SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT WHY DO WE FALL ILL
WZ 298 STREET NO.8 SADH NAGAR PART-I PALAM COLONY NEW DELHI-110045 PHONE 25057551, M9212913988 E-MAIL firstname.lastname@example.org
..e.g.g. high blood pressure etc. Diseases may be due to Infections and non-infectious causes. it multiplies and grows in the body called host and micro―organisms multiplies in the host body. the functioning or appearance of one or more systems of body changes. genetic abnormalities. Infectious diseases (communicable diseases) When a disease causing organism enters our body it causes infection. For example dirty water. unclear surrounding. Non―infectious causes Some diseases that does not spread in the community. Causes of diseases Immediate cause and contributory cause. Example: cancer. common cold etc. When there is a disease. tuberculosis etc. Chronic disease Diseases that last for long time. protozoa etc. Infectious causes Diseases where microbes are the immediate causes are called infectious diseases. Contributory cause The secondary factors which led these organisms enter our body are called as contributory cause. comfortable then it is said to have a disease.Summative Assessment―Why Do We Fall Ill Basic conditions for good health: i ii iii iv v vi Proper balanced and nutritious diet Personal hygiene Clean environment & surrounding Healthy air. Immediate cause The organisms that enter our body and causes disease is called immediate cause―for example virus. ANNANT CLASSES 1 e. are called chronic diseases elephantiasis. bacteria. headache. poor standard of living etc. The infectious spread from are person to another.. but remains internal are called non―infectious diseases. poverty.. contaminated food. Depending on the duration―disease is classified as acute or chronic Acute disease Diseases that the last for only short period of time. no pollution in the surrounding Regular exercise Proper rest
Disease When the body is not at ease i. e.
hepatitis. They are caused by some biological agents or micro-
.. Many diseases spread by contact of infected person with the healthy person. mother milk when infected can also cause disease. Example: AIDS. worm. Example: cholera. rabies. influenza. chicken-pox. tuberculosis. Such diseases are caused due to a genetic abnormality of malfunctioning of any organ system. Is caused due to contaminated food and water that contains bacteria virus. food poisoning Malaria. kala-azar Filariasis
Diseases spread through (a) Air (b) Food & water (c) Contact (d) Body fluids Causes air borne diseases due to bacteria virus. amoebiasis.
TYPES OF DISEASES Diseases are broadly grouped into two categories: ◊ ◊ Congenital diseases Acquired diseases
Congenital diseases These diseases are those which are present since birth. These can be broadly classified into two types » » Communicable or infectious diseases Non-communicable or non-infectious diseases
Communicable or infectious diseases These diseases communicate from an unhealthy or diseased person to a healthy person. cholera
AIDS. common cold. Like blood. tetanus.Summative Assessment―Why Do We Fall Ill Cause of Infections Bacteria Virus Fungi Protozoan Worm Diseases Tuberculosis. g. Example: fungal infection. semen. typhoid. polio. typhoid. Acquired diseases These diseases are those which develop after birth. measles Skin diseases. e. scabies etc. measles. These diseases may be inherited.
are vectors that carry pathogens like protozoa. arthritis. skin allergy etc. egg. Allergies Allergies is caused due to the hypersensitivity of the body to foreign substances like pollen grains. minerals. They are used for diseases caused by bacteria. Examples: Malaria.organisms (pathogens) such as viruses. They are caused due to some specific factors such as malfunctioning of some vital organs. Examples: asthma. fungi. etc. protozoa or helminths (worms). Example: mosquitoes. kidney failure. Vectors The organisms that spread a disease by carrying pathogens from one place to another called vector. The causative organism of the disease can spread form one person to another through contact. fever and redness. kwashiorkor. vitamins etc. drugs) that block biochemical pathways important for bacteria. MEANS OF SPREAD Infectious diseases spread from an infected person to a healthy person in the following ways. fish. food. Local effects caused on body due to inflammation are―swelling. Examples: marasmus. silk. dengue etc. Example: osteoporosis. Inflammation When an active immune system release many cells to the affected tissue to heat-off the disease-causing microbes is called inflammation. Antibiotics These are chemicals (medicine. bacteria. air. certain drugs etc. Non-communicable diseases can be further divided into: ◊ ◊ ◊ Degenerative diseases Deficiency diseases Allergies
Degenerative diseases These diseases are caused due to malfunctioning of the important body organs. heart diseases. Examples: Diabetes. beriberi. etc. bronchitis. arthritis etc. cancer etc.
. Deficiency diseases These diseases are caused by deficiency of nutrients like proteins. goiter. water. nylon. ANNANT CLASSES Summative Assessment―Why Do We Fall Ill 2 Class 9
Non-communicable (non-infectious) diseases These diseases are not spread from an infected person to a healthy person. deficiency of nutrients. anaemia. pain. pellagra etc. dust. myopia. The substances due to which allergy is caused are allergens.
The bacteria responsible for tetanus enter the human body from the soil. measles. chicken pox.ANNANT CLASSES Summative Assessment―Why Do We Fall Ill
3 Class 9
Modes of transmission of communicable diseases │ │ │ Direct transmission indirect transmission │ │ │Direct contact │By vectors │Droplet infection │Waterborne │Contact with soil │Airborne │Animal bite │Object-borne │Tran placental transmission │Dirty hands & Fingers DIRECT TRANSMISSION The pathogens of certain diseases react and infect a healthy person directly without an intermediate agent. bacteria). syphilis. These droplets may be containing pathogens (virus. especially dogs. It can take place by various means. tuberculosis etc are spread by droplets infection. ●Droplet infection: Droplets are air borne. ●Direct contact: between the infected person and the healthy person. bacteria etc. spread through direct contact through which syphilis and AIDS are caused. By inhaling the air containing the droplets. influenza. AIDS virus etc. mumps. spitting or even talking. pneumonia. INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
. sneezing. ●Animal bite: Viruses of rabies are introduced through the wound caused by the bite of rabid animals. Diseases like common cold. a healthy person may get the infection. The virus is present in the saliva of the rabid animal. ●Contact with soil: contaminated with diseases causing viruses. The infected person throws out tiny droplets of mucus by coughing. gonorrhoea. For example―virus of German measles. Diseases like small pox. ●Through placental transmission: this may pass from the mother’s body to the foetus through placenta.
or sports like wrestling or by any other means in which we touch each other socially.
PREVENTION OF AIDS ● ● ● ● Peoples should be educated about AIDS. the cholera causing microbe will enter the new hosts and cause diseases in them. mosquitoes and cockroaches which take up the pathogens from the reservoir of infection pass it to healthy people. Use of HIV infected needle for injections. ANNANT CLASSES Summative Assessment―Why Do We Fall Ill 4 Class 9
These are intermediaries and are called as vectors. such as cholera. donors of growth hormones. Routine screening may be done of blood donors. The epidemic typhus spreads by inhaling of dried faeces of infected lice. ●Dirty hands and fingers: are also sources of infection for various digestive and respiratory diseases. Transfusion of blood infected with the HIV. Before receiving blood. it must be screened for HIV. or hugs. ●Waterborne: Diseases spread also through water contaminated with microbes. typhoid.
AIDS does not spread through casual contact such as handshake. HIV infected mother to foetus (then to newly born infants) HIV infected mother to baby through breast feeding. organ donors. which are as follow: ●By vectors: Houseflies. For examples―houseflies carry the causative organisms of cholera. When this water mixes with the water used by several persons for drinking.The pathogens of certain diseases reach the human body through some intermediate agents. such as handkerchiefs. towels. It can take place by various means. For examples―contaminated water may contain excreta from someone suffering from infectious gut disease.
. Only disposable needles and syringes should be used. ●Object-borne: Many diseases are transmitted through the use of contaminated articles. ●Airborne: The pathogens may reach the humans with air and dust. utensils. dysentery and tuberculosis on their legs and mouthparts from the faeces and sputum to food and drinks and contaminate them. HOW AIDS DOES SPREADS? AIDS spreads through: i ii iii iv v Sexual contact with infected person. toys etc.