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: -Who(for people) - which(for things) - that(for people or things) - where(places) - whose(belonging to a person or thing) - when(times) Language note: whom is the object form of who and is sometimes used in formal, written language. It is rarely used in spoken language. We use defining relative clauses to identify a thing, person, place or time. Without this information the sentence isn’t complete or doesn’t make sense. In defining relative clauses where the pronoun is the object, the pronoun can be left out. Tears help people to establish a bond with people(that) they care for. He used an experiment (that) be carried out at Vassar College. We use non-defining relative clauses to add extra information about a person or thing, or add a comment on the whole sentence. Without this information the sentence still makes sense. We use commas to separate the clause from the rest of the sentence. Cold air and wind, which dry out the eyes, cause reflex tears. People with tears were clearly idenitified as being sad, which in itself isn’t surprising. In non-defining clause we don’t use that and we can’t leave out the pronoun.
Your tear ducts are also connected to your nose. produced clear results. Language note: non-defining relative clauses are mostly used in formal or written speech. the sentence isn’t complete or doesn’t make sense Example: Their job is to wash out foreign objects that come into contact with the eye. was repeated several times. which dry out the eyes. Emotional tears. the pronoun can be left out Example:___________________ -non-defining clauses add extra information about a person. which result from emotional experiences. cause the tear glands to produce reflex tears. place or thing. which was repeated several times. that result from emotional experiences. In addition. Write the sentences as examples in the correct place in the rules. Their job is to wash out foreign objects that come into contact with the eye. the clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. produced clear results. Then underline the relative clauses in the sentences from the listening below. person or place. are unique to humans. which is why tears sometimes run down into it. cold air of wind. The experiment. -in defining relative clauses where the relative pronoun is the object. Emotional tears help people to establish a bond with people they care for. Grammar 1 Read the rules in the box. without this information the sentence still makes sense.Emotional tears. -defining relative clauses identify a thing. without this information. the relative pronoun can’t be left out . The experiment. are unique to humans.
(7) ______ Cornelius repeated several times with the same results. But when participants looked at the people (6) ______ tears had been deleted. Professor Randolph Cornelius. clearly shows what a powerful signal tears guve. (5) ______ in itself isn’t surprising.Example:___________________ -non-defining clauses can also give a comment on the whole sentence Example:___________________ -non-defining clauses are mostly used in formal. (1)_______ is an expert in crying. studied tears using an experiment (2) ______ he carried out at Vassar College in the US. The experiment. He showed participants pictures with people (3) ______ had tears rolling down their face and other pictures in (4) ______ the people’s tears had been deleted. written speech 2. they often couldn’t identify their emotions. The people with tears were clearly identified as being sad. .Complete the text with relative pronouns where necessary.