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Mechanical properties of metals

How do metals respond to external loads? •Stress& strain •Elastic deformation. •Plastic deformation.

Wulff.G. W. and J.2. Callister 6e. III. concrete) --torsion: cylindrical tubes. 1965.STRESS-STRAIN TESTING • Typical tensile specimen • Typical tensile test machine Adapted from Fig. 6. p. 2. 6. Adapted from Fig. John Wiley and Sons. New York.3. Hayden. • Other types of tests: --compression: brittle materials (e. Callister 6e.) 9 . The Structure and Properties of Materials. Vol. (Fig.. Moffatt.g.3 is taken from H.W. Mechanical Behavior. shafts. 6.

P (kN) X Maximum Load. Pmax Elastic Deformation Load. DL (mm) .Raw Data Obtained Total Elongation Uniform Deformation Load. Pf Elongation.

Engineering Stress-Strain Curve Elongation Engineering Stress.2% offset yield stress Sy E E Proportional Limit (Ultimate) Su Engineering Strain. S=P/Ao 0. e = DL/Lo) .

Stress-strain behavior .

Elastic behavior • In brittle materials • Non linear elastic behavior • In ductile materials • Linear elastic behavior .

the elastic region is non-linear. polymers. • For most metals. the part returns to its original shape and dimensions.Hooke’s Law Elastic Deformation • Elastic deformation is not permanent. including metals such as cast iron. or nearly linear-elastic. and concrete. it means that when the load is removed. Hooke’s Law may be applied: S  Ee • Where E is the modulus of elasticity (MPa) . the elastic region is linear. • If the behavior is linear elastic. For some materials.

there are corresponding strains in all other directions.25 <  < 0.Elastic properties of materials • Poisson’s ratio: When a metal is strained in one direction. For most metals. 0.35 in the elastic range ey ex    ez ez .

the material • does not return to its • previous dimension.Stress-strain behavior • Elastic deformation • Reversible: when the stress is removed. . the material returns to the dimension it had before the loading. Usually strains are small (except for the case of plastics). • Plastic deformation • Irreversible: when the stress • is removed.

Elastic Recovery Loading Loading Reloading Stress Unloading Unloading Strain elastic strain Strain .

2% offset yield stress is the stress that gives a plastic (permanent) strain of 0.Ɛe Strain Ɛe Plastic Ɛp Elastic The 0. .Ɛ) Ɛ=Ɛe+Ɛp Total strain = Stress elastic strain + plastic strain Ɛe= σ/E Total Strain Ɛp=Ɛ.002.Elastic and Plastic Strain P (σ.

is chosen as that causing a permanent strain of 0.the strain deviates from being proportional to the stress (the proportional limit) • The yield stress is a measure of resistance to plastic deformation .002 • Yield point P .Tensile properties: Yielding • Yield strength σy .

strain curve includes both an upper and lower yield point. the stress vs. .Tensile properties: Yielding • For a low-carbon steel. The yield strength is defined in this case as the average stress at the lower yield point.

Tensile Strength • For structural applications. the yield stress is usually a more important property than the tensile strength. since once the it is passed. the structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits .

Ductility L f  Lo Lo EL%  x 100 EL%  • Ductility is a measure of the deformation at fracture • Define as elongation percent or reduction in area L f  Lo • Lo Ao  A f Ao x 100 AR%  x 100 .

• Ductile if EL%>8% (approximately) • Brittle if EL% < 5% (approximately) Engineering Stress Engineering Strain .Ductile Vs Brittle Materials • Only Ductile materials will exhibit necking.

.Example problem Determine the mechanical properties for metal which have the stress-strain curve as shown below.

002 strain offset line is drawn dashed. It intersects the stress-strain curve at approximately 285 MPa .• The elastic modulus is the slope in the linear elastic region For the yield strength. the 0.

corresponding to the maximum stress on the complete stress-strain plot. • If the gauge length (L0) = 12 cm . the length at fracture (Lf) = 16 cm. original diameter (d0)= 12 mm. the diameter at fracture (df) = 8mm.• (d) The tensile strength is approximately 370 MPa. Then the ductility = .