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• Explain how the loudness of sound relates to its amplitude. • Explain how the pitch of sound relates to its frequency.
Look at the man's fingers plucking the guitar strings. When the strings are plucked, they vibrate and sound can be heard. When the man hits the drum, the membrane vibrates and sound can be heard. Sound waves are produced by vibrations. Vibrating musical instruments are examples of sources of sound waves.
When air is removed from the jar, there are no particles left to transfer sound energy. Thus, no sound can be heard. Sound waves propagate through a medium. Sound waves cannot propagate through a vacuumSound waves can travel through solids, liquids and gases.
The tuning fork has two prongs. When the prongs move to the right they compress air particles together. with the result of a pulse of compression moving outwards. Sound waves are longitudinal waves. This disturbance is then transmitted from one particle to the next particle through the air. A reverse movement of the prongs give rise to the pulse of rarefaction of the air. The wave particles oscillate in the direction parallel to the direction of propagation of the waves. 2 .A tuning fork produces sound waves.
Turn the knob to increase the volume.Wavelength is measured from one compression to the next compression or from one rarefaction to the next rarefaction. This causes the amplitude of the waveform to be larger. What can you say about the frequency of the waves produced? The waves displayed on the oscilloscope screen shows the same frequency even though the loudness of the sound is changed. What can you say about the amplitude of the waves produced? As the loudness of the sound increases. The oscillation of air particles Is bigger far louder sounds. 3 . the amplitude of the waves also increases.
LESSON 12 Reflection of Sound Waves By the end of this lesson. The oscillation of air particles is faster for higher pitch sounds. Calculate distances using the reflection of sound waves. 4 . This causes the frequency of the waveform to be higher. you should be able to: Describe applications of reflection of sound waves. What can you say about the frequency of the waves produced? As the pitch of the sound increases. the frequency of the waves increases too.What can you say about the amplitude of the waves produced? The waves displayed on the oscilloscope screen shows the same amplitude even though the pitch of the sound is changed.
For example: The time between the source and its echo is s So. High frequency sound waves. also known as ultrasound are used instead of using sounds in the audible range. Compare the wavelength. you will hear an echo a few seconds later. When you shout in front of a wall from a distance. 5 . the time between the source and the wall = x - s = s The distance of the sound in air can be calculated by using Distance = speed of sound in air x time = 330 ms1 x = 33 m x - Thus ships use echoes to find the depth of the sea beneath them.The Law of Reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. the frequency and the speed of the sound wave before and after reflection. Sound with a frequency greater than 20 000 Hz. The system that uses echoes to detect depth is known as sonar ultrasound. A reflected sound wave is called an echo. approximately the upper limit of human hearing.
Sonar . calculate the depth of the sea bed. In hospitals. So. 6 . ultrasounds are used to monitor the condition of a fetus in the womb. Furthermore. Ultrasonic waves are emitted by a probe. The time between the pulse and its echo is 0.4 seconds and the speed of sound in water is 1500 m s-1.2 s = 300 m Sound waves can be used in a similar way to "see" things.4 s. If the echo is detected after 0. After turning on a sound source. These waves are then reflected back to the probe from differentsurfaces within the womb. water absorbs less energy from ultrasounds and stronger echoes are produced. Why are ultrasonic waves used instead of sound waves in the audible range? Ultrasonic waves are used instead of sound waves in the audible range because they can be emitted as narrow beams and do not spread out as much as the audible sounds. the time between the source and the sea bed = = 0.A system using transmitted and reflected underwater sound waves to detect and locate submerged objects or measure the distance to the floor of a body of water. The image is then seen on the screen. the pattern of reflected sound waves that are bounced back can be seen.2 s The depth of the sea bed is Distance = speed x time = 1500 ms1 x0.
List sources of electromagnetic waves. 7 . you should be able fo: Describe the electromagnetic spectrum. Their brains process these returning signals so that they can navigate around objects as well as hunt for prey. The pulse of a premature infant may be very difficult to detect with a stethoscope since the sound produced is extremely faint. The ultrasonic echo from the moving blood can be mixed with the source frequency to produce a beat frequency. State that visible light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.Bats emit ultrasounds and then listen for echoes. LESSON 13 Analysing Electromagnetic Waves By the end of this lesson.
Visible light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.infra-red. The electromagnetic spectrum consists of radio waves/ microwaves. Red has the longest wavelength and violet has the shortest wavelength. We can see these waves as the colours of rainbow. Radio waves have the longest wavelength whereas gamma rays have the shortest wavelength. As the wavelength increases the frequencies of the waves decrease.The electromagnetic spectrum is a family of continuous waves varying in wavelength and frequency. among the frequencies normally used are: i) Long Wave (LW) or Low Frequency (LF) ii) Medium Wave (MW) or Medium frequency (MF) iii) Short Wave (SW) or High Frequency (HF) iv) Very high-frequency (VHF) v) Ultra high-frequency (UHF) 8 .109 Hz) in the electromagnetic spectrum. visible light. Radio waves have the longest wavelength (ranging from 10 5 m to 10-1 m) and the lowest frequency (ranging from 103 . For broadcasting. ultraviolet X-rays and gamma rays.
Microwaves are used for satellite communication and also for microwave cookingINFRARED Wavelength : 10-3 to 10-6 m Frequency . The satellite uses microwaves. therefore these waves are good for viewing the Earth from space. 1011 to 1015 Hz Most infrared waves are thermal. Why? Microwaves can penetrate haze. MICROWAVES Wavelength :10-1 to 10-3 m Frequency:109 . light rain and snow. Physiotherapists use heat lamps in reflexology to help heal and relax muscle injuries.1011 Hz Do you know how microwaves are produced? The waves are produced by the oscillation of electric current in special valves. 9 . fire or any body that generates heat. Infrared radiation can be produced by sunlight.This is a satellite image of sea ice breaking off the shores Alaska. Infrared is used in remote controls for televisions and video recorders.
As the red colour has the highest wavelength. it is easily diffracted and spread over the horizon What happens when light (visible light) is directed on a prism? What happens if a second prism is placed next to the first prism? When all seven colours are seen together. Do you know how ultraviolet rays are produced? 10 . the sky looks blue because at that instant the blue colour is diffracted the most. it can still be seen after thesun has set into the horizon. we see blue sky. Red has the lowest frequency while violet has the highest frequency. Red has the lowest energy thus.VISIBLE LIGHT Wavelength: 10-6 – 10-7 m Frequency : 1014 – 1016 Hz Red has the longest wavelength and violet has the shortest wavelength. Violet has the highest energy making it most difficult to diffract During the day. is white light seen? A fluorescent lamp Is used to identify fake money. There are ultra violet rays in the fluorescent lamp. So.
and the picture was taken using a gamma camera to detect the radiation. The sun and an ultraviolet lamp are convenient sources of ultraviolet radiation. They will penetrate most substances. and this makes them useful in medicine and industry to see inside things. hit the anode. ULTRAVIOLET RAYS Wavelength : 10-7 to 10-8 m Frequency : 1015 to 1017 Hz Ultraviolet radiation can make a cloth glow in the dark. The glow is caused by the presence of fluorescent dyes from washing powders which absorb ultraviolet radiation and then emit light X-RAYS Wavelength : 108 to 10-11 m Frequency: 10 to 1020 Hz X-rays are very high frequency waves and carry a lot of energy. X-rays will be produced. 11 . you should be able to: • Describe the properties of electromagnetic waves.Ultraviolet radiation may be produced by any thermal radiation of a source because of its temperature. An X-ray machine/ works by firing a beam of high velocity electrons at an anode. In nature. LESSON 14 Properties and Applications of Electromagnetic Waves By the end of this lesson. When electrons with enough energy. atomic bombs and explosions on the sun and other stars. GAMMA RAYS Wavelength : 10-11 to 10-16 m Frequency: 1020 to 1024 Hz The patient was given a slight radioactive gas to breathe. the sun gives off X-rays. X-rays can also be produced in the lab. How are gamma rays generated? Gamma rays are emitted from nuclear reactions.
Electromagnetic waves are emitted whenever electrons are oscillatedThese waves consist of a fluctuating electric field accompanied by a fluctuating magnetic field of the same frequency and phase. The electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation of the wave. 12 .• Describe the applications of electromagnetic waves • Describe the detrimental effects of excessive exposure to certain components of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves of different frequencies and wavelengths. Different groups of waves have different characteristics due to the different wavelengths and frequencies. 13 . Radio waves are produced in a variety of ways such as alternating currents in metal antennas.
Radio waves are used as the carrier wave widely used in broadcasting and communication. headaches. radar and cellular telephones. This may be because nutrition In the food cooked or heated up in 14 .Higher frequencies of radio waves are necessary to provide enough energy where more information can be carried. This can happen because microwaves have shorter wavelength than normal TV carrier frequencies. Telephone signals are also said to inhibit the melatonin hormone and can cause insomnia. frequent nosebleeds and raised white blood cell count. Satellite links make broadcasting of live events on TV possible across the world. loss of memory and concentration/ emotional instability and decrease of intelligence. Microwaves are widely used in satellites. Microwaves The frequency of microwaves is higher than that of radio waves as microwaves have shorter wavelength. What is the effect of overdose exposure of microwaves? It has been reported that prolonged eating of food cooked or heated up in microwave ovens can cause cancer cells to increase in human blood. Thus/ microwaves have higher energy and penetrating power than radio waves. nausea and vertigo/ ear ache and tinnitus. Thus/ the waves can be directed in a narrow beam from earth to the satellite and back to another part of the earth. What are the bad effects of excessive exposure to radio waves? Excessive exposure to radio waves such as those emitted by the radio wave transmitters and power lines may cause leukaemia and cancer. TV signals are beamed to satellite using microwaves as carrier waves.
The high frequency of light makes it ideal for transmitting information. Visible light con also be detected chemically with photographic filmand electronically by using semiconductors. 15 . Infrared radiation is used in sauna treatment to treat cancer. cameras and binoculars. This is why the skin experiences heat irritation when exposed to infrared rays. The hotter the object is/ the greater the energy per second is carried away by infrared radiation. Infrared lamps are used for the treatment of muscular complaints and to dry the wet paint on cars. Infrared radiation causes an increase of internal energy which usually results in a temperature rise when absorbed by matter. Visible light Light is detected by cells in the eye retina. Remote control keypads for television and video recorders use infrared signalling. It widely used in household appliances and night vision devices such as rifles. Very sensitive infrared detector such as photoelectric devices is used to detect the infrared emitted by a person buried alive in a collapsed building and to locate victims of earthquakes. This enables us to see things. Infrared penetrates smoke and dust better than visible light.microwave ovens is decreased when food molecules are rotated by microwaves to generate heat Infrared waves The surfaces of all bodies emit infrared radiation in a continuous range of wavelength.
UV spectroscopy is used in pharmaceutical industry to analyse drugs and in dentistry to polymerise materials used in some fillings. internet links and video conferencing signals. one should not focus directly at high intensity light sources such as welding sparks or the sun. blue. 16 . Ultraviolet stimulates vitamin D production in the skin and causes tanning of the skin.An optical fibre communication system can carry telephone conversations. Chlorophyll in green plants absorbs most of the violet. especially inside the human body using an endoscope. insomnia. headache. It is widely used in fluorescent lamps and sterilisation. orange and red light that falls on them and uses the energy for photosynthesis. such as the pain of sunburn. Excessive exposure to sunlight can lead to adverse health effects. lumbago. Thus. leukaemia or skin cancer. The very short-wavelength of ultraviolet rays has very high energy and penetrating power. Bundles of optical fibres are used to carry images back from previously inaccessible places. Ultraviolet rays Ultraviolet rays are produced by sunlight and mercury vapour lamps.
As bones absorb X-rays mare strongly than flesh. X-rays X-rays are generated by the rapid deceleration of high speed electrons projected against a metal target. Bees can detect UV light and flowers attract the bees with beautiful patterns that are invisible to human eyes. Dentists use the same technique to treat their patients. In the industrial world. X-rays are harmful as they are a form of ionising radiation. Excessive exposure to the X-rays can break DNA chains and cause cells to die or mutate the DNA.rays are also high. An ultraviolet lamp should never be viewed directly as ultraviolet ray is harmful to the eyes. Mutated cells may become cancerous. 17 .wavelength ultraviolet radiation or UV-A penetrates the skin very deeply and causes skin to sag and wrinkle prematurely. thus the penetrating power of X. Excessive exposure to short wavelength ultraviolet radiation or UV-B is harmful and can cause skin cancer. X-ray scanners are used to detect minute flaws in heavy metal equipment. medical doctors can see the conditions of bones in the human body with the help of the X-ray photograph. X-rays are used in medical Imaging and security systems at airports. The ozone layer in the earth's atmosphere absorbs almost all of the very short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation or UV-C. X-rays have high kinetic energy. Long.It is also used to detect forged banknotes.
18 . As they are used to kill cells of organisms. Gamma rays are destructive to living cells. to kill cancer cells and microorganisms in foodThey can also be used to sterilise medical equipments.Gamma rays kill microorganisms in fruits Gamma rays are produced by excited nuclei releasing energy during radioactive decayGamma rays have very high energy and penetration power. Excessive exposure to gamma rays can cause genetic mutations especially in reproductive cells. normal exposure togamma rays can also damage the cells. Gamma rays are used ta trace the flow of fluids.
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