction of a reqular pentagon.. the same._ j_ __J.r . triangle a ~5a 3 : 4 : 5 trianqle.... have.. _'. Here. be the c• same."L8-'::16--:'9:.

• i. IIio . . W.I" dare lived about a hundred years after Froebel.. Take' a look at the spiral structure on pag'le 111 for example.... 1'/2' n + .d'". E>rprlessed ln a.. II.ro.'"..'=: 1 '. 'ill iii.f!.. first introduced this principle of c~.tc: : 1/2':3 .'. i!! . .1 1~.. 1: 116 - 11 24. you will create a ri. If we were to halve and fold over the trianqles an infinite number of times and add up the areas of 2111.. ..are nit th 'E: 0 n Iy releva nt point It is a lso ~ mporta nt to.''.. this would look as follows: '.t a' rli..~ ] s 1/'2 ."._ '::i 11. :.".":".' .I.1 the trianqles thus created..g Areas in l-IaIf . erna ncian '1 " S"unc ara . 'Ii • ii .arifyingcomplex rnathematica relationships iin a simple manner by us~nlgOril'gaml ..' h~:isosceles trianqle .. fold a sq ua re d iaqonally.n~I~.'1 1 -..: '" " T'h"I"e I.' • .i! i!! ..'_j lor 1/1024. ._ 4 1 22 ® .. ~/2' + 1/22 + ._ '1 - 2: 2 1 4 '~ = 22 . 4" 2 = ~ 111 8 '1' = Ii _ 1 '23 1 2 = .'. e' g 1." - ' . the sum of all the sub-trianples would result 'in the oriqinal trianqle with the area 11.. ill II • .' ' l' _.j I~ IC"t tr Id.2.. create an i esthetically pleasinc object in the process"._:::...J p aci 'g the acute an g les on top of each oth err te ' times in total (see diaqrarns 1 through 7).' s m (..' math .I. r-: Ii ~ I' • ..~ t Ih as:.._.. rna th e'mat lea II d~SC'O\Ni... "Ii.nc 'ian mal. .~I e 1. .e w~ll ta ke its area to bel '~..OW...r~eS.0 11.1/24 + 1/25 + .. formula..- 11 1 r. wh 10 W '" 1Eli.. • '" r.)\ 8 \CJ The Ie area 0f'.:jj ~ '~'.~.". . .' _ '. ® 1 '0 Dividing Areas in Half • . ~0 I '.' .· " 'd" .. 1". II 101 II 1: 1 However.+.~=~ 2 1 . 01' continue to halve this tri:ang~e aqaln and aqain . 'Ii .

H' owever.m'.5 b 1 --~ 11 1 ® .:7) . you will turn the twodimensional. folds into valley folds).. .Spiral Shape The shape. b' ~. - o .nglle ten times (see ' ~ . 1 ... "f' you urr f 0 lid it aqain and chanqe the onentatior of the three folds along sides a and b (turn mountai . plastic spiral shape." y II .'" '1 32= 2.s L dlllagra. flat shape into a fascinating. an estll-Ietl(a~~I pieasmq object . that ~sproduced after halv~nlg the' tria. I. Spiral Shape 111 .

- 1-' ":-l~ _" r....'0 -.-:__ r .e areas of the two shapes in fiqure B are' halt of the area of the square'! or 1/2...e square) com= pl..-t h ese mat hernaf b principles and qot as far as fiqure Bl [but never arrived at figure D on pag. very sirnpv and clearly~ that if the. .e 13. oriqarni paper usua.'--' •. can only be halve...etely cover the.. . :... r~! I':" . :"_:." I " . Th is is easy to see.W '0 h a [1-e area. colored side. -. " ..iscusse. s -.:': -" I't' ...' !idI:' ~QI ~-II I_ ~ c- L Interestingl[y enouqh. th.. but S ethod is even simpler a~ must tn1er1e'" ~en as progress._ idea t .d. .e area of a right isosceles triang!e was -. • . Th is method of c. aqa in and keep th is ~ mi nd.' 1 A a-' 1 11 i .. and was noted by ..lllly has a white side and a. you w'i IIII rea I ize that n the' colored areas (folded over t'h. -ernatka ~ Froeoe I too.e square. tlh... What is more.a i both shapes have the same area (sere -:-:'.. And so it 15 proven" . .. -1.~ is easie -. / ....Jilin M-aekawa ofI .to Japan ":-I_~. - . followinq rod..e.... "'--'""~_ - 'C r - d~d not use quite the same method ated on page's '10 to11. Jf you consider fiqure B... .. am ·are the two methods.'- . about _.. :'. lt becomes .d . area of the oricinal square ~staken to be 1..Q:~:' 0' f' h 0... d" !'!':~<:. .= -~-=~_ II .... white area . '[ a n Row's ~.<5.:._I.-1 Ire A..:- '.V~_I-_' ... ' ' '.. II .'.).-'. The idea is the same....r -.~. .

Seen from the Slide.]. to 'In9 a square so t h at tne Whi' lite area is covered exactly by the colored area (see figure D bellow)" Please tryto remember these. >. i'I' 0' 1IIIy. . e. ' .. n .. . 'w'h@re Froebel ~fte ". f1L ".:" . Up on a hill.W h'ef'~ he' en~ yed a'n d ' Y '~. With this as a starting point.' 11 .. n ca rn I~' to t~ n k and .· lei cylinder and a sphere. It "IIS:'.. ' . circles (see diagram C). " I:e W' v: From certai n points of view.:'. fro m a :::.6'j! the' sphere and the i» ': ~'.>-".. 0 ~fflerent 'f~9 res have tor U example.:1 / If'l 1111.1".t s p a." 1 rro. .-'II· ' U h ln d e re~' v..'.' 1. c .. a..t....1: of a c-urb~ a '.. 'w'e' willi discover that there are more "b"I'" Ih possibutnes f or f IdO .... I''11l\.''-'I'I'~: >'" .. as there is an interestinc puzzle that IWDUlld like to introduce tOI you later (see page 44)" I ~.' h ich cons'..::. Seen .sto ne sculpture '.- "ll'i. same square outline . .. the same area.' o I " . ~w o ve r t hie n ret'I.I D II A Monument to Froebe1 3 .". tow n t~ere now stands a monument to Froebel . the cube and the cylinder have the.: :~:' ists I.A Mm ument to Froebel The Froebel Museum IS located in Bald Blankenburo in Thurinqia. :.1.::'..'e' above "':'. 'Germlany.' ~'I" 1 __ : ".:~..u_I e' I"."~ ~ iii':' r I e cylinder 100. different shapes appea r to be the same. I~ II... ." 1..

FinalllYi you will see an example concermnq the division of angles Into three parts (page 16).o·10Bascetta) I discovered this fiqure also. [Hiere'" th e pa per ~s folded in the opposite' direction from th{~ w'ay it is folded for Grass."... ® ~ ." Japan . Th ..Dividing Angles in The orevi d orvromq .. ~ "-=.. --ad" ~ie previous pages d" scusseo d' 'd" areas m h~ If' W·e will now move. I_ .. and introduced rt at the same . 8x o . . You wnl learn a lot of Interesting facts about anqles. on to div~ding angles in half.. .id time . I Roulette (by Pa._ I' I I ..= I"lJ .....'. Fold and add the remaininq 6 modules the same way. or:-.• . I Tuck 2nd module (rilght) intc the 'lst: fold sides of 1st around Znd.. Crow and Grass. 14 Dividing Angles 111 Hal r .Ie wonlid" 15 f III 0 f coincidences! In J r ~ I . Then we will examine thle completed fiqures With respect 'to the anqles that were created and what this means in a rnathernatical context..: This first step of Roulette corresponds to step 3 in folding Grass..___ ~- -~ .I '\ '\. Folillow the step-by-step instructions to fold the.

.ot..'. of these elements or m 'o"-'d'l ~I~.: I """..I' and rnake a la rqer structu re.'" I"" :. ~ ... I.. '2"2"5° * = 4""'15"'0' ~ * • J • _".' Plh:II. ...O a"t r~g h S'eca use '~t: ' trianqles a and b of Grass are identical. Grass 15 .. .'5 '* * ~. ." . l_ 6:'~' : . ® tnside re'verse fold.. _I .••.) (1\ \V' I •"" '..'. iii : .. e facts.. J .!bII ® ® ® Crow M'\ \t.:."I' tWill'!~Ib " iscussec oe d' further... "!' _.C' ':.. it is.. I" ". d onqarru. Th is techn~que lis caUed modular .~ ..~- '. possible to a rranqe severe I.' Learn these geolmletry.'7. ~' .'... ste rtinq on paqe 54.

. _ • _.thre first step is to _." ~ . I left~e. a--:' s". Since 60° is two..·ing Angles in ' irds ... 16 Dtvidinq Angles in Thirds jl ..ire 5 of a rIght angle (90°')1.gles~ To create them.. - II @) [Fold the rig-ht ® side the same ·w·:a·. W'ie will nreed equilateral _ia . ~I I ~ -. w~ II t I' .' .... ...:' rot l-.angle into three parts. to fold this model.~~e a rigJht . - ': ~l . . = l r ~e- Star of David Blow rgenfly throuqh a straw onto the Sta r and ~t ~Ista rt to sp iln. you willi need to fold 60° s from the oriqarni square. . 1 • ~.'y.: I.IJ e' -'.

.. Ji.. ._::-:-__ . II r. 'I . i. -=-._----.. ..' learn these characteristics we~l..11f' you wish to tod the Star of David :in just one color._... ~ . - . _ ~ ~ ~ @ Characteristics of an equilateral trisnqle Continue with step 3. opposite way: the dirrectron of spin wii~change.1' -.~ " I. ... _Il ' ... ..... T'he finished model X .: ...- . - !!!"....ilate Fa~tria ng ~e Star of David -----. .hr .. . use' the paper folded double. Ilf you assemble the Star the . -... Oiiiiii l -..." t ..- .. -' 1 Tuck the part between the lines under" I.... .. . .... I O!!II _ !!!'I' ""!!!!!!" _.... ..1 ~ \!J Eq u.~I ~. "\' \.. .. . ..

agonr" E J Mark p--"'o-~n:'ts-: and ab 'w-ith short folds .1 Ql . exaqo ._ •.~g'e '19.an use' an oriqarni __.~ 17'~.•• _. you ~.. 118 Dividing Anqles in Thirds . _:a regu~ar hexagon (see fi9un: 'E)..-'iscover how we c. e resultinq hexagon 'wiU be quite small.L Re ' niq _e1F ."' . .... From this. t_. point a remains fixed..~ . ou learned the fo1Id~n'gtechy e' ilateral tnenqle._ crelate as ~arrgea hexagon as possible. . '. You ~r::' _n use this to fold the beautiful 'Vase shown -.. b Point b should end up Ion top of m"arklng nne C. _:.. .. Equi!atera~tr~angle and reqular hex.

" "' W'hy not try to foild this unusua vase from other reqular polY9Ions{ ' .'... :. '~~'..' •I '\ ~. .i II' \ ~ ...:':'.~ .. ....." " . and a... " / s- ' . '. ~I ~o • wiith ante finger inside the Vase../' '-~-=-.\: . Q ® ._:!! .. .~._'.' @ The picture at ~ett shows how' the 60· an'gi lie is created iin Step 5"./..nother pressing from th' e' outsid 'e ~ . '_ 1 .:. . 'I ...._.~ __ . ~ ._I...r .Vase Pretol d the' bo rder of the vase's base. '. ::'. '" ' . Maike the 'Vase by pushinq " Oll! t th e S:ld s· +..I' .... J r>.~\. Vase 19 .... ~ ..ralSie "lit up. . l . '-. .

. ® :'.I ..1. :: .. '>. followinq the method shown for the hexaqon on th.. 3: parts. ® 20 Dividing Angles in Thirds o . .>.. CD····· ·. . _. .. ..I •.: . 1 ° I a short markinc tin e. :. d iV'id in'g tbe right angle' into. I' I~" . Use this form to fold a vase.. ." ". . ® ...1 .. . .. 3'0-:'0 I.Regu1ar 12-Sided Po yqon Next we'lll fold a reqular 12-siid." ® ." 1 :- - 3--:: 0-:: . .' . . ® . 90~:"O/.ed polyqon (dodeca go n)..._ ... 3: ..e previous pages. '. ''-. ·:···3········· [Mark only the top layer of paper with .. as 'was shown for the Star of Davitd... .

' r . . . ® .' . ... . . ... .. '\ / . Start with the colored sidle of the paper up and fold the.. Twelve~Winged Spinning Top 21 . . I' .. . CD . area into 1 [0 equal-sized squares.. . -.I (f . II' .. . then fold up the snepe.r. ... . ~ ...welve Winged Spinning Top This example shows how woe can create a fiqure with twelve corners from a square' piece of paper The Spinninq Top w'ilill start to turn if you [blow ton it fro m a bove.. "".. (!) .. in the order shown. C han ge those pa rts of the va~ley folds marked with circles into mountain folds. " ® . ...

. Folding rhythm for 5 equlal parts: AABBAAB.s.. is the simplest way of div~ding and the most baste oriqarni foldinq action. The new rnarkinqs hilt the.1r-~-~j® ~~~..~ . B A 1 2 1.B . '. . 1 2: B J® A 2 A 1~.. a teacher at a. ~fyou wa nt to avo~~d these little fo Ids..:~ " A ~~ j G} D'· .~ .e parts. 1 *. . template'S with a base 2 division to divide. rvrsron b It f'on ny rtera p M.. This is not a m athernatical method. . five or seven equal parts. any undesirable markinqs. "~.~ After only a few re'pe'atsl.r di . F-2 I . a seqment into an odd n umber of eq ua l-sized parts.: .' '..Dividing S Haivling a seqmsnt. (B) of the last markinq.~ - 221 Dividinq Se ments into Parts . by using this simple methcd. but with a Irttle practi ce it is quickly done and doe'S nat I.. 'W1r= can actually also divide a seqment into three. and it is on ~ysu ita ble for d ivision into th re'e parts. Fj9ures G '1 and G-2 show how to U5e._. . 1 .8' B' A': A:: Be. Frgl1re H (page. dividinq it into two equal parts. whereby the new markinq divides the seqmerrt left (A) or right..e·ave.2 A.rk an estimated point of d Nils-ton. 11 . The only (minor) disadvantaqe of this method is that it leaves some undesired markinus on the edqe of the paper. desired points of dtvi. P' Diagrams F='1' to F'-3 show his method of dividing. The first step always marks a. 23) shows an e'ven simpler method of diviiding a segment into thre... These templates are easily rnade. the desired point of d ivisi on iis m a rked as accurately as folld i ng wi I~a II'DW... ~!-"::::::~-. 1 . Shuzo Fujimoto. further rna rki ngs are made usi n g a specif c rhyth m.-~ .a fold~ng template with the desired divisions. In the steps that follow. - .'-8 .: . ~ Foldi~g rhy1hm for 3..:' . ABAB . It is best to use. .2 B I CD I 1 2 . random point on the paper's edqe.io'f1 more accuratelly each time..A:·".--. However. ~ivrsron. This remarkable and astonishing foldino method was deveioped by Mr. equal parts: ABABn."~Mark an estimated point Df A . Japanese qrammar school 'who has gJreatlly enriched the world of oriqarni with h~sworks.. [method of Shuzo Fujimoto) F-l I .

..0 G-l of dvisior does not end with sever equal parts.!CI •• u '1 2 A _1 ~l~~·:b~:~·· . folldin'Q rhythm for 7 equal parts: AABAAB..... ......-....0 ........ ...:'-:. II II IMark an estimated point of (D Template for ratios 1: '9 throuqh 11 : 115.....'..."":.. :'.. 1 2 ... l ~.. Division bv Iteration .....::S throuoh '~~7" ...... 'B..-..._.....~ .r " d tvrsron.'.. 11 2 18 " A' A" 0 AA._C'...nd can be usee to div[d1e segments into '9..... Can you 'work out the' foldlnq rhythms? J J .. ..-~...... a.... . _ .......... equel parts...:. _ --.. rv~r..III . I ® . - .....FlJ!ji~otols method 00 F-J L_~C.. _ ... ..'Iernplate for ratios 1..i-..1' ".....' 8 Fine adiustments.A I... ... '11 r 113.. mathematical basis" but is the best way to divide a se'gment into thirds... 9'1 101 etc. 23 ~ :.....~' This technique does not have a..j !~lL~~~~'~ 11 A~ 2 . I 1: ..- - - - .-. J® 2 L A ! 1 2·' .1::::.

-I I ~ I I :." " J '0' 0. .lull!.' shown.. I I I 0 ..lun Maekawa] 18y rnakinq this prettv Shootiing Star.. ·. . mountain folds where... I: I I . . '. workinq towards the center.. You shoud end up 'with seven points. pllaci:ngl the paper face up with your chosen color for the f n ish e d Sta r showin g.. I. ~ . -. ID'Y·· J '! 0 ~ . .Shooting Star (method of . . just Ilea rned fo r nto cha 'g"ng thee ci ""d"" 'f" a[.. I~ ~sI I~.~ .lll~ II. 3 eff ® I r ..r J ® . D .IVIISllo.. fold in 3 equal parts..•'1 S·t~ b. .. \J .~. • • • •• ..: - ® .·· ~ng greatly simp!~fythe toldinq pattern.~ .i L · I I n I .I 1 i I . The method I use' here . tc ble . • • 1 ._ ••• • r.e' t 0 .. ..n 'Into twelve parts.or I'" was'.IS Ib' d on d'·' oasec ·. I i " II i I '!ill' I~" :. 'I . ~ '.all thn:e areas with valley folds and . II ' :1 I with valley folds and make. :..~ . Halve .IVI·.~I - ~I I I I: .' use Jun Mlaiekalwa~:smasterpiece (see paqe 25)". you can put dividi ng'" seqmerits into ecua parts ALs": exam ple an 'W'f. • : ~.' 0. .. Gln.. _•• /\ LId I ~ I ~ pr acti ce the meth ad you have. . 24 Shootinq Star .. ." 1 I I. I Unfold anc turn over...·. .. D ivide each a rea fu rth er I I . ii .

. .::~- '... . . - ' - . . [. . I j • 1 I II . .ml'k" skres · d IS cone. .. .-.n/ . .. __ . L . Fold down only the " front : " two layers of i I· ..- . _.··.111 the Star. @ ': .. [../' .' -.. ". .1 "' ~ '1 . Ii ' " I I I . 0. _ - --_.' { i " ~Jii:I. . J ~ ::3. Shooting Star .:=-" . . .. I~-'I'::":'I @ .. F'O~. .·.: J' . : .I I .. . &n . . . -I I.J 2 3' . e_' .. . outwards and to the back.e' marked rnounta irl a nd val~ folds" ley I : I ~ I ~" . •~ l . . .o _ II. ~ I I~ " ~ . InIS. .. .25 ' ~ :..ur S ho :·'0+1" n" " Sta r of \/0· u.._.- .' ( ~ . . In h 'DFd er indi me icatec d " corners. " . Fold only th. .- ~ ':-:.r.J _ •••.: ..:.I : i ~. "'[ \ F.. :. 'j' . ' t h e onga.. 'ffL! ." 'g' ..... 1-.' I' " " I..' . 'f.I I ....... I I·J '. .. ~ Ir'" II I . No:~w···..I I I . ._--.·' tiel ld. .-/' -r=: II I I" _: r» - . On the centra I Iiine fold .. '~= . _.

-.'.j '.._ 1_: '.~-'JII. IFo~das shown by the arrows... ... II ~- 1 r~ ~ !c . -..Op of each other." i? .j" i ~' _.. '/ ./ .~. I Turn paper over sa that colored side is face up. ...1 vlery impressive results iif you use two qet f c I' pi eces 0 f~paper or diff .." <'" I I 1 II Fold paper over as shown by the arrow'S".r" Fold and separate the two papers. I would II'ike to introduce you to a different technique here.- 0' ~ -- J 'i. g.I .. This was invented by Ioshikazu Kawasaki.co Iors.- I' .I' I~ ~ ~ ~ -~. creati' n 9 an embrace of the two surfaces./ . .' i ... i. ... ~~ -. I' 1''' .iI' ... .' . I.J . Fold.._" "..~ .'" ~j" n . called iso-area foldinq..: I • Place' two different-colored paper squares on l. CD " I ~ ~ ~ 1 . .. However.srt c lam nd " '..' I' ~ ..Q '" 'G" .-.'I·UII·. _ ' - . \_" " 1 I' ... -' _-_ . ® .Regular Octagon The regular octagon j's easily made by repeated halvinq of anqles.. you wn] produce a UfO '! UFO . 26 Regular Octagon . the trian"'g: rle sh ~P-I 'C: ' _ _I[.. colored sides fac:iing up.:' . ~ .". _ ./ .ere nt.. r nser ••1.. IBy foldiing further.~ ~ ... You wi 11. shape into.. '\. a Japanese mathematician and prominent origami scholar.

-- 4... you willi Open I UFO' 27 . ' - .. ". I • --:.___:_~ - - - M.. turn. 'The two layers of paper wlU hold together well.Nlo matter how' otten the Op en ~d and __ I~. principle. .4-_'~5·0 .'.. . Regul1ar octagon..a ke 4 inside reverse folds. ' ~..' I . . and that is what iso-eree means. This shape' could also represent a Jeny~· f~sh or a sea anemone. -. I . _ .)" . ". Open and turn.. - I ~ ... 'II .-5°' -' Once you have understood this be' able to fold a requ la r octacon fro m a sing lie sheet of paper. Make ·4 inside reve rse fo Ids . ( " "-_@ -' -' ."@--3'I - ~ ~ ~. shape is [urn e·d~ it rerna ins the same.

Japanese na. triec to folld a reqular pentaqon. • 28 Regular Pentagon . cherry blossom). The. American Method This is a.6%. 'The obvious answer is to divide the 3600 anqle at the center of the.0. for '_' :. one accordinq to Japanese tradition and one accordinq to American tradition. '"}. but unfortunately tt ~salso rather tricky to produce this.n d k'. rs to f-0 Id fIve You can we'lll~" III ~t o' reqular dodecagon)" Many people in the past have.. Both deviations are smaller than the accuracy that can be achieved through toldinq.'11.-0..I "':"i". "'0" mo 'm'.I "I r: : petals of equal size from a squere of pape. I wiU introduce two of several possible solutions.. . sakura (the.. . 90° (for a square)." '1 ..20° (for an eq uilatera I triangle)..""'isso rn) a''.Regular Pentaqon Mrany blossoms halve five petals..1II I if. ln ne followinq..' (p eac h b 10''.:'.. .. easi Iy as 1. error for the American method is . This task m ~g be a little easier w~tlh a pentaqona I pa per hit shape. lkvo (rn o nta n" b e~"'II)] II :' .. ume (Japanese. 450 (for" a regular octagon) or 30° (for a the Japanese method. Fold a short markinq linre. so both techniques are therefore handy methods of approxmatlon. I . symbol! of Japan).. . +. !But 72° ca n not be fa r ded as.r-.ag"lne' h . "I [m... n the. sliqhtly easier follld:jng tech nique. square by five (360P I 5 == 72°).. Japanese 'Method Fold two short rnerkin lines.. for example. Fold only one marker.20/0..'. ·OW·' diff 'IOU It . 60° (to make a reqular hexaqon). but it will result iin a sma nrer pentaqon (sere d flagram on paq e 29)~ l -.me for "cherry blossom..'1.

~']rb ® I ® @ ' . Amsncan ~Ch-~t' Mel"O d I Monkiri Morikin is a paper-cuttinq technique in which a piece of paper that has beenfolded several times j's cut with scissors to (Teate symmetrical patterns" The photos above show a cherry blossom and a. .. ~ :~~t~O~d.d 'Ofl @ .od -- throuq h al~ ". .. x .. '~ Fold m the order in d ica ted '. pentaqrarn. layers I IL. ' C-ut Japanese Methl. Both also represent Japanese family ernblerns. ".This diaqram shows the results of both methods. . The followers of Pythagoras were familiar 'with the pentaoram.~~~~:'T·".

we can told a simp len a drawinq template for . errors cannot be avoided. so that 'many small.an methods. Editori's com ment: 0 u e' 1. A ~ Golden rectan g lie.gram A).wlthout theoretical error.very error made dur~ng lone fo. [.a very milnor error for the central anqle of the regular pentagon. compared to ~ts exact theoretica' value. ® . five equal parts simply by foldinq. :rt is almost irnposstble to avoid errors . Today. Methods of approximation in practice often ghJ1e rnore accurate a ~nto a resuir than theoretically exact methods..". / J' (/s = 1) -.0.h ~. II don It rea lly like the term n error. - - 30 Characte istics of the Regular Pentagon . r~ lf yo u try to divide 3600 into.. : -' :l I' -:.ldInlg step contributes to the overall error of the end result. through inteqration of the third dimension. . ..a reqular perrtaqon.8 dtffer= ent point of view. _~-=---:~--. even IT ~lOU fold very accurateiy.' I: adow J S'h11[:':_ .. d~' scoverecd a si Ie met' hoc wrt/.2 2.• . unavoidable fo~ding errors accumulate rather la rge error. d . is pentagon..I '. the' th i ck ness of the pa p err. = (. . Llf=l/1 L I Jl :=. ~f look at the 'Wf~ characteristi cs of th'e reg ular pentagon from . ' Requ ~ar pentaqon._. " ' : EI Drawing Template for t-e Regular Pentagon Reglila r hexaqon (see page 18). done oniy With 9 feat difficu IllY. or rean he.·arac-ens-. to use a simple method to fold theoretical Iy' exact drawiln9 templates for n9gullar polygons that otherwise (annat be constructed foll~owiln·g Euclide. Kasahara manaqcs.ti cs 0f t e egu ar Ch tcri th r Both pentaqen-foldirq techniques result in only . • ~~-e~ • __ '. • _ . 'W'h" . an exact regular pentagon is often constructed with the help of the rules of the qolden section: how-ever./5 + 1 )1. E.. . this is rather difficult to fold. we wH11 come across a fink to the go lden mean (see 0 ia. I have. even with methods that theoretkafy produce an exact result.

~ .(5 .' . 10 .es a and b are congruent. ..F-' . parallel ./"'" . IJ. '"". . ' square Proof: = 115 the J!ngth of the sidle of a b = ...5 the lenqth of the side of a square. -II"ows~ *" ha t t.-l Fun with Geometry 31 . .1) - '--""""".-. " a.=: 21. qolden rectanqle. . :.. e th sioe 0-_..~ " then follow'S that: t: L'=2.b II " ".1 ~~~~® : '. "[ II ~ .215 the lengt.. u ® 'I Proo..I' i t ..f: Tri a n 9 les A and a are similar.".1 ''" 2" II~tt.I s S / divid ie "d f " H OW can Wle'-IVI.: (5. It 11 'I Fold in the order indicated.t . [I.:" 3 Triangles Sand s are similar It then follows: a = 115 th e length of ttl sid e' of the sq uare (note th e ratio of' th e sidles of triangles Sand s).~Ief' f .-#!' . . .. .+. / . . Tr~anlgl. :... l ~j of a. square P'ro[of: Jriarrqles Sand s are similar. .'...h of the side I ~ j.i" e The. . ' '.a square into fifths with only 11/2 folds? a Fold in the order indicated.

Another Way to Fold a 'This method is theon2ticaUy exact. 4! - I "''''.hspes w. does not stete. 'G:'II'- .o'~ding techn'ilque thorouqhly. rei of equal size. :::: .r In C'O'" ·nst"· .:. was (rOnS'I' ~rlng t·.. 9.:gl..' l.~ ~. c-: I :::J I[JI .n II ex p ~'r-ile"'"' n C8' d b reakthrouqh. the reqular pentaqcn. ~ .le:c-·- I.': t·.'G ~:- I.:'1 ' l ~ . octaqon and fhe dodecagon = six regular polyqons in.-:. ...th·'." .e a. ..rucJ. ...cutoff strip. ® ...ng .'_ '~:'~-'j" matnematidans more J than 2.000 years. . . hexaqon. all.n one d ~'y' "W' . . ~_ . use the th In~. to arr~veat this conclusion However. :. r ~I ® . square (the bask shape for oriqarni). ·. Regula-r polyqons are polygons 'w-hose' sides are of equal lengtih and whose interior anqles a. [My solutior is the basel of a.'The lmpossihle 'So f a r.. .~ r. since you can use this new msthod to construct all other n=gu~ar po~yglons. thst. or '11 -sided polyqon (undecaqon) usinq a compass and a ruler. I'DW equilatera ~ po Iygon a I pyr am id.w' not allowed' to use a point outside the plane of the polygon. lt took I II ideri h. " I . .. 1 - 'i II _ 32 The Impossible Becomes Possible ..U .!. re diefmrtion '0f' t h requ I' 'e ar 1 oo I"ygo'. . the followinq pages willi II prove that oriqami makes rt possible to construct these shapes.-c.-s~dedi polyqon (enneaqon). Geometry teaches that we cannot construct a reqular 7-sided polygon (heptaoon). 'This detinitior. -.~. Study this f. I 'I ... we Ihave constructed the eq u ilatera I.rhe.triar g ~e the.. .:. ' I I i J .' I " '.ri:l. '. e5<e h'C"'. without any tricks. " ."'"'.:_' s !.

:".. the regular pentaqon..n Qj. art "-'::' ave IIIe the square (the basic shape for oriqarni).". poygon... '-'.!'.. I' _. hexaqon.. throuqh: R... . This tieiinitiot: does not sta te. _. 1'"1 . w'e are not aUo'wed to' use a point outside the p'/an€!! of the ..... '..h. I" . I . '.' ~ \6J _-'e US''.". ..I _. :.-_-l_ic· ...Ieet n.'r'I'1 n ce d a' Ib rea II.. Another Way to Fold a egular Pentagon 'This method 'iistheoretically exact.-:-": pa §Jes wi ~ p rov€: that 0 riqam i makes it POSS! b 1 . without any tricks.a '" Geometry In tea ches that we' ca nnot construct a n:~lgu 1 r 7'-.'. Study this foldinc ~'S'" Ie··.-0 'S'·:·· . octaqon and the "-I d o d ecaqon SIX requ ar po yqons "~l.-._. ..• '_ il-~ ..' . -".Qj I ~.. h'.. ~'_ 1 '---:-:'1'- :·. of equal lenqth and whose interior angles a re of e'q ua s izs.-:'.: was considering the deflnttlon of this regular J.". I .'. '- _.-:.' 1'- ecomes Possible :-=-. the fo '1IIo"'.':--.:: .-n o nidi da Y.. ii.'.. ~ .'0..we have cons:-_-'-t rueter t'l). i. ~_ It took mathematicians more than 2.". :-j: .>'W' h nII III X' P.e Impossible .~ . ! '.e··· th n L 0.-· ._ l:!i I~ g I!.'. ._ I_:: _.. -I ~':: .-.. ... ..'-. C'---n~ rtI I L ... ...:-' - ':'." .-...I's···e' th' ..:' .. --~ t. '~ I i ~ I I . _.. .-J .-·\.. .eg'u:lar polyqons are polyqons whose slides are. -. . "-' 'I' C --. or 11 -sided polyqon (undecaqon) usinq a compass and a rul er.. II -.:. . _.that in constructina these shapes.-..:1 .-! - . .:- ~-------: : . 9=sfded polyqon (enneaoonl. ' I~. 1 fa .-:--"w···.sided a pOllylgOrl.:-:-" ~ .' _ "-._-'.---.d II IKIP 0. il ..Qj1f IVIi.• :~ I': ---:-:.-" equua te " I..''" 't.oweve~.. o' I ~x::. . Y1' .lqllle thora 0 UI:--1 Ih:--I:"': 's~nc"-'e' YQu c':-. -I I' ~ ..~Y g.. u> Ii.alii 9 method to construct all other reqular polygons. :. Mly so -I' unor "IS t h e b ase 01f a Iowequi' r " lateral po~ygonall pyramid. years tOI arrive at this conclusion II. . _... . (hepteqon). . :- '. '.. ~ :2 The Impossible Becomes Possible . _'.. I I i' ... . IJ. _.j ~. 1.·.'. . I I CD ® . " . l_1 ...~ -'..f1 stri p" ). IHo'w_'v»e~'-LI'\i'~II... --:-'~--:'~I'-:-' - ..------:-.000 p. 'c. ._.~.."W"""In"g" -"' .' ..~.Th. ._..n.tlo ~ e construct these shapes.. ted 'II era tnanqre... .----:·'.1··.--: ._.

! .a ss.II .> _- -_- . b Fo~ld~ngteps s a to c (e. rteg u'ar pentaqona ~ pyramids.and pulll upward. .~ •• Our 'first attempt 'with the new method. / . ® I .: '. .adial ( slot . c The shape looks like an hou rlgLi.. '.. . . •• . ® .nlargemlents of 7 to 9): msert the bottom end o. Arrange the... Th'rs results !n two L " .". sides of the pentagon to cover each other. a .f the sp~ra~into the' r.-~<?= -. The lmpossible Becomes Possible 33 .

i. its cerr .:. '\ . ematically accurate result.e.s. fl I .e fokf ng II in es (see fi'gu res 7 to 9)._I (t A " " . w~~.e anlglle can b!e ..~ I g compass h ou want to fold a reg ular pentaqo n instead of e re'g. To get this" unfo! d the f nished pentagon. . -~ is y. the s~'zeof anqle has to be 54°.lar pentaqonal pyramid..er at the center of one 'of six ecta iqles. 2 \.. at the center of its diaqo~.. As with the reqular pentaqonal pyrarn.. 'w'e will again create two reqular pentagons"... he previous paces.old~ g tech n i q ule therefore works Ii ke a n calculated as shown ~n diagram B on the opposite paqe. _L _ ® I ! .I . \ 34 Compass Foldillg . cut the stri p of' paper in half lenqthwise... Through a number of preparatory folds (sere figures '~to 4)~ 'we can Itlitiailly determine the measure of anqle (l and consequently the correct ratio of lenqth to width of the rectanqles. The measure of th. I .d. you glot to know' a ique that aillows you to fold two reglular '~ taqonal pyramids in a simple manner. and fold both pieces toqether aqa in a ~ong tlh. but with 'a. folld in the order indicated.e have actually drawn a at has.! II . . If we take a ~ ~~': look at this technique (see dlaqrarr A ~t Ie find that w... I . r X ~ '\ \ \ · \ \ 11 r i I .

Equilatera Triangle and Square The equiiateral triang'ie has extra I'!whig areas. . . .IV ~.l~ov. - B Fold on lines that are there. fr . ® ® Cut in hallf. ® . (~ ® 1-' 'I ~ . .< Cj) Regular Pentagon .j'" " I I fa.~ngthe preparatory folds. /if d . Unfoid. . . 'f!i" Leave out steps a to c from page 33. \ . cut strip and foid into 6 equal rectanoles. Compass Folding 35 . ~ I -..

:'.rec f:..' J 110:--:: 1 . .e problem with lmaqoation.a·~!g'e': s 3~·:. we have to embrace' .!fa·. Onle' solution. II have already gilven the " ~..'3':9"':·1 " O:·~· .•• ...all parts on paige 23" Afterwards. you can apply this technique to the reqular hexagon and the. . _ - " •.. a····t P·. but oy no means the only lone..:'.' ~ 67.':.' '..· . Regular Hexagon .2 36 Going Farther .e shape of a reqular heptaqona' pyramid.8·...'. J • :~. ....' a·- -~o 180'00'. l.d' ~.a new way of thinking and confront th. .. d (Or .ex = 180 0 - 60°' == 600' Always start with the (0110 red side faci n 9 up..ow'that you are' familiar with compass foldfnlQI. V·:Ie" a'-I ..e.·ng Farther IN. we will bravely confront tnle' challenqe of foldinq tbe reqular beptaqon.. ~ I' II I '.'~A . In th.. we always refef to the fact that they cannot be constructed using Euclidean means. Editor's comment: W'hten we speak of reqular polyqons that cannot be constructed rnathernatically.~ isn't that good enouqh 'for you? 'Then you miqht want to ha . already exists (see page 37). which cannot be constructed us~n'ga compass and a ruler 'Io construct a fiqure that up to now could not be constructed.. in a playful manner. .. usinc only a compass and a ruler. " ... .4. '. Oriigamii ~sjust one of the adcitional means of non-Euclidean construction. .. rcqular octagon..~. Into seven anc nilne ~qu. Wtelll yes.----._ -:--·.. k'.~ ." .2 ::!.2 Regular Octagon f ... Ii. ~ I ~-' I . - .IVISIOn " d· temptates reqin.. This does not mean tha:t there aren't methods of construction using add it~lonall mea ns th at en a b ~eU!5 to con struct these.' :". rt's a pyramid .._.5° .

." met ' 'ih'· .r' ~"""'-"""".('C'.. p..:..:ll '_" 0. Gr.na./1...": J 'il ~ angle EL "'~~~ i~ _:IQ::.O' triangles.~ ~~'= 450 .'." '.= 6""'4'2":'8:'5714".. .. n be ca~ ated GIS fo 11. . '.. /:' I 1. " .. c Regular Heptaqon 0 ..'" _ f . " I 7' ...11...~ II Q......' -~" ¢ .age... '\ 'l 1 '@"'-' ..~- .I .:::--. ~ '. ::l . 0 0 iI.J. ': .'c:lid 1. 18' '0' 0_ 1_:-_".rr. see . _.. _..t' 0:' . .~ I !-:: -u. a . _.:: (11~ ". '0 .: I ..."....}.0Vl/5..."".. '~ ® . It states that the' sum of' the interior anqles of a triangle equals '180 An 9 Ie (l ca n th e. '..tru-'·_ .-'1 ~ !~ ..:.._ I' h··' rem .: . ·lo.".~ 3:: 6:.·4'-: 3':")1 ap P' lies . For fold iing:."::I .....'. ... l~ I 1 \ i' .. _.! Re'gular octagon. . Rcqu arHeptaqonal (7-Sided) Pyramid Calculatlnq a1ngll:e (( The trianqles that result frorr connecting the center of' a polygon wiith its corners are isosceles tr~~nglesf with two ecual anqles ilY and a centra IE ..·:d'i .Q'~ IP' :':iig. .. _. ~ 2 " 1 Regular Heptaqonal Pyramid 37 .

. .. .) if we:_ fold the' edge cf thte square... The center fl tGI ri." o n. 'If: sa'. T "IS no.. . t I tried to create the necessary paper strip for the elg liar heptaqon by dividinq a square in 4 parts" o ever this resulted in a heptagon with a hole ~ . ffki In practice. ~ ~rRB J • I ~ I- I I I [ t. I I I ! I ...ckness. .B are already marked.L. :I~ e.' - II". ~. because we have already -i·. s 'the sid e ratio of the pa per stri p used 'for e .ing technique. t 00 wide '11' < ....~which determines the 'width of the paper strip 'for the relQular heptagon. .. " ' he oth e r ha n d the n:g ular h eptaqon is no :' gef a total stranqer..1 [" for R7..:.IO~ altho uq Ih its u center" UL. I' . ~sa" rseful approxim ci . :~.. 'UI~. _lues of that of the hexaqon and the octaqon.: _~nglit. rue angle' of the deterrnininq trianqle 'for the ~: ular heptaqon lies sornewaere between the. /' I ..'" I ." . in betwee.n.. just sliqhtly over the central line lin order to create tt e pa piler strip required for a couple of beautiful regular heptaqons.:=... 'in the miiddle... l. of the seq m ent IR'6: [)is·' ation I .. tc "' k i etc./ I . ~ ... 'I I I •. I" :r. as '."c. .4 w'~11 create' a heptaqon with a hole in the middle. '-. ar ~ . c• U1siinga strip of w'j dt h-to-l e ngt h ra Io of 1 ..e reqular hexaqon and the reqular octagon have a ea":Y becorre reality thanks to the new compass ..e pi ane as tbe heptagon itself. the result iis a double heptaqonal pyramid..' J! V\ R6 r ! I. 38 he Answer lies in Between ./~ ~7 . Point R7....f the paper strip 15 wide. Start with the co lored 51 de up.. We have already constructed these to determine the width of the pa per stri-ps used for the req u Ia r h exago n and the reqular [octagon.~ . lies somewhere. rt ~ssurnoent t (due to paper t'h. I . ! I ! ..~....1 1_ .' s 0 U.. In diagram IDI (opposite paqe) points RIO and R.. II I' I . ". ~ -I t· n n d a.~ . 'I.. ". ~ I " I ._~'[~'. _ [ _=I[ I' "... And we can be sure that the..

egulaltt" Hexagon. .. -~_ _ fl.6 ? 8' '1 .Z_ ~ ~.. ~...... . I 'f-- -::tn.I " . _. - - ..__---+-----I--I--=i=~~ j. .. /~i ~ j .. .!!!!!!" _ . _. 73. Always start with the colored sid . Determini:ng points R6 and R12.. and R12. ._ ~ .... n 1.. 1'. 3'-~ t' A.- liies just above the central lire. J' '. j .....L. .. 5"" ~ ? < D R.. I Detsrmininq point R 11O." f{ 10 Q R 111 lies between The Answer Lies in Between 3'9 1 . - ~ ==.I point I I . - .I ' \ 2 1 A. . - _-' .-'.4.~ .'. Regular 10~S~ded Polygon :Regular 12-Sided Polygon . ~ i j. . ~.. ._ _ ...r -.. I I ':" «: '" .t s '{J.' .: Iii 'I l > ..' !Regul..a.6' ? '8' ..egular 9-5ided Pollygon . ~ ~....J_ _ '...[-) 6 7 .~-~ III_S . -(.( .9 Itt.~A...e' fadnq up./0..: - = I-- = i= .d term in inc point f-lor tlh e re"gu!ar hexaqon and the reqular octaqon just above the central line of th'E square.-1:1 tlh . -1:liiiOii.·' Ij I.' ..l I.. c~ .~. '1-0 """ ! ~ I J 1\ ."". /\ ? j' t I -t R. I~ .I ...- I_!- == I' I I ~ • ~.J R8 V R77 1 '5 ~ ... R-'o Ie) =- - ..= > - . •I A -..0 ..L .'1. = 1=. .."-. ... for the regular heptaqon lies between ~lie '_e I-I ". Regular Heptagon The deterrnininq ~_... ~'.f ..' ~ e._~_.(. l."..'~" ~ I--+--J._ "J)-I-. e ~.I:.~:-c .. '- R10 ~ ~ I' .6364 ..~ __ _.2.. .~ . .~ V' " R.:~-: .. I .-.I Z3 .!.l~' .. -. -- ""' "" - t' ~' 7.The deterrnininq point.r I " '9 rD·ln .~ ..ar 11-Sided IPolygon . Regulalr Octagon II Regular Heptaqon I .._ .:_.: . .". ~- I __._.10 I R--:9'"1 '.b.

C"):.. I I .2. II' . } .5)1 then you will know' how diifficullt this is. I I .\. rr V . . '. . .. The. ." I I I ~ I II ~ . I IB 1 . " W'ithi origami. I I 1 : .g more-shapes followinq the same principle. US. I ! . I I I I . . .. " '" -J decaqon). .f. . I Always startwith the colored side up. ! .I .3 I ~ tI ( ? .. . 40 More "Nonconstructible" Shapes .: f r ! . I~ I ..More "No co . '185.-...tl.in9 only a compass and a ruler. ycu wil] do ib.".. 1 I I III . and the end result is beautiful to look at.oth very easily. i I L I I I ._.' n" (he ptaI. .. " or the requla r 17 -sid ed p'!o'lug'-. 9 ~ ir {:l-I '(5 r~ ts: .~: .' .a'goras (around 5-70 ~ 497/9 6 S."III -r 0 11111.78.. reqular pentagon on paper. i I I I j II ~ I I I I 1 . ~ _I . D. however. The regular pentacon's construction can be traced back to Pyt. . proven to be constructible by Cad Friedriich Gauss (1777 _. I 12. . I .structible" Shapes If you have lever tried to put the. I I I I "I I I I I I . if I I ~.= I "- 1\':1 " ~ = . I I .. .-.'. . ' ! .i . - . . IJ ~~ ft' It'lp I . • I < . shapes that cannot be constructed usinq Euclidean means have become' reality with the foldinq technique introduced earlier. I I . Therefore don't stop nOW but keep fo'ldjn. I . 1 Reqular 16-Sided Polygon Regular 1 7 -Sided Polygon / .0'. / I 1 'I'" R8 I I I. . I'b I -. 1 .75 Q 7':9 4111 . I 1/ .s. . _"'!U 1 I·· '. ~ ~'O Ii /1. . . I .. II "I .

. "v 'i.. 1 .-' 51.. I. Since this fold_I 'In"'g.I I I I . I I I .f~. 1 I I I 80 ·-.··I-Iy···cg' regul~ r' 2~'5-··=··. 1 : ~ . "J_... '._ ' . ~ r\' .... " i. ':.-3::. . I ( .':--"I I n ad.. II . 1 ". . I>.techniq iue cW':"::(J' ::icY'~::.. j II I I~' ' I -- I 1 I I .. I..11 . ... ~r /_ Gi I if {2. .. :3 I I 1( I JT . poly g' Jl" p.~. : As the' number of angles of a reqular n-sided polygon goes towards iI nfln ity~ e n-si d ed po. I j I .' .. .::.1'-0 It should be mentioned that in practice this folld~ng technique has its-limits somewhere betw1een the ~~ 111a.. . ~i .on ~. . 2..111".' ['_' .._'.·.. R9 rI 1 1 I : 1 I . produces tw 0: alw s:-regular po~ygons at one tirne... de d· pO.~~. Regular 1 B-Sided Polygon - Regular 24-Sided to nSided Polygon .:. ' V . I 3' .c.) I \". . _- . I i .' 1 ':: :..1'1 I I ...J '.. you may want to grve one . r I I I ~ I y .. . .' if 16 M ' {IF . I. :p' 8 . I: 1 . . . L .. f3 . I . . . . I \ becomes a d:rcle and the width to length ratio of the paper strip becomes '1.ryglorJ th I I 1 1 I I I I " I 'j}. .0'r-s ·lld· eo '.. I I I . Regular 24-Sided to n-Sided Polygon 4·1 .' 0:-- (The latter in fact looks much like a cirde. . . .away as a present" • 0\ ..

2 + b'l... -': .-. .) . uSllng ongamL io tii ~ . .' ..and th. ·.. Since 25 =: ab. Bot..i! ~2 -I 'Wh..h are necessary for the rernatics of oriqarni. b .ang~esr.): -h .wo T I Their . Brd centuries B. fold one of two equal squares as shown. !.. .e' our s tril.-=... 'r. wle can also deduce the. .~.C. Co·. ~.at is more. :: (2 (Pythaqorean theorem) . jt follows that .2 == a 1 + "2·a b +_ b2 .b. I(a + .)... . s·" \ .. . CD ." . -_ -I irnporta nt theorems rel~at~n'91to ~5: ·e by tuclJd (4th to. ... fol~owijng..' s s -b f • comlplletely..n ori9.I Folld at a randomly selected poi nt.-- r . . " • ® Unfold .1:' In preparation for the proof.am~proof' has the distinct advantage! of being Instantly accessible and v~siblle.ghttrianlg~les:0._:.)2 . .: . I '" ® LI .. and both can eas~lly bel _e'n.. for aIII r~. >1 4x... 'The total area of t e square (a -1= b is made up of -2 "f II the two squares a-') and b.e by pythagoras. from fiigure A (page 43.rr..

' -- .180°. It theref'of. s Now cut off the four 5 triangles and place them.e fOil lows: a +b +C = 180 III - - 10 Euclidean theorem _. and 11111. l ® - Proof I~was developed by Hurniak -luzite.S I . as shown In fiqure 10 on the second paper square" f Since the two squares A and IB are of equal size.For aU ri'ght trianoles. the Pythagon~an theorem has b1een proven. : a2 + b2 = -- (2 Pyt!ha'gore'an theorem - --- -- A s a+b:. ln t II . . a professor of physics who lives in lta Ily.angles a. b 1 and c together form ·a straicht line. Two Theorems and Their Proofs 4·] ..II .~ B s . 1 ® ' i" ® t- ® .. the sum of the interior anqles equals two right angles: angle a + anqle b + angle c . ." s .

. .S8'e . • dI'.'r-.'.W5 fou r possi b i' Iiti es for d ividi n g the area of a square iin half.. .are shown in C. . square's ..... sq . . . (" ~.Div·din:g a Square in Hal. S~I.' _ -I'-'" ·.. I I 'C'" • . 4" "~. ..". .~. .e've ope.. 'page. .. And by cutti ng aqua rter of the side's lenqth into the square. Each color therefore has half the area of the oriqinal square.. '."" e '2.pes I~Iustr aticn A ShO. . sheown In. pieces of the puzzle... . d'IS+-.'.) results in 13 further possibilities for ha~ving the l A .area: (se € S). a fI ~ '. or cut out the bl ue shapes 'from cardboard. . (see fiigure Nt 'W'S can fold even more shapes (foldl~ngthe whrte part to 'the! back). wh ~ therefore has to be of ch the same. ".' . ~ . Just na lcokinc at them is really very interestinq.0 shapes whose area is e. na ~ a.gure M.. size. The remaininq possible fiqures (annat be combined with the others. C uttinc into the square along th.. f'-.' ranee .. .f: 20 Sha.. d ( . s .e 'as.uare . l J We therefore know a tot a II of 2.crm~ pa per co m pletely (lovers the wh lte area. but it is even more fascinattn'g to do the rather difficult th PUZL Ie···· a t I h av~ d '. shapes are the. :'' '.-- .. .- '.. 6'" ") Th. M 'i-- II .. ... f·or this we have ~~ ready seen the p roof on pace 13: The visiib16\ colored a rea of the or~g... ~ -.. three of which . Fold the pieces from squares that are' 2 inches x 2 inches (5 ern x 5 ern) and glue the folded parts in back..44 Dividing a Square in Half ..e central line for OJ .O·.xactly ba Ilf th e area 'Df the oriq ~ I squa re. fI.

B 1[3shapes :r. _ _ _.esult~ng'from f~g'. + 18 + C ..3 shapes Ir.. _ _ 'Ii . ." c N [ : .~~-f'-.esultl~ng from figur[e M~ I J . 20 shapes.}1 Half .A.45 . ._ _ _ . ' Dividing a Square . _I _ U _ e 'N _ _ _ t" .

. .: I.. . The qoal is to assemble these pieces to form various shapes. .e right way .. j!l 'Tilp:: In the.:-' '". F i I '.j complicated tanqram of the computer aqe. ". .]...-' - 'I .. . th is is the reason the game' has become so popular all over the world. . ~have desiqned a fe-w' "tair y simp e pUZZ_8S.. You ca n a lso invent n n u m era b I e' fiig'u res yourself. "'.4 pieces to create this I I I column of three squares. '. I-It .. :.IS~.me ~~ upe r ' T ranqrarn.dd ." h outline ot the fiqure to be made. ". outl in ed a rea (H i nt: piieces may be flopped..-. z. . anc 48). :i It is difficult enouqh to combine seven pieces in th. I ..-- .IS a.AI'I you have to diD Is to choose the correct pieces to cover the.dl ·de:_d I'nto seven dif ere nt pieces ( lat IV~..•.) You wi'~ see that even tlh is is dlffku lt.' . I I t i I I ! . . - .Ie t hrat consists 01 a square z -" t h -. _-."_.Tangram The tanqram was invented in China about 200 -~I ists of years ago. ' •.".g a --. In a. I . I . I I I I I I . -.. --I' tsee dia'Qlrams on page's 4. ".r there are only two possible combinetions for creati r1 g a squa re from two pieces. _ C'~ II IIe d n y ..rntion to glvlln9 you. the "I "I I . II have also lndicated the number of tanqram pieces required. as shown above. set of 20 blue pieces on paces 44· and .4-5. pLJ.For this reason ~ S~~ he ed ~b 1\/ i aueu m"..'_:.. .. I I II I I I I I I I I I I I USIS Puz:zle 1 1.I.: tne mcrec ~. .: .but we are p~ay'ing 'with a Super Tangram made up of 20 pieces (see page's 44 and 4S)! As an introduction..

.. r.:. too muoh . The most cHffilcu!'t task iln Super 'Tangram is to' assemble a square from 1.. INevertheless.· . t hat origami opens up to you.:. Mathematicians ution." Puzzle 4· Eiqht pieces of the Super Tangram are enough to make this Ostrich.8 pieces. r't ab '. 'I .'.j [. ~tIs not an onsolvable task. The Super Tangram 47 . have searc he d flor a so I' I. problern' . _. .• 'I . enjoy th e PlOSS IIlb'I"I" . r do n I. "I - . - I I.. rues .. . Puzzle 3 N1iine pieces make up this Swan.--- . ql.. _.' but were forced to gilv'e up.'. .:' wo'-"r y' al' out th ':.." _'. the correct solution does existl But please.1.'.S ···." • .".

'.ction. angram 'Ta ... ..-.'~. ~ -:~.) ~..:.S Froebel a a ''ow' would aQlree with me. ... .. 1 1 l -. ... __ _ _ a.. 'u-lIIy"b. lin his work Why don't you grve this version a try as w'e.: I "'!I' Running child... and the solution ils not 1.ow introduced a new taJnlgram (see tllustraticr b'~~-OIW).E'.. ... once the pieces have been jumbled up..~ Q. ..:~.-..... II '_.= Mf? =: CN = NL [:II IE)'M'. If.CU...eO. ~.. tlh e' d iaqrarns at th e' bottom of the pace.pur shed G....lit b U t· "t· S'h-'. :::: _. about . B ow....au '1d......-" ...A--..d--.'.. .1 .Origami and Tangrams Puzzles such as tanqrarns and origami have ore t i Ig in common: their dose link 10 mlathematics and qeometrv But the g:reat thinq about them is tlhi!:!ly '~Ira not O_'. liSt or 1/16 of the.. l1li M L ....--' in 19 05'r T~ Sundara R..... I~'..rOf '. ..e n ecessa ry pile c es f rom card boa rd.c·-):d:·-·_...'·... 00 . and ana' meant -0 be e·...XerC1. LJ ck g......b· . __ 10..crt be ent ~ I I '-nform the' oriqinal shape aqain.':'...._ N-IK ......... 1905) D I ~ -...r las .oo~ . 1: ~ ~~ _._...Irs _.. Original Tangram '1 he su rf ace of each tan 9 Fa m piece is '1/4·.. area of the entire tangram.":. -.M ..y:.me... . ..1 m c 'O'~'...n'J'I' ..is why ~think of oriqami as the queen of -'.. . »met...5€S In P'a....~' tn .n '.~~creati ·. ...!bIJ so IVdllg d~ff'·ICU -It form U~.Row's ..- I ... . --'" (To Sundara Row..per.. /.' .ric. 1 .JZl~eisJ'and 11 m sure that experts such Ia.-... ~r.....JS.1tII'~ ss ~ a" S-'" .. "-... re~y b '.~ IO_:VIO{.Q effe t W·~ a. ··w· .~17 Cut ID ut th .. inII·~· d:.... . S:-· - I".so... There is only one task 'gfven here for this tangram. ".0 -.. see.- C'·- ..-·::e:--·._ .. Fe r the i r constn.".. dl" ~ -ff"'"II.. -_ r..0''--:.Ita.. '!....."!. __ ->'~-- ·G l~iiIiiiiIOOiIIII~~ __ ... 8. _.vCli an c «tional knowledge end understandlnq.. I (JIl ' :!JI IL.. ~ ~l . fir st: '-bl"liS ec -. hIQiW t··_-.. Origami and Tangrams ..j ...". _ _I _ . -' t ~ -..iroaden our mathematic I . u _ .' ' ~ ~ ~'...:.. _ d.... L_ .. _ __ .. ~ -_~.. :·-~-" B ~~~~ BA l il!O._ I'v.... 'U _'~ _' IJ" t ..a l 'I! They are qarnes first and foremost.. ..... ." . •..d:..'. . ~ B 80:' 1"1 ':" =' '~I B'G" _'. ..

'I~~~II...= iIil I Origami and Tangrams 4."t..I. a I'll ..'-: '.IJ.9 1 .- 1. all 20 pieces of the Super 'Ianqram can be formed from the elements I.'..ce' This proves on ago ures r e q' 'ua~ I' rea eier e' I~.~1 a' '~ eJ~ IIII:~III in al~lea" I 2' 0:--' f .=. I. .!. ~_ . +~h'eIoriginal 'ta-nqrarn-.S. of (.lgl_..:_ '~~. " 'I .dL 'cc6~1ain tha IIIII.~~. " ..~ of.- As yo.u can see from the dlialgrams below.

. r 'I _. IJ.. - ~ ~ ~c Start 'with the colorec side fad ng LJ p..11 727t. -J . ·1 1 • I'.QJ.ne o:f the... ~ Q 116"- II'l Q 111'6" . ~. developed by Sir lsaac Nle'V\rtc)n (1 6-43 ... . g o 'W'·I oft h t-III ~ g·1 re ate st l\-. of different sizes.. ~" I I . 50 Three-Dimensional Objects . The fiirst exam pie shows n esti n91 bOX.' ~'g-III _~IJ.I i " Base of sma 111. 'who was a physicist and mathematldan.. --". ..boxes an2!0-1:-. .. lit co nsists of a nurnber of boxes.....~..._ ' . There is ro limit-to the shapes and possible variations of these. .... -_ ...~ - J ! = _." .. . If you need a more detailed explanation. . Ilf you are wonderinq which box: has the greatlest volume.Q _-. r:i\ ~ ill . 1 II I. please consu It a. most popular shapes that ci3Jnbe made in I am sure- traditional oriqami.estbox irl the set.' Base of sta r1 dard size box.•.•. volume.. ·1 ~ . II would like to introduce IOJ 'few In this chapter..Boxes evetybodv willi-.. =s=. .aqree that. math teach er..1h t ra + 0·· 0·· ' 4 1·1 s t IJ. ~ ·1.'~5J a tra ditional model.. f . . the help of differential calculus..1.. which were all "folded from the same size of paper..). The box with a basellne-to'I. ' @ . you can calculate this with...I •• -.•..

..-.I .r -.. .._ d ·f~f·' . and valley folds.d papers..51 . ® . rnw.hie distance' between the base.. 1 I. . .. head (step 3t you will gret the results shown in photo A. . I . followi n g the e'x~stingl mountain ® . . :. The simple box without lid is done. tho.. "[ i' • [ • ' I· . width of a match's.ar. r ' I i :1 . e resu . lines by the.. I . do not fold In quite as fa r as the center Ins . and if you reduce t. r -- - .ep 2.. t-sizec .. Nesting Boxes . How about a gam. . .... "'I .(.~ l _. Ilf you use the same size of paper for aH the boxes in the set. " -- .__ '. . Box . J. 'r " I ! ' .. r :. Fold '. 1 . -t A B .e in 'which you mix the two sets of boxes (A and B) and then try to reassemble them in the correct order? If you want a lld to go with the box.. lf you use ar eren -flo • .. . . r -- wil ~be as·Tn p hoto B.d s.It . . r ~ I [ . . i ~ I) F i I II I.

/ ./ .' .by puttinq toqether two boxes that aren't quiite finished (see figures 1 to 11 0)... ~f you then 'fold one corner (or several) to the inside like an inverted pyram iid (see f~ qures 1:l' to..'.s start with the colored side faciing up.... 52 The Cube and Some Variations . ... _ _ _"~ I __..omletriic shapes..4). . ~ _ 51:0 __ ~ .. you can create new ge. . . ... _ _ _. 1.. " . .. .- • ® .You can make a simple cube ..... ~.r .. I ~ Use paper in two different cole-s.. t· .. A~way. I Il I ~ .. rt' Mark. '= ~. . . . .~ . '..

.. 2 ® ® . '.v . Put the tWOI piece'S toqeth e·r as shown. . few new folds and chanqe the orientation of parts ofsome existiinlg folds (see disqram). "~' :. _ "110_ Put two pieces lin preparationtor . ". .' '. . I ® .d " '_"..'O"::":' I._ ._ . If you fold this object several times and leach time Invert different corners of the cube.sd pyrsrruus.. you nee" t<0 make a '.~ @".--C' 11. A ~ . . ' toqether as shown. you wU11 create a series of very attra cti vie' shapes (see page 4) Fold in the order ij n d·cated . '-"'. the inverted . ·1 :.'". TI1e Ct be and Some Variations 53 .

eom. 54· Regu ar Polyhedrons . ~'j I great fascination for many people. from a different perspective. You have already qotten to know one particuler cube (paige . and more' are be~ng invented all the time.er of edqes.etric fi.. .allready exist.. which had people around the gJlobe rackinq their brains for a solution. A good example is the Rubik's Cube with its rotatable parts..53). and -he other four reqular solids . which holds .·olyhedro'n means hsl'ving many sides"). The oriqarni world iis no different.trng' point of an equal num ...lar polyhedrons 6-. These five sands have .21 unique.ese requirements. hich are the five reqular polyhedro rs? These solids are de' ined as 'follows: Their sides (faces) are all reqular polyqons of the same area. but I would Ilii ke to. introd u ce you to. ® . . one of the fiive so-called Platen ic sol ids 9J--re9lJ. 'Three of them are composed of equilateral "I' d anoth · manq les} one is mad 01f squares. which meet at the same angie". Best-known of these solids is the cube.gure.a Cube Made of Surface Modules J You w~u need 6 pieces of paper to make the cube". / J J I nsert poi nt J nto [i pocket T" .. .. three more variations.. indescribable rnaqk .. ano anot er IS ~smace nade of reqular pentagons. Severa II hundred origa. and each vertex cornier point) is the mee.gular Polylu drons The cube is a basic g.mi cubes with numerous distjncttve fe'atures . J Fold this module 6 times iin papers of the' same color . There are on~y five polyhedrons that meet th. " .J Co' ® ".

...'1.·~: IJ Make . '_ .. .. the Follow' the same foldinq technique up to Step 4.[0...: :" i Tetrahedron Polyhedron Cube Shape of Side Octa'iedron Number of Siides 4 6 N urn cer of of Edqes 6 of vertces 4 Number 12 Equilatera' triangle Relgula~" entagon p 8 .. R.the number of 'which corresponds " . U.. I would like you to. ! '.. 'The cube with sol ld-colored faces ~salso rna de fro m six surface modules. _:~ 1'. ~·.6 '=. .'_':1 [' ~l ._ ~ t.athier. r~.. The Five Platonic Solids 55 .The Five Platonic Solids (Regular Polyhedrons) · " • • a '.1 the' number of modules used J' (. concentrate on the surfaces of the cube . You might think that w'e are r. ! .:_'...ante of its basic elements ..2 of these modules in each of tb res different COIOfS to make the cube above. . ~ 12 3D 30 12 20 20 12 kosa hedro n Equilateral tnanqle Number of s u rfa ces .. For mstructions on assemblinq cube" see page 57.e'gressrng technically but these cubes are not about technique. number lot surface modules..

However. ''!" I .-. t one sneeit 011 paper.. . I ..Iinking D' !~~---. JUS' In order to simplify matters...--~. .: .. Of the solution pictured on these pages.I' '. Fold 8 corner . .. then told the required number of identical elements and assemble them to make the solid. you w~11 need seven squares of paper to construct th is cube. namely its su rfa ce..· . "". we could also choose the center of a polyhedron's surfaces and the spatial center of the Inside of the figure as the basis for its constr. .• I~ l I Ji . .. 1U) I . because it is extremely difficult to fold h t· t a geom1elc· so lid f r:: rrom ... ~ ." . "" .... Modules are closely connec ed with the solution of Cube Made of Corner Modules . .. . we start by dividinq the soliidl into equal parts.ents are called modules or units.. . ) I lire modules from four sheets of paper.... A cube has eight corners. Of course.Three Basic Elements A polyhedron is defined by threle basic elements.... :'..." ••.... and ~treally only takes these ei'glht modules to fo_m a cube . ..". t i' « r»: . rt I I.ction... six. . ® " . 56 1 Three Basic Ele nents of Polyhedrons .If' '~'~.... ell of 'which correspond to a specific basic element (such as a surface). modules also are' essential... J I 0_ olyh dron.". . We..· • '. n total..s (fa ces) edq eS and verti res. • • le'-' I ..t . - ". using the cube as an exa rnple." ...-" I ... ·s········ our problem.I' . . But let's just stay with the three elements and the models that result from them..' '. These e!em... . .#~--~----~ ''i.

' ' Ma' k"" 'e~6'-1 .i~kingmodules ---6 '-.Assem.. ... 1 '_-. 'I ~ il : I' -. Cube of Corner Modules 57' ..' M.-<? . - . ' '~h s' own. . .4 to 55).' ~.!' ~ _...II. .' ..ake thle Hn~dn. . .:.gmodules irorr 3 ~ . Corner Insert the two corners as module: rnake B. hand corners over tOI the r~9. -" " _' ~ 1:7"" • ..' [Inward .bUng a cube made from surface modules (see pag e5 5. if • Fold the back riqht-hand corner over to the ~eft and the two front left. . :. '.-.of surface's number of ~.' Nurnoer of corners = number of cornier modules == 8 Number .'..: ' . .• - . 1 [ ~ .ht. .. . ':"-:. .squa res of paper.." ." »: X .. k P uS111 " "I..

'.Q I.'_ @ I ® .. IMlake'12." " ._ shown). ~ . .l' -I l' . xx . iii' I'r'" ~ _.b b " .. ! . ...". One paper 1 .'.""" . t :' . " 0' _ '0' . Inser: (. Fold the other Ih a ~f'rn the sa me 'way' (steps 5 to 8)". [ . reverse nsi 'fold.:li ~ " IfQ. : ' @ " . .' . : . . ~ die. 45° modules are shown Assembly (3 hidden at th e b ack of the cube are' not miD.II !' .> . finished module.. :' ii. _j. . :' "" .. . I[ II". .C"~.J behtnd the reverse to d in such a way that.dies .._ " iIOIOOIiIi iIIO..'> U I.th' colors for all the polvhedrons to get attractiv'€ results. I . U . .. pc. _~.'U . .)! 'S" _ .' ' II I ..= .I:: " i i ' : ® .e from one square of paper. .5. " square can make _ .i ! " Cube (Hexahedron) Theory. " "I I "~!IiiIO '~':i' ra.8 Cube of Edge Modules ... . thispar~ is sealed up tightly. tWOI !\:. .~ ~ You can make 3: modules Th. .. _ d ifferen t I 3 0' rn I'd 'lie" 'u...

.. . . I 'I. '.J ® . '!!'!'" "!'!!" ~ ..:I . This part of the paper lis no' lonq or' n eeded .. ~I. ~.'0 d-.'L '·__1' "Ih" 6 modules.('Q:'I. I suqqest that you make' modules of .. Tetrahedron.[IJ ® I.•. ... '~: @------ j----i! i.~ - } .ull ~ 0("0 th a' to. 2 lot each color These' th:ree Platonic solids are assembled from 30° modules.' I.~ . ® •.' d l .: ..~ . "It n I ..Tetrahedron....~. Ii.. I'· II ..." ...3' different colors J .: tcosahedron Octahedron 1. Octa . ..~liI. comes to Ilie beyond edge L.~ .. ules .. ~~I:_ ® '..edron."" - Ii X . ~7· . \ Insl de reverse folds.. 4 IDf each color Tet ahedron 30 modules. Octahedron...2 modules. -. _. and lcosahedr n :5..~ I. tuck flap _ into th e' reve rse told of .~ -.0... ~:.o: II :... ~ . 11.I Whe'n assemblinq the polyhedron.. : I' ~- ~~ _. 'il'0'< of each I! 1. 1~ .. th"'I'~e' ~ Iie'Xt m...9 . . and Icosahedron from 30° Mo .. - II ..

_ "-.!I....' \ I.'" m ._.s'nt colors IQf paper £'d'ito-t's comm ant ltl i pOSSII-'.' let -'I0' ''g ~t 4 ..I ® . ~ _ y _.I.er 3 sheets of paper per CO-"I.:)~ ~ps f. . ' .'.....II'o:'r w"".. .. . . ~...----~ r' LI • .' .." .. IrQone paper square: 'in that cas. 6101 Dodecahedron .4° modules from one' square of paper.". -. . .(.Dodecahedron from 54 Modules 0 -== ~ ~- - ~..1 .":.= - ---~~ I 1 ® '"'... . _.·. For this model. -'-~~~~-~~:r=-~~~~~! ~ I I' Jj ~ ®..~ - _r \ .. . '-. and three diififer.'!'11 b:~e'" enouq h.-.. you wi] need 4. ~~' . i A I ~ t ·. "."a:' '. ~=-= I ~.:-_~. =" . sheets of' '." -.'. "_ .... You can make three S...ssib : c: " stri I~'...-:'.. paper per color .'.." l IS ..! .

. . T -. CD ® All the reqular polyhedrons shown here are made of three colors o'f paper. Y6LJ will find a few examples on the followlnq paqes..-II And we can certainly continue in this sympathetic style and extend the circle of friends. and the 54°' module.I:1 . fA'\' '0J ® Fold ttl is si de 'i n .. '111'"g~ 'Y"'O'" u W· '1II!II In 0" t II II'.. and al~five are cornposec of three colors each._I III r-' " " I~.30° module. :-:-_"i!. the..a~11 them: the 4501 of module.ind of unified appearance exists only in oriqarni.e assembled i1n the same manner.I te xtb o . . '1 n' u.1 @ .IK.-.Five Good Friends Now they are sitting before you: tlhle five Platonic sol ids. .'.. . ~ E r . /' ~. _-...- i ._·: . You only needed three different modules to make' . p . Alii fve solids w'e'r.' I ':!I ~ IL. ® ~I The Platonic Solids 16il . j nd u d in91 th e cu be rna de ot edqe mod ulies and cubes of other modules.'.. . ..11. the same way as the left sidle... I _ . This k. It wouldn't be wrong to caU OUT solids qood friends.j!: "1'[ M II I. 0 t. . . d nn a' y~m t t. S 0·' rn et t.

. . and then go on to assemble a multitude' of Platonic solids? lnddentally models B~ C and E have been constructed startinq from the spatial center.5~30° and S4° im~"~'o.. these ~f'IIV. However..~. -. n's'·~' . lin addition to the constructon method ~introduced previously (see model A.. "2 ..:l _~!--.. I' 11 f I . _ ~ II. _ . I would like to demonstrate this with the example of the octahedron...'e·. variatio II.r wi~11h'DW..~ . ® models Band El ~I ecommend that you apply r some '9Illueto the connecting flap prior to assembly for Insi de reverse fold. there are many more variations Ion edge modules.= .. = ~ _. .._. .. . C". These edge modules can also be developed for the ether polyhedrons. D and IE).. .edge modules yourself..._. III" .-.ll ~ u (I..m._'.. '!.-= I ~. [.2 More Edge Modules Fold in the order indtcated.. \ '6. The finished 8 mod uIe.. assembly' of the flve Platonic solids.... .II __ ~ ~ _ ~. . .. _ . uJJ .' A .2 5.= ... so that there ~sa tota II of S x 5 '=:. _.f'.. = '-= _'_ ='= _.s:' don with a theory for the. _ 1 ~..] ~ _ =-..' B : ~ ® l!.d.." -._ !:._ _ . ~ ~I '~ "= '~' ~ .-:.ke 12.. __ :.More Edge Modules II have already presented one farnly of edge modules '(4... B '\...'-: ~~IIQ.)~. . . . ._.i . fo~ pol yhed rons. Why not try to develop these . iMa. .' "'.you four more versions of an S octahedron made from ed'ge modules (see fiqures B. _ _ .. j in onnec --11.

[I I !I. . I I hed ro ns are d itferent in size (see photos)..~~~~... 6. Make 12...•._ . ..-- e Octahedron: Five Variations c E _ .". . M..._: -j ~ --- - - -' .3~ . -l~: \' :::... I x .ld a"11the m< tles the ._. I... E I : II ~ _ ..finished octa ad . ..- -- . .~ -s. --._ The Octahedro .-~. c .... . : : Th. : F~ e Variations .".fo .. . I ® Ie ~J .I'r . ---- .. The f n ished C .module.. ..§.. "I -_ ~~ .. I I .. finished D module".. ~ .. . ... [II i Although the same size of paper was used to. . _:' " :-: . 12': '.akle 12 'I. I' .. .e. .•••.~.-16>1. ..il' ® D D . module Ma t. --. 1~ II Use the lower part" <. ' - ...

-. ~9 64 Afterword/Index .' -_ ~"" . 51 9-sid~d polygon (enneaqon). 37 hexaqon 18~ 19. mod ules. Take the cube. esthetics 10 ~. They rectangle time on f~vel qeometric fiqures.' 81. halrdlly surprisinq that the main subject of Euc~. '· .'-1 _ ._c'l·d· ed p:\Jr~m td: 3-7' ~ '.s -1lJ ~ "Of J-=. 1 1 Sundara.ag'on) 28-r-29 an'g~es~ lvidi nq in thirds. 22-2'3 dodecaqcn (12=$ifded polyqon). 9 compass folding. 3S.3 parts. ~ hep agan (7-:sided 'poiygon).~de.8-29 30. more than 2300 veers ago in G reece. HIU rni alk. ·. Haqa's Theorem. .. modules. 'To show you that there are numerous.stded pollygon.as a square... . 55. I have belen working with polyhedrons.Imost un -I" ited POSSLI rues f'or continuing trhiis...2 8~19 mod LJ' II.39 j' Rou~ ette "4 Vase.ejhod (pe'llt. octahedron.3 60 anlglles. . 17 'spi ra I sha pel 111 square.I '\. 8l . 58-.49 box la. I wanted to Introduce you to the beauty and fascination of g'eometry' and rnathernatks.4-59 m odules 58~' Froebs II' fri ed rich wn h. 'b'I' -.1. halvirugr d 14.~44-4. " "" a.39' enneaqon (g sided polyglont 32 e equilateral triarrqle. these too have lost none ct their fasdnation. 36. Monkjri. I" Pythaglorea n theorem.35 I' [Euclidl~theorem.' 8. Eu d id CD rn posed severs ~volu rnes cf teach i ng materia liS entitled Stoiatei« (Elementsf and to date.il .6=20. the polyhedrons.lve-Winged Spinni'ng Top 2~ 240 n-sided po ygons~. of ed g e modu les. 1. .. 42~3 r.. . 44-461.:s~ ed po Iygon (d ecaqo n) 39 d tetra h ed ron. 4'1 t t-sidsd 'po~ygo'n (Llndeca9'(]~')I. of 'face.alittle experiment: Pick up your completed five relgullar solids. ~3· diiv~din9 areas 'in ha~fl. 0 4 ].'. have stiiU got me 'in their 9r:ip.s· 5-:: O'~ . 16 Super Tangralm 4. ...-15 qolden section..e~ Au g ust.. 54~55j' 56. and tum each sllo. Observe how the shape' of its outline chanqes.33 Platonic solids.2i S 2 dodecahedron.55 trianqle: equilateral. 32 -I '_ c ' . 16. for instance: depending on how" you turn it. 55.. 60 . 44~49 18 sided polyqon. 24-25 slthouettes of sol ids.39 _.. 49 0 116-s. eX(Tt~ng journey 1 wou Id imite .._.... a regular hexaqon and fina~ly a rectanole.a~vhlg:I' '12. one efter the other.:l~ _ ". h did _are centra. 8 Ostrich (ta n gralm) r 41 ·~·l . .. 43 icosahedron" 55 J apa ness M ethod (~eJ1tagon)~. and you may wonder why one person would want to spend so much I FQf more than twenty vears.'O:· . 39 TWe.' 49 divirCHngsle'9m~nts. 1o.5S..40 ~! ~'.' 1~ 12. .Q.4'r 24 division by lteratlon. 5'9 9 1. .r 3"19'· .':. r like to end with . ICrow~ 15 ~LJb~L52.star of tangrams.4--35 pe nta.ldlpOllygto. di\fknng~. divrding into 3 parts. You can make the same [observations for the octahedron.'62 \ \ David. 2. 44 4.41 I' 30 m ad LJ les. liD. you can S8'e its outline . 1 O-.I' ..id's writing. 6. l square lndex Amerlcan M.g'=' I Ir.~' =:.eg'Ur~r polyhedrons. lt is therefore. 32 hepta go n a II (7'-sid ed) pyra mid. 54 ·-515' 59 ~'I""l ~.22" 24 7-sid~d po~ygo'n(heptagoln)1 32 RO~r 1 hallvi'ng angl~5f 14-15 heptadecaqon (17~s. S9. With this book. 48 Row~s. "V d ~. •.Tangr. -5~ 112 13 m 1..' y . See cuhe Hu zita.r S}HTI bats.~58.51 1'1 Cherry slossorn (cut paper)..-I. 3. "")7 . 1 S haliv~ng a square (tanglra:1mS)144--46 49 j. 221 2.6r.. 29 V'··~'·r = . •. 56-57. :54~SS.. 17"1' 18].am~. 35: th eo rerns a bo ut.:JI oc 8lgon.~ U'. . 16. 22 G a LlS£ ~ Ca rl Frlsd rich 8" 40 l. .e'omletry.. 60-61 edge modules. 60-61 "12.d1--49 Swam (tangram)" 47 sym b Oils used in boo k. 17.6. 37'1 42 43 f h. 5'9~ 601. 54-. into . . hexa hedron..ided polygon ~40 Maekawa~ Jun 11. 3'4=-37 areas.55 d era go F:1 t 1 O· -''5 i ded no IyglIon\ '. _"_ . I tc my practicmq onlgamLrOU may' fme trus somewhat coo.31 32-33. 3:9 I Shooting Star. . .' .37 42~3 540. pentagon.• Aft erwor······ d .·6' 37 . • .29 nest~nigboxes. 20# . 6'11 j i r j FujnmQto ShUlO. UFO..-.. However._. 1. 48 seqments. 8~ . 26-~ . 2~27' u ndecaqon (11-5 ideri po Iylg Din) 8~. Whalt happens for the othef three solids? Explorinq the relationships between these five sands alone lis very intri'guiing and leads you deep into the world of Qi. 2..wly.g ana I pyTel rn id~.n)~ 8~. j. 3:1" 32 Grass. 9-13._ -_. 16.6-3 OfU glam i: deft rniti on.J 17-sided polyqon (heptaJde'ca'90n)I. 1.. of corner modules.' ..

3949 M.almo Sta. ' 1 .::'. I 304 61._). '. I :1. 1 - I .8. 8' '2" 1 . 5. I _.- I I _.dsbibliot:e.. 1 - II.k D~'5 .

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