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Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      126 


Reinforced Concrete and eventually prestressed concrete are generally the most
convenient material for liquid tank and containers.

Due to the internal pressure of the liquid stored in such structure the walls and floors
are mainly subjected to tensile force. Bending moments and eccentric tension which
cause in most causes critical tensile stresses on the surface of the different elements
facing the liquid. If such elements are designed according to the general principle adopted
in ordinary reinforced concrete. Cracks will be developed and the liquid contained in tank
has the possibility to penetrate under its hydrostatic pressure through the cracks and cause
rusting of the steel reinforcement. Therefore, special provisions must be taken to prevent
the formation of such cracks. Such provisions generally lead to an increased thickness of
the walls towards their foot and at their other concerns. If the effect of this increase is not
to be considered. It may lead to serious defects so that at a thorough investigation is
absolutely essential.

Porous concrete or concrete containing honey combing or badly executed joints lead to
the same possibility of rusting with all its ill effect to the structure. Therefore, dense,
water-tight concrete is one of the essential requirements of liquid tanks and containers,
the necessary provision required in the careful design of the mix and in the execution of
the structure must be taken.

The protection of the finished concrete structure by convenient plastering, painting or

casing as well as its thorough curing must be carefully studied.

The previous investigation gives some points showing that liquid containers are
delicate structure and need, due to their intensive use in structural engineering, special
care and knowledge in the design execution and protection.

1.1 Elevated Storage:

In elevated areas which cannot be supplied from ground reservoir it will be necessary
to pump the average day demand and this can be achieved with or without storage.

Pumping without storage is the least desirable method of distribution, since it provides
no reserve flow in the event of power failure and pressures will fluctuate substantially
with variations in flow. Since the flow must be constantly varied to match an
unpredictable demand, sophisticated control systems are required. Peak water use and
thus peak power consumption are likely to coincide with periods of already high power
use, increasing power costs. Systems of this kind have the advantage of permitting

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      127 
increased pressure for fire fighting, although individual users must then be protected by
pressure reducing valves.

Pumping with storage is the most common method of distribution. Water is pumped at
a more or less uniform rate, with flow in excess of consumption being stored in elevated
storage tanks distributed throughout the system. During periods of high demand, the
stored water augments the pumped flow, thus helping to equalize the pumping rate and to
maintain more uniform pressure in the system.

1.2 Jordan's Practice Regarding Elevated

The current practice in Jordan for supplying elevated areas which cannot be supplied
from ground storage reservoirs is to pump to a standard 500 cubic meter elevated tank
and supplying the consumers directly from the tank. The tank is always 500 cubic meters
regardless of the size or nature of population served or the estimated current or future
demand. The tank provides head only and not storage. Consequently, the pumps must be
sized to provide the demand flow in excess of the stored volume for the expected life of
the pumps. Alternatively, pumps of different sizes or variable speed pumps may be used
for different demand periods. This alternative of variable speed motors involves costly
equipment, sophisticated controls, and well trained operators and is totally dependent on a
reliable power supply. Replacement and maintenance are also frequent and costs high The
reliability of supply is directly dependent on power supply and also on a steady and
reliable supply of water. This system is also highly sensitive to future power costs
increases, and would therefore be the least desirable system for any country without long
term energy resources or one that is dependent on importation of energy resources. If
pumping is done with adequate storage or with different size pumps for different demand
periods then the pumping station would be smaller, and annual power costs lower, pump
life longer, and maintenance and replacements fewer.

9 In this project; the tank with 1500 m3 capacity is expected to achieve both
storage, and head that needed to satisfy the expanded 2025 population water

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Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      128 


Dense concrete, free from or honey combing is the main requirement for water-
tightness. Porous concrete having cracks on the liquid side allow the liquid in the in the
tank, under its hydrostatic pressure to penetrate thorough the concrete and cause rusting
of the steel reinforcement leading to all its serious effects on the structure. Dense water-
tight concrete can be achieved through careful selection of aggregate, suitable granular
composition, use of low water cement ratio, sufficient cement content and thorough
mixing, compaction and curing.
We give, in the following, a short accurate about the main factors affecting the density
and water- tightness of concrete.

2.1 Composition, Mixing and

Dense concrete can be produced if the voids are reduced to a minimum, such a
provision can be attained through the choice of a convenient mix composed of
fine aggregate (smaller than 5 mm), medium aggregate ( between 5 mm and 10
mm). The maximum grain size is to be according to the thickness of the element
in which it’s used and preferably not more than 30 mm in reinforced concrete
water structure.
In general cases, the cement content in the mix is generally 350 kg. per cubic
meter finished concrete, in small tanks and in cases of low stresses, the cement
dose may be reduced to 300 kg/m3. Richer doses with a maximum of 400kg/m3
may be used for big under-ground tanks in wet medium. The use of high cement
doses in dry weather under normal condition is not recommended because the
shrinkage tensile stresses causing cracks in the concrete increases of the cement
It is recommended to use the least possible amount of mixing water giving
good plastic concrete. The water-cement ratio to be specified depends on the
method of compaction – by hand or by mechanical vibration- and on the nature of
the concrete constitutes, in this respect figures based on a slump test are
recommended. Excess of mixing water is to be avoided as it leads to porous
concrete due to the evaporation of the surplus water not needed for the chemical
action and increases the shrinkage strains.
In big tanks, the use of mechanical mixers with automatic water control is

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      129 
To produce dense concrete, good compaction is necessary as it compensates for
the possible gaps in the granulometric composition of the aggregate. The use of
source and immersion vibrators gives satisfactory results.

2.2 Admixture
Some admixtures have a mechanical effect on concrete while others have a
chemical effect. Admixture having a mechanical lubricants effect increase the
workability of concrete mixes, thus allowing a reduction in the water content
which in turn results in an increase in the strength and water-tightness of concrete
(e.g. baraplast and air entraining agents). Admixture having chemical effects on
the concrete mix are to be used only when tests prove that they very no ill effect
on the concrete or the steel throughout their lifetimes.
Other admixture help to seal the pores in the concrete, their presence is to be
considered only above mentioned steps and not in any way as a replacement.

2.3 Curing
Concrete undergoes a volume change during hardening; it shrinks in dry
weather and swells under water. Shrinkage cause tensile stresses in the concrete. If
such stresses are developed and act on fresh concrete of low strength, they cause
shrinkage cracks. It is absolutely essential to prevent such stresses from being
developed until the concrete has gained sufficient strength to resist them. This can
be done by intensive curing of fresh concrete (Keeping it continuously wet)
starting immediately after the final setting of the concrete and a minimum period
of 15 days.

2.4 Surface Treatment, paint And

The most effective surface treatment is cement mortar plaster composed of
600 to 650 kg cement gun. The thickness may be chosen 1.5 to 2.0 cm. It is
recommended to apply such a plaster on side facing the liquid after filling the tank
with water for 7 days. The surface should be thoroughly cleaned by wire brushes
before the application of the cement gun. In this manner, the preliminary cracks
which may appear after the first filling of the tank will be sealed by the plaster.
Moreover, the plaster will not be subjected to a big part of the plastic strains due
to water pressure.

Paints (e.g. barafluate, baranormal, bituminous paints…. etc) may also be

either directly on the concrete surface or on the cement plaster. The use of special

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      130 
paints whose is to close the surface pores (such as glass paints, plastic paints
watertight casing, lining with metallic sheets-e.g. stainless steel or water tight
tiling) may be of advantage.
Any material for water-tightness either as admixture or surface treatment must
not be used unless it is proved by experiments to be suitable for the purpose.


The elevated water tank was modeled using SAP-2000 software with the

following properties:

a) 42.5 m height above ground surface,

b) 700 mm thick tapered to 300 mm thick circular hollow shear wall with 30

m height above the ground to the bottom of the cone,

c) 300 mm thick inverse cone with 5 m diameter at 30 m height above the

ground and 24 m diameter at 40 m height above the ground,

d) 1.5 m thick circular raft foundation with 13 m diameter lies 2.5 m below

the ground surface,

e) 250 mm thick top slab.


4.1 Occupancy Category

Î Category No. II: Substantial Hazard Occupancy

4.2 Design response spectrum

1. Site Class: Hard Rock
2. Soil Type: A
3. Basic ground motion parameters (Ss, S1) – Zonation map
Ss = 0.57g
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Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      131 
S1 = 0.23g

4. Determine site coefficient adjustment factors (Fa, Fv) – IBC 2006

Fa = 0.8
Fv = 0.8
5. Determine design ground motion parameters (SDS, Sd1)

• Maximum expected earthquake coefficients:

SMS= FaSs = 0.8 * 0.57 = 0.456

SM1= FvS1 = 0.8 * 0.23 = 0.18

• Design earthquake coefficients:

SDS= 2/3SMS = 0.3g

SD1= 2/3SM1 = 0.12g

• Period:

To= 0.2 SD1/SDS = 0.08 sec

Ts= SD1/SDs = 0.4


Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated W
Water Tank      132 

e 8.1: (Design Response Speectrum) 

4.3 Deter
rmination of
f seism
mic de
     Choose   the
t serve caategory baseed on short Period Accceleration & One - Seccond Periodd

0.167 SDS 0.33g …………

….. SDC: B
0.067 SD1 0.13gg …………
…. SDC: B

4.4 Dete
ation of im
ance factor
f r
For Seismiic Design Category II; the
t IE = 1.25

4.5 Struct
S tural syste
em and
d syst
P eters (R, Cd, Ωo)

** For Orddinary Bearring Reinforrced Concreete Shear Wall;

W the system parameeters are: 
- Reesponse (strrength) moddification co
oefficient = R = 4.0
- Syystem over--strength paarameter = Ωo”Wo” = 4.0

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      133 
- Deflection amplification factor = Cd = 2.5

4.8 Redundancy factor ( ρ )

- For seismic Design Categories B: ρ = 1.0

4.9 Effective Seismic Weight of the

structure, W

Total Ultimate Load.

w1 = 1.2 = 1.2 (24) (110) = 3167 kN

w2 = 1.2 = 1.2 (24) (78.54) = 2262 kN

w3 = 1.2 = 1.2 (24) (39.27) = 1131 kN

w4 =
=1.2( ) + 1.6( )

= 1.2 ( γconcrete Vcore 4 + γconcrete Vcore + γconcrete Vtop slab + Area of top slab * qsnow)

+ 1.6 * ( γwaterVtank)

= 1.2((24 *39.27) 136.7 24 24 24 0.4 24 0.4 )

+ 1.6(1500 9.81)

= 9530 + 23540 = 33070 kN

4.10 ELF procedure “Lateral Load


VB = Cs W; Where

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      134 
Cs = SDS = (0.3) = 0.0937

Cs, MIN = 0.044 IE SDS = 0.044*1.25*0.3 = 0.0165

Cs, MAX = SD1

9 Tcomp. = 1.98 sec. by SAP2000 software.

9 Cs, MAX = SD1 = (0.12) = 0.019 … USE Cs, MAX = 0.019

9 VB = Cs,max W 

= 0.019 (W1 + W2+ W3+ W4) 

= 0.019 (39630)
= 753 kN

9 VB = 752 kN Using SAP-2000 software. " small value; concrete

core can alone resist this shear"

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      135 
Figure 8.2: (Undeformed Shape)                                            Figure 8.3: (Mode Shapes One & Two) 

Figure 8.4: (Mode Shape four) 

Figure 8.5: (Natural Period Illustration) 


The elevated water tank might be treated as a cantilever retaining wall the purpose of
stability check.
The tank must be externally stable in all the following ways:

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      136 
- It must not slide horizontally.
- It must not overturn.
- The resultant of the normal force that acts on the base of the footing must be
within the middle third of the footing.
- The foundation must not experience a bearing-capacity failure i.e; Bearing
pressure allowable bearing capacity.
- It must not settle excessively.

5.1 Sliding:

F.S “against sliding” =

9 Treat the tank conservatively as cantilever retaining wall.

PDriving = Inertia force "seismic force"

Presistimg = Sliding friction along the bottom of the footing (lateral earth pressure.)

¾ γ f
= 20 kN /m3
¾ : Coefficient of friction.
- = tan( 0.7) = tan(32*0.7) = 0.412
- = = 0.275

Fx = Cvx VB

k”higher mode effect” = 0.5 T + 0.75 ; for 0.5<T<2.5 sec

= 0.5 (1.29) + 0.75 Î k = 1.4

Cvx = ∑

∑ = 3167 (5)1.4 + 2262 (15)1.4 + 1131 (25)1.4 + 33070 ( 36.25)1.4

= 5273000

Cv1= = 0.006

Cv2= = 0.019

Cv3= = 0.019

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      137 
. .
Cv4= = 0.956

F1= Cv1 VB = 0.006 (752) = 4.51 kN

F2= Cv2 VB = 0.019 (752) =14.29 kN

F3= Cv3 VB = 0.019 (752) = 14.29 kN

F4= Cv4 VB = 0.956 (752) =718.91 kN

∑ 752 kN OK

∑ = lateral earth force + friction under the base of raft

= 0.5 γh2 D + μa N

= 0.5 * 20 kN/m3 * 2.52 m2 * 13 m + 0.275 * (39630+4778)

= 13,024.7 kN

, .
¾ F.S = = 17 > 1.5 “ok for sliding”

5.2 Overturning:

F.S “against overturning” =

MDriving = ∑ = 4.51 (9) + 14.29 (19) + 14.29 (29) + 718.91 (40.25)

= 29,662 kN .m

MResisting = ∑ = 812.5 (2.33) + 39630 (6.5) + 4778 (6.5) + 235.6 (6.5)

= 292100 kN .m

F.S overturning = = 9.85 > 2.5


Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      138 


Figure 8.6: (M11) 

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      139 
Figure 8.7: (M22) 

Figure 8.8: (Elevation‐section detailing in core shear wall) 

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      140 
Figure 8.9: (Cross section detailing in Cone) 

Figure 8.10: (Cross section detailing in Top Slab – Top Reinforcement) 

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy
Chapter 8: Elevated Water Tank      141 
Figure 8.11: (Cross section detailing in Top Slab – Bottom Reinforcement) 

Figure 8.12: (Cross section detailing in Raft) 

Eng Essam Gaith Eng Qutaibah Hmaidy