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Investigation on Charging and Polarization Effects at Dielectric Interfaces in Laminated HVDC Insulation
J.Beyer, P.H.F.Morshis, J.J.Smit High Voltage Laboratory Delft University of Technology Faculty ITS 2628 CD Delft. Mekelweg 4 THE NETHERLANDS Abstract Conduction current measurements in conjunction with space cliarge nieasurements provide deeper insiglit into the charging behavior of an iiisulatioii tliaii oiie method alone. In tliis paper results from both test methods obtained for inaterials used in tlie construction of solid liquid laminates are discussed. Special attention is given the comparison between measurable and theoretical values of tlie amount of charge that accumulates at the dielectric interface as well as the time constants for its build up and decay. Analyzing these differences, additional information is gained regarding the space charge and polarization in such laminated structures. Likewise, space charge distributions in laiiiiiiates are inore reliable assessed this way. Introduction In tlic field of both energy and non-energy high voltage DC applications, engineers are challenged by the demand for ever decreasing diiiiensions. Therefore, the kiiowledge of how inaterials behave under electrical and thermal stress niust be esteuded to come closet to the liiiiits of nature without sacrificing device rcliability. Space charge iiieasurenients are one tool to rcncli tliis goal. In high voltagc DC insulation often a combination of solid and liquid matcrials is used. I n spite of this fact and tlic vast number of studics on space charge, only very few studies esisl on tlic space charge behavior of solid/liquid laminates [ 1. 3. 4). Tlic coiistituciils of tlic laminates under investigatioii were traiisforiiier oil and Polycarbonate (PC) modifications becausc of their widcspread use in DC applications, like X-ray Shifting tlie working modus of such an application towards a longer stand-by of tlie liigli DC voltage caused unespected failures of tlie insulntion. Moreover. the sites of abrasive material degradation and brcakdow locations were neitlier touclicd by elcctrodcs nor subjected to high fields if compared with other sites in tlie insulation. Charging has been held responsible for these effects leading to research this study is based on. Experimental
,Spnce Chnrge Adensurenrents In tlie present study the Pulsed Electro-Acoustic method (PEA) was used for tlie determination of space charge profiles [ 1, 21 at 20 and 70OC. Tlie laminated samples consisted of two Polycarbonate (PC) layers of equal thickness separated by an oil layer (Fig 1). Illsulating oil Serniconductiiig
Material Polycarbonate Polycarbonate with Ti02 filler Transformer oil (Shell Diala C)
Thickness [mm] 0.48 0.43
0-7803-5414-1/99/$10.00 IEEE 1999
Since oiie laminated sample exainined here represents two MAXWELL capacitors in series.OOE+l2 thickness of 0. 2) Resistivity of the Polvcasbonates used in this stiitJy cleperitleiit on the applied j e l d strength nt 20Y’ Temperature dependency of resistivity of PC modifications at 25 kV/mm . the advised arraiigenients according to IEC and ASTM [S.I 1 . tlie transition from the capacitive field distribution inherent immediately upon step voltage application to the resistive field distribution can be studied.$ 1E+16 aJ oi +PC 1E+15 Ti02 1I 10 100 1 Field strength E [kVlmm] Fig. The results of the leakage current measurement are presented in Fig. 61 were used. special attention lias been paid to design such test set ups that just tlie same constituents used in tlie space charge measurements could be examined. one restriction could not be avoided. 2. exclusively. including a decrease in its peak value. In the bulk of the PC adjacent to tlie aluminum electrode charge is being injected resulting in homocharge at this location. the resistivity mist not been seen controlled by the externally applied voltage. -3) Resistivitv of the stirdied Polvcarbonates clepciideiit on the teirrpesature at an electric stress of25 kI%nnr Tlie observed space charge distributions were reproducible. Because of tlie possible impact of processing and sample dimensions. As can be seen in Fig. Comparison of those calculated values with tlie experimental ones is hoped to provide a deeper understanding of the phenomena at such dielectric interfaces at considerable electric stress. As test set ups.> .both as function of the electric field strength and tlie temperature utilized for tlie space charge measurements. both the interfacial charge and the time constants of its growth and decay can be calculated.E 1. Albeit.00E+16 I 0 10 Temperature [grd C] 100 Fig. . 5). Interestingly. interfacial polarization of tlie MAXWELL-WAGNER type  was expected. 4) Dependency of the resistivity of the investigated oil Shell Diala C on the applied field strength as well as the teniperature Results and Discussion 1E+17- I . Electric field dependency of the resistivity of the PC modifications at 20C 1 E+18 E F c . The injection of lioiiiocliarge from tlie aluminum electrode yields to a widening of tlie charge signal at this electrodePC interface. 2 and 3 both test parameters affect tlie resistivity strongly. A typical example is shown in Fig. 33 . tlie resistivity of the selected materials had to be determined . Given the difference in tlie ratio of tlie permitivity to the resistivity of the studied PCs from the oil.65 m m l. For this note the polarity reversal of the charge at tlie oilPC TiO. 3 and 4 in form of the DC conduction currents (after the leakage current liaving finally been reaching its steady state level). As test electrodes served semi-conducting rubber in tlie case of tlie PCs and stainless steel for tlie oil samples. 5 . Furthermore. Neglecting tliese facts could lay behind tlie contradictory results obtained by Tanaka for several laminated dielectrics made of polymers [8.OOE+ll -o W bw 1 Field strength [kV/mm] 10 Fig. interface next to tlie aluminum electrode with time.Leakage Cirrrerit n/leasirrenierrts In order to calculate the expected surface charge in the laminated samples. Tlie accumulation of homocharge has also been colfirmed by voltage off measurements . Contrasting to this no space charge was found in tlie PC at tlie semi-conducting rubber electrode. This interfacial polarization was detected in form of charge layers at the solidoil interfaces (Fig. In doing so it is crucial to determine the deuendencv of tlie resistivity on the electric field strength and temperature used in tlie tests and/ or encountered in practice.9]. All points depicted in tlie figures arc tlie average value of at least two tests.
\: '53 =4 il I 2 3.. C/m -10 0 ...pc ( .8 42 0. . :oil $ . 5) Evolution of tile spnce charge in a lnnrinnte consistirig of PC . This contrast between measurement and prediction increases even with temperature. . The result of the surface charge calculation as well as the amount of charge obtained by integration of the nieasured charge peaks are shown in Table 2. the interfacial charges are always sinaller than the theoretical value. except for the charge at the oiVPC TiO. Systematic faults? Before we come back to that let us deal with the time constants since they hint at the polarization/ cliargiiig mechanisms involved...... The latter is even the case in the laminates under study here. Likewise interesting. poling stress 25 kl47rni constnnts 0.. .4 34 . especially evident for PC..1 45 Calcul. the transition froin the capacitive to the resistive field may not only change the value of the field strength at a certain location in a laminate but also the location of the maximum stress (for instance shifting the iiiasinium stress froin one layer into another). I -10 0 ' -10 I L i -10 i c -10 I I i ( ' I G Test 2 -1 . In the case of 7OoC.. the deviation for the PC filled with Ti02 is even bigger than that for the pure PC.1 pc For..TiOZ..9 43 2 3. have been evaluated.'interface adjacent to the rubber electrode.. At 20°C the measured values are close to the calculated ones whereas for a temperature of 7OoC the measured charges are significantly sinaller than those calculated.. Fig... as yet only two iiieasureiiients at 20°C for those laminates containing PC TiO.4 2.. I: .. The outcome is shown together with the calculated values according to the MAXWELL/WAGNER polarization in Table 3.. Another peculiarity is that at 20°C the charge at the PC/oil interface close to the aluminum electrode is always sinaller than its counterpart.....filled with T i 0 2 nnd trnnsfornrer oil nt 20 T. Concerning the time constants for growth and decay of the charge at the dielectric interfaces.
5 9. PC xire PC filled with Ti02 70" C 20" c 70" C 70" c 20" c 20" c Interface Interface Interface Interface Interface Interface next to far from next to far from far froin next to Al-elect.5 7.4 3.6 . absolute value of interfacial charge K [ C/m'] 7. AI-electr.6 9.7 1.1 70' C Interface far from AI-elect.6 2.4 & 8.5 1.2 4.20" c Interface next to Al-electr.6 9.6 10 1.6 8.9 6.5 9. test 1 test 2 Calculation 6. 1.7 6.4 35 .4 S.6 8. AI-electr.1 1. AI-electr.0 5. AI-elect. AI-elect.3 8.
. 6). the influence of the electrode inaterial is attributed to the charge injection mechaiiisms involved at the different electrode/ dielectric interfaces for the investigated laminates. Note the spocc Fig.. conduction comprises three different parts: charge in-/emaction at interfaces. latter case. the negative space charge in the PC at the PC next to interface dielectric interface is constantly supplied with new -10 charge layer charge for that lost by recombination.phenomenon was detected in some cases for the PC/oil interface nest to the rubber electrode.... Since transportation processes are dependent on the material and its modifications.il charge on both the solid lead to ai\ accuinulation of negative ions in the oil at '5 c 36 . Yet. Although. Alongside amount of charge being detected than is actually with this runs the recombination among the charges at present. Consequently. . the loss dielectric interface hmiiig opposite polarity in the blocked charge owing to recombination is not lhnt? the intcrfnce chnrge lnyer compensated for by new charges anymore. Further... either PC type can behave differently leading to different amounts of this blocked charge. chnrpe in the brtlk qf the PC next to the However.. voltage 'application (Fig. negative charges froin the PC is not exactly reversible. As long as the poling voltage remains space charge U bulk of I applied. Essentially.: ii PC observa!ion from voltage off measurements. positive :charge is now injected from the dielectric 25pn) the signal superposition leads to a sinaller interface into the adjoining bulk of the PC. these Since this blocked charge was measured to be interfacial charges are ions located in the oil... For that we have to reineniber the nanoscopic mechanisms hidden in the phenomenon conduction. The most promising is as follows: A constant recombination of charges takes place at the dielectric interface due to the presence of charges with opposite polarity... it is screened by PC/oil interface. above given explanation regarding the blocked space charge nest to the dielectric interface during . both dielectric interfaces. the effect of superposition the PC favors negative charge donation (indicated by becoines larger at elevated temperatures.. That is.. This in turn would and tlie calciilated interfaci.. Granted the accomulatioii of the blocked charge in the This means. Supposing temperature depcndcnt. the detected charge recombined with the blocked space charge in the bulk of sigiial is the superposed signal of both charges at the the PC close to the dielectric interface... Therefore. Note that it is of opposite polarity tlian its induced charge on that electrode. This is a steady Fig. 7) Groisrt tip chnrge profile in n Im?iit?nte nt state and the resulting charge profile is depicted in 70 Y. After having the interfacial charge. limited resolution of the test systeiii (in this case appr. charge transportation in the bulk of a material and the probability of recombination if charges of opposite polarity is present.'. liquid side of the interface. 7. it could be possible that the extraction of measured increases with temperature.. .. This peak is supposed to be caused by blocked space there is still a large amount of negative homocharge in charge in the bulk of the PC in the vicinity of the tlie vicinity of the aluminum electrode... the interfacial solid resp. negative charge is inore easily extracted PC.. Due to tlie charge extracts further negative charge from it. the dependency of the ratio between tlie measured froin the PC than injected into it. upon switching off the poling voltage.. For in the k:. dielectric and on its distant electrode could be esplained...HP' on inenscirement..... 7) seemingly contradicts the PC hol . For now it can be only speculated about the reason of these contradictory findings.. the charge layer at the dielectric interface is shown to have entered the bulk of the PC (Fig. the predominance of positive homocharge generation in the divergence bctwccn theoretical values and those PC Ill]).. As pointed out before.
. PA. NORD-IS 99 (June 1999). Ho~iiocliilrgc is iii-iectcd from the aluiiiiniini electrode into tlic bulk of the PC.. Conclusions For a inore precise interpretation of the coniples charging beliavior of laminates consisting of Polycarbonate (PC) and traiisforiner oil. Takada. Voltage off measurements showed the space charge in the bulk of the PC having the same polarity as the interfacial charge wlicreas voltage on measurements revealed this space charge to be of opposite polarity than the interfacial charge. Minneapolis. Proc. The trapped space charge in the bulk of the PC adjacent to the dielectric interface leads to field enhancements at the dielcctric interfaces. Smit.. 2 iiiin up to more tliaii 10 hours. "Pulsed Electroacoustic Method for Measurement of Charge Accumulation in Solid Dielectrics". pp.R.S.F. C.that PC/oil interrace witliout instantaneous recombination with the prcviously created positive space charge in the PC. Y. M. USA.. Deninark Methods of tests for resistivity of solid insulating materials: ASTM D 257. October 1997... 6. Elevated temperatures increased the amount found. IEC 93 Methods of tests for resistivity of insulating liquids: ASTM D 924. Thesis Delft University of Teclinology (The Netherlands). France Beyer. Arlington. 109-112 Suh. I997 Li.H.Y.. From tlie charge profiles of the iiivestigated laminates it is concluded that tlie actual electric fields differ strongly from those calculated by the resistivities. Smit. J. the coinparison between the measured and theoretical values in forin of the amount of interfiicial charge as well as its time constant has been found beneficial. Proc. Tours. Lee. 37 . Concerning tlie results of the current investigation following was found: The field transition from capacitive to the resistive state in the laminates was observed by space charge nieasurenieuts. K. IEEE Trans. J. Another po1. etc.. Delft University Press. "Space Charge Measurements on Polycarbonate-Insulating Oil Laminates".. T. Charges and Discharges in HVDC Cables. Ins.. The chargc carriers of ' the MAXWELL/WAGNER type of polarization are ions stcniming from the oil. No. June (1998).. Y. contradictory results were obtained. Vol. Refcrences: Jeroense.. Conf. USA. IEC 247 Schmidt. Morshuis. Especially noteworthy is that the electric field is considerably enhanced at the crucial points of such laniinated insulation: the PC/oil interfaces. P. Morshuis. NO.P.J. Hong. J. 2. Tlie measured time constant for this polarization lies in the rangc of' that one predicted: sinaller than one minute. USA. Philadelphia. As for the polarity of this charge in coinparison with the charge at the dielectric interface. Elevated tciiipcraturcs cnhmce this effect.irization originates froin charge trapping at tlie interface... of Int. An interracial polarizatioii according to the MAXWELL/ WAGNER type. Spacc chargc in the bulk of the PC nest to the dielectric i n l c r h x was detected. Otherwise tlie calculations are prone to be misleading siiice tlie rcsistivity of insulating inaterials is strongly depeiideiit ou tlie teniperatiire. 758-764 Beyer. In order to do so the resistivities of the utilized inaterials as a function of the test conditions niust be known. Kiln J. 2 (1994). Copenhagen. Vol. Uchiumi. ASTM. 188-195 Beyer. pp.J. M. The time constants lie in the range of appr. M. Yasuda.F in Bartnikas R. DEI. on El. "Space Charge Phenomena in Laminated HVDC Insulation Int. pp. Two diITereiit types of intcrfacial polarization are supposed to coexist: 1. T. Uchiunii. S. A hypothesis for resolving this contradiction has been devised. Internat. CSC'3 (June 1998). Engineering Dielectrics: Electrical Insulating Liquids.. "Interfacial Charge in Polyethylene/Ethylene Vinylacetate Laminates". of CEIDP. W. electric field strength. "Charge Trapping in Interfaces of Laminated PEEVA Dielectrics".F.. P. perniitivitties and dimensions alone. IEEE Trans. They should reside at tlic oil side of the dielectric interfaces. 3 (1096). DEI. "Characteristics of Interfacial Space Charge in Several laminated Dielectrics". 144-148 Tanaka..J. 1. 1994 Tantaka. J. Synip. Conf.N. unpublished results 'I. It is characterized by 2 to 3 time constants which are similar to tlic ones found for homocharge in the bulk of the PC..H. pp. T.. J.
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