Physics 135AL
Physics for the Life Sciences

Laboratory Manual
Spring 2007

Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Southern California Los Angeles CA 90089-0484

and Robert Knol. Ty Buxman.ii Acknowledgments The current edition of this laboratory manual was written by Dr. Kristin Sabo. . Gökhan Esirgen. The following people contributed to past editions: Professor Robert Cole (emeritus).

iii Contents Introduction Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5 Experiment 6 Experiment 7 Experiment 8 Experiment 9 Experiment 10 Experiment 11 Experiment 12 Appendix A Appendix B Physics 135AL laboratory rules and policies Data analysis: errors and graphing Data analysis: application Two-dimensional motion Circular motion Collisions in one dimension Rotational kinematics Forces and torques in static equilibrium I: cantilever Elasticity: stress and strain Fluid flow Sound Ideal gas and the absolute zero of temperature Thermal conduction and radiation: case study and Leslie’s cube DataStudio starter manual Error analysis .

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Name: Partner’s name: Date and time:

PHYS135AL

EXPERIMENT I DATA ANALYSIS: ERRORS AND GRAPHING

1.0 Objective
You will learn how to determine the most common sources of error in experimental data and how to graphically represent data and use it for further analysis. Then you will study position, velocity, and acceleration data and graphs.

2.0 Recording data
2.1 Units
In most sciences the common unit system in use is the metric MKS (meters, kilograms, seconds) system. Less common is the metric CGS (centimeters, grams, seconds) system, and then finally the old standard, the English system (feet, slugs, seconds). You should have previously encountered these various systems in your studies so there won’t be a discussion of them here. Simply realize that combining values that have either been converted to, or were already in the same unit system is extremely important because unit definitions for more complex quantities typically depend upon the specific system. (The group which seems to use the most contradictions to this “rule” are astronomers, who love to mix and match unit systems in odd ways. It is true that all fields develop their own “jargon” in this sense, but in physics lab we’re going to remain purists. In a sense this is what physics is…) Recording units with data is as important as the numeric value itself, if not more so. Every time you record data or the results of a calculation, you must include its units. 2.1.1 Why? Give two reasons.

2.2 Scientific notation
Scientific notation is simply shorthand for recording large or small values, or values with a large number of placeholders. The Milky Way galaxy is believed to be 100,000 light years (Ly) across. In scientific notation this becomes 1 x 105, which translates to a leading 1 followed by 5 zeroes. If the exponent on the 10 were negative, the 1 would have been preceded by 4 zeroes, i.e., .00001. (The decimal was moved 5 places to the left rather than the right.)

2.3 Significant figures
It is important to be honest when reporting a measurement so that it does not appear to be more accurate than the equipment used to make the measurement allows. We can achieve this by controlling the number of digits, or, significant figures, used to report the measurement.

1

EXP I

Determining the number of significant figures The number of significant figures in a measurement, such as 2.531, is equal to the number of digits that are known with some degree of confidence (2, 5, and 3) plus the last digit (1), which is an estimate or approximation. As we improve the sensitivity of the equipment used to make a measurement, the number of significant figures increases.

Postage Scale Two-pan balance Analytical balance

3±1g 2.53 ± 0.01 g 2.531 ± 0.001 g

1 significant figure 3 significant figures 4 significant figures

Rules for counting significant figures are summarized below: Zeros within a number are always significant. Both 4308 and 40.05 contain four significant figures. Zeros that do nothing but set the decimal point are not significant. Thus 470,000 has two significant figures. Trailing zeros that aren’t needed to hold the decimal point are significant. For example 4.00 has three significant figures. If you are not sure whether a digit is significant, assume that it isn’t. For example if the directions for an experiment read “Put the lens at 60 cm,” assume that the distance is given to one significant figure, but if “60. cm,” then there are two, likewise if “60.0 cm,” then there are three significant figures. Addition and subtraction with significant figures When combining measurements with different degrees of accuracy and precision, the accuracy of the final answer can be no greater than the least accurate measurement. This principle can be translated into a simple rule for addition and subtraction: When measurements are added or subtracted, the answer can contain no more decimal places than the least accurate measurement.

150.0 g dynamics cart + 2.531 g penny 152.5 g total mass

(one significant figure after the decimal point) (three significant figures after the decimal point) (one significant figure after the decimal point)

Multiplication and division with significant figures The same principle governs the use of significant figures in multiplication and division: the final result can be no more accurate than the least accurate measurement. In this case, however, we count the significant figures in each measurement, not the number of decimal places: when measurements are multiplied or divided, the answer can contain no more significant figures than the least accurate measurement.

EXP I

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Also use scientific notation whenever appropriate. and the units must be included: X i ± ΔX i (unit) (EQ 1) EXP I 4 .2. your least significant figure (the rightmost digit) should only be an estimate. supported. 3. It is always wise to understand the limits inherent in your numbers.1 Using a meterstick measure the width of your lab table and record it here. 3. For the meter stick.2 mm is estimated. for if there is one thing that is certain in this universe. or m)? 3.0 Error analysis Most lab situations concern themselves with the taking. and the other digits must be directly inferable from the instrument.035 x 105 ft in scientific notation.1. the least count is the value recorded in 3. then it should be expressed as 1. keeping the significant figures.1. 3.1. So if nothing is exact. a measurement might be expressed in centimeters as “14. just how close to exact is your data? 3. In principle when you use an instrument such as a ruler.2 What is the smallest unit on your meter stick (mm.1 cm is directly read off the mm division marks and 0. For example if there are four significant figures in the calculated result 103450 ft. processing. it is that “nothing is exact”. and analysis of data from which theory is derived. 3. usually known as the instrument’s precision. For example with a ruler with mm spacings. The definition of instrumental uncertainty for an instrument is simply 1/2 x least count of that instrument. or disproved.3 Can you say that the measurement of the table’s width is closer to one (of the smallest) marks than another? The smallest increment you can read on your instrument is known as the least count of that instrument.” where 14.1.4 What is the meterstick’s measurement uncertainty? Does this make sense? Anyone else should be able to look at data you’ve taken and without knowing details of the experiment understand how exact it is and what the units are.1.1 Instrument errors All measuring tools have error associated with them. The uncertainty ΔXi must always be recorded with the value Xi itself. cm.12 cm.

0 +/-. otherwise. write down the width of the table and its uncertainty. then the fractional error of A is given as: ΔA = n ΔB ----------B A 3.1. there are rules for addition/subtraction. The percent error is simply 100 × ΔX/X.2 Fractional and percent deviation The fractional deviation answers the question “What fraction of the value is the uncertainty?” and is given by ΔX/X. Mathematically.1 Calculate the error when you subtract 36.3 +/-.5 In the correct format.3 Propagation of error through calculations In general errors are of an additive nature. 3. These rules are presented without proof for everyone’s collective sanity. Addition and Subtraction: Let C=A+B or C=A-B. 3. Then the square of the error after addition or subtraction in both cases is the sum of the squares of the input errors. As with significant figures. Note that since this format involves the addition/subtraction operation. multiplication/division. we write ΔC = ( ΔA ) + ( ΔB ) 2 2 (EQ 2) Multiplication and Division: Let C = A x B or C=A/B. Remember the units.3. but to simply add them overestimates the deviation (see a stats book for details). and here we add a rule for powers. the number of significant figures after the decimal point should be the same for your measurement and uncertainty. The key to errors in multiplication and division is to look at the fractional errors: ΔC = -----C 2 2 ⎛ ΔA⎞ + ⎛ ΔB⎞ ----------⎝ B⎠ ⎝ A⎠ (EQ 3) Powers: Let A = Bn.7 m (EQ 4) 5 EXP I . your expression doesn’t make sense.3.2 m from 18.

perhaps just the uncertainty in the measurements would suffice. ΔV.∑ X i n i=1 n (EQ 5) 3. The mean X is simply the sum of all n values. it makes sense to calculate the average value. Alas. Keep in mind that a constant is a number considered to be WITHOUT error. must always be recorded with its associated error. 1 X = -. But what is the error of the mean? 3. or mean value for that group.) The mean. A better way would be to determine the average deviation of each individual data point from the calculated mean. the rules for addition apply. too.5 The error in the mean: the standard deviation What would be a logical way to discuss the error associated with the mean of a group of values? Each value was taken with the same instrument. 307. 1. divided by the number of values in the group.1 cm. Typically the mean deviates from the data by a value not simply related to the uncertainty.3. Write down the correct general formula to determine the error in the volume of the cylinder.3.This is known as the standard deviation σn−1: EXP I 6 .2 The volume of a cylinder is V = πr2h.1 Calculate the mean for the following group of values: 22. first consider the Area A of the cylinder base and then use V=A h.3 mm (Hint: all data which is mathematically combined must have the same units.4. given Δr and Δh.5 m. As concerning the significant figures.4 Repeated measurements and the mean When you have a group of n repeated measurements. 3. (What do you do with π?) Hint: Break up the problem into two parts. no.

3. or in reading measurements.∑ ( X i – X ) n–1 i=1 n (EQ 6) Note that although there are n data points. For example. Unknown systematic errors can only be discovered by comparing measurements of the same physical quantity which are obtained by several methods. . Personal Errors .6 Experimental error Errors associated with experiments may be summarized by three types: Systematic Errors . inherent defects in equipment. if a meter stick is slightly worn at one end and measurements are taken from this end.005 gm. such as mistakes in arithmetic.005 gm. 7 EXP I .2 Is the standard deviation larger or smaller than the uncertainty in the values? Does this make sense? 3. each of which is equally likely to produce a positive or negative effect. etc.5.1 Calculate the mean and standard deviation for the following data: .” 3.005 gm.021 gm +/-. Random Errors . humidity. neglect of effects such as temperature.019 gm +/-. pressure.σn – 1 = 2 1 ----------.These include prejudice on the part of the observer.019 gm +/-. n−1 is used when taking the average. . These errors are characterized by their tendency to be in only one direction. This makes σn−1 a so-called “unbiased estimator. It is assumed that they are due to the combined effect of a great number of independent causes. These are characterized by discrepancies in several measurements of a quantity under apparently identical conditions.Error due to blunders. then a constant error will occur in all measurements. Random errors are statistical in nature and therefore can be analyzed by statistical methods. These can be minimized by repeating measurements and keeping redundant record which are subject to crosschecks. in recording data.5.A series of measurements in which the systematic errors have been minimized will still contain variation due to causes that lie beyond the control of the observer.

6 ± 3.13% . However. If some data seems to clearly disagree with the rest. give an example of each type of experimental error.).7 Expressing the experimental results The number of significant figures for the standard deviation you calculated is the same as that for the data points. scale for each axis. Properties of lines and curves can give you information about the theory from a set of graphed data as well. 3. but do not eliminate it at this time. Data taken in the introductory labs are often accurate to three significant figures.3.1 From your previous experience(s) in science labs.4646 × 10 ± 0. or. to be effective. 4. put a question mark next to it. appropriate use of symbols and words and the type of graph (linear.278695 (seven significant figures each). semi-logarithmic. a graph must conform to accepted rules.0 Graphing data Graphical analysis of a data set is an extremely useful tool to the scientist. A graph can present a clear picture of how one physical quantity depends on another. It is usually desirable to put your data into the form of a table. Note 3 that the number of digits kept after the decimal point for the experimental result should be the same as for the error.3 . But when you express the experimental error as X ± σ n – 1 . The rules presented below are followed by most scientists and engineers.6. your data must be organized into a clear and easily readable form. or. Thus it's important we're all speaking the same language with respect to graphs. 4. the units and comments about experimental uncertainties. in scientific notation. The graph should be made as large as possible in order to retain this accuracy. • • Use graph paper or an acceptable substitute.1 Graphical “syntax” Before attempting to construct a graph.6 ± 0. choices must be made concerning the size of the graph. etc. In order to display the information clearly.13% . 2464.561 and 3. Scales for the coordinate axes should be chosen so that the data EXP I 8 . it would make more sense to keep only two (or maybe three) significant figures for the standard deviation or anything else used as an experimental error. For example if the mean and standard deviation are 2464. Often the general shape of the curve described by the data gives clues to whether you did the experiment properly and if your data supports the theory. clearly indicating what was measured. 2. then the result should be expressed as 2464. alternatively.

each axis must be labelled by the quantity and units being plotted and the division used. The units of the measured quantities are customarily enclosed in parentheses. the dependent variable is plotted along the vertical axis and the independent variable is plotted along the horizontal axis. For example. use v (m/sec). This can be done if each small division is made equal to numbers such as 0. Make sure the graph is titled. however. All symbols used in the graph should be explained. In plotting a curve.2.5.1.extends over almost all of a full-sized sheet of paper. The use of a power of 10 in a scale caption in the form “v in m/sec × 103“or “v × 103 m/sec” should be avoided since it is not clear whether the scale numbers have been or are to be multiplied by 103. • A brief caption may be inserted in a vacant area within the graph to make the graph reasonably self-explanatory. it should be directly associated with the units as v(103 m/sec) or directly associated with the scale numbers.1. 4. 0. or 0. To avoid misunderstanding when it is necessary to use a factor like 103. a straight line through the origin with slope m is represented by the equation y = m x. The decimal parts of units should be easily located. If velocity is being measured in m/sec.1 Can “time” ever be properly plotted along the y-axis? Explain. A plot of this line is shown in Figure 1. • The scale need not be the same on both axes. It may be necessary to suppress the zero so that the data and the resulting curve will cover most of the graph paper. • Graph of y=mx [slope = rise/run = Δy/Δx = m] y(x) x Figure 1: Graph of y = mx 9 EXP I .

The physical quantity acceleration is defined with respect to position and time. For objects moving to the right. The extent to which the plotted points coincide with the theoretical curve is a measure of the precision of the results. Dashed or dotted lines/curves indicate you believe the theory to hold between the data points but you don’t have the data. Gravity is an acceleration which is due to a force—the force of gravity. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. in general. It moves with a certain rate in a certain amount of time and you are asked “How far did it move?” In Jr. In one dimension velocity is just the speed and a plus or minus sign in front of it. One can also look at how fast the velocity itself EXP I 10 .Graph of y=mx [slope = rise/run = Δy/Δx = m] y(x) x Figure 2: Graph with error bars • Technically. This may appear a technicality. which.” This is still true. in addition to the magnitude. Likewise the change in distance or position is taken positive if toward the right direction. A best-fit or theoretical smooth curve should be drawn in such a way as to fit the points as closely as possible within the error bars and.best-fit or theoretical. as many points will be on one side of the curve as on the other. -----Δt (EQ 7) The velocity tells you how fast an object is changing position. ΔX . The velocity ϑ is equal to the change in distance ΔX over the change in time Δt : ϑ = ΔX . not exact. Seems intuitive that accelerations are always caused by forces being applied. high you were probably taught that the answer was. the location of the “best fit” line can often easily be found by sighting along the points when the eye is placed almost in the plane of the paper (eye-ball fit). If the experimental points lie along a straight line. “distance = speed x time. actually connecting graphed points with a solid line/curve indicates that you know that the values between your data points lie along that curve. has a direction. that it is a fact and you are certain.0 A Simple Experiment and Analysis So let’s do some experiment and analysis of something we deal with all the time in our everyday lives—gravity. • • 5. Imagine some object at some position X from an origin of your choice. the velocity is taken to be positive and vice versa. Best-fit and theoretical lines or curves are drawn through a group of data points and are labelled as exactly that -. but it is part of the graphical language science shares and it’s wise to adhere to it.

here x v ≈ 345 m/s the speed of sound in air at and t being the round-trip distance and time. the motion sensor.) 5. The sound bounces off an object and returns to the detector. respectively. preset time intervals.is changing.0.0 Motion Sensor The motion sensor is one of a number of different types of sensors to detect position. ------Δt Notice that both Equations 7 and 8 are in the form graphs. Using x = vt . (See earlier examples of ----Δx 5. Clearly this is where the experiment is heading. and T = 73 °F . It sends out an ultrasonic (of frequency greater than you can hear) sound pulse at regular.1 From Equation 7 what quantities would you measure to determine the velocity of an object? (EQ 8) m = Δy . where m is the slope of the line.2 Will a graph help? If so. the motion sensor then carefully determines the distance to an object. 11 EXP I . but first we need to learn to use our experimental equipment. 6. Δϑ . explain carefully how. The change in velocity is known as the acceleration a of an object: a = Δϑ .0.

Time graphs with their time axes aligned. Welcome to DataStudio window should pop up. 6.e. simply click on that sensor’s icon and then press the Delete key on the keyboard. In the left column in DataStudio.) The Experiment Setup window will show you the PASCO interface. This simply means that the computer will collect 20 data points. Finally click on Acceleration and drag it onto Graph 1 (but not Graph) under Displays. 2. If the black PASCO interface (next to the computer) is not already turned on. the computer must be restarted after it is turned on. every second. Graph 1 should consist of three graphs that are vertically stacked.6. Click on Position and drag it onto Graph. Start the DataStudio software. 3. i. Finally in the Experiment Setup window.. which is under Displays in the same column. An icon of the motion sensor should appear with the plugs already connected to the correct channels. (If this window doesn’t appear. and Acceleration variables under Data. If the interface is not the USB type (but the SCSI type). change the Sample Rate to 20 Hz. Choose Create Experiment. you will see Position. Velocity. Note that if you accidentally select the wrong sensor and wish to delete it from the screen. EXP I 12 . turn it on. click Setup. If you have done everything correctly. maximize it to full screen. The yellow plug goes into Channel 1while the black plug goes in Channel 2. 4.1 Setup 1. Connect the motion sensor to the PASCO interface. Click on Channel 1 on the interface and add a Motion Sensor. This will generate a Position vs. Velocity. your graph should look like the one in Figure 3 below. Double-check that the yellow plug is connected to Channel 1 and the black plug is connected to Channel 2. Then click on Velocity and drag it onto Graph 1 (but not Graph) under Displays. This should generate the Position. and Acceleration vs.2 Taking data Generate a Graph display as follows. equally spaced in time. After you finish generating your graph. Time graph.

In order to erase unwanted or junk data.1 Take a data set while one partner is slowly moving back and forth in front of the motion sensor. 13 EXP I . time. a vs. 6.Figure 3: DataStudio x. Sketch the graph of position vs. You should delete data runs as necessary so that the program doesn’t crash or you don’t get confused by many different data runs. choose Delete ALL Data Runs from the Experiment menu. t graph To take data simply click the Start button.2. v. Click the Stop button to stop taking data.

(Don’t worry about numerical values here.0. t Graph B Graph A X X t t Graph C Graph D V V t t EXP I 14 .7.) For each graph. 7.. and acceleration In this section you will make qualitative and quantitative studies of position. explain how you had to move to replicate the graph shape (NOTE: x=position. velocity. v=velocity). and acceleration using the motion sensor. have the other partner “move” in front of it such that the data you take for real mimics the following graphs’ shapes.1 With one partner holding the motion sensor still. velocity.0 Exploring position..

1 Given the x vs.1. You could alternatively give the velocity with the magnitude indicating the speed and the sign indicating the direction (plus to the right.2 The motion sensor records increasing distances from the sensor itself as positive. Now use your laboratory partner as an object and quantitatively produce Figure 4 on the computer by collecting the data with the motion sensor. describe how the object is moving. Therefore. t plot in Figure 4 below. 7.1 Abruptly changing velocity 7. the increasing right direction will record as positive data points on the computer. with the sensor itself acting as the origin ( x = 0 ) of your position scale. give the speed and direction.1.3 What do you expect the acceleration to be when you are within one of the lettered regions in the graph? 7.1.7. i.1. minus to the left) in each region. Use a meterstick and stopwatch if necessary.4 What is happening to the acceleration when you switch from one region to the other? How do you explain this? Is it physical? 15 EXP I . The motion sensor should sit steady and your partner should move. in each lettered region. 7.e. Don’t forget the units.. if the motion sensor is facing toward the right.

7.3.e.. i. by collecting the data with the motion sensor.2.2 Slowly changing velocity 7.0 A 0.0 C D E F x (m) 2. t plot in Figure 5 below. EXP I 16 .1 Given the x vs.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t (s) 11 12 Figure 4: x(t) plot for an object with abruptly changing velocity.2. The motion sensor should sit steady and your partner should move.0 B 1. give the speed and direction. describe how the object is moving.2 Now use your laboratory partner as an object and quantitatively produce Figure 5 on the computer. Use a meterstick and stopwatch if necessary. 7.

7.5 Do you see the connection between the velocity and acceleration graphs? Explain how the two graphs are related to each other. 17 EXP I .4 How is the acceleration graph different this time? 7.3 How is the velocity graph behaving now? Explain how your velocity graph relates to the position graph on the computer.2.2. 7.2.

so refresh your memory before you come to the laboratory.0 C D E F x (m) 2.0 B 1. We will continue this experiment in next week’s laboratory session.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t (s) 11 12 Figure 5: x(t) plot for an object with slowly changing velocity.0 A 0. EXP I 18 .3.

The 0.0 Objective You will apply the methods you learned last week and determine a very important physical quantity.0 Linear data You are probably already familiar with linear graph paper. interface (ScienceWorkshop 750 USB). Motion sensor II (CI-6742) on a short rod attached to the bottom of the track with a piece of duct tape. consider an experiment in which we measure the acceleration due to gravity on Earth.81 m/s2. For objects “near” the Earth’s surface. Quantities along an axis are directly proportional to their linear distance from the origin. Before you start take the cart in your hands. right-angle triangle. The yellow and black plugs of the motion sensor should be connected to Channels 1 and 2 of the interface. collision cart. Too little angle will result in insufficient acceleration. Adjust the angle of the motion sensor to 0 degrees. The cart has nearly frictionless wheel bearings. and computer with DataStudio. The clamp holding the rod should be on the opposite side of where the knob of the upper-end bumper is.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT II DATA ANALYSIS: APPLICATION 1. zero.” falling toward the Earth unencumbered. table clamp and rod to raise the dynamics track. Too much angle will result in the cart going wild and derailing. which is used to set the dynamics track at an inclined angle. The bumpers at both ends should have their magnets facing inside. In this experiment. and is directed straight down toward its very center. you will find a value for g and compare it to the accepted value. Both bumper knobs should be securely tightened. A small rod through the motion sensor further secures it at the bottom of the track with a duct tape. Figure 1 shows the experimental setup. The motion sensor is attached to the upper end. This adjustment is important. using the motion sensor to determine the distance of a moving object accelerating under the force of gravity. using the large knob on its side. magnetic bumper with the magnetic side facing in at the bottom end of the inclined track. respectively. the acceleration of gravity near the surface of Earth. this value for the acceleration g is constant. The acceleration is in this same direction.0 Procedure Apparatus Dynamics track. In MKS units g = 9. 3. As an example of data that can be linearized via graphing techniques. 2. are accelerating due to this force alone. The coordinates of the origin are often. turn it around. 1 EXP II .0 cm end of the dynamics track should be raised about 25–30 cm with respect to the opposite end. So objects in “free fall. and center the wheel axes if necessary by carefully pushing the wheels sideways with your fingers. The force of gravity is caused by the mass of the Earth. A rod is clamped to the side edge of the table. but not necessarily.

Never bring them close to the computers. EXP II 2 . No magnetic bumper is needed at the top end of the track. CAUTION: Never hit or drop the motion sensors.Figure 1: Dynamics track set at an inclined angle otherwise. or floppies. CAUTION: The carts contain powerful neodymium magnets. Before you start read these cautions carefully: CAUTION: Treat the dynamics tracks and carts with care. Have your partner catch the cart at the end of the run. the experiment may not work very well. CAUTION: Always have your partner (or yourself) catch the cart before it hits the bumper at the end of the track. Do not remove any parts from the dynamics tracks. Be careful not to hit or scratch the tracks. The cart will probably travel too fast to be stopped by the bumper alone. Do not drop the carts. There should be one magnetic bumper at the bottom end of the track with the magnet side facing in. Also make sure that the carts do not somehow end up hitting the computers or computer accessories. The beam switch should be set to narrow. The dynamics cart hitting the motion sensor might damage it. Never remove the magnetic bumper in front of the motion sensor. hard drives.

Also the dynamics tracks should be periodically wiped with a soft cloth to keep them clean so that the carts ride on the tracks smoothly and with minimum friction. 3.1 For graphs A and B from 7.time graph. This will put a velocity graph under the position graph. Hint: what does EQ 8 in Experiment I tell you? 3 EXP II .2 For graphs C and D from 7. qualitatively describe what the acceleration of the object is for the different parts of the graph. which will assign it to Channels 1 and 2. Go back to those graphs and do the following: 3.0. Now start DataStudio and click Create New Experiment. under the Motion Sensor tab. Under sensors double-click the motion sensor.1 in Experiment I.0. releasing the mouse only after the entire graph is highlighted. 3.0. with the time axes of the two aligned. Then double-click the motion sensor icon and. qualitatively describe what the velocity of the object is for the different parts of the graph.1 20 Hz equals how many cycles per second? 3. Then drag Velocity under Data in the left column onto the newly generated graph.1 in Experiment I.1.0.1. Hint: what does EQ 7 in Experiment I tell you? 3.1 Qualitative analysis of acceleration Last week you were asked to replicate the shapes of displacement and velocity graphs by moving in front of the motion sensor.2 What then is the time interval between pulses for a frequency of 20 Hz? Now in DataStudio drag Position under Data in the left column to the Graph under Displays to generate a position-vs. change the trigger rate to 20 Hz.

You will need to use the pan and zoom tools on the graphs to focus in the regions of interest. explain why you could not do it. try to qualitatively replicate the following two graphs. If you failed. After you are done.3. explain carefully how you replicated these graphs. EXP II 4 .4 For each graph. if you suceeded. (Hint: For Graph b let the cart make a gentle bouncing motion off the lower-end bumper. 3.) a V X b t t 3. t and v vs. t).1. Now click the Start button in DataStudio. click the Stop button.5 Draw two different graphs (x vs.1. moving the cart on the dynamics track with your hand. which someone would not be able to replicate. Then.1.3 Are any of these four graphs linear? How do you know for sure? Explain.

Then find the difference of height for these points. H. 3. recording it with the error and unit. 5 EXP II . 3.3. resulting in very large readings. Make sure that your partner catches the cart before it hits the lower-end bumper.2 Using a meterstick measure the height of these two points from the table and write them down with the error and unit.2 Quantitative analysis of acceleration For this activity set the angle of the inclined between approximately 10° and 5° . The minimum distance the motion sensor can measure is about 15 cm. Is the error for the difference the same as the individual measurement errors? Here is how you will take data. explain in general how graphing data can help you demonstrate or describe physics equations. Include the error and unit as well. Now click Start and have your partner release the cart.6 In your own words. You can click Start before the cart is released. but you might want to click Stop before the cart is caught in order to avoid chaotic data points at the end of the graph. You should make several runs until you are satisfied that you have good data.2.2. Therefore release the cart from about 20 cm.1 Choose two points as far apart as possible (Why?) along the rule of the dynamics track and record the distance L (measured along the track) between these points.1. Sometimes the motion sensor may miss the target (cart). You can always delete unwanted runs using the Edit menu. 3. Do not let your hands or anything else block the view of the motion sensor.

v=v0+a t. Use the x–y tool on the graph to determine the velocity and time at each point.1. m. Does it fit the y=mx+b pattern? What are y. Remember the definition of acceleration. time.2. y = mx + b. and b is the y-axis intercept.2.1 Look carefully at the equation for the velocity. Then m is the slope of this line. set up a table for velocity vs. x.0.0. a = Δ V (Δ means “change in” here). Given good data one expects to see (at least roughly) a line when it’s graphed properly. and b? 4. EXP II 6 .2 For about 20 evenly spread good data points. where y is the dependent variable and x is the independent variable.3. 4. What do we remember about lines? Well. of course.0 Determining g The computer displays the velocity of the cart at different times by simply using successive values of the distance and dividing their difference by the time interval which you calculated in 3.3 Are all your data points good? Which ones can you ignore? Why? 4. The expression for a is a linear -----Δt relationship.

Whether you pass or not will be determined by your thoroughness and neatness. 7 EXP II .0.3 Create a graph of your own design on linear graph paper that will give you a line whose slope is the acceleration of our cart on the dynamics track. Use the rules in Experiment I.t (s) v (m/s) 4.

choose any two points on the best-fit line. Δy = (y2− y1). It is important to remember to include the scale factors and units for the quantities y and x in calculating the slopes.0. by the corresponding change in x. The purpose of a best-fit or worst-fit line through a set of data points is to determine your expectations and just how good or bad your values are compared to these expectations. A worst-fit line is the line which deviates from your bestfit by as large a slope as possible but still fits your data within reason.4. Δx = (x2− x1). Then divide the change in y. Draw them on the graph and label them. otherwise the value of m determined will be incorrect. It should be emphasized that in choosing the two positions on the line for calculating the slope. the experimental points EXP II 8 . To obtain the slope m = Δy/Δx.0. 4.5 Carefully make a “worst-fit” guess for the steepest line and the least-steep line which may fit your data.4 Carefully make a “best-fit” guess and draw this line on your graph.

the acceleration due to gravity can quickly be determined by the following trigonometry: g len th L height H Remember your trig—for right triangles the definition of sin O = opposite divided by hypotenuse. Also make sure that these two points are as far apart from each other as possible (Why?).6 What is the slope of the best-fit line? 4. After the line has been drawn.8 Determine sin θ = H/L.10 What then are the possible values of g according to your experiment? 9 EXP II . 4.should not be used if a best-fit line has been found.0. From here use EQ 1 to determine the acceleration of gravity g from the acceleration a of the cart on the dynamics track: a = g ⋅ sin θ (EQ 1) (EQ 2) (EQ 3) 4.) 4. ignore the points and find the slope using two arbitrary positions on the line.0.0. 4.0.7 What are the units of the slope? Is this slope a physical quantity we should recognize? If so.9 What is the error in g? (Use best-fit and two worst-fit lines to determine the error. what is it? Once we have determined the slope of the line.0.

yi). there is an analytical procedure based on the statistical principle of least squares that will yield the best fit to the data. EXP II 10 . it was easy to draw a straight line through the data points by eye and obtain a satisfactory fit to the data. 5. You’re certainly welcome to look them up on your own. and a bit of patience is required to calculate them (it helps to note the denominators are the same)..11 Which one of the possible values is the best value? Explain. this is by far the best method of the two. What does m represent physically? 5.1 For your data.4.) Each data point is given by the pair.0. (xi. This is the method of least squares. The least-squares fit to a straight line is a method for determining the most probable values for the coefficients m and b. Consider a set of N data points that represent measurements of the dependent variable y as a function of x. The best values of the coefficients m and b are obtained by a tedious minimization technique which gives: N N ⎛ N ⎞ ⎜N ( x y )⎟ – y x • ⎜ ∑ i i⎟ ∑ i ∑ i ⎝ i=1 ⎠ i=1 i=1 m = ----------------------------------------------------------------------2 N ⎛ N ⎞ 2 N ∑ x i – ⎜ ∑ x i⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝i = 1 ⎠ i=1 N 2 xi N N N ∑ ∑ yi – ∑ xi • ∑ ( xi yi ) i=1 i=1 b = i=1 i=1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------2 N N ⎛ ⎞ 2 N ∑ x i – ⎜ ∑ x i⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝i = 1 ⎠ i=1 They’re ugly. but when best-fit via eyeball isn’t really easy.. there are experiments where the data will show a greater spread. and several straight lines might be a “best fit”.2 Determine the acceleration of gravity g from this slope and compare the least-squares-fit value for g to the best-fit-eyeballed guess g. However.0.0 Least-squares fit In the previous example. considering the relationship y = f(x) to be linear and of the form yi=mxi+b. In such cases.0. calculate m and b using three data points of your choice and the method of least squares. (We’re going to ignore the mathematical technicalities here. y = f(x). 5.

0. Figure 2: Free-body diagram for the inclined plane. Would the experimental values of the acceleration a and gravitational acceleration g change? 6.3 For the dynamics-track experiment. In this case you could have a frictional force proportional to 6. for a wheeled cart.0. list one possible source of systematic error that may affect your calculations. it could be in part proportional to the parallel component of the gravitational force.0. See the free-body diagram in Figure 2. would your experimental value of g be larger or smaller than without the error? 5.5.4 Suppose we increase θ. N = mg cos θ Ff mg sin θ θ θ mg cos θ mg If the frictional force F f is proportional to the normal force N . then this means that it is proportional to cos θ . This is not necessarily true for a cart on wheels.1 In this activity you will vary the angle θ to study the variation of the frictional force. For eight angles between 11 EXP II . in reality. But sin θ .0 Studying friction In introductory physics the frictional force is usually said to be proportional to the normal force. Based on your choice of systematic error.

and measure the height difference for these marks. 6. and record it with the experimental error (standard deviation) shown in the fit. In order to get the acceleration a. this time make a Linear Fit to your velocity vs. using the Fit icon on the graph. Table 1: a vs. Then drag Editable Data in the left column under Data onto Graph under Displays. For the x and y values. L H sin θ = H/L θ a • When done filling in the table. using the Fit icon. θ.approximately 10° and 2° . EXP II 12 .2 Make a Linear Fit to the a vs. such as between the 10 cm and the 220 cm mark on the rule. After the last entry. Determine the gravitational acceleration g from the fit. choose New Empty Data Table from the Experiment menu. make sure to press enter. This will generate an a vs. enter the values of sin θ and a.0. time curve. Before each run measure and record the height difference H and the length L along the inclined plane to millimeter accuracy. The slope will be the acceleration a along the inclined. do DataStudio runs and fill out Table 1. You can use a constant length L for each run. sin θ graph. sin θ graph. respectively. Use the right-angle triangle provided to you to help with the measurement.

from the fit.4 Is the part proportional to cos θ greater than the error? Could you then say the frictional force proportional to the normal force is nonzero? 6.5 What did we assume in the estimation of the frictional force in 6. Using the known value of g = 9.0.6. 6.81 m/s2.0. determine the parts of the frictional force that are proportional to sin θ and cos θ.3 Record both the slope and intercept.3? Then what errors could contribute to this estimation? 13 EXP II . along with their experimental errors shown.0.0. Note that cos θ ∼ 1 for the small angles you studied.

EXP II 14 .

A general review of kinematics follows: Kinematics is the part of science which allows us to describe how objects move. If you truly understand this process. Use of kinematics will lead to precise descriptions of an object’s motion. This leaves us with 6 variables which can be combined together into useful equations.0 Background Before you begin this lab. An important simplification of these equations occurs when the acceleration equals zero. or acceleration at an instant in time or averages of those values over a time interval. v = v o + at 1 2 x = x o + v o t + -. velocity. The specifics of calculating these values for any given situation depends on the use of certain equations. For the purposes of this discussion. you will be able to predict the motion of certain objects if you are told in advance about a few parameters.x). 1 EXP III . These equations will contain variables for position (xo. 2. we will also limit ourselves to a constant acceleration (ao = a for all time). This is an important feature of kinematics which allows us to decouple dimensions. let’s use them. and the real world.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT III TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOTION 1. this means that we treat each dimension separately and use the equations twice. You will notice that the equations are written for only one-dimensional motion (only x and no y). The equations (known as kinematic equations) are derived in your textbook and presented here. The subscripted variables denote the value at time t=0.0 Objective You will use a self-made video to study and make physical measurements of two-dimensional motion.at 2 v = v o + 2a ( x – x o ) 2 2 (EQ 1) (EQ 2) (EQ 3) Remember that these Kinematic Equations were derived for constant acceleration and are only valid in that instance. and to gain an intuitive feel for the relationship between data. It is these kinds of problems which you have seen as homework assignments and will continue to see as exam questions. In english. once for each dimension. Now that you remember what the kinematic equations are. t). velocity (vo. a) and time (to. graphs. acceleration (ao. v). you should have a general idea of how to describe the motion of objects using mathematical terms. This description may include values of position.

time. time. The other important function of these equations is to help us interpret graphs. 2. velocity vs.1.1 Make a sketch of what you think the data will look like for the chef/egg example. A sketch of this scenario is shown in Figure 1. vo=0 meters/second. Notice that the choice for y and yo are arbitrary with the important value being (y-yo) = -1 meter. time. The first question to ask is “What do I know?” The following values are known simply from the statement of the problem: yo=1 meter. and acceleration vs. At this stage. Suddenly.2 Two Dimensional Example Now suppose the chef (angry at dropping an egg) impulsively throws another egg across the kitchen. For this example. and EQ 3.1 One Dimensional Example First a simple example in one dimension. a = g = 9. y= 0 meters. y x Figure 1: Chef throwing egg EXP III 2 . it may be useful to make a graph of position vs.2. The only unknowns are v (the final velocity of the egg after falling 1 meter) and t (the time that it take to fall 1 meter). the problem becomes two dimensional. EQ 2.81 meters/second2. Suppose a chef drops an egg from a height of one meter. These values can be calculated using EQ 1. 2. make your best guess and then later you can see how well you did.

2. the area under the curve is the net displacement (a useful quantity). the yintercept is the position y at time t=0. In this case.3 Graphs Now that you have sketched a series of graphs. Figure 2 shows two graphs. Now look at Graph B. EXP III 4 .This is especially useful if it is easy to do and the result is a physically meaningful value. here is a summary: • • • The kinematic equations (EQ 1. and EQ 3) are valid for one dimensional motion with constant acceleration. Graphing is a useful analysis tool. What is the slope? Remember slope = rise/run so slope = Δy/Δt which is just the average velocity. Now that you have reviewed kinematics and graphing. Again you can calculate the slope. For any graph. and area under the curve. Immediately you could calculate the slope and y-intercept for this line. For your convenience. you are ready to proceed with actual measurements. “What could possibly be useful in these graphs?”. let’s quickly review why these will be useful. The question to ask is. t graph. the area under the curve is probably not useful. In this case. EQ 2. Is the area under the curve useful? That area would be some quantity called meter*seconds. the slope is Δv/Δt = average acceleration. one can calculate the slope and the area under the curve. y A v B t Figure 2: Sample Graphs t First look at Graph A. So it turns out that for a v vs. Two-dimensional motion can almost always be broken into two one-dimensional problems. The y-intercept is the initial velocity at time t=0. The area under the curve is some quantity with units of (meters/second) x second (which is just meters). Physically. y-intercept.

You will use a simple motion scenario this week (bouncing racquetball) to familiarize yourself with the operation of the camera and software as well as to understand the interpretation of the associated graphs which the software will generate. editing the video. A diagram of the setup is shown in Figure 3.3.0 Procedure The procedure this week will include shooting a video. capturing the video. Chef’s Hat not required Racquetball Meterstick Figure 3: Experimental setup 5 EXP III . analyzing the motion of an object in the video. and studying the accompanying graphs of the motion.

The battery should be attached to the back of the camera at all times. D. High shutter speeds prevent motion in the video from appearing blurry. In this case. ZOOM:OFF.1 Shooting the video Your first task will be to film some motion. Open the lens cover by sliding the switch near the front. the camera will shut itself off to save power. WIDESCREEN: OFF VCR SETUP REC MODE: SP. turn the camera power switch to OFF and back to CAMERA. 2. IMG STAB: OFF.3. Camera Motion: It is important for the later analysis of your video that the camera does not move during recording. TV TYPE: 4:3 DISPLAY SETUP TV SCREEN: ON. SL SHUTTER: OFF. However. high shutter speeds also require more light for illumination. Generally a shutter speed of 1/500 seconds EXP III 6 . Occasionally. MARKERS: GRID (GRY). pressing FUNC first and then using the joystick to scroll down to the MENU and pressing it to enter the menu: CAMERA SETUP SHUTTER: 500. if the camera is left unused for a couple of minutes. • The video camera you will use is a standard MiniDV digital camcorder. Setting the camera on a table or chair is often a useful way to keep the camera still. The following settings should already be set and remembered by the camera (it has a backup battery) but verify them just in case. The media switch should be in the tape position. (Note: The shutter speed sets the time period for which the shutter is opened per frame of a shot. Open the LCD viewfinder and press FUNC. Only if necessary. The following procedures outline the use of the camera: 1. [see Figure 4] Wrong Plane of motion Right Plane of Motion Camera Camera Figure 4: Parallax • The easiest way to insure this is to stand far from the object of motion. Therefore. to get accurate measurements you must insure that all motion you shoot is in two dimensions. turn the camera power dial to CAMERA. The two most important considerations to account for are parallax and camera motion. After done. while pressing the little gray button. slide the control switch to PLAY and make sure TV SCREEN is set to ON under DISPLAY SETUP in the MENU under FUNC. Press the little gray button and while it is pressed. use the ZOOM button to close in on the object. Make sure that the P/ EASY switch is in the P position. • Parallax: The motion you see on a video screen is two dimensional. A.

make sure to change the horizontal axis (usually the time but in this case xposition) and vertical axis to get the maximum zoom (scaled to fit the graph) of the data points. from the menu select View : New Graph. you can use your cursor to click on an individual data point on the graph and the video will advance to the corresponding frame. position. If you play your video (either completely or frame-by-frame) you will see a blue highlight circle on the graph indicating which point is currently on display for the video. A single graph appears.Figure 6: VideoPoint toolbar commands. none of the variables that include mass will be useful. you can do a quick check to make sure that you are set up correctly. can you determine the actual maximum height that your ball bounced? What about maximum horizontal distance traveled? (Be careful: Your origin may not be on the floor). Alternatively. The following steps will help you to get familiar with the graphs. Advance the video one frame at a time until you are viewing the frame in which the ball is at its highest point. choose x-position for the horizontal axis and y-position for the vertical axis and select OK. 3. A "Plot Series" window will pop up in which you need to decide what data elements you wish to plot. To begin.3 Looking at the graphs You have digitized data and have marked the location of an object in each frame of a movie (did you notice that the table now has x-pos and y-pos data as well as time data?) Videopoint will now allow you to view a variety of graphs for this data.1 Is the highlighted point also the highest? From this graph. 11 EXP III . acceleration) are all valid choices. To begin. x position graph. velocity. 3. • Notice the connection between the video segment and the graph. Since you did not measure the mass of the ball. Note that after the graph appears. Since this is a y vs. The remaining variables (time.3.

A model window pops up.3. time). You can expand the window by dragging it bigger with your cursor. Since this graph looks like a straight line.• Notice that if you click the cursor exactly on the axis line. 3. make sure you record the EXP III 12 . Click Apply and a blue line will appear on the graph. Remember that the A parameter corresponds to the slope of the graph and the B parameter corresponds to the y-intercept. time graph. Change the horizontal variable to display time (the graph should now be displaying y-position vs. With the horizontal axis set to display time. • • Now look at other types of graphs. a window appears which allows you to change the variable being displayed. you will want to fit a linear equation. A second graph appears in the same window. your graph is y-velocity vs. Recalling this should help you guess which direction to change the parameters. a window appears which allows you to change the minimum and maximum values along the axis as well as the number of grid lines (Ticks) which are displayed. 3. time).3.3. select the vertical axis label. Since y-position is currently displayed. What is the y-velocity at this point? • The Model feature of the software will allow you to visually calculate equations which correspond to the data that has been plotted. select y-velocity and click the ADD button.4 Once you have determined the parameters which best estimate the straight line. 3. Notice that if you click exactly on the axis label.2 Can you determine the ‘time-of-flight’ of the ball? Is the ball at its highest point at the ‘halfway-time’? Does this make sense? Explain.3 Does this second graph make sense? Advance the video from the beginning until the ball is at its highest point. This line is a graph of the equation Vy=At + B (remember. Adjust the parameters in the A: and B: box so that the blue line is drawn through the data points for the graph. This feature is available for both axes. Click the Blue M-tab on the y-velocity vs.

• Another way to view g is to view the y-acceleration vs. 3. Also look at the differences between the graphs in the x-direction and the y-direction. intercepts and the individual points as you play the movie through frame by frame. Again click on the y-axis label of the graph. select y-acceleration. This type of fit will average all the y-values for the graph and will present you also with a standard deviation for the calculation. and click ADD.6 Does this result agree with the result from the y-velocity vs. x-velocity and x-acceleration vs. 3.7 Is there any important information that you can find from these graphs? Remember to look at slopes. time). ΔV y --------.= A Δt 3. time graph) and choose Average as the Type of Fit.3. This time use the FIT feature of the software (click the pink F on the y-accel vs.5 Using the information from the model of the previous step. 13 EXP III . • Remember that for the equation Vy=At + B.3. Record all of your findings. Select View : New Graph and set up a similar set of three graphs for the x-direction (x-position. The number of observations recorded should be greater than zero. time result? • Now that you have investigated three graphs for the y-direction.3.equation here. commonly known as g. time graph. You should now have 3 graphs displayed. the slope of this line is where ΔVy/Δt is equal to the average acceleration in the y-direction. you should be able to determine the value of acceleration in the y-direction.

time.• The final thing to investigate is the effect of scale on your results. one of x-position vs.4 Analysis Now that you are familiar with the graphing window. Make the movie window active by clicking on it.8 Watch (and record here) the effect of such a change on the graphs in each direction as well as the data in the table. Take time to play with this feature such that you have at least a qualitative understanding of the relationship between scale and the graphs. 3. Drag this scale marker so the scale is either longer or shorter than it should be.2 Set up a graph which does track the trajectory of the object and sketch it.4. you can look at graphs which will give you information about the motion you captured.1 Do either of these graphs track the trajectory of the object? Why or why not? 3. Start by setting up 2 graphs. Use your cursor to click on one of the ends of your scale marker.3. In all the graphs that you have to sketch you should be careful about correctly drawing the axis of the graphs and the origin.4. EXP III 14 . time and the other of y-position vs. 3. 3.

3. set up graphs of x-velocity vs. t). 3.5 Find the average velocity for your two graphs. That is.4. Sketch these graphs.6 Sketch these graphs. 15 EXP III . Now. the slope of a position vs. time and y-velocity vs. 3.4.3.4. time graph provides useful information. the slope is the average velocity. t and y-position vs. time.4.4 What does it mean that the x-graph is a straight line and the y-graph is not? Recalling EXP 1 and EXP 2.3 Return to your original graphs (x-position vs.

9 Would the choice of the origin affect these values? How and Why? (If you are not sure.4. the x-acceleration should be zero and the y-acceleration should be g=9.) 3. time and the y-velocity vs. time graph is the net displacement. what is wrong? 3. you know that the area under a velocity vs. that the slope of a velocity vs. 3.Again. 3. We will now investigate the areas under the graphs in both the x-velocity vs.10 Measure net displacements in your video window and compare them to the results from your graphing analysis.4.4. why not? Remember.4. Presumably. Do they agree? If not. time graph.7 Make a rough estimate of the area under both curves.81 m/s2. recalling the first two experiments.8 Do these values make physical sense for the motion you recorded? If not. This should help you with your answer. change the position of your origin and measure the areas again. time graph is the average acceleration. due to gravity. EXP III 16 .

3.4.4.4. time graphs.15 Are these graphs more or less useful as an analysis tool than your previous graphs? Explain why.12 Now set up x-acceleration vs. 3.11 Obtain the values of the accelerations from the slopes of your velocity graphs. 17 EXP III .13 How do these graphs relate to the velocity graphs of the previous steps? 3. Do they agree with the expected values? 3. time and y-acceleration vs.14 Are there regions of your graph which contain accelerations other than expected? Explain what is happening in these regions.4. 3. Again sketch these.4.

EXP III 18 .

0 Background Any object moving in a circle of constant radius at a constant speed is said to be in uniform circular motion (UCM).0. v = 2πrf . (EQ 2) The associated acceleration is properly known as centripetal acceleration. 1 EXP IV . Note that in uniform circular motion. and m is the mass of the object undergoing the acceleration.1 Give two more examples of uniform circular motion.0 Objective To study the characteristics of uniform circular motion. Newton's second law states that any object experiencing an acceleration must be acted upon by some force F. and r is the radius of the motion.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT IV CIRCULAR MOTION 1. the velocity of the object in motion is not constant but is in fact constantly changing direction. so an object in UCM undergoes an acceleration: v2 a = ---r (EQ 1) where v is the tangential speed of the object. specifically: 2 F = ma = mv --------r (EQ 3) where a is centripetal acceleration. the string produces the force required to produce the centripetal acceleration. hence. As an example imagine a ball being twirled about on a string at constant speed—the string keeps the ball on its circular path. the centripetal force—the force keeping the object on its circular path. 2. A change in velocity is just the definition of acceleration. 2. and is always directed toward the center of the motion. The minute hand on a perfectly calibrated analogue clock is a good example of this phenomenon: the hand never changes length while rotating once every hour. then an object in UCM traveling on a circle of length 2πr at f revolutions per second. Thus an object in UCM is undergoing a force. If v is constant as is assumed here.

you cut the string? 2.. The units of angular velocity are radians per second. for example: (EQ 5) EXP IV 2 . the time Δt it takes to move through equal angles Δθ is constant.0. Δθ ω = -----.3 What would be the velocity of the ball if the string’s length before cut was r and its acceleration a? 2.= 2πf . and is defined as the change of angle swept out per equal time intervals. Angular speed ω (also called angular frequency) is a useful quantity in UCM. the ball is no longer in UCM. Therefore frequency f and revolutions per second n are different names for the same quantity.0. EQ 3. may be rewritten in a number of useful forms. The relationship between tangential speed v and the angular speed ω is: v = rω .2 What happens if you remove the force. In UCM the object is moving with constant speed. Then the centripetal force. thus. Hertz simply means cycles (revolutions) per second.e.2.4 The proper name of this velocity is? Does this make sense? Note that when the string is cut.0. i. Δt (EQ 4) where f is the frequency of the motion in Hertz (Hz).

0 Procedure In this experiment you’ll use the UCM apparatus shown in Figures 1 and 2 to verify your answers to 2. (EQ 6) All of these forms of Newton's second law are equivalent and may be interchanged when convenient.1 The Apparatus The circular-motion apparatus is shown in Figure 1. 3.1. Figure 1: Photo and diagram of the UCM apparatus (shown without the motor attachment).mv 2 F = --------. 3.0.0.5 and by comparing centripetal force to gravitational force for different values of m and r. 3.5 Rewrite EQ 6 in terms of frequency using EQ 4. 3 EXP IV .= mω 2 r r 2.1 Determine the mass of the revolving heavy mass with the digital balance.

Then turn the voltage knob on the power supply all the way down to zero and then turn on the power supply. If you have trouble seeing the alignment. EXP IV 4 . 3. 3. Now slowly stop the rotation by slowly decreasing the voltage all the way down to zero. You will use the motor drive to rotate the shaft. use a piece of white paper as a background to improve the contrast. Attach the spring to the heavy mass as shown in Figure 1.1. Adjust the rotation rate to keep the pointed pat at the bottom of the hanging mass passing directly over the indicator post. The mass will be in UCM at this point.2 Measure the radius of the rotation shaft.1. The indicator post should be secured directly below the point on the bottom of the heavy mass. First make sure that the positive connector of the motor is connected to the positive output of the power supply and vice versa.Start with the spring not connected to the heavy mass and secure the cross-arm in the middle of its range. The radius of rotation of the heavy mass is the distance from the center of the indicator post to the center of the vertical shaft. You can adjust the rotation rate by adjusting the voltage of the power supply.3 Measure the radius of rotation of the heavy mass.4 Measure the period of rotation. But do not go above 18 V.1. Tie a string to the heavy mass and extend it over the pulley as shown in Figure 2. 3.

) 2 Repeat the entire experiment for three other positions of the support arm and indicator post. giving data at a total of four different radii. 5 EXP IV .1. Put the slotted masses on the hanger attached to the string in regular increments until the point on the bottom of the heavy mass is directly over the indicator post. (g = 9. 3.Figure 2: Measuring weight needed to pull mass over indicator.81 m ⁄ s .5 Measure using the digital balance and record the mass needed (including the hanger) for the point on the bottom of the hanging mass to hang directly over the indicator post.1. 3.5 correspond to.1.6 Calculate the gravitational force the weight of the slotted masses and hanger in 3.

4.0.0.0 Analysis 4. EXP IV 6 . compute the frequency and angular speed of the rotation.0.3 Explain the connection between the two quantities you have tabulated.2 From the measurements of the period for each radius.4. 4.1 Compute the force exerted on the system by the slotted masses and hanger for each radius.

0.4. 2 7 EXP IV . ω r.4 Plot the force necessary to suspend the heavy mass directly over the indicator versus angular speed squared times the radius of rotation.

r is the radial distance from the rotation axis. This is the upper bound on the angular speed that you can have for your system. find the value of the angular speed ω ∞ that gives an infinite radius. EXP IV 8 . Therefore. therefore.5 Use your graph to find the value of the revolving mass and compare it to the measured value. k . expressed in terms of the other quantities. the centrifugal force and spring force.4. and ω .2 Using the equation you have just derived. 4. we have mω r = k ( r – r 0 ) .1.1 Using Equation 7 solve for the radius r at which the system is in radial equilibrium for a given angular speed ω . the spring will no longer be able to balance the centrifugal force—it will start stretching indefinitely until it breaks. k is the spring constant. If you increase the angular speed beyond it.1 System Instability The theoretical analysis of the system we are studying in this experiment is fairly simple. Express your solution in terms of r 0 . and r 0 is the unstretched and uncompressed length of the spring. Here 2 (EQ 7) m is the mass of the rotating object.1. 4. 4. There are two opposing forces. resulting in an unstable system. ω is the angular speed. The condition of equilibrium along the radial direction requires that these two forces exactly balance each other.0. m .

4.1.3 Plot the gravitational force of the slotted masses and the mass hanger as in 4.0.4 but this time only as a function of the radius

r . Then using F = k ( r – r 0 ) , determine both k and r 0 from your graph.

9

EXP IV

4.1.4 Using the measured value for the rotating mass system instability.

m , evaluate the angular speed ω ∞ that corresponds to the

4.1.5 Express the maximum angular speed

ω that you attained in this experiment as a percentage of the system-

instability angular speed ω ∞ . Comment on how close you were to the system instability in this experiment.

4.2 Real-Life Example: The Earth
Clearly we live on a rapidly-rotating body, the Earth. What are the consequences of this rotation on humans? Consider Figure 3.

Figure 3: Geometry of the Earth sphere Figure 4:

EXP IV

10

4.2.1 Using the wall map outside KAP B-19, find the latitudes of the Equator, Los Angeles and Panama City, Panama.

The radius of the Earth, RE is 6.4 x 103 km. Note that if a person is standing at θ degrees north latitude (point A), then the distance, r, of that person from the Earth’s axis of rotation is:

r = R E cos θ

(EQ 8)

4.2.2 Now calculate the tangential velocity and centripetal force on a person of mass M=75 kg on the actual Earth for all three above locations using EQ 5 and EQ 6.

4.2.3 Theorize on the physical effects of the centripetal force on humans. (HINT: is the centripetal force at any of these three latitudes significant, compared to the force of gravity?).

4.3 Real Life Example: The Centrifuge
Clearly forces do work; so, centripetal forces should be no exception. An example of the use of centripetal forces doing work under extreme conditions is the centrifuge. A centrifuge is simply a device which spins at extremely high rates of speed. Since force depends upon mass, liquids (and in very extreme cases, solids) in a centrifuge can be separated into their component parts if those parts have different masses. Given a centrifuge with a radius of 20 cm and a speed of 60,000 RPM (Rotations Per Minute):

11

EXP IV

3. EXP IV 12 .4.1 Calculate the force exerted on an amoeba of mass m = 1x10-8 kg in the centrifuge.3.2 How many times the force of gravity on the amoeba is this? Show all your calculations. 4.

if we assume that the force of the collision is repulsive. will reach a maximum when they are closest. bull’s-eye level (CRAFTSMAN®).e. The change of the momentum of an object is given by the time integral of the force acting on the object. PASCO®). Therefore the total potential energy doesn’t change during the collision. BACKGROUND Collisions between two (or more) objects provide a good case to study both the conservation of momentum and conservation of kinetic energy. Therefore the kinetic energy will do the exact opposite of the potential energy: it will decrease during the impact. let’s take the potential energy to be zero.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: Physics 135AL Experiment 5 Collisions in one dimension OBJECTIVE To study the momentum and energy in one-dimensional collisions. Using this information the momentum and kinetic energy of the carts will be plotted as a function of time. The conservation of the kinetic energy requires that the force exerted by the two objects on each other during the collision must be conservative. Note that we assumed that all the internal forces that are involved in the collision are elastic and there are no external forces.5 kg). collision carts (2). and computer with DataStudio software. i. the total momentum of the two objects remain the same. INTRODUCTION The nearly elastic collisions between two carts of equal or different masses will be studied and analyzed in real time. Then if there are no external forces acting on the objects. The change in the kinetic energy is the opposite of the change in the potential energy. From Newton’s third law. motion sensors (2). cart mass (0. The motion sensors will detect the instantaneous positions of the two carts. Therefore the changes of momentum of the two objects are equal and opposite. and it will return to its original value when the two objects are away from each other. Before the collision. Then. . Collisions satisfying these two conditions are known as elastic collisions. the forces exerted by two objects on each other during a collision are equal and opposite. in which the total kinetic energy is conserved (except during the impact). The corresponding conservation laws will be inspected. In mathematical terms this means that the force is related to a potential energy. EQUIPMENT Dynamics track (2. The former is the conservation of a vector and the latter a scalar quantity. 750 USB (or 700 SCSI) interface.2 m. the potential energy will increase when the two objects get close to each other (the start of the impact). and decrease and go back to zero when they are away from each other. action–reaction principle.

In the center-of-mass reference frame. Therefore from this point on. Then we have CM CM P CM = p1CM + p2 = m1v1CM + m2 v2 = m1 ( v1 − vCM ) + m2 ( v2 − vCM ) ≡ 0 . K 2 = m2 v2 . 1 1 2 m1v12 . the velocities are given by v1CM = v1 − vCM etc. If we denote the initial and final states by the indices i and f . and K = K1 + K 2 represent the individual kinetic energies and total 2 2 kinetic energy. This will be described next. these two equations can be solved for the two final velocities. and P = p1 + p 2 represent the individual momentums and total momentum. Since this experiment is in 1-D. p1 = m1 v1 . if we use the beauty of physical insight. Center-of-mass frame The center-of-mass reference frame is a reference frame that moves with the center-of mass velocity vCM with respect to the laboratory reference frame. But it involves painful algebra! Fortunately there is a much easier way. our notation will show v and p as v and p . (3) Here v1 is the velocity in the laboratory frame and v1CM is the velocity in the center-of-mass frame. with the left direction corresponding to a negative value and the right a positive value. p2 = m1v 2 . K1 = Note which quantity is a vector and which a scalar. The center-of-mass frame is defined such that the total momentum in the center-of-mass frame is zero. (4) Solving this gives . However one should be cautioned that v and p are not just the magnitude (absolute value) but they also indicate direction. 2 2 2 2 (1) (2) Given the masses and initial velocities.Experiment 5 5-2 The notation that we will be using is as follows: x1 and x 2 represent the individual positions of the two objects. we will represent vector quantities as signed real numbers. the conservation equations take the following form in 1-D: i m1v1i + m2 v2 = m1v1f + m2 v2f and 1 1 1 1 i m1v1i 2 + m2 v2 2 = m1v1f 2 + m2 v2f 2 .

Experiment 5 5-3 vCM = m1v1 + m2 v2 P . (6) comes the following consequence: CM p2 = − p1CM . If there is a collision in the center-of-mass frame. = m1 + m2 M (5) with M and P being the total mass and total momentum. From the definition of the center-of-mass frame. CM P CM = p1CM + p2 ≡ 0 . it results in iCM fCM p1.2 = ± p1. respectively. Substituting these equations into v1fCM = −v1iCM (Equation 8) easily results in v f 1 ( m1 − m2 ) v1i + 2m2v2i .2 (for either object). The plus sign simply corresponds to no collision at all. with the magnitude unchanged. we instantly obtain v f 2 ( m2 − m1 ) v2i + 2m1v1i . all we have is that the velocities of both objects reverse in direction. PROCEDURE Although this experiment is fairly straightforward. it requires you to be meticulous in order for it . (8) And that’s the entire final answer in the center-of-mass frame. = m1 + m2 (9) i Similarly if we substitute Equations 3 and 5 into v2fCM = −v2CM . (7) This makes the solution of the conservation laws trivial. = m1 + m2 (10) Hence the center-of-mass frame enabled us to derive these complicated equations in the laboratory frame with no hardship. If you substitute it into the equation for the conservation of kinetic energy. How simpler than this could it get? Going back to the laboratory frame We could now immediately use Equations 3 and 5 to go back to the laboratory frame.

Correct otherwise. If they are not properly aligned or set. meaning that the bubble should be centered up and down. Align the angle of each sensor to 0° using the large knob on its side. In DataStudio choose Create Experiment. Place the left and right carts on the track. DataStudio • With the 750 USB (or 700 SCSI) interface turned on. Correct the alignment by pushing on the wheels with your thumbs from the outer side. Replace it if there is a problem. with screw threads. First you need to prepare the apparatus as described below. Check if each cart moves smoothly. you will need to restart the computer. Then put the bull’s-eye level near the 115-cm mark and carefully adjust the feet on either side so that the bubble is centered left and right. Check this by holding the cart in your hands and looking at the bottom of the cart. check the leveling for various positions and find the best compromise. The • . you need to level it again. There are four feet attached to the track. Next put the bull’s-eye level directly above the left feet and adjust the twist of the track. it should be turned on before the computer is turned on. If you are using the 700 SCSI interface. click Setup. you will not obtain meaningful results. Preparing the motion sensors There should be a motion sensor attached to either end of the track. Also make sure that the track is free of any dust. otherwise. which you should achieve as follows. start DataStudio. Preparing the carts The axes should be centered so that the wheels have the same clearance from the left and the right. Note that if you move the track on the laboratory bench. with their non-Velcro® ends facing each other. If this window doesn’t appear. Leveling the track The track needs to be perfectly level. since the laboratory bench is not uniform. The track might be slightly bent. Repeat it for the right feet. Check to see if one pair of feet is set near the 75-cm mark and the other at the 150-cm. therefore.Experiment 5 5-4 to work well. The realignment of the angles of the motion sensors might be necessary if they don’t record the data properly. Then turn the knob of each four feet so that the screw thread is approximately at the vertically middle position. The motion sensors simply slide in and clamp onto the track. The beam switch on the sensor should be at the narrow setting. The motion sensors are the most critical part of this experiment.

changing proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature in Kelvin ( = Celsius + 273.15° ). i. In the Experiment Setup window. Change the name of the constant to m1. v = Δx / Δt . Then the computer easily calculates the distance of the cart from the motion sensor by using the known speed of sound in air at room temperature. Weigh your left cart on the electronic scale and enter the mass in kg in Value. The speed of sound in air is 345 m / s at 73° F and 343 m / s at 68° F .Experiment 5 5-5 Experiment Setup window will show you the interface. • • • • • • Click on Channel 1 on the interface and add a Motion Sensor. In this experiment we are interested in momenta and kinetic energy. Ch 1&2 and Position. But the real power of DataStudio is its ability to Calculate formulas. Click on Channel 3 on the interface and add a second Motion Sensor. . every second. Now make sure that the yellow and black plugs of the left motion sensor are connected to Channels 1 and 2. with Δt = 1/ Sample rate . change the Sample Rate to 20 Hz. In the left column under Data. Click the + sign next to Experiment Constants in the Calculator window. you should see Position. let’s set up these variables. The computer also calculates the velocity by dividing the change in the position for two adjacent data points by the change in the time. Click New under Experiment Constants. which is 0. such as Graph. This simply means that the computer will collect 20 data points.05 s for 20 Hz . You can plot Data in DataStudio in various ways by dragging a Data measurement in the left column onto some appropriate Display. This burst of sound will reach the cart and be reflected back to the motion sensor. equally spaced in time. Setting up the constants Mass • • • • • • Click the Calculate icon in DataStudio. Ch 3&4.e. Then make sure that the yellow and black plugs of the right motion sensor are connected to Channels 3 and 4. respectively. Enter kg in Units. therefore. The round-trip time between the sensor and the cart for this sound burst is measured by the sensor. respectively. If you see the wrong channels. The motion sensor sends out an ultrasonic (of frequency greater than what we can hear) sound burst for each data point. delete the sensors and repeat the process.

Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Type m in Units.Experiment 5 5-6 • • • • • • Click Accept under Experiment Constants. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Click on the triangle icon (pull-down menu) under Variables. select Time. Ch 3&4. Make sure Units is s. Under Variable Name. Make sure Time is selected under Type. Click OK. Click New under Experiment Constants. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Change the name of the constant to m2. Change Y to x1. Change Y to x2. Click Properties. Make sure Units is s. Click Accept at the top. Click Properties. Choose Data Measurement. Change Time to t. Weigh your right cart on the electronic scale and enter the mass in kg in Value. Click Accept under Experiment Constants. Make sure Y is selected under Variable Name. Under Variable Name. select Time. Setting up the variables Position • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In the Calculator window. Enter kg in Units. (Note the minus sign. Choose Position. Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Enter x2=-position34 in Definition. Choose Data Measurement. Type m in Units. enter x1=position12 in Definition. Click OK. Make sure Time is selected under Type. Change Time to t. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Ch 1&2. Click on the triangle icon (pull-down menu) under Variables. . Make sure Y is selected under Variable Name.) Click Accept at the top. Choose Position.

Make sure Time is selected under Type. (Note the minus sign. select Y. Change Time to t. Click Properties. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Choose Velocity. Choose Data Measurement. Click OK.) Click Accept at the top. Make sure Y is selected under Variable Name. Choose Velocity. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Click Properties. Type m/s in Units. Choose Data Measurement. Click on the triangle icon (pull-down menu) under Variables. Change Time to t. Click Accept at the top. select Time. Click Properties. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Under Variable Name. Under Variable Name. Click Accept at the top. Make sure Units is s. select Time. Make sure Time is selected under Type. Enter p1=m1*v1 in Definition. Click OK. Click on the triangle icon (pull-down menu) under Variables. Momentum • • • • • Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Ch 3&4. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Make sure Y is selected under Variable Name. Click New at the top of the Calculator window. . Change Y to v2. Change Y to v1. Under Variable Name. Type m/s in Units. Make sure Units is s. Enter v2=-velocity34 in Definition.Experiment 5 5-7 Velocity • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Enter v1=velocity12 in Definition. Ch 1&2.

Type s in Units. Type kg m/s in Units. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Select Time under Type. select Y. Under Variable Name. Click Accept at the top. Under Variable Name. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Type kg m/s in Units. Select Time under Type. Kinetic energy • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Click Properties. Type J in Units. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Click Accept at the top. Under Variable Name. Change X to t. Under Variable Name. Click Properties. Type s in Units. Change X to t. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). select Y. Enter K2=m2*v2^2/2 in Definition. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Click New at the top of the Calculator window. select X. . using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). select X. Type s in Units. Change X to t. Under Variable Name. Click OK. Select Time under Type. Enter K1=m1*v1^2/2 in Definition. Click OK.Experiment 5 5-8 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Change Y to p1. Click OK. select X. Under Variable Name. Click Properties. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Change Y to p2. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Change Y to K1. Click Accept at the top. Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Enter p2=m2*v2 in Definition. select Y.

Click OK. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Do this as follows. select X. select Y. Select Time under Type. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Type J in Units. Type s in Units. Type J in Units. select Y. Total momentum and total kinetic energy • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Click OK. Type s in Units. Enter P=p1+p2 in Definition. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). which will display all the variables that we will be measuring. Under Variable Name. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Under Variable Name. Click Accept at the top. Change X to t. Click Accept at the top. Change Y to K. Under Variable Name. Select Time under Type. Under Variable Name. Click Properties. Change X to t. Click New at the top of the Calculator window. Setting up the graphs We will produce a Graph display. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Enter K=K1+K2 in Definition. select X. Click Accept at the top of the Calculator window. Click OK. select X. Click Properties. Change X to t. using the triangle icon (pull-down menu). Change Y to P. Type s in Units. Select Time under Type. Under Variable Name.Experiment 5 5-9 • • • • • • • • Change Y to K2. . Type kg m/s in Units.

K1. P. in which case you need to delete Graph 1 and start the whole process over. which has just been generated. When you are done. the graph should look like this: • Figure 1. v2. If you release the mouse incorrectly in the process and replace one of the previous variables with the new variable. K2. DataStudio setup. p1. and K. not one of the axes. Drag x2 into the middle of the Graph 1 window and release the mouse only after the entire graph. Then click on x2 under Data in the left column but don’t release the mouse. . is highlighted. If you release the mouse with one of the axes highlighted. delete Graph 1 and start over. x2 will replace the variable on that axis. Repeat the above process of dragging the variables for v1.Experiment 5 5-10 • • • Generate an x1 vs. p2. Enlarge (maximize) the Graph 1 window. t graph by dragging x1 under Data in the left column onto Graph under Displays in the left column.

. When the mouse pointer changes to a hand symbol. Otherwise Delete ALL Data Runs under the Experiment menu. When it changes to a spring symbol. make Figure 2.Experiment 5 5-12 time axis so that the timeframe near the collision event is displayed. you can shrink or expand the axis. Typical screen shot for the data and analysis in the equal-mass case. your graphs should like the example below. When you are done. you can move the axis.

You will determine the error through a linearregression fit by the software. Record the initial K in the laboratory-report-summary page. Is the total momentum conserved throughout the data run? Question 2. . You will record all your quantitative answers on the laboratory-report-summary page. for which you want to delete the fit. you should also include the error. Read the error from the linear-regression fit (rootmean-square [rms] error) and report this in the summary page as well. not K1 or K2). and scale your graphs again. Select the data points when the left cart is moving with constant velocity (the initial state) using your mouse. determine the midpoint of your collision and the extrapolated total kinetic energy before the collision (the initial state). this will not work. the values for the initial K are 0. v2 .104 ± 0. Now using the x–y tool . using the Fit icon. Make sure to select the correct curve (K. K1 . Note: In order to delete an unwanted fit. in the legend. p2 . otherwise. The extrapolated total kinetic energy is the y-value of the linear fit at the midpoint of the collision. In the example above. and for each quantity. Is the total kinetic energy conserved throughout the data run? Question 3. P . Then unselect the fit or select No Curve Fits. p1 . click on Run #1 for the total kinetic energy K in the legend of the graph. and K 2 .Experiment 5 5-13 a new run.001 J . How to do this will be described in Question 4. In the example above. The selected data points should show highlighted in yellow. as read by the x–y tool. Then do a linear fit using the icon. Repeat the procedure for after the collision (the final state). the values for the final K are 0. Determine the initial and final values for v1 . Question 1. On the graph for the kinetic energy. as well as the errors in these quantities using the same analysis as in Question 4: • First click on the variable in the legend of the graph in DataStudio.003 J . click on the variable. Your fit should look very similar to the picture above. What is happening to the kinetic energy at the collision instant? Question 4. Question 5.106 ± 0.

Note that when you calculate ΔP = P2 − P . including the cart mass. Under the Experiment menu. Then click Accept at the top of the Calculator window to finish the calculation. Save the DataStudio file under the name equalmass. using the electronic scale. Using the measured value for the initial v1 . choose Delete ALL Data Runs. Click Accept next to the Experiment Constants.Experiment 5 5-14 • • • • Then do a linear fit for the initial state. Record the error from the linear-regression fit. Also fill out the ΔP and ΔK information and comment on whether the momentum and kinetic energy are conserved within the errors. calculate the final v1 and final v2 using the theoretical formulas. In DataStudio open the Calculator window (Calculate) and change m1 to the new value in kg. In the laboratory-report-summary page. fill out the table with the information you obtain from your graphs. • • Obtain a printout so that you can include it in your write-up. Use the x–y tool to determine the quantity from the extrapolation of the linear fit at the midpoint of the collision. Put the 0. .5 kg cart mass on the left cart and measure its mass with the cart mass. Question 6. 1 2 the absolute errors would combine as ε = ε12 + ε 2 . Repeat this for the final state. Case 2: m1 > m2 • • • • Now save the DataStudio file under the name largermass. Report these in the laboratory-report-summary page along with the percentage errors for the measured values with respect to these theoretical values.

Question 11. Using the measured value for the initial v1 . Click Accept both for m1 and m2. Is the total momentum conserved throughout the data run? Question 8. Question 10. • • Obtain a printout so that you can take include it in your write-up. Switch the left cart (with the mass) with the right cart. Is the total kinetic energy conserved throughout the data run? Question 9. Question 7. calculate the final v1 and final v2 using the theoretical formulas. Do the analysis as in Question 5. • . Record the values for m1 and m2 on the laboratory-report-summary page. Under the Experiment menu.Experiment 5 5-15 • Record the values for m1 and m2 on the laboratory-report-summary page. choose Delete ALL Data Runs. Report these in the laboratory-report-summary page along with the percentage errors for the measured values with respect to these theoretical values. Then also click Accept at the top of the Calculator Window to finish the calculation. Case 3: m1 < m2 • • • • Now save the DataStudio file under the name smallermass. Save the DataStudio file under the name largermass. Do the analysis as in Question 4. In DataStudio open the Calculator window (Calculate) and switch the values of m1 and m2.

calculate the final v1 and final v2 using the theoretical formulas. Is the total kinetic energy conserved throughout the data run? Question 14. Save the DataStudio file under the name smallermass. Question 15. Do the analysis as in Question 4. . Do the analysis as in Question 5. Using the measured value for the initial v1 . Is the total momentum conserved throughout the data run? Question 13.Experiment 5 5-16 Question 12. Report these in the laboratory-report-summary page along with the percentage errors for the measured values with respect to these theoretical values. • • Obtain a printout so that you can take include it in your write-up. Question 16.

_ _ _ _ kg m2 = _._ _ _ _ kg m2 = _._ _ _ _ kg m1 < m2 m1 = _. Date: ___________________________ Lab period: ______________________ Lecture period: ___________________ m1 = m2 Left cart Right cart m1 > m2 m1 = _._ _ _ _ kg m2 = _. Experimental data and error. Masses._ _ _ _ kg Table 2.Experiment 5 5-17 Physics 135AL—physics for the life sciences Laboratory-report summary Experiment 5 Collisions in one dimension Name: ____________________________ Partner: __________________________ Your lecture instructor: _____________ (not your partner’s) Table 1. m1 = m2 Initial Final Initial m1 > m2 Final Initial m1 < m2 Final v1 v2 v1theory final theory v2 final % error = % error = % error = % error = % error = % error = p1 p2 P ΔP K1 K2 K ΔK ΔK K × 100 You must complete: This summary page and your answers to Questions 1–16. ._ _ _ _ kg m1 = _.

Experiment 5 5-18 .

How can we determine the amount of energy that is necessary to make a given body rotate about a given axes with a given rotational speed? And how does the amount of energy depend on the shape of the body? 2. of a body with mass m = is defined to be the sum: ∑ mi about an axis r I = ∑ mi ri i 2 (EQ 1) where ri is the distance from the axis to the ith small mass mi. there has to be some energy associated with this rotation.0 Background In the experiments you have done so far you have studied bodies that have performed some motion in space.0 Objective To gain both a mathematical and physical understanding for the moment of inertia. So the moment of inertia. I. also called translational motion. If it is doing so. to examine conservation of energy in systems that include rotational motion.2 What is the moment of inertia for a point particle of mass m a distance R from an axis? 1 EXP VI . the total moment of inertia is the sum of the moments of inertia of its parts. like a cylinder or a ball. For an object that is composed of several shapes with a common axis. 2. known as the moment of inertia.1 Can I ever be less than zero or negative? Explain why or why not.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT VI ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS 1. 2.1 The moment of inertia It is this last question which is best answered by a physical property of every body with mass. But an extended body. I.1.1. 2. can also rotate around one of its body axes. since all the atoms of the body are in more or less rapid motion.

2. shape.1. or a 1 kg point-particle a distance of 2 m from the same axis? Explain.see EQ 1). It is a physical property of each individual object. The real world consists of objects which are not point-particles. (hint -.5 For a solid cylinder of the same mass as the ring.1. Thin Ring Solid Cylinder R ri mi R ri mi For a thin ring of radius R and total mass M. Note that the total moment of inertia for a system of extended objects is just the linear sum of the individual parts’ moments. size.4 Which has the greatest moment of inertia: a 2 kg point-particle at a distance of 1 m from an axis. Figure 1: A ring and a cylinder of radius R and equal mass. the moment of inertia of a body with mass measures its tendency to want to rotate around any axis you wish when a force is applied to it.1. the answer is Ithin ring = M R2 since all ri are equal to R. 2. and depends upon density. will the moment of inertia be smaller than this or larger? Explain.In english. and the axis about which the moment of inertia is being calculated. but if the body is a simple solid shape then the moments of inertia are fairly easy to calculate.3 What are the units of the moment of inertia? 2. EXP VI 2 . It takes calculus to determine moment of inertia for extended objects.

i. 2 (EQ 2) For a thick ring (figure 2). of the rolling motion is also important. The moment of intertia is integral in determining this total energy if there is rotation. must be applied to it. the sum comes out to give Ithick ring = M (R12 + R22) / 2. 2. then a body will be in (angular) equilibrium. it has a direction and a magnitude associated with it. One must determine the energy associated with rolling or rotating motion as well as its translational energy when considering the total energy of an object. α is the angular acceleration of the object (see Experiment V). τ = Iα (EQ 3) Since torque is a vector. while R2 is its inner radius. if no net force acts upon a body then it is in translational (i. linear) equilibrium. the moment of intertia is I sphere 2 = -.2 Torque As we’ve seen previously.e. Thus for an object to be in true equilibrium. The total kinetic energy of a object undergoing both translational and rotational motion is: 3 EXP VI .3 Energy of rotating objects Previously. a net torque. The angular frequency.The result for a solid cylinder of mass M and radius R is MR I cylinder = ---------2 ring.MR 2 5 2. we’ve looked at the energy associated with objects that were undergoing translational (i. where I is the moment of inertia of the object and no net torque is applied. τ . Torques are forces applied at a distance which cause rotation.e. Specifically. To cause a body to rotate.e. the sum of the forces acting upon it and the sum of the torques acting upon it must both be zero. linear) motion. ω = 2πf (see Experiment V). If ∑ τi = i 0 . where R1 is the outer radius of the Figure 2: A cylinder and a thick ring of same mass M: Solid Cylinder Thick Ring R2 R R1 For a sphere of radius R and mass M (not shown).

1 Conservation of angular momentum Have one partner sit on the frictionless stool holding a 1 kg weight in each hand. 2. is just the kinetic energy plus the potential energy of the object E total = ( KE + PE ) (EQ 5) Consider the following thought experiment -. L = Iω In a system where the sum of the torques is zero.imagine you have a sphere. the system’s angular momentum is conserved: (EQ 7) L initial = L final 3. the total energy of an object or system.1.1 2 1 2 KE total = -. L. we can also define a rotational momentum.3. a cylinder and a thin ring all of equal mass and equal outer radii.Iω 2 2 or system: (EQ 4) As always.0 Procedure In the first part of this experiment.mv + -. you will see the effect of a changing radius on the moment of inertia of a person seated upon an essentially-frictionless stool. 3.1 If you were to “race” these objects down a slope from rest.4 Momentum of rotating objects Clearly since we’ve defined energy associated with rotation. TAKE ALL MEASUREMENTS IN MKS UNITS. from the point it connects with the shoulder to the middle of the 1 kg weight. (EQ 6) ∑ τi = i 0 . 3. EXP VI 4 . which object do you think would win? 2.1 Record the length of one arm. Etotal. The angular momentum. of a rotating object is just its angular frequency multiplied by its moment of inertia.

which means I 1 ω 1 = I 2 ω 2 I 1 can be considered the sum of the body’s moment of inertia and the moment of inertia of the two masses (we’ll ignore the weight of the arms and hands). Thus no external forces or torques acted upon the system and angular momentum should be conserved: L 1 = L 2 . making certain the weights are pulled in keeping their height above the ground constant.3 Determine the final period. For the person-mass system. the angular velocity of the person-mass system with arms drawn in. and use a timer to record how long it takes to complete a revolution. from your value of T1. for a full revolution. T2. After taking data. Now have the person slowly draw their arms in as close to their bodies as possible. 3.1.1. begin rotating the stool. I 2 is the inertia of the body and weights together. 3. we find that 5 EXP VI . from your value of T2.1. Pick one of the weights as your zero point for counting revolutions.1. T1. 3. Making these approximations and doing some math.5 Determine ω2.2 Determine the initial period. counting from your zero point mass. we can consider the stool to be essentially frictionless.4 Determine ω1.With the weights held at arm’s length and at shoulder height. counting from your zero point mass. you can now analyze it and determine the moment of inertia: 3. the angular velocity of the person-mass system with arms extended. which is essentially the same as the body’s moment of inertia alone. for a full revolution.

ω1 I body = ⎛ ------------------⎞ × 2mr 2 ⎝ ω 2 – ω 1⎠ (EQ 8) where m is the mass of one of the hand-held weight and r is the measured distance from the center of chest to the mass (with arms stretched out).7 Approximate the person on the stool as a “cylinder”.1. Don’t forget units.1. and use EQ 2 to independently determine the person’s moment of inertia.8 Compare and contrast the two values of I and theorize which method is best.1. 3. 3. 3. 3.1. determine the moment of inertia of the person on the stool.6 Using EQ 8.9 In this experiment the energy is NOT conserved! Why? (Hint: Is there any work done in this experiment?) EXP VI 6 .

2.1 Weigh both objects and measure their radii. recording each in your data sheet.2. 3. Which object wins? Race the objects three times to test the consistency of the result. a hoop.2. Set the photogate timer to PULSE mode and set up the photogate timer and accessory photogate with the ramp as illustrated in figure 3: Accessory photogate Photogate timer H Ramp L θ coat or rags Figure 3: ramp and photogate set-up 7 EXP VI .1.2.2 Back to the races You should now have a photogate timer.3 Does the fact that one object has a greater moment of inertia completely explain your results in 3.3. a solid cylinder. and a wooden ramp.3.2 Test your response to 2.2? Why or why not? We will now experimentally determine the moments of inertia of both objects. an accessory photogate. R. 3. First have someone place their coat or a towel at the base of the ramp so that objects which roll down are stopped safely. 3.

Place photogate timer so that it hangs over the ramp as near the bottom as possible (but not past the bottom). Otherwise they already have a significant velocity before entering the accessory photogate.2. measure the distance along the ramp L and height H traveled by the object in the following way: First mark the two contact points the object would make on the ramp just before it is released and just before it is detected by the sensor of the photogate timer at the bottom. 3.5 Measure the time it takes the hoop to roll from rest down the ramp three times. When the setup is ready to go.2. The photogate timer in PULSE mode will measure the time interval between when the light beams of the two photogates are broken. EXP VI 8 .4 Record L and H in your data sheet.7 Repeat the same process for the cylinder.2. (Why is this important?) When everything is adjusted.2. 3. 3. Adjust the height of the photogates so this interval actually corresponds to the time it takes for the hoop to travel down the track.Place the accessory photogate so it hangs over the ramp as close to the top as possible. 3. you should be able to release the hoop from rest and have the photogates measure the time it takes for the hoop to roll down the entire ramp. During the experiment you have to release the cylinder and the hoop as close as possible to the trigger point of the accessory photogate.6 Calculate the average time. Then measure the distance along the ramp and difference of height between these two points.

2.10 Use EQ 10 to obtain the experimental values of the moment of inertia for both the cylinder and the hoop. the body has lost the potential energy. You will also have to use EQ 5 from experiment V. Upon reaching the second photogate. the final velocity vf. Before each body is released.2. it has zero kinetic energy and a potential energy given by: PE = mgH (EQ 9) This potential energy is the initial energy of the body. but now has a final kinetic given by EQ 4. In the end. Since the acceleration along the track is constant. calculate their average velocities vav. HINT: You should end up with: 2 gH I exp = mR ⎛ --------. will be twice the average velocity. vf=2vav. 9 EXP VI .– 1⎞ ⎝ 2v 2 ⎠ av (EQ 10) 3.or PE = KE.2. Consider therefore the energy balance for this experiment. express your equation in terms of vav. 3. Let us now derive a formula to determine the moment of inertia of the cylinder and the hoop using the measured value of the average velocities. when the body leaves the ramp.8 For both the hoop and the cylinder.9 Use EQ 4 and EQ 9 to solve for the moment of inertia of the body. Conservation of energy for this experimental set-up says that Einitial = E final. using L and the average times you calculated above.3.

11 Calculate the theoretical values for each objects’ moment of inertia (see section 2. EXP VI 10 .12 What are sources of error for this experiment? Determine their effect on the value of Iexp.3.10 3.2.2.2.1) and compare them to your answer in 3.

including the clay-cup attachment. motion sensor. and computer. To learn how to use graphs to analyze experimental data. You will use the DataStudio software to plot one of the forces against the distance of the hanging weight. A meterstick hangs horizontally from two force sensors positioned vertically on a horizontal support bar. (Strictly speaking no linear or rotational acceleration is sufficient. . force sensors (2). THEORY An extended body said to be in static equilibrium should have no linear or rotational motion. INTRODUCTION In this experiment you will use the DataStudio software to measure and analyze the forces and torques on a meterstick cantilever system. weight of the meterstick. and DataStudio software. Forces are vector quantities. clay-bumper assembly. A weight is attached to the other side of the meterstick. U hangers (2). two vertical rods clamped on the table. hook attachment.) These conditions can be satisfied by two equations: ∑F = 0 i i Equation 1 Equation 2 ∑τ i i =0 In fact these equations are very simple and just state that the sum of all forces and sum of all torques should equal to zero. of which you will then analyze to calculate the hanging weight. and the center-of-mass of the meterstick. ruler (50-cm). sliding hangers (3). EQUIPMENT Meterstick. which can be thought as a single weight acting on the center of mass of the meterstick–sliding hangers system. small rod to attach the motion sensor to one of the vertical rods. Our cantilever system is shown in Figure 1. Force sensors will measure the forces at the attachment points. 1-in-long clay. horizontal rod clamped between the vertical rods. distance-measure sleeve. interface. and you need to separate them into their horizontal and vertical components before you can do arithmetic with them. A motion sensor will be used to measure all the distances involved. weight attachment (500 g). In addition the meterstick with sliding hangers has its own weight. and penny with the clay dot.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS 135AL Experiment 7 Forces and torques in static equilibrium I: cantilever OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution of forces and torques in an extended body maintained in static equilibrium.

You can in fact choose any point that is convenient to you. A weight is attached on the other side with another sliding hanger. Equation 4 For the purposes of this experiment. we have 0 ⋅ Fa + db ⋅ Fb + d s ⋅Ws + d ⋅W = 0 . we rearrange Equations 4 and 5 so that we end up with Ws = − Fa − Fb − W and ⎛ W⎞ ⎛ d ⋅W ⎞ Fb = ⎜ − ⎟ d + ⎜ − s s ⎟ . The meterstick hangs from two force sensors via two sliding hangers. Meterstick cantilever system. Therefore the vectors will be just “signed numbers. db ⎠ ⎝ db ⎠ ⎝ Equation 5 Equation 6 . Remembering that torque is “perpendicular distance between the line of force and origin” times force. The forces in this experiment act only along the vertical direction.” Then Equation 1 becomes Fa + Fb + Ws + W = 0 . Equation 3 In order to write down the torque equation. Let’s choose Force sensor a as the origin.Experiment 7 7-2 support bar Force sensor a Force sensor b clay cup clay penny sliding hangers Fa hook Fb U hanger CM meterstick sliding hanger Ws motion sensor U hanger distance-measure sleeve weight attachment W 0 db ds d x Figure 1. we need to define an origin.

The equation for a straight line plotted in the xy-plane is given by y = mx + b . • • db : the distance of Force sensor b. Since the sliding hanger. including the two stationary sliding hangers (one of them with a U hanger) but excluding the moving sliding hanger. W : the weight of the weight attachment. U hanger. Then Equation 6 represents a line with the slope and y-intercept given by W and db d ⋅W b=− s s . where the center of mass is that of the “meterstick and two sliding hangers the force sensors attach to.” d : the distance of the weight attachment. d is a variable quantity. and distance-measure sleeve. we can calculate W and d s from the slope and y-intercept. U hanger. Then the two stationary sliding hangers must be included in the weight of the meterstick. • In this experiment we will move the weight attachment along the meterstick. Therefore d s represents the center of mass of the meterstick and two stationary sliding hangers as a whole. we include their weight in W as well. and distance-measure sleeve will also move along the meterstick. • • • Fa and Fb : the forces applied on the meterstick by the force sensors. therefore.Experiment 7 7-3 The quantities in these equations are as follows. db m=− Equation 8 Equation 9 If we make a plot of Fb versus d . Equation 7 where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. . including the sliding hanger. d s : the distance of the center of mass. Ws : the weight of the meterstick.

Then click New. Remove the weight attachment. In Variables define Fa and Fb as Data Measurement—Force Ch. This should generate a d versus time graph. 5. In Definition type Ws=-Fa-Fb-W (i. newton). Type db and click Accept. This will enable manual sampling of data. Click Experiment Constants. If not. Otherwise they will be detected instead. Now we are set to go. (Use. Tare (or. B under Data to Graph under Displays. As the final graph. items on the table. (Use the small-triangle menu icon. Click Accept next to the name. See if the protrusions snapped in the holes. Drag d under Data to Graph under Displays. zero) sets the zero reading of the force sensor. the time axis wasn’t highlighted. 8. replace the meterstick. under Set Sampling Options. i. respectively. check “Keep data values only when commanded” and uncheck all the other boxes.. Click Properties and change Variable Name to d. A and Force Ch. again. This should generate a Force Ch. Click Accept at the top. 7. with only the hook on. Click New under Experiments Constants again. Click OK.) d0 will be a calibration parameter that will enable us to set the distance of Force sensor a to 0. 1. Wait for a . Then just remove the graph and repeat the process. Click New under Experiment Constants. etc. Type d0 as the name of the experiment constant. (100 is just the conversion factor from meters to centimeters. 4. 10. 2. In Definition type d=distance*100-d0. Then slowly detach the meterstick from Force sensor a. B versus d graph. Click OK. Click Accept at the top.) In Properties change Variable Name to Ws and Units to N (or. Equation 5). Then click the Σ icon in the graph to display the mean. In Variables define distance as Data Measurement—Position.Experiment 7 7-5 3. 9. Then drag d under Data to the time axis in the graph just generated. Click New at the top. Then remove the U hanger on the middle sliding hanger from the hook on Force sensor b. and click Accept. Drag Ws under Data to Graph under Displays. Likewise tare (zero) Force sensor b by pushing the tare button on the back. d will be the distance of the weight in centimeters. but do not release the mouse before time axis is highlighted. Units to cm. B. By pushing the tare button on the back. PROCEDURE CAUTION: Make sure that the motion sensor doesn’t directly see any objects other than the distance-measure sleeve. Slide the distance-measure sleeve over the sliding hanger under Force sensor a by pushing it straight up from below. In the Experiment menu. such as the force-sensor wires. the small-triangle menu icon. Click the Σ icon in the graph. We have just defined the experiment constants that we will be using in this experiment. your hands. Drag Force Ch. type W. This should generate a Ws versus time graph. Click OK..e. define our origin. This should display the mean value of d along with the minimum and maximum. Click Calculate. tare Force sensor a with only the clay-bumper assembly on.e. 6. Set the meterstick on the table. Proceed with the procedure.) d0 should have automatically been defined as the experiment constant d0. When you are done. In addition make sure to properly tare the force sensors whenever needed to do so as explained in this procedure.

Wsactual = Percent error = Ws static-equilibrium laws − Ws actual ⋅100 = Ws actual . W actual = Percent error = Question 6. Question 3. • Now remove the meterstick but keep the two stationary hangers (one with a U hanger) on the meterstick.Experiment 7 7-7 • Enter your value for W in Calculator (click Calculate) as the value of the experiment constant W . U hanger. what is the mean value of Ws ? Is Ws almost a constant over time? If not. Then get the weight of the meterstick and two stationary hangers (one with a U hanger) after balancing it on the hanger. Stop the data run.) Question 4. W static-equilibrium laws − W actual ⋅100 = W actual • Remove the weight attachment from Force sensor b. Start a new data run. using the y-intercept. Then find the experimental error. From the Ws versus time graph. Now. Find the experimental error by comparing this value to the value you obtained earlier (in Question 3). Compare this value to the value you obtained using the laws of static equilibrium (your answer to Question 2). Tare Force sensor b by pushing the tare button and see if the reading on the graph goes to zero. Generate a Force Ch. This should be the true value of the weight. Start a new data run. why? Ws = ( indicates mean value. Record the mean value for the weight of the weight attachment below. Then hang the weight attachment along with the sliding hanger. d s . Attach a U hanger to Force sensor b and tare the sensor by pushing the tare button. ds = Question 5. B versus time graph. Record about 20 data points by clicking Keep. Click the Σ icon to display the mean. and distance-measure sleeve onto the hook of Force sensor b. solve for the distance of the center of mass of the meterstick–sliding hangers system. Then go to the Ws (weight of the meterstick) versus time graph.

This is known as the Hooke’s law. L. The amount of the stretch in the material will be measured by precisely monitoring the rotation using a rotary motion sensor. 3/ 8′′ socket with spindle bar. To learn the concepts of stress and strain. EQUIPMENT PASCO® stress–strain apparatus. translated into a smaller force by means of a lever. six different material test coupons. will be measured using an economy force sensor. we calculated the external forces (and torques) acting on the object. fractures. or. two beam stands. digital caliper. and T beams. . Real-time stress– strain behavior for different materials will be studied in this manner. the object ultimately breaks. including a rotary motion sensor and an economy force sensor. Beyond a certain elongation. For small forces the length of the object changes by a small amount proportional to the applied force. From the Newton’s third law. statics. and indicator gauge with stand. and ΔL (m) is the change in length (elongation) that occurs. and if they are large enough. (1) where F (N) is the applied force. i. This linear behavior could be written as F = k ΔL . the Hooke’s law is no longer valid and the relationship between the force and elongation is no longer linear. INTRODUCTION Test coupons made from various materials will be stretched by manually turning a screw with a crank. including H. The point at which the Hooke’s law ceases to be valid and the force vs. the proportionality constant k (N/m) is the spring constant. The tension force in the material. BACKGROUND General definitions When we studied forces and torques on an object in static equilibrium. the beam deflection setup.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: Physics 135AL Experiment 8 Elasticity: stress and strain OBJECTIVE To study the deformation of materials under applied force.e. these external forces result in internal forces that are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. In addition the deflection of beams of various geometries under applied load will be studied using a separate setup. computer with DataStudio software. elongation relationship becomes nonlinear is known as the proportional limit. These internal forces in the object lead to the deformations of the object. or the action–reaction principle. calibration bar.

Experiment 8 8-2 (See Figure 1. the spring constant k can be calculated as k = E⋅ A .) Force F (N) or stress σ = F/A (MPa) Proportional limit TS σy Plastic region Elastic limit Elastic region Fracture 0 ε = 0. Beyond the elastic limit. from Equation 2. in which the forces would be large enough to cause permanent deformation. The spring constant k in Equation 1 depends on the original length L0 and the cross-sectional area A of the object. bigger cross-sectional area. e. Then for an object of any dimensions. therefore.g. By substituting Equation 2. which only depends on the material the object is made of. When the applied force on the object is removed within the proportional limit.. L0 (2) The larger the spring constant. Equation 1 can be written in terms of the Young’s modulus so that we have . Once the object is in the plastic region. a steel rod. the stronger (less elastic) is the spring. and a shorter length all result in a less elastic object. which would in turn render the structure damaged. Then the object is said to enter the plastic region. This still happens to be the case until a second limit called the elastic limit. a larger Young’s modulus. σ y represents the yield strength and TS the tensile strength. Elongation of a material under tension. permanent deformation will result.002 Elongation ΔL (m) or strain ε = ΔL/L (dimensionless) Figure 1. the object will no longer return to its original shape when the applied force is removed. Most structures are designed so that the various components used are safe from entering the plastic region. It is more practical to define a similar quantity called the Young’s modulus E. the object will return to its original length.

the maximum stress that the material can sustain before it deforms plastically (permanently changes it shape). i. A second quantity of interest is the tensile strength TS . Such metals behave very linearly up to a point and then suddenly yield and enter the plastic region. It is important to know this value because once the yielding takes place. yields. Since the definition of this point is somewhat ambiguous. the metal starts yielding with a constant force (or stress) corresponding to the yield strength (see again Figure 3).e. Of particular interest is the yield strength σ y . this could simply be put as σ = Eε . Note that the common unit for both the stress σ and Young’s modulus E is megapascal (MPa). In this case the yield strength σ y is defined as in Figure 3. the material is permanently deformed and is usually considered useless thereafter. The resulting elongation ΔL corresponds to the strain σ =F/A as a ε = ΔL / L0 .e.) Some metals.) (4) L0 ΔL F A F Figure 2.e. which is 106 N / m 2 . or. The strain ε is dimensionless. Once in the plastic region. Then the intersection of this line with the stress–strain curve gives the yield strength σ y . especially soft steel. which is the ultimate (maximum) strength of the material. exhibit the so-called yield-point phenomenon. (See again Figure 1.002 = 2 /1000 . i.. = E⋅ A L0 (3) Defining stress σ = F / A and strain ε = ΔL / L0 . And the constant of proportionality is the Young’s modulus E .Experiment 8 8-3 F ΔL . it is common practice to draw a line parallel to the linear region. which crosses the xaxis at the strain ε = 0. Stress–strain characteristics of materials Figure 1 shows typical stress–strain characteristics of a metal.. The original length L0 and cross-sectional area A of an object under the stress result of the applied force F. (See Figure 2. stress and strain are small). stress σ is simply proportional to the strain ε if the material under stress is within the proportional limit (i. .

glass. In addition the temperature may affect the stress–strain behavior dramatically. during such plastic deformation (Figure 5). For example rubber is highly elastic. Another important elastic property for materials is the ductility.e. On the other hand a brittle material is one that shows very little or no plastic deformation upon fracture. The larger the percent elongation % EL. Other polymers may show ductile (large plastic deformations) or brittle (little deformation upon fracture) behavior. The tensile strength TS is also shown. .Experiment 8 8-4 Upper yield point Stress σ (MPa) TS σy Plastic region Lower yield point Fracture Elastic region 0 Strain ε (dimensionless) Figure 3. Some materials such as concrete. A ductile material is one that undergoes quite a big plastic deformation before it fractures. therefore being extremely brittle (see again Figure 4). capable of large elongations without plastic deformation. i. Polymers (such as plastics) also show various stress–strain behaviors.” or shrinks. For example rubber would become very brittle if cooled with liquid nitrogen. Yield-point phenomenon and the definition of the yield strength σ y in this case. Note that the percent elongation will somewhat depend on the initial length L0 since most of the plastic deformation is confined to the region of the material in which the material “necks. % EL = Lf − L 0 L0 × 100 .) Quantitatively the ductility is defined as the percent elongation at fracture. depending on their type. (5) where L0 is the initial length and L f = L0 + ΔL is the final length at fracture. the larger is the ductility. and brittle plastic show no plastic deformation at all and fracture within their elastic region.. (See Figure 4.

and the type of the interface is not USB (but SCSI).Experiment 8 8-5 Brittle Extremely brittle Stress Ductile Strain Figure 4. Necking Fracture Figure 5. If it is on. (If this window doesn’t appear. yet unavailable. check to see if it is on. with the TOP mark on the connector facing straight up. Then check if the economy force sensor is connected to the analog channel A. Start the DataStudio software and choose Create Experiment. you need to restart the computer. respectively. 750 for USB or 700 for SCSI interface. click Add Sensor and in the pull-down menu select Digital Sensors and choose Rotary Motion Sensor. In the Experiment Setup window. Stress–strain behavior for brittle and ductile materials loaded to fracture.) If the interface is unavailable. PROCEDURE DataStudio setup Check if the yellow and black plugs of the rotary motion sensor are connected to the digital channels 1 and 2. . Then click Add Sensor again and this time choose Force Sensor (not the Student Force Sensor) under Analog Sensors. A material test sample first necking and then fracturing under tension. click Setup and choose the proper interface.

500 N in the box. This way the rotary motion has a resolution of 1 /1440 of a full revolution. Finally also in the left column of DataStudio. In the Experiment menu. Click the Calculate button to open the Calculator window. For the name of the constant.05 s. Type 0. which is a variable. Then click Accept. go to Set Sampling Options and open the Delayed Start tab. Note that the Calculator tool can also be used to define constants that you might need. Then click Accept. Change the Sample Rate to 20 Hz. Ch A is above 50. and units to cross_sectional_area. Channel A. which is the maximum allowed for the force sensor.500 N” is satisfied. This way the data measurement will take place when the condition “Force. which are used to plot these variables. Select Data Measurement. Set the condition “Data Measurement Force. Now it is time to define the constants and variables that we will use in this experiment. the angular position multiplied by a constant). For example the rotary motion sensor can measure the Angular Position. In the Set Sampling Options window. meaning it can resolve 360° /1440 = 0. is above 0. . Channel A.000 N. Define another experiment constant by clicking New. respectively. Then select Force.Experiment 8 8-6 Click on the rotary motion sensor icon in the experiment-setup window and open the Rotary Motion Sensor tab.305. 0.. DataStudio uses variables to analyze Data Measurements. open the Automatic Stop tab. Set the name. and mm^2. type 80 and mm. or one data point every 0.25° . respectively. and Is Above. there are the Display options. For the value and unit of the experiment constant. Make sure to change the resolution to High.g. Click on the Experiment Constants and click New.” This way the data collection will automatically stop when the force on the force sensor exceeds 50 N. The variables are listed under Data in the left column. This way the computer will collect 20 data points every second. Then you can use the Calculator tool to derive other variables from the Angular Position variable (e. type length. value.

Note that the serrated surfaces . This will generate a distance vs. Ch A. the apparatus will be damaged. stress under Data Measurement. CAUTION: You should turn the crank with light finger pressure only! Never use force when turning the crank. The test material is secured between the clamps on both sides (Part no. under Data Measurement in the pull-down menu. Figure 7 is a schematic diagram of these clamps. click New. Monitor the force constantly on the digits display and stop turning the crank immediately when the force reaches 50 N and the data recording stops. If you released the mouse before the time axis was highlighted. Drag the distance icon under Data in the left column onto the Graph icon under Displays at the bottom of the left column. When the crank screw hits one of the stops (either clockwise or counterclockwise). Click Properties and change Variable Name to stress and Units to MPa. Click Accept. Also generate a Digits display for Force. stress graph. Define elongation as distance vs. Then drag the stress icon under Data on the time axis of the newly generated graph but release the mouse only after the time axis is highlighted. Define a new variable by typing stress=force*5/cross_sectional_area. Channel A. When the force exceeds this maximum. This should generate the distance vs.Experiment 8 8-7 Define the first variable as follows. 9). Channels 1 & 2. Click Accept. Click Accept. Leave apparatus_deformation undefined for now. Type distance=angle/360 as the formula for the variable in the Definition. After you click Accept. Define force as Force. by dragging it to Digits under Displays. If you force the crank screw beyond the stops. For angle choose Angular Position. Click Accept. delete the graph and repeat the process. Calibration CAUTION: The maximum force the force sensor can withstand is 50 N. time graph. Generate a graph of distance vs. The tension to the test material is applied by turning the crank clockwise. Figure 6 shows the complete setup for the tensile test. Finally click New again in the Calculator window and define strain=(elongation-apparatus_deformation)/length. Click Properties and change Variable Name to distance and Units to mm. Click Accept. stop turning the crank immediately. the data collection will automatically stop. stress as follows.

Also note that the thicker clamp is at the top and the thinner clamp is at the bottom. being careful not to loose them or the washers. Then tighten the nuts using the socket tool. only the top clamp is used. Figure 9. . (a) For a regular data run with a material sample and (b) for the calibration run with the calibration bar. Also set the four clamps aside.Experiment 8 8-8 face inward and the thicker clamp is at the top and the thinner at the bottom. This should also apply to any other unsuccessful data run. Positioning of the clamps (schematic). Adjust the positioning of the moving arm by turning the crank and insert the calibration bar onto the two bolts through its holes (Figure 8). Figure 6. The tightening is accomplished via a nut and a washer. replace only the top clamp [Figure 7(b)]. Now remove both nuts using the socket tool. Calibration. After inserting the calibration bar on the apparatus. make sure to first delete it using Delete Data Run under the Experiment menu before you make another data run. For the calibration run. Complete setup. Start position. (a) Regular data run Bolt Nut Washer Upper clamp (thick) Material sample Lower clamp (thin) Apparatus (b) Calibration run Bolt Nut Washer Upper clamp (thick) Calibration bar Apparatus Figure 7. Note: If you are not satisfied with the data run you are just about to make. Figure 8. Note that the serrated surfaces of the clamps face inward.

open the Calculator window and go to the definition of strain (using the pull-down menu next to Definition). very slowly turn the crank clockwise. After taring the force sensor. at the same time. DataStudio should give you “single data run selected warning. measure the width and thickness of each sample and calculate its cross-sectional area. . In the subsequent runs. Now rename this data run by left-clicking on Run #1 in the Data column for three seconds and then releasing the mouse. stress—calibration under Data measurement. if not already there. Then relieve the stress on the calibration bar and apparatus by gently turning the crank slightly counterclockwise to bring the apparatus back into the start position (Figure 9). At this point the data recording should have automatically stopped. The calibration bar is very thick and has negligible strain under stress. therefore taking the apparatus deformation into account. (You might need the hold the apparatus down with the other hand). Make sure to choose only calibration (Run #1). Now define apparatus_deformation as distance vs. To complete the calibration procedure. Fill out Table 1 below. Click Yes. since it is not 100% stiff. Now keep looking at the digits display and. The calibration run should look very linear (see the figure). we simply measure the strain on the apparatus itself (which is rather small). Dimension measurements Using the digital caliper. stop turning the crank so that you don’t damage the force sensor. Look at the digits display and see if shows zero. Now do you see what the calibration does? The apparatus deforms slightly under stress. not the entire measurement. making sure not to force the crank screw after it hits the stop. click start on DataStudio.” which means that you did the right thing. Then click Accept. DataStudio will subtract this strain from the measured strain for the test material. Also measure the width and thickness after each tensile test and record them in the table. Then type calibration instead of Run #1 to rename this data run. During the calibration run.Experiment 8 8-9 Then make sure that the lever is at the start position (Figure 9) and then tare (zero) the economy force sensor by pressing the tare button on the sensor. As soon as the force on the digits display reaches 50 N.

and the test sample is not twisted diagonally (see Figure 10). delete the graph and repeat the process. fold. Correct placement of the material test sample. and hard steel. plastic. Do not tighten the nuts yet. You are supplied with a test coupon each for these six different materials: aluminum. or crease the test samples. soft steel. Then drag the strain icon onto the time axis of the newly generated graph but release the mouse only after the time axis is highlighted. time graph.Experiment 8 8-10 Table 1.) Turn the crank all the way counterclockwise so that the moving arm is all the way in. strain graph as follows. (See the figure. Do these for the clamps on both sides. otherwise. Go to DataStudio and generate a stress vs. Note: Do not bend. polycarbonate. tighten the nuts using the socket tool. Initial and final dimensions of the sample material. Initial width mm Aluminum Brass Plastic Polycarbonate Soft steel Hard steel Initial thickness mm Initial crossFinal sectional Final width thickness area mm2 mm mm Data run—aluminum Now we are ready to measure actual stress–strain curves for our test materials. If you make a mistake. washers. This will generate a stress vs. they will break prematurely. Now double-check if your clamps conform to Figure 7(a) and then insert the aluminum test sample between the clamps as in Figure 7(a). Drag the stress icon under Data onto the Graph icon under Displays. At this point make sure that both ends of the test sample are completely pushed against the bolts. First remove the calibration bar and assemble the clamps. brass. and nuts on the apparatus exactly as in Figure 7(a) (but don’t insert the test material yet). . Once the test sample is correctly positioned as in Figure 10. Make them Figure 10.

Also in the stress–strain graph. if your graph gives a division-by-zero error (i. This way DataStudio will use the correct initial cross-sectional area in the calculations for each material. Tighten the nuts and make sure that the apparatus is in the start position. you need to make the nuts tight enough so that they don’t slip between the clamps.Experiment 8 8-11 tight so that the material doesn’t slip. . stop DataStudio and rename the data run (i. For hard and soft steel. Other data runs Loosen (but do not remove) the two nuts and remove the aluminum sample. When you fill out Table 2 below. stop turning the crank immediately as well and manually stop DataStudio by clicking the Stop button. Stop turning the crank immediately if the force reaches 50 N. number out of range) or has some unknown problem. Tare the force sensor and start DataStudio. Turn the socket tool with your hands to tighten the nuts. Repeat the same procedure for plastic. After the data run is complete. rename this run (i. CAUTION: With hard steel be extremely careful not to exceed 50 N since this material is very strong and will take large forces. Turn the crank very slowly clockwise and watch the digits display. and hard steel.. If the sample breaks. Turn the crank all the way counterclockwise and then place the brass sample. ANALYSIS Now we will analyze our results. Do not use any other tool. which may break the bolts and damage the apparatus. for each material make sure to first go to the Calculator window in DataStudio. When done. Now first press the tare button and then click Start on DataStudio. and then enter the correct initial crosssectional area (in mm2) for that material from Table 1 and click Accept. Very slowly turn the crank clockwise and let the program take the data. CAUTION: In DataStudio it is sometimes necessary to click Accept in Experiment Constants in the Calculator window again. Also make sure that the lever is at the start position as in Figures 9 and 10.. Run #2) aluminum as you did when you renamed Run #1 calibration. polycarbonate. Run #3) brass.. Constantly monitor the force on the digits display at the same time so that you don’t exceed 50 N.e.e.e. but do not use any other tool. select only the data run you are analyzing by using the Data icon . soft steel.

instead of drawing a parallel line. Make a linear fit using the Fit icon. is taken as the yield strength σ y . (See the bottom figure on the right. The tensile strength TS is just the maximum stress on the stress–strain curve.Experiment 8 8-12 First calculate the Young’s modulus E as follows. % EL = 100 × 0. Therefore for aluminum in the example. For the equation of the curve. which is not stiff. the upper yield point. which is the amount of elongation at fracture. This time make a User-Defined Fit and select Manual in the Curve Fit window that comes up. where 24300 is the slope and 0. Therefore use the method in Figure 3 for such materials. The resulting slope is the young modulus. For aluminum in the example here.010 = 1.002 is the x-intercept. Using the mouse select the linear region of the curve but ignore the nonlinearity at the beginning.002).3 GPa (gigapascal).) Since aluminum doesn’t show a yield-point phenomenon. which is caused by the fact that we use a two-dimensional sample. then the yield strength σ y is measured in a way similar to in Figure 3. Click Accept. . (See the middle figure on the right. Note that for plastics.) Then read the yield strength σ y from the intersection of this line with the stress–strain curve. (See the figure on the right. the yield strength σ y is 130 MPa. where L0 and L f are initial and final lengths and ε f is the strain at fracture. A material is considered brittle if the fracture strain (percent elongation % EL at fracture) is less than about 5% and is considered ductile otherwise. such as in Figure 3. enter 24300*(x-0. instead of the lower yield point as in metals such as certain types of steel. The ductility is measured by the percent elongation % EL.300 MPa or 24. You can also use the x–y tool to find the intersection.) If the material that you are showing exhibits a yield-point phenomenon.00% . we need to use the method in Figure 1 to find the yield strength σ y . given by % EL = 100 × ( L f − L0 ) / L0 = 100 × ε f . The breaking stress is the stress at the fracture. in this case 24.

Make sure that the body of the indicator gauge doesn’t interfere with the beam. You are supplied with three different beams made out of the same kind of steel with the following cross-sectional shapes: H. What seem(s) to be the geometrical factor(s) contributing to the strength of a beam? . Then zero the indicator gauge. Beam deflection in the middle mm H beam L beam T beam Question 1. In this activity we will study the deflection of beams with different cross-sectional shapes built out of the same material. Beam deflection. Table 3. An indicator gauge will be placed under the beam in the middle to measure the deflection under load. Stand on the beam in the middle and have your partner read the indicator gauge. L. Final activity—beam deflection When we studied the tensile tests for various materials in this experiment. Record the reading in Table 3 below.Experiment 8 8-13 Table 2. we learned how different materials reacted to forces that put them under tension. its height adjusted so that the indicator needle is slightly pressed by the bottom surface of the beam. Place the beam on the stands and place the indicator gauge in the middle. E σ y TS (MPa) (GPa) Aluminum Brass Plastic Polycarbonate Soft steel Hard steel (MPa) Breaking stress (MPa) % EL % Fractured Yield-point Necking Ductile or phenomenon phenomenon brittle Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Ductile/brittle At this point discard all the used material samples into the trash. Repeat the same procedure for the other two kinds of beams. The beams will be supported by two metal supports at both ends. Analysis. and T. All beams have approximately the same mass density per unit length.

Experiment 8 8-14 .

v. Thus the upper surface of the fluid moves with the same speed.0. To better define η. as the upper plate and the liquid in contact with the stationary plate remains stationary.a measure of a fluid’s “thickness” (tendency to resist flow. A series of experiments will be performed to verify the validity of mathematical relationships regarding fluid flow and to determine the viscosity of water. Yet on occasion it becomes very apparent (maple syrup). In liquids. All fluids possess different levels of viscosity.0 Objective In this experiment we will be examining a property of liquids called viscosity. 1 EXP IX . Viscosity of liquids is temperature dependent.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT IX FLUID FLOW 1. 2. One plate is stationary. consider the following: A thin layer of fluid is placed between two flat plates. though often viscosity is not specifically appreciated as a characteristic property of a liquid (water in daily usage).0 Background All liquids display a property called viscosity . η. a fluid’s viscosity is determined by the internal frictional force between different layers of the fluid as they move past one another. The fluid directly in contact with either plate is held in place by cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquid and those of the plate. the other is made to move (figure 1).1 What happens to maple syrup when you heat it? when you cool it? The viscosity of fluids can be expressed quantitatively by the coefficient of viscosity.) In essence. this friction is due to cohesive forces between molecules. 2.

The onset of turbulent flow is often abrupt. defined as 1 N/m ). this force. turbulent flow can be characterized approximately by the Reynolds number. is proportional to the area of either plate. and to the speed. 2. etc. Statio nary plate Figure 1 Laminar flow Between each thin layer of fluid. and η the coefficient of viscosity of the liquid. but is turbulent if Re ≥ 2000 EXP IX 2 . Turbulent flow describes all remaining forms of fluid flow. of the plates: F ∝ v A / L. η ↑ L ↓ F = ηAv --------L (EQ 1) 2 2 The units of η are N⋅s / m . L. Laminar flow (or ‘flow in layers’) describes a regular flow pattern as depicted in figure 1 and used to derive equation (1). The result is that the velocity of the fluid varies linearly from 0 to v as shown in figure 1. prediction or mathematical characterization is no longer possible. we can distinguish two types of fluid flow: laminar flow and turbulent flow. simple physical description.1 Categorizing flow In general. ρ the density of the fluid. Flow in a cylindrical tube is laminar if Re < 2000. A. v. which is equivalent to Pa⋅s (Pascal is the standard unit of pressure. In fact. All aspects of laminar flow can be fully characterized both physically and mathematically. For this type of flow. R the internal radius of the tube. intersecting stream patterns. F. To move the upper plate in this example requires a force. characterized by irregular flow patterns like vortices. For a cylindrical tube. friction retards the flow of the layer just above it and so on through the entire liquid. The proportionality constant is defined as the coefficient of viscosity. advanced chaos theory is often used to obtain some form of description and understanding of turbulent flow.Moving Plate ⎯⎯⎯→ F ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ v ⎯⎯⎯→ ⎯⎯→ ⎯→ → . Re: Re = 2 < v > Rρ -----------------------η (EQ 2) where <v> denotes the average speed of the fluid. and is inversely proportional to the separation. For a given fluid.

L the length of the tube. 2. and the dimensions of the tube according to the Poiseuille equation: πR ΔP Q = ----------------8ηL 4 (EQ 3) In EQ 3. ΔP the pressure difference (also called drop) between the ends of the tube.1. for accurate registration of time intervals.0 × 10-3 Pa⋅s) From this point on.2.0 Procedure We will now progress into a set of experiments allowing the opportunity to determine the viscosity of water at room temperature. is the flow in the aorta laminar or turbulent? (For blood the density is ρ ≈ 1. a pressure difference between the ends of a tube is necessary for steady flow of any fluid. You will need the following equipment: A 5 gallon water reservoir. feeding liquid-distributor box. 3. be it water. the pressure difference. Q. η the viscosity. Q depends on the viscosity.1 The aorta has an approximate radius of R ≈ 1. feeds a selection of tubing of various lengths and diameters. During this cycle.0 cm. The average speed of the blood during the resting cycle is about 30 cm/s. R denotes the inside radius of the tube. which. maple syrup or blood in the circulatory system of a human being. a balance. we will be examining aspects of laminar flow only. Because of viscosity.05 × 103 kg / m3 and the viscosity η ≈ 4. in turn.a set of containers to catch water flowing from the tubing. The volume rate of fluid flow in a cylindrical tube. a stop watch. is defined as the volume of fluid flowing past a given point per unit time. allowing accurate determination of the mass of the collected water. it could flow through a level pipe without any force being applied.2 Laminar flow If a fluid had no viscosity. 3 EXP IX .

Figure 2: experimental set-up A Pipe Rise tube Outflow opening B Liquid distributor box Tubing connectors When performing the flow experiments.0 x 103 kg/m3 is the density of water.. When water is drained from the reservoir through B. The pressure in the liquid-distributor box is measured by a rise tube. when the reservoir is drained. Flow and pressure are controlled by opening and closing the reservoir spigot by means of a hose clamp. Consequently. Our system actually overcomes this problem as follows: Consider our supply reservoir in figure 2. g the acceleration of gravity. EXP IX 4 . which has no other openings than an outflow opening B and a hollow pipe A. the pressure inside the reservoir at the lower end of the intake pipe is always identical to atmospheric pressure. we should find that during a measurement sequence the pressure will gradually drop with the decrease in the reservoir. and h the height of the water column. As a result. The static pressure in the box will cause the water column to rise in the tube. air is pulled in through A to restore the pressure balance between the inside of the reservoir and outside atmospheric pressure. the water level in the supply reservoir will gradually drop. The gauge pressure inside the distributor box is then calculated using the formula: ΔP = ρgh (EQ 4) where ρ = 1. the pipe at A will remain free of water and air bubbles as air enters the reservoir. The height of the column is proportional to the pressure inside the box and can be read on a ruler. Since the elevation of this water level strictly defines the pressure of the flow system.

measured from the level of the cocks. The height of the water in the rise tube.2 How would you calculate the volume of water outflow from the mass? (Hint: use the density of water). 5 EXP IX .3 How would you use this result to then calculate Q? First establish equilibrium pressure in the setup: The rubber stopper on the cap of the water tank should be tight. and L the length of the tubing. 3. T =? The flow rate. the output of the flow system will be measured as function of R. Drain water from the setup until the water level in the rise tube stabilizes. the radius of the tubing.1 Note the temperature in the room as an important factor influencing viscosity. ΔP.3. Leave the tap of the water tank open for the entire experiment.1. 3. Open the tap of the water tank. For this measurement series use the tubes with the smaller diameter of 1/32". As stated earlier. is obtained by measuring the outflow of water in grams for a fixed period of time.1. the coefficient of viscosity is temperature-dependent. the pressure difference over the tubing. Q [m3/s]. corresponds to the pressure difference ΔP across the small vinyl tubings.1. since one end of the rise tube as well as one end of each tubing are open to the air. Note: The zero point of this measurement should be the height of the distribution connectors.4 Measure the height of the water column and use it to determine the pressure difference over the tubing from EQ 4. 3. Note the room temperature in your answer book.1 Determination of the viscosity of water Measurements on the flow system will generally use equation (3): Q. 3.1.

1.Now you are ready to let the water run through the tubes. outflow measurements on the different lengths of tubing can be performed virtually simultaneously. Measure the outflow for at least 15 minutes for each length. and express it in m3/ s.5 Measure the outflow for tubings with an internal diameter of 1/32 " (1" = 2. calculate the output.1. Q. Length (m) mass (kg) Vol. EXP IX 6 . 3. 33 cm and 25 cm). substantially reducing experimentation times. use the injector to remove the air and push the water. NOTE: Taking turns with your partner.54 cm) and various lengths (50 cm. that the outflow level of each tube is on the same height as the inflow level! NOTE: If the tube seems to be blocked.6 From the outflow measured. (m3) t (sec) Q (m3/s) 3. During the experiment: make sure.

7 EXP IX .1.3.) 3.7 From your values make a graph Q vs. 1/L on the graph paper provided. 3.1.1.8 Determine the slope for an eyeball-fit line for your graph (assume the line passes through the origin. the radius of the tubes and the pressure difference along the tubing from EQ 3.9 Determine the viscosity of water. using your value for the slope.

3.1.10 How would the flow rates change, if all the used tubes had twice the diameter than the ones you used? Would the value for the viscosity of water change?

3.1.11 How would the flow rates change, if the height difference between the reservoir and the distributor box is increased by a factor of two?

3.1.12 Explain how the flow rate would change if in the original set-up oil is used in place of water.

3.2 Dependence of laminar fluid flow on the shape of the flow path
According to equation (3), Q is only dependent on the pressure across the length of tubing, i.e., the pressure difference between both ends of the tubing. Thus Q is independent of the path taken by the fluid. We will verify this, and relate this phenomenon to blood flow in the human body. For this experiment you use the tubes with the larger diameter. Using longer lengths of tubing, call upon your creative self to construct the four different shape pathways listed below for the flow to travel (be certain to measure Q in all situations) [Be careful not to kink, crush, knot or tightly coil the tubing]: 1. curving upward, then down (mountain); 2. down, then up (valley); 3. sideways, then back (moderate curvature); 4. moderately coiled.

EXP IX

8

3.2.1 Record relevant data and calculate values of flow for each of the four cases.

3.2.2 What can be said about the values of Q obtained in situations 1, 2, 3 and 4?

3.2.3 How would you translate the importance of this into blood flow related aspects in the human body?

3.2.4 List sources of error for both experiments and state how each error affects Q.

9

EXP IX

EXP IX

10

Then being careful not to permanently bend. Some local disturbance (at point A) initiates a local vibration (oscillation) in the medium which is either parallel to (longitudinal [or.) 2.” which exhibits compression. 2.1. 1 EXP X . depending upon how you start it vibrating. Mechanical waves transmit energy and momentum from point A to B without actually causing any of the medium in which they travel (propagate) to relocate from A to B. place it on the table with your partner holding one end while you gently generate a longitudinal wave along it. or deform Slinky. waves which are generated in any elastic medium by rapidly displacing a portion of that medium. (Think of “The Slinky. and torsional wave motion.0 Objective To study the characteristics of sound waves and combinations of notes.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT X SOUND 1.2 Give an everyday example of a transverse wave.0 Background 2. Some time later the disturbance in the medium is detected at a different location in the medium (point B) having been transmitted by action and reaction within the medium rather than its actual. compression] waves) or perpendicular to (transverse and torsion waves) the direction the wave disturbance actually travels. are the most familiar variety. twist. Draw a “snapshot” of the wave that shows how the medium is displaced. Draw a “snapshot” of the wave that shows how the medium is displaced.1 Sound as a wave Wave motion is a phenomenon seen in many aspects of everyday life. Note that the direction of wave propagation is from you to your partner. transverse. from ripples in a rain puddle to the roar of a jet flying overhead to radio and television programming to the evening’s violin concerto.1. permanent displacement. 2. Mechanical waves.1 Give an everyday example of a longitudinal wave. Then generate a transverse wave along Slinky as you did above.

through the medium until dissipative forces (friction.1. and then compresses the medium (usually air) which then reacts to that compression. Can you give an everyday example? 2. Describe how the torsion wave is similar and different compared to a transverse wave.i.1. in vacuum)? Explain.. Sound is a mechanical wave.1. and wavelength υ .which depends upon (EQ 1) λ . It can actually be caused by all sorts of other wave types.. heating) damp it out. As the disturbance passes your ear. A disturbance originates at point A (original cause can be anything).2. the intensity of a sound depends upon the medium. 2.e. if it’s frequency falls within the range to which your ear is EXP X 2 . including transverse waves as produced by stringed instruments.e. The medium’s chain reaction allows the disturbance to propagate at a velocity the frequency f . Then draw a “snapshot” of the wave that shows how the medium is displaced. more specifically it is a longitudinal mechanical wave. the oscillating medium in turn causes an oscillation in your ear which you then perceive as sound IF it is within your hearing range -.5 Would you expect a specific sound to “sound” different if heard under water? Explain in detail. The speed of sound in air at 20 0 C is 344 m/s.3 Generate a torsion wave along Slinky.4 What does the working definition of mechanical waves above imply about propagation when no medium is present (i. υ = λ⋅f Both υ and λ depend upon the medium. the frequency depends only upon the source.

The note which is one octave above the first harmonic is called the second harmonic. A note which has a frequency of exactly twice that of another is said to be an octave higher. quite often represented by a graph of intensity vs. These fingerprints are better known as the sound spectrum of an instrument or source. is it a good violin?). Middle A has a frequency of exactly 440 Hz.and IF it’s intense enough to actually stimulate your hearing mechanism when it arrives. it is also called the first harmonic of the original note.log(y) to calculate the difference in decibels. For an instrument. The threshold of human hearing is at an intensity of approximately I0= 1x10-12 W/m2 and ranges up to 1 W/m2 or greater. It is the combination of the fundamental and its associated harmonics that differentiates the sound quality we perceive both between instrument types (is it a guitar or a violin?). When a musician executes a note.1. Now the source moves 2 times further away. but with lower intensity. which is then called the fundamental. where the intensity level of a sound with intensity I in decibels is given by: I β = 10 ⋅ log ---I0 The typical frequency range of the human ear is also large. In fact. higher harmonics are excited in the instrument as well. Clearly then our sense of hearing depends upon frequency and intensity [W/m2] (which is directly related to POWER = energy per unit time [J/s = 1 Watt]) considerations. the sound spectrum is also called the harmonic content. and so on. frequency for the source in question. such as the tone generator on your computer do produce pure frequencies). 3 EXP X . and instruments of the same variety (if it’s a violin.) 2.6 A given sound has an intensity of I. What is the audible change in the intensity level (in decibels)? (HINT: use log(x / y) = log(x) . that when a musician plays “middle A” his instrument produces a perfect wave with a frequency of 440 Hz. ranging from about 100 Hz to circa 15 kHz. this is almost never the case (electronic “instruments”.2 Elementary music theory Musical notes are sound waves with pure frequencies. meaning the intensity decreases by a factor of (2)2 = 4. Every wave source has a spectrum. Thus audible intensity ranges are defined in terms of I0 and decibels. Middle C has a frequency of approximately 262 Hz and so on. (EQ 2) 2. You might think.sensitive -. The specific combination of the fundamental and its associated harmonics acts as a “sound fingerprint” which identifies the source. The 12 powers of ten (or more) in intensity range makes a logarithmic scale more convenient.

= 3 -. E and G together. if one plays the chord “C major”.-fC 4 fC 2 For different types of chords. the frequency ratios will be different. The ratios of the frequencies are in this case: fE fG ---. ---. the resulting sound is not pleasant to human ears.One way of combining notes is to play a chord. This is done by playing together different notes. the frequencies of which are related by simple fractions. Figure 1: frequency rages of various voices and instruments EXP X 4 . one plays the notes C.= 5.. For example. If we play notes together which have a frequency ratio that is not a simple fraction.

1 Assuming identical amplitudes.2.3. We now define f1 + f2 ------------. Then a sound consisting of these two waves would have the form of the simple mathematical addition of EQ 3 and 4. and beats After learning about music theory. add the two waves in EQ 3 and 4.⎞ to simplify the ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x+y 2 x–y 2 equation.2 Now use the mathematical identity for sin addition sin ( x ) + sin ( y ) = 2 sin ⎛ -----------⎞ cos ⎛ ---------. 2.≡ f = the average frequency of the combined waves 2 and (EQ 5) (EQ 6) f 1 – f 2 ≡ f' = the beat frequency. 5 EXP X . consider the mathematical expression for two pure sound waves (notes) of amplitudes A and B. 2 : y 1 ( t ) = A sin ( 2πf 1 t ) y 2 ( t ) = B sin ( 2πf 2 t ) (EQ 3) (EQ 4) Waves add to one another using the superposition principle . 2.3.the linear combination of two or more waves. and consisting of single frequencies f 1.3 Combining waves.

0 Procedure We will now graphically explore notes. beats and other aspects of sound using a PC. 3.2. Depending upon which channel you choose. a signal-processing program called Cool Edit. a computer microphone.1 Cool Edit set-up You will be using the computer’s built-in microphone. Click “ok” to continue. click on the top-left or bottom-left corner of the panel. Step 1: Power up your PC and double-click on the 135a folder. 3. Your computer will already have an external microphone installed. The top panel is for the left audio track of the stereo input and the bottom track is for the right channel of the stereo input.2 in terms of average frequency and beat frequency. In general. when you add two waves with distinct frequencies. the cursor will change from an arrow with a “L” below it or a “R” below it. The window in Figure 2 will pop up. you get a single wave with two characteristic frequencies. You will need to set the following properties: SAMPLE RATE = 22050. select file: new. Double-click on the Cool Edit icon to start the program.3. Step 2: From the menu bar above. You are now ready to use Cool Edit to examine sound samples.3. RESOLUTION = 16-bit.3 Rewrite your solution to 2. and be ready to use. Beat frequencies are detectable . Figure 2: set-up window Step 3: A new session titled “Untitled” with top and bottom panels will come up. which should already be properly connected. To select one of the channels. EXP X 6 . or come with one built-in. and two tuning forks.thus the importance of having all the instruments in an orchestral section exactly in tune with one another becomes very clear. CHANNELS = STEREO.

2.2. Sketch each intermediate sum.3 Sketch sum-two. 3. 3.3. Repeat the process until you’ve added the 7th and 9th harmonics to each successive summed wave. Go to File: Open and select 5th harmonic. add a track and mix the 5th harmonic to sumone. what is/are the general trends of the summed wave as each successive harmonic is added to the previous? 3. EXP X 8 .2 Sketch the new waveform.5 Draw a general conclusion about the net sound wave of an instrument which has a high harmonic content.4 Qualitatively speaking. Using the exact same steps.2. Save this wave as sum-two.2.

Select the note you want to hear start with a 400 Hz tone. Figure 4: settings for Generate Tones panel Adjust the dB volume to its highest value and click ok to see the wave form.6 Name a relatively strong fundamental instrument. waves which have a jagged shape sound more harsh to the ear than instruments that have stronger fundamental components. Create tones of 500 Hz and 600 Hz. Play each of these notes so you get a feel for each individual tone.3 Notes and chords Cool Edit provides us with an “electronic” instrument capable of easily producing pure frequency waves. In the menu. 9 EXP X . 3. first go to File: New and open a new stereo panel. Slide the wave around until you’re convinced it is indeed a sine wave. Make certain your lab instructor checks your final summed wave before you go to File: Close to close all these windows and move onto the next section. Now choose Generate: Tones. Name a relatively high harmonic instrument.2.3. Generally speaking.

Explain the actual process you use to do this in detail.3.2 Do these ratios agree with the values given in Section 2. But this time normalize the amplitude of each wave to 30%. 3.3. mix the three tracks until you have one final wave which is the sum of all three notes.3 Sketch the final wave form here.3. EXP X 10 . Can you see the influence of all three frequencies in this chord? Make certain your Lab Instructor checks your final summed wave before you close these windows and move onto the next section. 3. Play the result. when you play the mixed wave? Using the instructions in 3. You should hear a major chord.2.3.2? Do you expect to like the sound.1 Determine the ratios of the last two frequencies to the first one.

4. 3.4 Repeat all of the above steps by now combining 265 Hz and 275 Hz and sketch the mixed wave. 11 EXP X . 3.4. calculate the frequency of the beat and the average sound wave.3 For this experiment. 3. modulating the amplitude of the average sound wave.4 Beat frequencies Open up a a sine wave of 265 Hz and a sine wave of 267 Hz (both with an amplitude of 50% and duration of 5 sec). 3.3.4.do you hear any difference? Now mix the two waves and play back the resulting wave.4.2 Describe what you hear now. What you hear is precisely the beat.1 Play back both notes one after the other .

We’re going to record the output from each tuning fork using the computer’s microphone. The amplitude is controlled by the fork’s proximity to the microphone. Once you have a good recording use Transform: Amplitude: Amplify and use the Normalization feature to set the amplitude to 40%. then holding the first tuning fork by its stem. [Do NOT strike the tuning forks on any surface.6 Describe what you hear. Hold the tuning fork STEADY a few inches from the microphone and click Record in the bottom left corner of the screen.4.) Then go to the Edit menu and Copy the wave. You are now ready to add the two waves together. You might need to redo this recording a couple of times before you get a reasonably constant amplitude. Click on the window. you should have two aluminum tuning forks.4. EXP X 12 . (Click Calculate Now and then click OK. or hit them with anything besides the mallets. Play back the mixed wave and see if you can hear BOTH of these frequencies. then examine the two characteristic frequencies formed when these two recorded waves are added (mixed). Superimposed over the entire wave form is f' . You need to maintain as constant amplitude for this wave as possible. Once you are done. Go to Menu: New and open a new. the numerical value of the frequency is stamped on each fork.In your equipment box. f and f' which are Notice that the mixed wave has a fast average frequency of oscillation a slower frequency f .5 Sketch the mixed wave.] The vibration of the prongs produces a pure frequency sound. Use the Mixpaste in the Edit menu to do this. 3. Now record the second tuning fork for 10 seconds. empty sound window. Record a ten-second tone for this fork. set the amplitude of this wave to 40% as well. carefully strike one of the prongs with the rubber mallet. 3.

T = 1/f).you will then not only hear but also see the vibration of the fork! Can you explain this? 13 EXP X .e. 3. estimate both the average frequency and beat frequency.3. using the frequencies stamped on the tuning forks. Remember that the period of oscillation is the inverse of the frequency (i.4. minutes. You should first set the time-axis units to “hms” (hours.8 Now use EQ 5 and 6 to calculate the theoretical values of f and f' .7 From the graph. Indicate in your sketch which periods you used to determine these two frequencies. try holding one of the tuning forks in front of the computer screen . Before you leave the lab today.4. seconds) by double-clicking on it. Compare the results with your estimates from the graph.

EXP X 14 .

0 Objective To study the variation with temperature of the absolute pressure of a dilute gas held at constant volume. It is a useful quantity since most pressure gauges. the difference from the atmospheric (open-air) pressure.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: PHYS135AL EXPERIMENT XI IDEAL GAS AND THE ABSOLUTE ZERO OF TEMPERATURE 1.314 Joule/(mole K) P abs = P atm + P gauge The gauge pressure (EQ 3) P gauge is the difference of the absolute pressure P abs from the atmospheric pressure P atm . measure the gauge pressure. and volume and temperature. If we seal a fixed quantity of gas in a container with volume V constant. 2.). such as the tire gauges you use to check the air pressure in your tires (28 psi.e. All three results are consequences of the ideal-gas law: P abs V = nRT K where: Pabs = absolute pressure V = volume of gas (EQ 2) TK = absolute temperature = temperature in the Kelvin scale n = number of moles For this experiment: R = the universal gas constant = 8.0 Background In 1662 Boyle found that for a fixed amount of gas maintained at a constant temperature T. then EQ 2 becomes: ⎛ P = nR T⎞ → ⎛ P = constant⎞ ------⎝ ⎝T ⎠ V ⎠ (EQ 4) 1 EXP XI . etc. The relation is known as Boyle’s Law: PV = constant (EQ 1) A century later Charles and Gay-Lussac found similar relationships for pressure and temperature.. 32 psi. To determine the absolute zero of temperature via extrapolation of your data. i. the product of absolute pressure P and volume V was a constant.

2. Known as the Kelvin scale. Two liquid thermometers using different substances will not always give the same reading for the same temperature. but conversion between the two is easy: 9 o T F = -.1.T c + 32 5 5 o T c = -. and the incremental scale changes such that the boiling point of water occurs at 212o F. However. the Celsius scale defines the freezing point of water to be 0o C. This occurs because the volume expansion coefficients of liquids are not independent of temperature. Either scale is both useful and valid. it is defined with respect to the Celsius scale as follows: T K = T c + 273.15 Note: Temperatures in Kelvin are always written without the degree mark (o). In practice this value approaches a very large negative number in BOTH the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. depending upon one definition as a reference point. scientists typically use the Celsius scale for a variety of reasons. By comparison. (EQ 5) (EQ 6) This experiment is interested in finding the absolute zero of temperature. The Fahrenheit scale defines the freezing point of water to be 32o. one that has its zero point precisely at absolute zero.2 The boiling point of water? EXP XI 2 . even if both have been carefully calibrated. using a different incremental scale to set water’s boiling point equal to 100o C.Here T is typically measured by a thermal expansion thermometer such as a mercury thermometer. 2.1.1 Temperature A quick diversion into the subject of temperature: Temperature scales are all relative. we can use dilute gases to give us a universal definition of temperature as they all return the same result within the accuracy of our experiment.defined as the temperature where the pressure of an ideal gas would become zero. So we set up yet another temperature scale.1 What is the freezing point of water in degrees Kelvin? (EQ 7) 2.[ T F – 32 ] 9 One must always be careful to specify which you are using when reporting data.

and analyze your results. Always make sure that the pressure vessel is not in contact with the container walls of the temperature bath. The following procedure is the same for each of the gases. Each of the containers has a fixed amount of a dilute gas in it. which will destroy it. For doing measurements with liquid nitrogen. plot the pressure as a function of temperature. In this lab you will be given two containers with different gasses inside. Then insert it into the bath manually and hold it until it reaches equilibrium. and watersteam equilibrium (boiling water). CAUTION: Never put the digital thermometer in liquid nitrogen. water-ice equilibrium. one of them marked with a green label. Figure 1: Pressure vessel and temperature baths Pressure Gauge Pressure Vessel Clamp Stand Hot Water Bath Water-Ice Bath Liquid Nitrogen Bath Each gas is contained in a spherical stainless steel pressure vessel at a room temperature. held at constant volume. Be especially careful to prevent liquid nitrogen splashing onto your face or into your clothes where it can get trapped against your skin. You will measure the absolute pressure P of each gas at different temperatures T. This allows you to move the vessel from one temperature bath to the next with a minimum of effort. it is easier if you remove the rod from the clamps and hold the rod with your hand near the handle and gauge. with a gauge pressure of about 90 PSI (pounds per square inch). But do not 3 EXP XI . The pressure vessel is attached to a handle via a vertical rod.3.0 Procedure CAUTION: Liquid nitrogen is very cold and if spilled can cause severe burns and skin damage. You can clamp the vessel at the appropriate height using the clamp stand. We will measure the pressure of each gas at three points: liquid nitrogen boiling.

As the pressure vessel approaches the temperature of the liquid nitrogen. Again.3 The gas is now at the water-ice equilibrium temperature of T = ______ oC and pressure P = ______psi. 3. 3.1 Approximately two minutes after the water has started to boil. turn off the hot plate and remove the spherical vessel from the hot water. make sure the pressure vessel is not in contact with the sides of the bath container and that the entire spherical portion of the vessel is covered with the bath. When you come to class. The gauge pressure of the gas pressure is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch) by a gauge mounted on the top of the pressure vessel. This bath should be a mixture (50% each) of ice and water. When you are satisfied that you have accurate readings. you may need to add more to maintain the liquid level such that it completely covers the spherical part of the pressure vessel. Again. Remember. Now move the pressure vessel to the water-ice bath. Again. EXP XI 4 . Monitor the pressure.0. It takes about 30 minutes for the water to begin boiling. IMPORTANT: Before proceeding to the next bath. do not let the spherical vessel have contact with the metal bath container. Before the lecture.touch the bottom of the rod or the sphere since they will be too cold and may cause burns. fill the metal container with hot water so that the water will completely cover the spherical part of the pressure vessel. 3. Now fill the blue insulated bath to about half full of liquid nitrogen. you will need to begin boiling water to create a 100oC temperature bath. you can leave the water-ice bath in place for the next lab section.0. Be careful. Your Lab Instructor will assist you with finding and pouring the nitrogen. record the time and gauge reading. wipe the pressure vessels dry using paper towels. reduce the heat to maintain a gentle boil. after it has remained constant for several minutes repeat the procedure above by recording the pressure and time. Be sure that the water level remains above the top of the vessel. on the cloth provided. Turn the hot plate to maximum. remember to keep the pressure vessel from contacting the sides of the bath. Slowly insert the pressure vessel into the insulated nitrogen bath. the rapid boiling will cease and the liquid nitrogen will exhibit a gentle churning motion. When the water starts to boil. carefully set it aside.0. hot water can cause severe burns. As the liquid nitrogen boils away. Repeat this at least 4 more times at two to three minute intervals or until three successive readings are identical. After you are done. You can leave the hot water for the next lab section.2 What is the temperature of the gas in the pressure container in oC? Gently tap the face of the pressure gauge to insure that the needle is not stuck.

80 oC.0. (What should you include?) Estimate uncertainty for each measurement. The gas is now at liquid nitrogen boiling temperature T = 77. 3.0. it is still very cold. and construct a table of your experimental results. Table 1: Experimental data T Gas 1 (C) P gauge Gas 1 P abs Gas 1 T Gas 2 (C) P gauge Gas 2 P abs Gas 2 Error in temperature: 5 EXP XI . record the time and gauge pressure.3. (1 atm = 14. You are now ready to finish your calculations.6 Convert all pressure measurements to absolute pressure using EQ 3. DO NOT touch it.92 inch Hg) 3. Repeat this measurement at least 5 more times at two to three minute intervals or until the three successive pressure readings are identical.70 PSI = 760 mm Hg = 29.4 About two minutes after this is observed.5 Record the atmospheric pressure and convert to PSI units.35 K= -195. Remove the pressure vessel from the nitrogen bath and set it aside to warm to room temperature.0.

7 EXP XI .

EXP XI 8 .

In this experiment we will apply this knowledge to a realistic case. the temperatures on the outer surfaces of the model structure will be measured using an infrared thermometer. EQUIPMENT One in the room: model structure with four different walls and roof. Therefore we have P= ΔT . the R-values for the different walls and the roof will be calculated. the thermal radiation from the different surfaces of a Leslie’s cube. will be measured and compared using a radiation sensor. and glass thermometer inside the model structure. A (2) . Remember that the thermal power P (heat flow per unit time) through a layer of material depends on the temperature difference ΔT across the layer and the thermal resistance R of the layer. which have the same temperature. one for each group: digital thermometer and infrared thermometer. radiation sensor. We will then study thermal radiation in the second part of this experiment. The more the surface area A of the layer of material is the less the thermal resistance R . two infrared heat lamps (GE 37771. and the more the thermal resistance is the less the thermal power. INTRODUCTION In the first activity. two in the room or one in each room: Leslie’s cube. ohmmeter. R (1) When you buy layers of materials used in building structures.Name: Partner’s name: Date and time: Physics 135AL Experiment 12 Thermal conduction and radiation: case study and Leslie’s cube OBJECTIVE To quantitatively investigate the heat flow through the walls of a model structure. we learned about the concepts of heat flow and thermal resistance. they usually specify the R-value Rv . BACKGROUND In the last experiment. The more the temperature difference is the more the thermal power. 250 W) inside the model structure. To investigate thermal radiation using a Leslie’s cube. and window glass. By also using the inside and outside ambient temperatures and the known power of the heat source. Therefore we have R= Rv . millivoltmeter. In the second activity.

Then measure the outside ambient temperature Tambient outside (the temperature of the laboratory room) using the digital thermometer. the more the R-value. Figure 1. Next the thermal power Pwall through each wall and the roof will be found. sun. of which the average device is calibrated in the factory to display the corresponding temperature is detected. like any other material. this is in the infrared range. Tambient inside = _ _. the radiation spectrum will also include visible light and beyond. with the model structure now being in steady state. Finally the thermal resistance Rwall for each wall will be calculated. In this case the different surfaces will be at different temperatures and Equation 1 will still apply. is usually fixed at 0. D is the distance which is a material-dependent factor. For hotter objects. on both inside and outside surfaces. (The emissivity e . CAUTION: Do not look into the infrared thermometer with the trigger ._ °C Tambient outside = _ _. The R-value of the layer of air. temperature at the intensity of radiation detected. Record them below.. the effective R-value could be found by adding the R-values. Note that the air also acts as a layer.Experiment 12 12-2 When several layers of materials are stacked on top of each other. Note that this will include the thermal resistances of the layer of the material and inside layer of air. PROCEDURE Activity 1: case study The heat lamps should have been left on overnight. We will calculate the R-values as follows. with the temperatures being constant and the heat flow being uniform. depends on the thickness of the layer—the more the thickness. Then we will first determine the thermal resistance Rair of the outside layer of air.95.” the D thermal radiation from the surface of an object is almost entirely determined from its surface temperature. Distance-to-spot ratio D : S . such as the filament of a light bulb. The surface._ °C The next step is to measure the temperatures on the four lateral S D : S = 9 :1 surfaces and top surface. For most hot object. We will neglect the inside layer of air but only consider the outside layer. Read the inside ambient temperature Tambient inside from the glass thermometer inside the structure. The reason is technical—we can’t measure the temperatures at the inside surfaces without opening the structure. According to the very fundamental physical phenomenon known as “blackbody radiation. If one knows the R-value Rv for each layer.) to the surface from the The infrared thermometer works by measuring the amount of the infrared thermometer and S is infrared radiation from the surface of the object within a solid the diameter of the spot on the angle given by the distant-to-spot ratio 9:1 (see Figure 1). etc. the thermal power P flows equally through each material after the steady state is reached. Note that the frequency spectrum of the radiation emitted from the object depends on its temperature.

_ ANALYSIS Since our structure is in the thermal steady state. After you measure the temperatures. Using Equation 1 for each wall and summing up._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _. the heat flow is uniform from the inside to the outside._ _ _._ _ _. Our first task is to find out how much thermal power flows through each wall and the roof (we will neglect the floor)._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _. Outer-surface temperatures and inside and outside temperature differences._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _. Figure 2._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _. Record the four readings in Table 1. Finally we need to calculate the temperature differences between the outer surfaces and the outside as well as the inside. Take four temperature readings on each surface._ _ _. This is a fair assumption since they all have nearly the same surface area._ _ _. Since the temperature on the surfaces is not uniform._ _ _._ _ _._ _ _. Calculate ΔTouter surface −ambient outside = Touter surface − Tambient outside and ΔTambient inside −outer surface = Tambient inside − Touter surface for all surfaces and enter them in Table 1._ _ _._ _ _. taken at each four quadrants of the rectangular surface (see Figure 2)._ _ _. Hence the temperatures of the walls don’t change over time. Also do not point the device toward anyone’s eyes._ _ _._ _ _. meaning that the thermal power entering the walls is the same as the thermal power leaving the walls._ _ _. Point the infrared thermometer from a few inches to the surface and press and hold the trigger. find the average temperature Touter surface on the outer surface for each wall and record it in Table 1._ _ _. This turns on the guide laser beam._ _ _. we have . Table 1.Experiment 12 12-3 pressed. which may permanently damage your eyes. you will take four measurements for each surface and calculate the average. We will assume that the thermal resistance Rair of the outside layer of air is the same for each wall and the roof. Touter surface 1 Touter surface 2 Touter surface 3 Touter surface 4 Touter surface ΔTouter surface − ambient outside ΔTambient inside − outer surface °C Front (glass) Left (SHEETROCK®–air–DUROCK®) Right (SHEETROCK®–fiber–DUROCK®) Back ( DUROCK®) Top (SHEETROCK®–fiber–Masonite®) °C °C °C °C °C °C _ _.

Question 1.1._ _ _ Question 1.5._ _ _ _ _. where A is the surface area. + Rair Rair Question 1. Pwall W Front (glass) Left (SHEETROCK®–air–DUROCK®) Right (SHEETROCK®–fiber–DUROCK®) Back ( DUROCK®) Top (SHEETROCK®–fiber–Masonite®) Rwall °C / W 2 Rv wall m ⋅ °C / W Rv wall US _ _ _._ _ _ _.) Table 2. Finally in the last column.2._ _ _ _. convert the R-value Rv wall for each wall to British units used in US for commercial materials. Using Awall 0. From Equation 2 the R-value Rv = RA ._ _ _ _ _._ _ _ _ _. Applying Equation 1 to the thermal power flowing from the inside to the outer surface._ _ _ _ _. we have Pwall = ΔTambient inside−outer surface / Rwall for each wall._ _ _ _ _. Using this separately for each wall._ _ _ _. (See Equation 3._ _ _ _ _._ _ _ _. Rair = _._ _. solve for Rair . calculate its thermal resistance Rwall and record it in Table 2._ _ _ _ _._ _ _ _._ _ _ _.Experiment 12 12-4 front left right back top Ptotal = Pwall + Pwall + Pwall + Pwall + Pwall = front left right ΔTouter surface−ambient outside ΔTouter surface− ambient outside ΔTouter surface−ambient outside + + Rair Rair Rair (3) + back top ΔTouter surface −ambient outside ΔTouter surface−ambient outside .3._ _ _ _. For the conversion use ._ _ _ _ _._ _ _ _ °C / W Question 1. calculate the R-value Rv wall for each wall. Question 1.4._ _ _ _.75 m 2 . W (the total electrical power of our heat lamps). Now find the thermal power Pwall through each wall and record it in Table 2. Note that the thermal resistance Rwall is the sum of the thermal resistances of the wall and inside layer of air. Analysis. We know that the total thermal power Ptotal = 500._ _ _ _ _. By substituting into Equation 3 this and the temperature differences from Table 1._ _ _ _ _.

the cube.5. then to “HIGH. then to 8. Connect the ohmmeter and millivoltmeter as shown in Figure 3. Place the sensor so that the posts on its end are in contact with the cube surface. 3. turn on the cube and set the power switch to “HIGH.” At each setting wait for the cube to reach thermal equilibrium. then repeat the measurements of Step 3 and record your results in Table 3. (This ensures that the distance of the measurement is the same for all surfaces. Part 1: radiation rates from different surfaces 1. reset the power switch to 5. When it gets down to about 40 kΩ.0.0. If the measured resistance value is near the middle between two values on the chart. 2. Use the chart on the base of the cube to determine the corresponding temperature.Experiment 12 12-6 thermopile in the sensor.) Record your measurements in Table 3. which will change the reference temperature and alter the reading. take the average of the two temperatures corresponding to these values. When the cube reaches thermal equilibrium—the ohmmeter reading will fluctuate around a relatively fixed value—use the radiation sensor to measure the radiation emitted from each of the four surfaces of Figure 3. just set the switch to 5. Increase the power-switch setting. Leslie’s cube setup. first to 6. If the Leslie’s cube is preheated. . The shutter-lock ring on the sensor should be slid all the way back so that the sensor shutter will remain closed unless it is pressed open. 4.0.” Keep an eye on the ohmmeter reading. Also measure and record the resistance of the thermistor. If not.

Instruction Manual Manual No. 012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. 012-08107 .

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Interfaces Depending on the type of computer. you need at least the following requirements: Macintosh .0. 2. the following interfaces are recommended: SCSI/serial port computers USB-enabled computers ScienceWorkshop interfaces PASPORT USB Link or Xplorer DataStudio Requirements To use DataStudio. The software works with PASCO interfaces and sensors to collect and analyze data. or USB port. Chemistry. and an oscilloscope. display and analysis program. Serial. or USB port. Free RAM: 8 Mb (16 Mb preferred). ® 3 . There are several ways to use DataStudio: 1. Windows . 3. 98 or NT 4. Using DataStudio DataStudio collects and displays data during the experiment. Open a pre-configured experiment. meter. SCSI. CD-ROM drive.Windows 95. Open a pre-designed workbook. Create an electronic workbook or configure an experiment. including a digit display.System 7.Manual No.5 or higher. Setting up an experiment is a simple matter of plugging sensors into the interface and configuring the software. and Physics for all grade levels. graph. CD-ROM drive. Serial. Biology. You can use DataStudio to create and perform experiments in General Science. 20 MB Free Hard disk space. Free RAM: 8 Mb (16 Mb preferred). SCSI. DataStudio has many ways to view data. 20 MB Free Hard disk space. 012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Introduction What is DataStudio? DataStudio is a data acquisition.

PASPORT If you are using a PASPort sensor. 012-08107 Equipment and Software Setup Depending on the type of interface. To use. See the section that applies to your interface. Details for proper connection can be found in the interface's manual or the sensor's Quick Start Card. Starting DataStudio for the first time. simply highlight the desired lab and click Open Selected Workbook. you can connect the equipment at any time. Click here to launch DataStudio and create an experiment on your own. 4 ® . Connecting a PASPORT Sensor should automatically launch the PASPORTAL window: These are pre-designed electronic workbooks. instructions for setting up DataStudio and other equipment can vary.DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No.

012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual If the PASPORTAL window does not launch. If DataStudio is already running. Open Activity Enter a mathematical expression (e. When DataStudio opens. select “New Activity” from the File menu. Create Experiment Manually enter data into a table. Use this option to create a new experiment. double-click the DataStudio icon on your desktop to launch the DataStudio software. y = x ) 2 Enter Data Graph Equation ® 5 .Manual No. a "Welcome to DataStudio" navigator screen will appear with four options: Select Create Experiment from the startup screen.g. Use this option to open an existing activity.

which activates the calibration menu. 6 ® .DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. Xplorer). This window also shows the sampling rate for each sensor and available data types. 012-08107 PASPORT Experiment Setup Connect the desired sensor to a PASPORT interface (e. USB Link.g. Select the unit of measurement. The Experiment Setup window shows which sensors are connected to the computer. Sensors requiring calibration will have a calibrate button. Set the sampling rate for the sensor. and create an appropriate display. In some instances. The measurements available will be shown in the Summary panel. Click the calibrate button to calibrate the sensor. DataStudio will automatically detect the presence of the sensor. clicking the Setup button can access additional measurements or units.

012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual If you need to add a sensor that isn't connected to the interface. click on the Add Sensor button in the Experiment Setup window. from which you can select the appropriate sensor. A new window listing all sensors will appear. ® 7 .Manual No.

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Starting DataStudio for the first time- ScienceWorkshop
Double-clicking the DataStudio icon on your desktop will launch the DataStudio software. When DataStudio opens, a Welcome to DataStudio navigator screen will appear with four options:

Use this option to create a new experiment. Create Experiment Open Activity

Use this option to open an existing activity.

Enter a mathematical Manually enter data into a table. Enter Data Graph Equation expression (e.g. y = x 2 )

ScienceWorkshop Experiment Setup
Click the Setup button to activate the Experiment Setup window. You will use this window to select sensors and set experimental conditions. If the software does not immediately recognize the interface, click the Change button and choose your interface from the list in the Please Choose Data Source window. The Experiment Setup window will then show the selected interface.

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Sensors Panel The Sensors panel lists all possible sensors. Scroll through the list to find the senor(s) for the experiment. To select a sensor, double-click the icon in the Sensors panel. The software will automatically choose the correct available port.

Now connect the physical sensor into the corresponding channel. When a sensor is selected, an icon will appear in the experiment setup window, with an arrow indicating the appropriate channel for each sensor. Double clicking the sensor icon in this window will open up the sensor properties window where you can set measurement(s), calibration and sampling rate. The available measurements are shown in the summary panel.

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Using DataStudio to configure experimentsall interfaces
DataStudio has a variety of tools to assist with configuring experiments. Using the Summary panel and associated functions helps further define the parameters of the experiment. The displays available provide a powerful method of data visualization. This section deals with creating data displays and describes the function of each.

Displaying Data
Summary Panel The Summary panel lists measurements currently available, any collected data in the experiment, along with displays.

To display data, the sensor or data must be associated with a display. Dragging a display type from the bottom area of the summary panel up to a sensor in the top area of the summary panel will create a display for the sensor or targeted data set. Displays can show multiple data types by dragging the sensor or data run from the data summary column into an open display. Some displays will be more useful than others depending on the sensors or experimental conditions.

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To plot one data type against another. Available displays in DataStudio The following are the types of displays and a description of each: Graph The graph display plots a sensor's data vs. This display does not store data like other displays. drag the data from the data summary (in the Summary panel) to the time axis (x-axis) of the graph. or the number of times a specified measurement value has been observed. but like the FFT shows a 'time slice' snapshot. 012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Creating a display for data You can create or remove a display from the experiment at any time. FFT The FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) displays the spectral decomposition of the data. producing an XY plot (i. Force vs. The new data type will replace time.e. Clicking and dragging a number on the axis will directly change the graph scale. time. Digits The digits display shows the instantaneous value of the data as the experiment is running. Higher sampling rates will yield finer definition of the data's frequency spectrum. The area of a bin is proportional to the frequency of the specified data range. Position). Meter The meter display shows a pictorial representation of the data using a graphical meter. ® 11 . The data is not stored. This display is ideal for experiments using fast sampling rates. even during data collection.Manual No. Table The table display shows the numerical coordinates in paired columns. Histogram The histogram display plots data points that are lumped together in 'bins' as counts. Clicking and dragging the axis line itself will move the axis in the display window. It shows a 'time-slice' snapshot of the data. Oscilloscope The oscilloscope display plots a time-based graph.

If the "Prompt for a value" checkbox is checked. If the data that is kept will have associated manually input data. and text. The condition can be based on time or an experimental condition. as well as the numerical accuracy. These data points can then be associated with a parameter that is not measured by a sensor. prescribe units. also check the "Enter a keyboard value when data is kept" checkbox. Clicking the Options button in the Experiment Setup window will open the Sampling Options. Use the Delayed Start tab to select between time and data measurement. self-contained authoring environment. 12 ® . Setting Experiment Options Options Use the Options button to set sampling options. DataStudio will prompt the user to manually input the associated data. Use the Automatic Stop Tab to select between time and data measurement. Clicking the “Keep data values only when commanded”check box will activate manual sampling mode. 012-08107 Workbook The workbook display is a powerful. graphics. The associated parameter can be typed in manually. Delayed Start Tab A delayed start condition causes DataStudio to monitor and not store any experiment data until a prescribed condition has been met. when data is 'kept'.DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. then set parameters for the start condition. Manual Sampling Tab This option is used with experiments that require selecting specific data points (instead of collecting continuous data). The remaining options are for describing the manually input data. The condition can be based on time. Automatic Stop Tab An automatic stop condition causes DataStudio to end data collection when a prescribed condition has been met. Use this feature to create guided scientific inquiry or as a lab write-up tool. or an experimental condition. You can describe and name the data. Workbooks can contain DataStudio displays. then set parameters for the start condition.

012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Change The change button is used to switch PASCO interfaces.Manual No. Use this button to select the appropriate interface: ® 13 .

To use the zoom select tool. Keep/Stop button If the experiment has been configured for Manual Sampling (see Setting Experiment Options) the start button will change into a Keep/Stop button. As you get closer to a data point. Zoom select The graph and histogram zoom tools change the view of the display window in order to shrink. Clicking the Stop button will stop data collection. Smart Tool The Smart Tool activates a set of cross hairs that displays the coordinate data pair of a specific data point. FFT. and meter display can auto-scale using the scale to fit tool. Zoom in. The graph will zoom in to the area you selected. it will change into a Stop button. Zoom out. Display and Analysis Tools DataStudio provides a complement of features designed to aid with displaying and analyzing data. The entire display will automatically adjust the range so the data fills the display window. Displays may be created or closed at any time before. expand. The smart tool may also be used to display the difference between two data points. 012-08107 Taking Measurements Collecting Data Once the experiment is set up. Scale to fit A graph. Start button and timer When the Start button is clicked. click the tool then draw a box by clicking and dragging around the data area of interest.DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. The Scale to Fit button will return the data back to the optimal view for all data points. Pressing the Keep button during data collection will store a data point. during or after data collection. or focus in on a select portion of the data. The experiment timer displays the current timing condition. Clicking the red square to the right of the Keep button will stop data collection. or a countdown set by an initial timing condition. either how long data has been collected. The displayed coordinates appear in parenthesis at the upper right edge of the small box around the cross hairs. histogram. 14 ® . the Smart Tool will "gravitate" towards the data point. click the Start button to begin collecting data.

Manual No. Clicking and dragging any dashed line will also resize the box (constraining movement to only one dimension). Click and drag the triangle to the second data point A dashed box will appear with the selected data points at two of its corners. Along the sides of the dashed box you will see the numbers that are the difference between the coordinate values for the two points. To resize this box. Hover the mouse pointer over one of the edges of the small box around the cross hairs until the pointer turns into a triangle and hand. You can also label individual data points. meter. Drag the cross hairs of the Smart Tool to the desired location. 012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Moving the Smart Tool To change the position of the cross hairs of the Smart Tool. To constrain the movement of the cross hairs to one axis. ® 15 . Measuring change.Delta Tool The Delta Tool is a feature of the Smart Tool for measuring the change in the X and Y coordinates between two data points on a graph display. hover the pointer over the dashed line that is perpendicular to the axis you want to move along until the pointer turns into a hand. and table displays. hover your mouse cursor over the center of the smart tool until the pointer turns into two crossed double arrowheads and a hand. Show Time Tool Toggles on and off the time component of the data pair in digits. Note Tool The note tool allows you to annotate a graph or histogram. Drag the cross hairs to the new location. Statistics Tool Statistics can be toggled on and off with this button. To use the Delta Tool: Drag the cross hairs of the Smart Tool to a data point. click the corner of the box containing the arrowheads and drag it to a new data point. Pressing the drop down arrow next to the sigma symbol will display a list of available statistics.

The easiest way to enter data is to create an empty data table. When the tool is activated. These are used to either insert a blank row or delete a highlighted row in a data table. From the Experiment menu. This data can be entered into DataStudio for analysis. Double clicking the measurement in the summary column will allow the data properties to be changed. Clicking the down arrow next to the icon will open a menu of common display options. the software creates a table display that is ready to be edited with new data. Display Settings Clicking the display settings button will open a menu where display options can be changed. 16 ® . Data sets can be toggled on and off by clicking on the Data button. and choosing which sets are to be displayed or hidden. After selecting this option. The original data set can never be modified in DataStudio. An indicator appears in the summary panel as well. Clicking the Remove button will remove the highlighted data set from the display. Select Data / Remove Data Data can be selectively viewed by using the Data button. a copy of the data will appear in the data summary column. select “New Empty Data Table”. Using this tool activates the insert and delete row buttons. Here you can set the name of the data.DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. 012-08107 Edit Data Tool Click on the Edit Data tool to edit data in a table. Data can be removed from a display by using the Remove button. units and other properties such as accuracy. Double clicking in the middle of the display window will also open the display options menu. Some experiments require manual data collection.

The calculator may be used to graph equations. Simply click. etc. Model Range: define a region for the equation. but also manipulating data measurements from sensors. hold and drag a measurement into the calculator window and release on the variable to be defined. Clicking on the buttons below the definition area allows terms to be selected and input automatically in the correct format. Statistical (min (x).) ® 17 . calculate momentum using velocity data). derivative (x). as well as perform calculations on data sets. Enter functions in the form of y = f (x) where y = the name of the function and x = variable. cos (x). as well as the number of coordinate points between the range. Similar to displays.) Special (integral (x). Prompt DataStudio to evaluate the expression by clicking the "Accept" button. This will perform a calculation on an entire data set to convert the data into another desired quantity (e. Experiment constant: set the variable to a numeric value that is recognized by all equations in the experiment (e. etc. avg (x). Variables can be defined as: Constant: set the variable to a numeric value. Click the Calculate button to activate the calculator window.Manual No. which need to be defined before calculation can proceed.g. 012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Calculator DataStudio incorporates a calculator feature that is capable of not only calculating mathematical expressions.g. and will be used only in this equation. exp (x). etc. The software will highlight any undefined terms. mass of cart = 500 g) Data Measurement: associate a data measurement with a variable. calculations can be created or deleted at any time. This is a local variable. Terms are grouped as: Scientific (sin (x).).

DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. depending on the relationship of data types. 18 ® . 012-08107 Fit Tool Use the fit tool to smooth data on a graph.

To begin creating a workbook. Workbook Tools Adding a Display to the Workbook From the display summary. click and drag a display into the Workbook window. or to create a lab activity. Workbooks can contain text. To turn off the workbook tools. The display will appear in the window. allowing the student to perform each step of the activity and record observations. Add a Text File This tool allows you to import a text file directly into the workbook. Selecting Always Editable allows students to type in the box. doubleclick the Workbook icon in the Displays List of the Summary. and data displays. press <Ctrl> + T. 012-08107 DataStudio Starter Manual Using the Workbook The Workbook is a special container that can be used for lab writeups. graphics. ® 19 . Right clicking over the text block brings up a list of options to format the text. Add a text block This tool allows you to create a text block and add text directly into the workbook.Manual No. A blank workbook page will open. DataStudio's Workbook can be used to guide a student through an activity.

pic graphic into the workbook. Add Page / Delete Page This tool will add a new blank page to your workbook. 20 ® .DataStudio Starter Manual Manual No. or delete the current page. 012-08107 Add a Picture This tool allows you to import a .bmp or . Delete Selected Item Removes a selected item from the workbook completely.

Therefore.9 cm and 56. For example a measurement of the length of a board to be 56. In this case. There are two basic ways to estimate the measurement errors.2 ± 0. errors are also compounded when measurement values are used in mathematical formulas. This arises from the fact that measurements cannot be exact. In addition uncertainty can be introduced by an experimental method or by the experimentalist herself.5 cm. The first and preferred procedure is to make many measurements to obtain the mean as an expected value of the measurement and the standard deviation as a measure of the error. this would be 0.Appendix B B-1 Appendix B Error analysis OBJECTIVE To provide a brief review of the concepts involved in error analysis. For example. Note that the absolute error must have the same accuracy as the measured (mean) value. In addition to errors and uncertainties that arise from direct measurements. Relative error is just the absolute error divided by the measured value (mean) and it expresses the experimental error as a percentage of the original stated value (in this case ±0. it is essential to know how errors interact with each other as well.3 cm is called the absolute experimental error. if you are uncertain. This estimate is generally written as a range of values in which the “correct” answer could lie. BACKGROUND Error analysis provides the underlying basis for confidence in scientific experiment. With any measurement there is some uncertainty introduced by limitations in equipment precision. If you use the estimation method. PROCEDURE You will be expected to do an error analysis for most experiments. you may take the one-half the minimum division of the measuring device as the error. if this is not practical. with a meter stick with 1-millimeter divisions. In this case the figure ±0. you may estimate your error in a single measurement.5%). The relative error must have the same number of significant figures as the absolute error so that one can be calculated from the other and there are no redundant digits either. Notation For any experimental measurement. . This means that the absolute error must have the same number of digits after the decimal point as the mean. Another value that is often useful is the relative error.3 cm means that the length is somewhere between 55. It is just this task of learning how to account for sources of uncertainty in measurements that embodies error analysis.5 mm. Alternately. To learn about error propagation in calculations. the result that is listed must have an estimate of error associated with it. you must justify your assumptions and choices in arriving at a value for the error.

In addition. when making a series of measurements. Again notice that the decimal accuracy (2 positions to the right of the decimal) is identical for the result (mean) and absolute error.700 are simply placeholders and have no significance. the quantities are defined as: Mean value of N measurements = x = 1 N ∑x i i (1) Standard deviation of N measurements = σ N −1 = ∑ (x − i i x )2 (2) N −1 Utilizing this statistical method for a symmetric distribution provides a level of confidence in your measurements. consider an object with a measured mass of 34. The derivation of the method shows that about 68% of all measurements fall within x ± σ N −1 and about 95% of all measurements fall within x ± 2σ N −1 . If the spread of the measurements is large compared to the average value. This type of error is referred to as random error. For an asymmetric distribution. This type of error is referred to as systematic error. the error in each measurement is unrelated to the error in the previous measurement. . In this case. such that there is no confusion about the significance of the zeros.Appendix B B-2 As a second example. It is advisable to do a calculation of the mean and standard deviation with a calculator and by using Equations 1 and 2 to compare the results and to make sure that you understand how the calculator works. These methods will not have the same systematic error associated with them and will therefore expose the existence of a problem. The statistical method for describing a symmetric distribution is to calculate the center (the mean) and the spread (the standard deviation).03) x 104 gm properly indicates that the error is ±3 in the third figure of mass. the zeros in 34. someone cut the end off of your ruler).700 ± 300 grams. You should display this result in scientific notation. An additional type of error arises when the same error occurs repeatedly (i.47 ± 0.e. Thus the width of the distribution of measurements is a measure of the uncertainty or precision of our results. (3. Most inexpensive scientific calculators have these statistical functions included on them and the calculation of the mean and standard deviation can be quite simple. we infer that the reproducibility and precision is poor and vice versa. interpretation of the mean and standard deviation should be done with care. Random errors are statistical in nature and can be analyzed with statistical methods. Calculation of uncertainty in a measurement A common solution to estimating the precision of a measurement is to repeat the measurement many times and assume that the average value of these measurements has a greater significance than any individual measurement. Specifically. How closely the measurements agree with each other (the reproducibility of the experiment) can be used as a measurement of experimental uncertainty. Systematic error is usually discovered by making a measurement of the same physical quantity using two completely independent methods.

with ni being constants (positive or negative).Appendix B B-3 Propagating errors through calculations After making a set of measurements. you get ΔA / A = 2 ( Δa / a ) . and powers of uncorrelated quantities If y = ∏ xini . x2 . Hint: How does the prior knowledge that the square is almost a perfect square affect your result? . For example the measurement of a radius of a sphere may be used to calculate the volume of the sphere. Δx3 . 2 Should the relative error ΔA / A for the area of the square be taken as 2 ( Δa / a ) or as 2 ( Δa / a ) ? Why or why not? If you can answer this question properly. then i ( Δy ) 2 = ∑ ai2 ( Δxi ) . x2 . To use the value in a formula. x3 . … . Equation 4 gives ΔA / A = ( Δa / a ) + ( Δb / b ) 2 2 ≈ 2 ( Δa / a ) = 2 ( Δa / a ) . then i ⎛ Δy ⎞ 2 ⎛ Δx ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ∑ ni ⎜ ⎟ . you have understood error propagation. which are uncorrelated with each other. Area of a square 2 2 (4) You are given a square with two sides being almost perfectly equal. with ai being constants (positive or negative). Δx2 . But if you consider the square as a rectangle with sides a ≈ b and measure both sides and use the formula A = ab . division. If you directly use the result of Equation 4. You are asked to determine its area A = a 2 by measuring its sides a and also to give a relative-error estimate ΔA / A for its area in terms of your relative errors Δa / a in the measurements of its sides. If a quantity y has to be calculated from experimentally measured quantities x1 . it is essential to know how the errors relate to each other. 2 i (3) Multiplication. … : Addition and subtraction of uncorrelated quantities If y = ∑ ai xi . it is generally desirable to use the values obtained in some mathematical formula. one uses the formulas below to find the absolute error Δy in y in terms of the absolute errors Δx1 . The basic idea is as follows. … in x1 . i ⎝ y ⎠ ⎝ xi ⎠ Question 1. x3 .

Appendix B B-4 .