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Module 3A3 - Turbomachinery
Prof Howard Hodson
1 Introduction 1.1 Definition
A Turbomachine is a steady flow device (non-positive displacement) which creates/consumes shaft-work by changing the moment of momentum (angular momentum) of a fluid passing through a rotating set of blades.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
1.2 Examples of Turbomachines
1.2.1 Very Large Machines
MHI 501 single shaft Gas Turbine
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
Manufacturers of large gas turbines and steam turbines for industrial power generation include • Alstom • Mitsubishi • Siemens • General Electric All use axial flow turbomachines
Three Low Pressure Rotors from a large steam turbine (approx 150 MW per rotor) 1-3
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
1.2.2 Big 4 manufacturers: • General Electric • Pratt & Whitney • Rolls-Royce • SNECMA
Aero Engines & Aero Derivatives
All use axial flow compressors and axial flow turbines except for the smallest of engines (eg helicopters and UAVs) when radial flow compressors are used 1-4
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
1.2.3 Many types & configurations Most common types • centrifugal pump or compressor with axial inflow and radial outflow • radial inflow-axial outflow turbine
An industrial centrifugal compressor A Small Turbocharger
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
The Francis Turbine has an radial flow stator and a radial-axial flow rotor The Kaplan turbine has an radial flow stator and an axial flow rotor
1-7 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 1. o Centrifugal compressors o Radial inflow-axial outflow turbines • Analysis of the flow in bladerows and stages (1D) • Dynamic scaling. you should be able to • Identify and understand the operation of different types of turbomachinery.3 Aims of the Course This course aims to provide an understanding of the principles that govern the fluid dynamic operation of axial and radial flow turbomachines.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 1. At the end of this course. characteristics of compressors and turbine • Compressible Flow Machines • Hub-Tip variations in flow properties (2D) 1-8 . • Analyse turbomachinery performance. • Understand the causes of irreversibilities within the blade passages • Analyse compressible flow through turbomachines.4 What is in this course? • 4 types of machines: o Axial compressors o Axial gas turbines and axial steam turbines.
I. Cumpsty. N.A.F. S L Cohen.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 1.H.. Rolls-Royce Gas Turbine Theory Shelf Mark Fluid mechanics. H. and Saravanamuttoo.C.5 Laboratory Experiment Evaluation of pump performance • measure performance parameters • study effects of Reynolds number • examine the effects of and visualise cavitation 1-9 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 1.. VK 33 Compressor Aerodynamics The Jet Engine VS 16 VN 36 1-10 . Thermodynamics of TN 24 Turbomachinery. Rogers.6 Recommended Books Author Title Dixon. H. G.
7 Notation Geometric & Flow Parameters 2 2 Ax Annulus area = Ax = π ( Rcasing − Rhub ) = 2πRmean h Ax A b Passage area = (blade height) × (blade pitch) Effective flow area = A = Ax cosα axial width of radial impeller (i. mean r rel x y.rel Vrel Suffices: 0 1 2 3 m.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 1. blade height. span = h = rcasing – rhub enthalpy Mass flow rate Volumetric flow rate & Flow coefficient =Vx U (or Q ΩD3 in “scaling” applications) reaction Radius pitch (spacing) of blades slip factor Blade speed (usually at mean radius) = U = 1/2(Ucasing + Uhub) α D ψ h h & m Q φ Λ r s σ U 1-11 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH V Vx Vθ Vρ Vθ. θ Flow velocity Axial velocity Tangential velocity Radial velocity Tangential velocity in rotating co-ordinate system Velocity in rotating co-ordinate system stagnation inlet to 1st blade row cascade exit or 1st blade row exit / 2nd blade row inlet stage exit / 2nd blade row exit / 3rd blade row inlet value at mean radius radial relative frame of reference (rotating frame) axial tangential 1-12 . blade span) Flow angle in absolute co-ordinate system Flow angle in rotating co-ordinate system diameter (usually mean or tip) stage loading coefficient Annulus height.e.
especially when we are dealing with individual stages (i. temperature and specific enthalpy. we must specify if the p. temperature and specific enthalpy or • the static (ie true thermodynamic) pressure. By working in terms of stagnation (total) quantities • kinetic energy effects are automatically taken care of. For a perfect gas. T and h that we are using are the • stagnation (total) pressure.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2 Basic Concepts 2.e. it is usually safer to assume that the p. stagnation temperature and stagnation specific enthalpy. the stagnation (total) specific enthalpy h0 is given by: h0 ≡ h + 1 V 2 2 so the SFEE can be written: q − wx = h02 − h01 In a turbomachine. • analyses are easier (stagnation quantities are easier to measure than static quantities). single rotor+stator combinations). the work exchange occurs because of changes in momentum (velocity) so the importance of the kinetic energy in the SFEE cannot be ignored. V2 V2 = h + 2 − h + 1 2 1 2 2 2-13 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Therefore. 2-14 . the static and stagnation temperatures T and T0 are related to h and h0 by h0 − h = c p (T0 − T ) = 1 V 2 2 It is T0 rather than h0 that is measured experimentally. application of the SFEE to the above gives q − wx Now. This can be done by mounting a thermocouple inside something like a Pitot tube. T and h represent the stagnation pressure.1 Stagnation (total) and Static (True Thermodynamic) Quantities 1 q wx Control Volume 2 Assuming gravity can be neglected. Note that if the type is not specified or implied.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2. Q in CONTROL SURFACE 2 3 Shaft . . . i. Wx=W T-W C 1 4 . WC Turbine . everything happens so quickly that there is no time for any heat transfer.2 The air-standard Joule (Brayton) cycle The closed air-standard Joule/Brayton cycle is the • is the simplest model of the open circuit gas turbine • is the basic standard against which we assess practical applications • is a very good model of the actual engine Assumptions: • All processes are reversible • cp and γ are constant around the cycle • No pressure change (i. they are adiabatic In this course.e. Q out Closed Circuit Gas Turbine 2-16 . we will assume all of the above except that we will often allow irreversibilities to occur.e. no losses) in the heat exchangers • In the compressors and turbines. 2-15 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH ..
3 Irreversible Turbomachines: Isentropic efficiencies We are used to dealing with these in the context of entire turbines (gas or steam) or entire compressors. 2-18 . especially when we are dealing with individual stages. T and h that we are using are the stagnation (total) or the static values. • ηcycle increases monotonically with increasing rp. (for a real gas turbine. we must specify if the p. • The same definitions can also be applied to individual rotor+stator combinations (i. stages) The isentropic efficiencies are defined as the ratio of the • the actual work and • the isentropic work that occur between • the specified inlet conditions and • the specified exit pressure Therefore. However.e. 2-17 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH You should be able to show that the efficiency is given by ηcycle where rt is the isentropic temperature ratio rt = T2 T ( = 3 = rpγ −1) γ T1 T4 p2 p = 3 p1 p4 1 = 1− rt and rp is the pressure ratio rp = For the ideal cycle • ηcycle depends only on the pressure ratio rp. it also depends on the ratio T3 T1 ).
3. the exit KE) 2-20 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2. The difference is due to the socalled leaving loss (i.3. These are used when Total-Total Isentropic Efficiencies • the kinetic energy of the flow is very small or • where the kinetic energy of the flow leaving one component (eg stage) is not wasted by a downstream component Compressor Gas or Steam Turbine h (or T) 02 02s h (or T) 03 w wis 04 wis 01 w 04s Entropy s ideal work h −h η ≡ = 02 s 01 actual work h02 − h01 tt tt Entropy s actual work h03 − h04 η ≡ = ideal work h03 − h04 s 2-19 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2.1 Although you may not have realised it.e.2 We use these definitions when Total-Static Isentropic Efficiencies • the kinetic energy of the flow leaving one component (eg stage) is wasted by a downstream component This most often happens when we waste the exit kinetic energy of an entire turbomachine. • in the exhaust duct of a steam turbine • when a fan or pump exhausts directly into the atmosphere The total-static efficiency is always less than the total-total efficiency. e.g. in Part I you have been using stagnation (total) quantities to define the isentropic efficiencies.
0 bar P4 = 1. no exit KE wis.17 bar Example Calculate both the total-to-total and total-to-static isentropic efficiencies.928 ideal work h03 − h04 s T03 − T04 s 1000 − 864.17 = 1000 2.2 K ηtt ≡ actual work h03 − h04 T −T 1000 − 874 = = 03 04 = = 0.4 = 857.97 K actual work h03 − h04 T03 − T04 1000 − 874 = = = = 0. no exit KE wactual 2 04 Exit KE 04s P04 01 P4 4s 4 Entropy s Entropy s actual work h03 − h04 η ≡ = ideal work h03 − h4 s ts ideal work h −h ηts ≡ = 2 s 01 actual work h02 − h01 Total-Static Isentropic Efficiencies wactual 2-21 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2.3 The inlet and exit conditions to a turbine are: inlet: exit: T04 = 874 K P04 = 1. total-to-total: T04 s = T03 P04 P03 (γ −1) γ 1.4 ) 1 . Assume the flow is a perfect gas with γ = 1.0 ( 0 .4 ) 1 .3.887 ideal work h03 − h4 s T03 − T4 s 1000 − 857.2 = 1000 2.97 ηts ≡ 2-22 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Compressor Gas or Steam Turbine h (or T) 02 02s P03 h (or T) 03 Exit KE 2s wis.0 ( 0 .4.4 = 864.2 (γ −1) γ total-to-static: P T4 s = T03 4 P03 1.2 bar T03 = 1000 K P03 = 2.
1 The final part of this expression is much more accurate and convenient to use than interpolating for liquid enthalpies in the steam tables.1 The heat input in the boiler and heat rejected in the condenser are given by qin = h03 − h02 and qout = h04 − h01 The turbine work output is given by wT = h03 − h04 = ηisentropic (h03 − h04 s ) where ηisentropic is the total-total isentropic efficiency of the whole turbine. 2-24 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2. Qout to cooling water . WT 01 04s 04 s You should already know that per unit mass of steam circulating. Qin from combustion gas 03 T 2 steam generator 3 .4 The Rankine Steam Cycle This is the basis of almost every practical steam cycle for large scale power generation. the feed pump work input is given by combining the SFEE with Tds = dh − dp/ρ and assuming that the water is incompressible 2-23 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH w pump = h02 − h01 = (h02 s − h01 ) η pump 01 = 1 02 s η pump ∫ ρ ≅ dp p02 − p01 η pump ρ where ηpump is the total-total isentropic efficiency of the feed pump and ρ is the density of water. . WP feed pump 1 steam turbine 02 4 condenser .
• we use an x-r-θ coordinate system x = axial direction r = radial direction θ = tangential/circumferential direction • we need to work in the stationary (absolute) and rotating (relative) frames of reference 3-26 . Therefore.5 Summary We must always specify if the p. we must consider • the moment of momentum • rotation about an axis As a result. temperature and specific enthalpy. temperature and specific enthalpy or • static (ie true thermodynamic) pressure. T and h that we are using are the • stagnation (total) pressure.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 2.1 Basic Coordinate Systems and Velocities Earlier. For compressors: • ηtt ≡ For a gas or steam turbine: • ηtt ≡ actual work h03 − h04 = ideal work h03 − h04 s ideal work h02 s − h01 = actual work h02 − h01 ηts ≡ ideal work h2 s − h01 = actual work h02 − h01 actual work h03 − h04 = ideal work h03 − h4 s ηts ≡ For incompressible pumps. if w pump is the actual specific work input • ηtt = p02 − p01 w pump ρ ηts = p2 − p01 w pump ρ 2-25 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 3 Flow Velocities and Velocity Triangles 3. we defined a turbomachine as a steady flow device which creates/consumes shaft-work by changing the moment of momentum of a fluid passing through a rotating set of blades.
3-27 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH The analysis of the flow through rotating blade rows (rotors) can be greatly simplified by working in a frame of reference so that the rotors appear to be at rest.rel Ω Ωr r Vr Axial view of the components of the absolute and rotor relative velocity vectors We first note that in the both frames of reference. we have Vx = axial velocity Vr = radial velocity Vx Vr θ r Ω x V Vθ Vθ = tangential/circumferential/swirl velocity We note that: The sign convention used throughout this course (and by much of industry) is that tangential/circumferential/swirl velocities are positive if they are in the same direction as the rotation of the rotor. we have Vx = axial velocity Vr = radial velocity 3-28 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH In the stationary frame. Vθ Vθ.
the only difference between the absolute and relative velocities is due to the magnitude of the circumferential velocity.rel + Ωr where Vθ. depending on whether the flow is mainly axial or radial. In fact. Vx >> Vr or Vx << Vr 3-30 .rel = rotor relative tangential/circumferential/swirl velocity and Ωr = U = blade speed 3-29 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH For axial machines: Vx >> Vr For radial machines.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH and that the two (stationary/absolute and rotational/rotor relative) frames of reference are related according to the vector expression absolute velocity = relative velocity + rotational velocity Since Vx and Vr are the same in both frames of reference. Vθ = Vθ. at the outer radius Vx << Vr and at the inner radius.
i.2 Mean-line Analyses Design methods for turbines.e. we assume that • the span (hub-tip length) of the blades is small in relation to the mean radius so that • the variation of the flow in the hub-tip direction can be neglected • the mean radius = rmean = (rcasing + rhub) / 2 3-31 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Axial Flow Pump 3-32 . The first step is to use • 1-D calculations along mean radius.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 3. mean-line analyses to examine • mean radius velocity triangles before and after each bladerow In doing so. compressors and pumps usually involve a number of separate processes.
rel Vθ2. • turbines use stators to create a moment of momentum which is then removed in the rotor.rel α2. 3-33 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH rθ U V 2 2 V Vθ2 U x Vx2 α 2 α 2 V2.e.3 Velocity Triangles for an Axial Turbine Stage (Stator+Rotor) For simplicity.rel Vx2 α 1 V1 Vθ1 Vx1 STATOR ROTOR Axial Turbine Stator Exit/Rotor Inlet Velocity Triangle Viewed Radially 3-34 . we will assume that • the variation of the flow in the radial direction is small • the radial component of velocity is negligible (Vr=0) • there is no change of radius (r) through the stage • the blade speed ( Ωr = U ) is constant • the variation of the flow in the circumferential direction is small • we can examine the flow by looking an unwrapped (ie development of) cylindrical surface of revolution.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 3. by using the cascade (x–y or x-rθ) plane We recall that • flow angles are positive if they are in the same direction as the rotation of the rotor. Now.rel V2. i.rel α2.
We recall that the axial velocity Vx 2 is the same in both frames of reference and that Vθ 2 = Vθ 2. we again note that the analysis of the flow through rotating blade rows (rotors) can be greatly simplified by working in a frame of reference so that the rotors appear to be at rest. rel + U where Ωr = U ⇒ Vθ 2. rel = θ 2 = tan α 2 − Vx 2 Vx 2 Vx 2 We now look at the rotor exit. rel + Ωr = Vθ 2. Now. rel = Vθ 2 − U Therefore.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH At the inlet of our stator axial velocity 1 tangential velocity V 1 1 At the exit/outlet of our stator axial velocity 2 Finally. θ tangential velocity V 2 2 α = V2 sin α Vx 2 = V2 cos α 3-35 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH = V1 sin α 3-36 Vx1 = V1 cos θ . the rotor relative inlet flow angle is given by V V −U U tan α 2. rel = θ 2. we note that (see later): • the absolute exit flow angle α of a stator & the relative exit flow angle α rel of a rotor tend to be independent of the operating condition even when the inlet flow angle to the same bladerow or the velocities change.
rel STATOR ROTOR Velocity Triangles for an Axial Turbine Stage Viewed Radially 3-37 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH At rotor exit. we note that Vθ 3 = Vθ 3. rel + Vx 3 Vx 3 Vx 3 If we study the velocity triangles of the turbine as we have drawn them.this is very common .rel V3 U3 Vx1 V3.turbine blades make the flow more tangential • Vx1 ≈ Vx 2 ≈ Vx3 • V2 >> V1 and V3.turbine blades accelerate the flow . rel >> α 2. rel >> V2.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Blade Speed rθ V2 U2 α 2 V2. rel . rel .rel x α3 α1 1 V V θ1 α3. rel + U and that +U V V U tan α 3 = θ 3 = θ 3. we should notice that • α 2 >> α1 and α 3.boundary layers thin and losses in efficiency are small 3-38 . rel = tan α 3.rel α2.
rel = V 2 The stator exit/rotor inlet relative flow angle is V 157.1 The flow leaving an axial turbine stator blade row has a velocity 700 ms-1 at an angle of 70°. rel = tan −1 θ 2.4° 239.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 3.4 Vx 2 (sign indicates same direction as blade speed) The rotor exit axial velocity is Vx3 = Vx 2 = 239. rel = V3. rel = V − 157.8ms-1 (sign indicates opposite direction as blade speed) θ θ The rotor exit absolute flow angle is α3 θ θ V 2 = Vx3 tan 3.4 Vx 3 (sign indicates opposite direction as blade speed) α = V2 sin 2= α 2= Vx 2 = V2 cos 700 × cos70° = 239.4° 239.8 = tan −1 3 = tan −1 = −33.4 ms-1 700 × sin70° = 657. rel sin The rotor exit absolute tangential velocity is V 3 = V 3.4 × tan(-70°) = -657. Example The stator exit/rotor inlet axial velocity is The stator exit/rotor inlet absolute tangential velocity is The stator exit/rotor inlet relative tangential velocity is θ V 2 .4 ms-1 The rotor exit relative tangential velocity is α α θ V 3.8 ms-1 θ 3-39 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 239.8 ms-1 (sign indicates opposite direction as blade speed) 3-40 . The flow leaving a rotor blade row also has a relative velocity of 700 ms-1 at a relative angle of -70°.8 + 500 = -157.8 α 2.8 ms-1 − U = 657. The rotor has a blade speed of 500 ms-1.3. rel 3. Neglect any radial velocities and assume that the axial velocity is constant through the stage Calculate the relative flow angle at rotor inlet and the absolute flow angle at rotor exit.8 – 500 = 157. rel + U = -657. rel = tan −1 = 33.
rel ROTOR STATOR Velocity Triangles for an Axial Compressor Stage Viewed Radially 3-42 . by using the cascade (x–y or x-rθ) plane Now: • compressors use rotors to create a moment of momentum which is then removed in the stator to create a further pressure rise.e.rel U Vx3 x V1.4 Velocity Triangles for an Axial Compressor Stage (Rotor+Stator) For simplicity.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 3.rel α2 α2.rel V2. 3-41 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH θ V1 Blade Speed U α1 U α3 V2 V3 Vθ3 α1. we will again assume that • the radial component of velocity is negligible (Vr=0) • the variation of the flow in the radial direction is small • there is no change of radius (r) through the stage • the blade speed ( Ωr = U ) is constant • the variation of the flow in the circumferential direction is small • we can examine the flow by looking an unwrapped (ie development of) cylindrical surface of revolution. i.
rel + U Ωr = U In axial flow turbines (stator + rotor): • blades make the flow more tangential • often Vx1 ≈ Vx 2 ≈ Vx3 • flow accelerates (thin boundary layers) so good efficiency.compressor blades make the flow more axial • Vx1 ≈ Vx 2 ≈ Vx3 .5 Summary We use two frames of reference that are related according to the vector expression absolute velocity = relative velocity + rotational velocity ⇒ where Vθ 2 = Vθ 2. rel .losses in efficiency are higher than in turbines . we notice that • α 2 >> α 3 and α1. turbines. rel >> α 2.boundary layers thicken & separation is a big risk .static pressure rises .compressor blades decelerate the flow (by about 30%) .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH If we study the velocity triangles of the compressor as we have drawn them. • V2 > V3 and V1.more stages for same pressure change cf. rel > V2. turbines.this is very common . In axial flow compressors (rotor + stator): • blades make the flow more axial • often Vx1 ≈ Vx 2 ≈ Vx3 • flow decelerates (boundary layers thicken) so lower efficiency • more stages needed for same pressure change cf. rel 3-43 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 3. 3-44 .
rel ( h s cosα1.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4 Mass Flow Rates/Forces/Work/SFEE 4. more generally.rel ) 4-46 . Conservation of mass gives for one blade passage 2V2 . We assume that • the blade span h is small in relation to the mean radius • the geometry and flow conditions (velocities and angles) are constant across the span. then & m passage = ρVrel ( Ax cosα rel ) = ρV ( Ax cosα ) = constant where • the flow area ( Ax cosα ) is always measured perpendicular to the velocity vector • failure to observe this important simple rule has serious consequences when dealing with compressible flow (you have been warned!) ρ ρ ρ & m passage = = ( h s cosα 2 . we examine the flow at inlet to and exit from a 2D compressor rotor of blade span h and blade pitch s in the relative frame.1 The calculation of mass flow rate in axial turbomachines The ability to apply the law of conservation of mass to a turbomachine blade row is fundamental to many turbomachine calculations.rel )= 1V1. if Ax = hs which is the cross-sectional or frontal area of the passage.rel or.rel A2 . α sc o s 2rel 2rel s sc o sα 1r el Control Volume 1rel Inlet and exit flow areas of an axial compressor rotor in x-rθ plane θ θ θ 4-45 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH First.rel 2V2 .
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH It also happens that the above can be written as (hence the previous warning) & m passage = ρVrel ( Ax cosα rel ) = ρV ( Ax cosα ) = ρVx Ax Now. then the total mass flow rate through the compressor rotor is & & mcompressor = Zm passage = ρVrel ( Z Ax cosα rel ) = ρV ( Z Ax cosα ) = ρVx ( Z Ax ) h Rcasing Rhub R Axial (r-θ) and Meridional (x-r) views of a 1-stage compressor θ) θ) θ) R S S 4-47 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH For the compressor. the mean radius defined as rmean = rca sin g + rhub 2 Now Zs = 2πrmean so the area of the annulus is 2 2 Ax = Zsh = 2πrmean h = π rcasing − rhub rcasing + rhub = πrcasing − πrhub ( )( ) Therefore. 4-48 . if there are Z blades. whether we examine a complete bladerow or just one blade passage: & m = ρAV = ρVAx cosα = ρVrel Ax cos α rel = ρVx Ax = const where Ax is the annulus area or the passage area as appropriate.
Calculate the mass flow rate of the turbine.1 Example The axial turbine in Example 3. Assume that the gas has the properties of air.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH This is why in compressors: • flow is turned to be more axial • Inlet flow area > Exit flow Area • Flow decelerates • Static pressure rises in each bladerow And in turbines: • Flow is turned to be more tangential • Inlet flow area < Exit flow Area2 • Flow accelerates • Static pressure falls in each bladerow 2 This is generally true . Neglect any radial velocities.except for the true impulse rotor where there is no change in pressure and consequently no change in relative velocity across the rotor (see section 5. We already know V2 = 700 ms-1 Vx 2 = 239. The flow is isentropic.1. the SFEE q − wx = h2 + 1 V22 − h1 + 1 V12 2 2 ( )( ) h02 = h01 can be written where h0 ≡ h + 1 V 2 2 4-50 .3.4 ms-1 There is no work done in the stator therefore.075 m. The inlet stagnation temperature to the stage is 1800 K and the inlet stagnation pressure is 30 bar.2) 4-49 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4.5 m and the blade span is constant and equal to 0.1 has a constant mean radius of 0.3.
2 Axial and Tangential Forces on a 2D Blade We examine the flow at inlet to and exit from a 2D compressor blade of span h and pitch s.5 × 0.5 × 1800 1800 1 (1.2 287.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Therefore ⇒ c pT01 = c pT02 = c pT2 + 1 V 2 2 The static temperature at stator exit is therefore T2 = 1800 − 0.029 × 239.14159 × 0.4 × 2 × 3.3 kg/s 4-51 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4.000 1556.2 K 1005 The density can be obtained from ρ2 = = = 4.029 kg/m3 ρ 02 T 2 T02 1 (γ −1) P T = 02 2 RT02 T02 1 (γ −1) 3.000. Note that • The blades and control volume have a span h • The upper and lower boundaries are streamlines (this is for convenience) and they are exactly one pitch s in the circumferential direction o No mass crosses the upper and lower boundaries o No net pressure forces are exerted on the two boundaries • The forces shown are those on the flow • The force on each blade is equal and opposite to that on the flow in one passage • The forces are (mainly) created by the pressure differences between the suction and pressure surfaces of the blades 4-52 .4 −1) The turbine mass flow rate is therefore & m = ρ 2V2 A2 = ρ 2V2 ( Ax 2 cosα rel ) = ρ 2Vx 2 Ax 2 ρ 2Vx 2 (2πrmean h )=4.075 = ⇒ & m= 227.5 × 7002 = 1556.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Fθ V2 α2 s cos Fx s co sα 1 α2 V 1 ace S urf c e on rfa cti Su Su re ss u Pr e Control Volume s α1 Forces on an Axial Compressor Stator We start by recalling that Force on flow = rate of change of momentum of flow 4-53 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Hence. we use the analogous Moment of Tangential Momentum Equation Torque on fluid = rate of change of moment of momentum ⇒ & Torque = T = m passage (r2Vθ 2 − r1Vθ 1 ) 4-54 . The Tangential Momentum Equation is & Fθ = m passage (Vθ 2 − Vθ 1 ) If the mean radius changes. the Axial Momentum Equation is & Fx + p1hs − p2 hs = m passage (Vx 2 − Vx1 ) ⇒ & Fx = ( p2 − p1 ) Ax + m passage (Vx 2 − Vx1 ) Ax = hs where and & m passage = ρ1Vx1 Ax = ρ 2Vx 2 Ax We note that when the axial velocity remains constant through a bladerow (often true) • axial force (thrust bearings) mainly a result of the inlet to exit pressure difference.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4.3 Euler's Work Equation By combining the moment of momentum equation (radius×tangential momentum equation) with the SFEE it is possible to derive Euler's Work Equation even for the case where there is a change of radius. This is the most important equation in the analysis of turbomachinery. Control Volume r1 r2 Rotor τ Ω 4-55 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH We consider a control volume which is formed by a narrow streamtube and which contains a row of rotor blades that & • has a mass flow rate m • has angular velocity Ω • produces a torque τ • has a flow which enters at a mean radius r1 • has a flow which leaves at a mean radius r2 We first observe that Torque exerted by flow on blade row = shaft output torque =τ Therefore: τ = −(rate of change of moment of momentum of fluid ) ⇒ ⇒ & τ = −m(r2Vθ 2 − r1Vθ 1 ) & & Wx = τΩ = − m(r2Vθ 2 − r1Vθ 1 )Ω [eqn 1] 4-56 .
( [eqn 2] ) ( ) For adiabatic flow (and using stagnation enthalpy). SFEE becomes & & − Wx = m(h02 − h01 ) Combining these two expressions for the shaft-power gives: & & & − Wx = m(h02 − h01 ) = m(r2V 2 − r1V 1 )Ω θ θ θ Now rΩ = U = mean radius blade speed. Thus Euler's Work Equation is: & & & − Wx=m(h02 − h01 )=m(U 2V 2 − U1V 1 ) θ Which means that To transfer work either from or to a turbomachine. a change in the moment of momentum of the flow must occur through a rotating bladerow So • turbines use stators to create a moment of momentum which is then removed in the rotor • compressors use rotors to create a moment of momentum which is then removed in the stator to create a further pressure rise and that Euler's work equation is valid for: (1) steady flow (2) adiabatic flow (3) compressible flow (4) changing streamline radius ( r1 ≠ r2 ) (5) viscous flow in the rotor (6) stators (or time average of a periodic flow) (must modify for turbine blade cooling) (any Mach number) (radial or axial machines) (no viscous effects on stationary walls) (no work because U = 0 ⇒ h01 = h02 ) Note that the SFEE can also be written as: θ Rothalpy = h0 − UV = constant along a streamline 4-58 θ 4-57 θ IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH − wx=h02 − h01=U 2V 2 − U1V 1 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH The SFEE is: & & & & Q − Wx = m h2 + 1 V22 rel − m h1 + 1 V12rel 2 . 2 .
2 Example Using Euler’s work equation.1 Calculate the rise in stagnation temperature across a row of axial compressor rotor blades given that the inlet tangential velocity is 75 ms-1.9 = 10 300 γ (γ −1) 4. because the rotor is isentropic T P02 = P01 02 T01 5 324.1.1 and 4.800 θ V 3 = -157.3. Also determine the exit stagnation pressure if the inlet stagnation conditions are 1 bar and 300 K and the rotor is isentropic. Example Euler’s work equation gives Now. using Euler’s work equation and the power output is & & Wx = mwx = 227.1) We already know that the stator exit/rotor inlet absolute tangential velocity is V 2 = 657.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4.8 ms-1 θ = 132190 Pa 4-59 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH θ θ J/kg 4-60 -wx=h02 − h01=U 2V 2 − U1V 1 = 250 × ( 175 – 75 ) = 25 kJ/kg .800 = 92.8) = 407.3.8 ms-1 the rotor exit absolute tangential velocity is and the mass flow rate is & m = 227.3 × 407. for air (a perfect gas) ⇒ (T02 − T01 ) = (h02 − h01 ) 25000 = = 24.3 kgs-1 So.7 MW θ θ θ θ wx = U 2V 2 − U 3V 3 = U (V 2 − V 3 ) = 500 × (657.3.5 Finally. calculate the work done per kg of mass flow and the total power output of the axial flow turbine of our previous example (see 3. the exit tangential velocity is 175 ms-1 and the mean blade speed is 250 ms-1 at both inlet and exit.9 K 1005 cp 3.8 + 157.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Blade Speed rθ V2 U2 α 2 V2.rel STATOR ROTOR V1 4-61 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4.rel x α3 Vx1 α 1 α3.4 SFEE in a rotating frame It is often easier to analyse the performance of rotor blade rows by working in the relative frame. rel = h + 1 Vrel 2 This means that • the stagnation conditions are different in the absolute and relative frames. • a rotor then appears at rest and "looks" very similar to a stator row Also. 4-62 .rel α2. temperature and enthalpy are the same in both the absolute and relative frames. We now define • Absolute stagnation enthalpy • Relative stagnation enthalpy h0 = h + 1 V 2 2 2 h0. we know from Part I thermodynamics: • the values of the true thermodynamic properties such as pressure.rel V3 U3 Vθ1 V3.
Recall that Euler's Work equation can be written in terms of the rothalpy: Rothalpy = h0 − UV = constant along a streamline Therefore: h0 − UV = h + 1 V 2 − UV = const 2 So. rel − 1 U 2 2 h0 − UV = h + 1 Vrel 2 2 − 1U 2 θ ⇒ h0 − UV = h + 1 Vx2 + Vr2 + Vθ2. rel − U 2 = const 2 θ ⇒ h0 − UV = h + 1 Vx2 + Vr2 + Vθ − U 2 ( )2 − U 2 = const = const = const θ θ ⇒ h0 − UV = h + 1 Vx2 + Vr2 + Vθ2 − UV = const 2 θ 4-63 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH θ θ 4-64 h02 − h01 = U 2V 2 − U1V 1 θ θ . rel − 1 U 2 = const 2 θ θ h0 − UV θ ⇒ 2 = h0. the SFEE in stationary and rotating frames of reference for stators and rotors becomes Rothalpy = h0 − UV = h0.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH This is alright because we already know from Part I thermodynamics • the amount of work (changes in stagnation enthalpy) perceived depends on the frame of reference of the observer. rel − 1 U 2 = constant along streamline 2 θ which for a perfect gas. can also be written as c pT0 − UV = c pT0.
Calculate the rotor relative inlet and exit stagnation enthalpies.1 Example As in our previous example (see 3.8) = 407. • h0. The flow leaving the rotor blade row has a relative velocity 700 ms-1 at a relative angle of -70°. rel = const (often true for axial machines). Assume that the gas has the properties of air.3. Also calculate the rotor absolute exit stagnation enthalpy. rel 2 − 1U 2 • If r = const ⇒ U = const ⇒ h0.1 and 4.3. The rotor has a blade speed of 500 ms-1. Use this value to determine the work done per kg of mass flow.4.8ms-1 2 − V 3 ) = 500 × (657. We already know that the stator exit/rotor inlet absolute tangential velocity is V 2 = 657. 4.8 ms-1 and the rotor exit absolute tangential velocity is and Euler’s work equation gave θ θ θ θ wx = h02 − h01 = U 2V 2 − U 3V 3 = U (V θ V θ θ 4-65 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH = const 3 = -157.8 + 157.2). the flow leaving a turbine stator blade row has a velocity of 700 ms-1 at an angle of 70°. Neglect any radial velocities and assume that the axial velocity is constant through the stage The inlet stagnation temperature to the stage is 1800 K.800 J/kg 4-66 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH We note that for stators • U=0 • h0 − UV = const ⇒ h0 = const ⇒ no work And for rotors.
000 J/kg Now.5 × 500 2 = 1.809.800 J/kg as before.100 J/kg 2 h03.605.rel STATOR ROTOR V1 4-67 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH The rotor inlet absolute stagnation enthalpy is h0 = c pT0 =1005 × 1800 = 1.100 and the rotor exit relative stagnation enthalpy is So. 4-68 .809.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Blade Speed rθ V2 U2 α 2 V2. the rotor inlet relative stagnation enthalpy is θ h02.200 = 407.500 × 657. θ h0 − UV 2 = h0. the rotor exit absolute stagnation enthalpy is θ h03 = h03.809.605.8 + 0.401. rel = 1.5 × 500 2 = 1.100 − 500 × 157. rel = h02. rel = h02 − UV 2 + 1 U 2 = 1.200 J/kg and the work done wx = h02 − h03 = 1.000 .8 − 0. rel − 1 U 2 = const So. rel + UV 1 2 3 − 2U = 1.605.401.rel V3 U3 Vθ1 V3.rel α2.000 − 1.rel x α3 Vx1 α 1 α3.
0: Λ Λ Ψ Ψ Λ Ψ θ 4-69 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH θ 5-70 or − wx=h02 − h01=U 2V 2 − U1V 1 .5 & Ψ=1. Vx U Axial turbines with φ = 0.1 Flow Coefficient Defined as: φ= it describes the “squareness” of the velocity triangles.53(dashed line) φ φ φ where Λ =0.5 Summary The Tangential Momentum Equation is & Fx = ( p2 − p1 ) Ax + m passage (Vx 2 − Vx1 ) The Tangential Momentum Equation is & Fθ = m passage (Vθ 2 − Vθ 1 ) The Moment of Tangential Momentum Equation & Torque = T = m passage (r2Vθ 2 − r1Vθ 1 ) Euler's Work Equation is: θ θ & & & − Wx=m(h02 − h01 )=m(U 2V 2 − U1V 1 ) Rothalpy is defined as Rothalpy = h0 − UV = h0. rel − 1 U 2 = constant along a streamline 2 θ 5 Turbomachinery Design Parameters 5.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 4.37 (solid line) φ φ φ and φ = 0.
2 Stage Loading Coefficient Defined as: ψ≡ U2 V2 V2. Λ Ψ dashed line Λ = 0.0 Ψ Ψ 5-71 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 5.5 5-72 .37: φ φ φ Solid line Λ = 0.rel U Most axial machines have relatively high efficiencies (typically.3 Reaction Defined as ∆h Λ = rotor ∆hstage it affects the asymmetry of velocity triangles and blade shapes V 2 V2.5 and φ = 0.rel Two axial turbines with Λ = 0. dashed line Ψ = 1. Ψ = 1.rel 3 and we see that reaction also describes changes in pressure across rotor compared to across the stage U Two axial turbines with and φ = 0. η > 90%) so that • Tds = dh − dp ρ ⇒ dh ≈ dp ρ V V220.127.116.11. Ψ = 1.rel U ROT OR ∆h0 = U2 S AT T OR ∆(UVθ ) It affects the “skew” of the velocity triangles V3 U V3.rel V2.5: Λ Λ φ φ Λ φ Ψ Ψ Ψ Ψ Solid line Ψ = 1.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 5.0.
3.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 5.rel α2.1 Evaluate the degree of reaction for a turbine that has symmetric velocity triangles and a constant radius.rel x α3 Vx1 α1 Vθ1 U3 α3. Blade Speed Example: The 50% Reaction Turbine rθ V2 U2 α 2 V2. 2 .rel V3 V1 V3. rel = h02. h2 − h3 = 1 V32rel − 1 V22 rel 2 .rel STATOR ROTOR 5-73 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Now reaction is (h2 − h3 ) ∆h ∆hrotor Λ = rotor = = ∆hstage ∆hstator + ∆hrotor (h1 − h2 ) + (h2 − h3 ) For the stator ∆h0 stator = ∆ h + 1 V 2 = 0 2 ( ) ⇒ ⇒ h2 + 1 V22 = h1 + 1 V12 2 2 h1 − h2 = 1 V22 − 1 V12 2 2 For the rotor (U=const): h0. rel h3 + 1 V32rel = h2 + 1 V22 rel 2 . 5-74 . 2 . rel − 1 U 2 = const 2 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ h03.
5 i. rel h3 + 1 V32rel = h2 + 1 V22 rel 2 .e.rel But.rel = V3 = V1 ⇒ (V22 − V12 ) Λ= (V22 − V12 )+ (V22 − V12 ) = 0.rel ) 2 2 Λ= (1 V12 − 1 V22 )+ (1 V32. Consider the following velocity diagram.rel − 1 V22. 2 . rel = h02. Find the degree of reaction of such a stage.rel ) 2 2 2 2 V2 = V3.3. from the rothalpy equation h0. 2 . We note that V3. 5-76 .2 Example: The impulse turbine An axial turbine stage has a rotor in which the inlet and exit velocities are identical. you may assume that the flow is axial at inlet to and exit from the stage.rel − 1 V22.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Hence (1 V32. For simplicity. the turbine has 50% reaction In fact: All turbines and compressors with symmetric velocity triangles have 50% reaction 5-75 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 5. h2 − h3 = 1 V32rel − 1 V22 rel = 0 2 . This is known as an “impulse” stage. by symmetry and V2 . rel We will assume that there is no change of radius. So. rel − 1 U 2 = const 2 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ h03. rel = V2.
rel U ⇒ dh ≈ dp ρ V3.1. V2 U V3 Velocity triangles for an impulse turbine with no inlet or exit swirl 5-77 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 5.4. the flow coefficient and the stage loading coefficient of the turbine in examples 18.104.22.168 5-78 . Since the turbine has symmetric velocity triangles.rel So.2 and 4.3.4 = = 0. Vx 239.3 Example Evaluate the reaction.1. Tds = dh − dp ρ V2.1.4. Note that the absolute flow angle at inlet to the stator is the same as the absolute flow angle at rotor exit. Λ = 50% Also.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH So Λ= ∆hrotor (h2 − h3 ) = =0 ∆hstage ( h1 − h3 ) We also note that for an isentropic rotor.3. 4.800 5002 = 1.479 U 500 φ= and ψ ≡ ∆h0 U2 = wx U2 = 407. many people refer (incorrectly) to an impulse rotor as one where there is no static pressure change.
φ and Λ at the design point. Examples are: • Industrial fans • Hydraulic pumps/turbines • High pressure steam turbines 6-80 .4 Summary Stage design is about selecting ψ.1 Introduction We shall • form non-dimensional groups and • invoke the principles of geometric and dynamic similarity to: • represent the performance of turbomachines in a way which is convenient and rational • describe the operating point of a compressor & turbine • perform scaling calculations for allow for changes in conditions or size We will deal with (low Mach number) incompressible flow machines. The flow coefficient φ = Vx describes the “squareness” of the velocity triangles U ∆h0 U2 The stage loading coefficient ψ = defines "skewness" of the velocity triangles The reaction Λ = • asymmetry of velocity triangles/blade shapes • approx.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 5. changes in pressure across rotor compared to the stage ∆hrotor describes ∆hstage 5-79 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 6 The Scaling of Incompressible Turbomachines 6.
rel ) − 1 ⇒ 6-82 .rel ) − 1 U2 U ψ = φ(tan α 2 − tan α 3.2 Turbine Characteristics Euler’s work equation for an axial turbine with constant axial velocity and blade speed (radius) ∆h0 = (h01 − h03 ) = U(Vθ 2 − Vθ3 ) > 0 may be written as ∆h0 = U(Vx tan α 2 − (Vx tan α 3.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH We will not consider the effects of: • changes in Reynolds number • compressibility • cavitation 6-81 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 6.rel − U)) and the stage loading is ψ= ∆h V 0 = x (tan α 2 − tan α 3.
rel but not α 2 and α 3.rel U V2 α2 U V2 Exit Flow Angle α 2 α2 ROTOR 72 70 -30 0 Incidence.rel Cascade test results for an axial flow turbine Effect of changing blade speed U on velocity triangles 6-83 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH We note from the previous page that • α2 > 0 and α 3. rel so • ψ increases with φ • when ψ = 0. i=α1 -χ1 +30 V2 Vx α3 α 3. no work is extracted so max.rel V3 V3.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH V1 χ1 α1 STATOR Vx V2. rel < 0 and both are approximately constant and that changing φ • changes α1 (= α 3 ) and α 2. rpm reached for given mass flow (runaway condition) ψ 0 -1 φ Ideal Turbine Characteristic 6-84 .rel V3 U U V3.
rel α2.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 6.rel V2 α2 U +30 STATOR Cascade test results for an axial flow compressor Effect of changing blade speed on axial compressor velocity triangles 6-86 . rel are approximately constant and the velocity triangles show that • changing φ changes α1. rel and α 2 6-85 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH V 1 α1 χ1 V1. i=α1 -χ1 α2 V2.rel ) U Test results show that • the exit flow angles α1 and α 2.rel α1 U ROTOR V1 V2 Exit Flow Angle α2 36 34 32 30 -30 0 Incidence.rel − tan α1 ) + 1 = 1 − φ (tan α1 − tan α 2.rel α1.3 Fan/Pump Characteristics Euler’s work equation for an axial pump with constant axial velocity and blade speed (radius) ∆h0 = U (Vθ 2 − Vθ 1 ) may be written as ∆h0 = U ((Vx tan α 2. rel + U ) − Vx tan α1 ) and the stage loading becomes ψ= U2 = ∆h0 Vx (tan α 2.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Now. • α 2.isen = P0 h0 ⇒ U2 P0 = = ηψ h0 η 6-87 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 6-88 .isen 0 φ so that ρ h0 U2 Therefore • when φ = 0. this is because Vx U fixes • the relative flow angle in to the rotor • the flow pattern in the rotor • the relative flow angle & losses out of the rotor • the flow angle into the stator • the flow pattern in the stator • the flow angle & losses out of the stator • the non-dimensional operating point of the stage/machine 3 The argument for a turbine is very similar η ¡ = h0 . pressure rise should occur • in practice this is limited by separation of the boundary layers (stall). 6. ∆P0 ρ Tds = dh − dp/ ⇒ ρ ¡ ¡ ¡ρ ¡ ¡ = ∆h0 − T∆s = ∆h0. In the case of a compressor3.4 More “usual” incompressible stage parameters We have already seen that only one independent parameter φ = Vx U determines • the operating point of a given stage. max. for incompressible flow. rel < 0 and α1 > 0 1 ideal actual ψ • ψ decreases with φ Now.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH In context of overall performance.isen ρ∆h0 ∆P0 where the efficiency depends on the Reynolds number. η pump = ∆h0 = ∆h0. it is more usual to work with a different definition of the flow coefficient: φ= ΩD 3 = Q & m ρΩD 3 ρAxVx V α α x U ρΩRmean Ax as this also defines the operating point of the machine. Note that Q is the volumetric flow rate. and especially during the initial design process. ∆h0 U2 Similarly. we prefer the power coefficient ξ to the stage loading coefficient where ξ= ρΩ3D5 = & mw x Vx ∆h0 ρAxVx ∆h0 α U U2 ρΩDΩ 2 D 2 D 2 Finally. we often replace the power coefficient by the efficiency and the pressure coefficient ψ= ρΩ 2 D 2 1 ∆P0 = η Ω 2D 2 1 ∆h0 ∝ η U2 1 ∆h0 These dimensionless groups apply equally to axial machines and radial flow machines (where D is usually the outer diameter of the rotor) P0 ρΩ 2 D 2 Theoretical Us e fu lr an ge Actual 0 3 Typical characteristic for a centrifugal fan 6-90 . we note that for incompressible flow. 6-89 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Therefore.
Compressors and Turbines) 7. machined from solid optimized designs for low volume production low maintenance/hazardous environments - • Low cost • Short development cycle • Mechanically robust • Large frontal area • Pressure ratios limits aero applications to small engines typically 3:1 or greater 7-92 .5 Summary Changing the flow coefficient φ = Vx/U changes the incidence onto the stator and rotor blades. we see that: o Stage Loading Coefficent U2 ψ= η = f Vx = f (φ ) U ∆h0 V = f x = f (φ ) U o Efficiency or o Pressure Rise Coefficient ψ = ∆P0 ρΩ 2 D 2 η = f Q = f (φ ) ΩD 3 Q = f = f (φ ) ΩD 3 Q = f = f (φ ) ΩD 3 o Efficiency o Power Coefficient ξ= ρΩ3D5 mwx & 6-91 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 7 Radial Flow Machines (Pumps.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 6. In terms of velocity triangles.1 Introduction Many types & configurations • Most common turbomachine • Less well understood the centrifugal pump or compressor more complex 3-D flows than in axials cast. fabricated.
Vr ≈ 0 ) The radial fan however often has Vx << Vr at the outer radius (i. we note that for radial machines: Vx << Vr at the outer radius Vx >> Vr or Vx << Vr at the inner radius For example. rel − 1 U1 = h02.e. the turbocharger has a turbine rotor (and a compressor rotor) where Vx << Vr at the outer radius (i. Vx ≈ 0 ) 7-93 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 7. Vx ≈ 0 ) But Vx >> Vr at the inner radius (i.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH To begin with.e. the proof was not restricted to this type of machine. Vx ≈ 0 ) and Vx << Vr at the inner radius (i.e.e.2 Application of Euler’s Work Equation to a Radial Rotor Though we have so far examined Euler’s work equation in the context of axial machines. Here. rel − 1 U 2 = const 2 2 θ θ − wx = h02 − h01= U 2V 2 − U1V 1 7-94 . we recall that the flow • enters at a mean radius r1 • leaves at a mean radius r2 Control Volume so that • U1 ≠ U2 r1 r2 Rotor τ Ω 2 − U1V 1 ) θ θ We also note that Euler's Work Equation is: & & & − Wx=m(h02 − h01 )=m(U 2V or and that 1 θ θ Rothalpy = h01 − U1V = h02 − U 2V 2 2 2 = h01.
0 In fact.3 Velocity Triangles for a 90 degree Radial Inflow Turbine 1 Scroll Stator 2 U2 Rotor Flow 3 Radial View V3 Rotor Exit U1 V3.rel V2 Axial View V2. it is usually found that • work done is mainly a ƒn of the square of the impeller tip speed U2 2 A similar analysis shows that 1 Λ≈2 7-96 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 7.rel Rotor Inlet Velocity triangles for a radial inflow turbine with stator vanes Note that • the exit velocity triangle looks very similar to that from an axial flow turbine 7-95 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH From velocity triangles at design conditions Vθ2 = U2 ∴ Euler's Work Equation reduces to & Vθ3 = 0 Wx = ∆h0 = UVθ2 = U22 ⇒ ∆h0 U22 = 1.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
7.4 Velocity Triangles for a 90 degree Centrifugal Compressor
U1 V1 V1,rel
Axial View Rotor Exit Radial View Rotor Inlet
Velocity triangles for a centrifugal compressor with a “radial” rotor and stator vanes
• the inlet velocity triangle is similar to that from the 1st stage of an axial flow compressor • exit relative velocity does not quite follow blade shape – this is known as “slip”
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
7.5 Application of SFEE to a Radial Rotor
We can consider a compressor or turbine. Whichever we chose, the Rothalpy equation is
Rothalpy = h0 -UVθ = h0 ,rel - 1 U 2 = constant 2
If we take the rotating frame part, the above can be written as
h0 ,rel - 1 U 2 = constant 2
2 h0, rel = h + 1 Vrel 2
2 h + 1 Vrel - 1 U 2 = constant 2 2 2 (h0- 1 V 2 ) + 1 Vrel - 1 U 2 = constant 2 2 2
h = h0 − 1 V 2 2
2 ( 1 U 2 − 1 Vrel + 1 V 2 ) = constant 2 2 2
− wx = h03 − h02 =
2 2 ( 1 U 2 − 1 Vrel + 1 V 2 )3 − ( 1 U 2 − 1 Vrel + 1 V 2 ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
So for a radial inflow turbine:
− wx =
1 (U 2 3 2
2 − U 2 ) − 1 (V32 − V22rel ) + 1 (V32 − V22 ) < 0 rel 2 2
U3 < U2 1 Minimise 2 V2,rel2 1 Minimise 2 V32
Radial INflow α2,rel ≈ 0° α3 ≈ 0°
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
And for compressors/pumps
1 (U 2 2 2
2 − U1 ) − 1 (V22rel − V12 ) + 1 (V22 − V12 ) > 0 rel 2 2
U 2 > U1 2 Minimise 1 2 V2,rel 1 Minimise 2 V12
Radial OUTflow α2,rel ≈ 0° α1 ≈ 0°
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
In a radial turbine, the flow leaving the ring of stator blades has a static temperature of 1000 K and velocity 600 ms-1 at an angle of 70° to the radial direction. At entry to the rotor wheel the blade speed is 500 ms-1 whilst at flow exit it is 100 ms-1. Calculate the relative stagnation temperature at entry and exit of the rotor wheel
Stator 2 2 Rotor Flow 3 Radial View V 3 Rotor Exit V3,rel U1
Axial View V2,rel Rotor Inlet
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
At entry the flow is radial-tangential and at exit the flow is axial-tangential
Vθ 1,rel = Vθ 1 − U = 563.8 − 500 = 63.8 ms -1
T01rel = T1 + Vr2 + V 2 ,rel / 2c p 1 1
T01rel = 1000 + (205.2 2 + 63.82 ) / (2 × 1005) = 1022.97 K
Rearranging SFEE in relative frame:
2 2 T01,rel − U1 2c p = T02, rel − U 2 2c p 2 2 T02, rel = T01,rel − U1 − U 2
T02, rel = 1022.97 + (1002 -5002 ) / (2 × 1005) = 903.57 K
In radial machines
• Application of SFEE leads to turbines where most work is obtained for:
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
and for compressors/pumps:
Radial Inflow Near radial blades at rotor inlet (α2,rel ≈ 0°) No exit swirl (α3 ≈ 0°)
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
Radial Outflow Near radial blades at rotor exit (α2,rel ≈ 0°) No exit swirl (α1 ≈ 0°)
• Work exchange is mainly a ƒn of the square of the impeller tip speed
2 − 1U 2
= V sin
= 600 sin 70° = 563.8 ms -1 = const
Vr1 = V cos
= 600 cos 70° = 205.2 ms -1
) (2c p )
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH
1 Introduction Strictly. when h0 = const we find that T0 ds = dh0 − dp0 ρ 0 ⇒ and in the particular case of incompressible flow ( ρ = const ) T0 ds = − dp0 ρ 0 T0 ∆s = − ∆p0 ρ So viscous effects (including those due to shock waves) are usually quantified using • Stagnation Pressure Loss Coefficients 8-103 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Development of blade surface boundary layers and wakes in an axial compressor 8-104 . we should define the losses in terms of the entropy created but.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 8 Losses In Turbomachines 8. we usually determine the losses from stagnation pressure measurements and.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 8. lean. at exit. flow angle. stagnation pressure and static pressure are usually measured. Downstream of the blade row the stagnation pressure is pitchwise non-uniform and below the isentropic value. The average exit stagnation pressure can be defined by: +s / 2 P02 = ρ 2 ( y ) Vx 2 ( y ) P02 ( y ) dy −s / 2 +s / 2 ∫ −s / 2 ∫ ρ 2 ( y) Vx 2 ( y) dy 8-106 . sweep.2 The 2D (Linear) Cascade Linear or 2D cascades • produced by development of cylindrical surfaces provide data on • mean flow angles • losses but only valid when in the turbomachine • radius change is small from inlet to exit of bladerow • effects of twist. the pitchwise (ie tangential) variation of velocity. rotation are small therefore • can only really apply to axial machines 8-105 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Example of linear cascade wind tunnel In a cascade experiment.
The loss coefficient definitions used in this course are: 8-108 .3 Stagnation pressure Loss Coefficients The stagnation pressure loss coefficient is defined as Y p= Loss of (relative) Stagnation pressure due to irreversibility Reference (Isentropic) Dynamic Pressure Since the stagnation pressure can change due to adiabatic+reversible=isentropic changes in the stagnation enthalpy (or stagnation temperature).9 p1 -p2 (y) P01 .0 1 2 P01 -P0(y) P01 .8 0 1 2 • Exit flow is almost parallel so static pressure is uniform V2 V1 2.0 y s 1 2 Typical midspan wake traverse results for a turbine cascade (4A3 Cascade Experiment) 8-107 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 8. • the loss is evaluated relative to the isentropic case in o the absolute frame of reference for stators/cascades o the rotating frame of reference for rotors There are many different definitions for loss coefficient so take care when consulting text books and other published works.5 0 3.p2 0.1 • Between the wakes.0 0 1.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Notes: • Flow accelerates as expected for a turbine 0.p2 0. flow is isentropic (no shock waves in this case) • Losses appear only in the wakes 0.
p2 ≡ P02.P02 = P01 .we are interested in how much is costs to speed up the flow across a bladerow . i= α1-χ1 + 30 0.p1 • For turbines .P02 P01 .we are interested in how much is costs to slow down the flow across a bladerow .P02 P02 .p2 usually 8-109 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH V1 χ1 α1 ROT OR V2 Exit Flow Angle α2 36 34 32 30 -30 0 + 30 0.p1 ≡ P02.most common is: Yp P01 .most common are Yp P02 .loss coefficients always based on inlet conditions .08 Exit Flow Angle α2 α2 α2 72 70 -30 Profile L Coeffic ient Y oss p 0.08 0 + 30 V2 Profile Loss Coefficient Y p 0.00 -30 0 Incidence.isen . i= α1-χ1 + 30 Typical cascade test results for an axial flow compressor Typical cascade test results for an axial flow turbine 8-110 .04 0.P02 usually P01 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH • For compressors .04 0.always based on exit conditions . isen = .00 -30 0 Incidence.
rel .3. rel . at the mid-span of a 2-D cascade) then we often call the stagnation pressure loss coefficient the profile loss coefficient..1 1 . an axial turbine rotor blade row has relative inlet Mach number M1.6. calculate the relative stagnation pressure at exit. rel = 1 + Y p 1 - P 2 P02.0 bar. rel P02. rel 8-112 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Note that when the losses refer only to those due to the blade surface boundary layers and wakes (e.P2 P02. we will work with relative flow quantities.isen . rel ⇒ ⇒ P01.P02 P02.P2 P01. a relative exit Mach number M2. rel P02.1 Example At a particular operating point. rel P02.05. We note that changing α1 • results in a change of incidence i = α1 − χ1 • does not change α 2 (until the boundary layers separate at high i ) • does not change the losses (until the boundary layers separate at high i ) 8-111 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 8.P02. We will assume that there is no change in radius Yp ≡ P02. rel .P2 Yp = = P01. The loss coefficient is defined as Since we have a rotor blade row.g. rel .05 and a loss coefficient Yp = 0. If the relative stagnation pressure at inlet to the rotor row is 8. rel .rel = 0.rel =1.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH But P2 γ −1 2 = 1 + M 2r 2 P02.0.4979 ⇒ P02. rel = P01.80 P01. rel / 1.025 = 8 / 1. rel = 1 + 0. rel = 1 + 0.052 − γ (γ −1) ( )−3. rel P02.4979 ) = 1.4 Summary The creation of entropy is usually determined from the losses of stagnation pressure Linear or 2D cascades apply to axial machines only and provide data on • mean flow angles • losses The stagnation pressure loss coefficient is evaluated relative to the isentropic case and is defined as Y p= Loss of Stagnation pressure due to irreversibility Reference (Isentropic) Dynamic Pressure Compressor losses are normalised by inlet conditions Turbine losses are normalised by exit conditions 8-114 .025 bar ⇒ 8-113 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 8.5 = 0.2 × 1.025 = 7.05(1 .
4 and γ=1. which are all tabulated as functions of Mach number for γ=1.333. are: T γ −1 = 1 + M2 T0 2 − ρ γ −1 γ −1 M2 = 1 + 2 ρ0 −1 1 p γ −1 γ −1 = 1 + M2 2 p0 V γ −1 = γ − 1 M 1 + M2 2 c pT0 1 γ +1 − − γ 1 2 & m c pT0 Ap0 = Ap = − γ 2 γ −1 γ −1 M 1 + M2 2 γ −1 m c pT0 & γ 2 γ −1 M 1 + M2 2 γ −1 1 The most important is Ap0 & m c pT0 & since we usually know m and p0 and T0 are often constant 9-115 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH & m c p T0 Ap0 −1 = γ −1 γ γ −1 2 M 1 + M 2 1 γ +1 − 2 γ −1 T γ −1 2 = 1 + M T0 2 p γ −1 2 M = 1 + p0 2 − γ γ −1 ρ γ −1 2 = 1 + M ρ0 2 − 1 γ −1 Ma ch Number 9-116 . very similar methods are used as those for cases where the flow is considered incompressible.3).IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 9 Compressible Flow through Turbomachines Many turbomachines involve compressibility effects (Mach > 0. The most relevant compressible flow relations. To calculate the performance of these machines.
in the relative frame & m c pT0. rel Vrel . T0 p0 Ap0 • • T and p (in fact all static quantities) are the same in both the absolute and relative frames V . rel Ap0. rel ( ) So. we can use the same tables for both absolute and relative flows providing • we use the appropriate stagnation quantities (e. . .. rel ) • we use the appropriate Mach numbers( M or M rel ) • A is the effective flow area measured NORMAL to the appropriate flow vector (V or Vrel ) 9-117 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 9.g. T0 or T0. . rel p0.. ….IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 9. = f M rel c pT0. …. rel p T . T0.2 Compressibility and Conservation of Mass α sc os 2rel s 2rel sc os α 1r el Control Volume 1rel Inlet and exit flow areas of am axial compressor rotor in x-rθ plane θ θ θ 9-118 . = f (M ) c pT0 Therefore. .1 Relative Flow Quantities We have already observed that in the absolute frame of reference that & T p m c pT0 .
rel )P01. • failure to observe this important simple rule has serious consequences when dealing with compressible flow because m c pT0 Ap0 depends on the true flow area & We will examine the flow at inlet to and exit from a compressor rotor of pitch s and constant span h in relative frame.α1. more generally.rel & m c pT02. Conservation of mass also means that in absence of radius change ( T01.rel ) 9-119 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH = F(M 2..rel = P02. if Ax is the cross-sectional area & m = ρVrel ( Ax cosα rel ) = ρV ( Ax cosα ) where • the effective flow area ( A= Ax cosα ) is always measured perpendicular to the velocity vector.rel ) cosα 2. rel given M 1.rel = T02. rel .rel 9-120 .rel = F(M1.rel ) = & m c pT01.rel .α1.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Conservation of mass gives for one blade passage 2V2 .rel or …… ρ ρ & m passage = (hs cosα 2 . rel and α 2.rel )= (hs cosα1.rel This is useful because • we can find M 2.and M 2.rel ) (hs cosα1.rel ) and loss ( P01.rel .rel cosα1..rel cosα1.rel given M 1.rel )P02. rel or • we can find α 2.rel cosα 2.rel or.rel 1V1.rel (hs cosα 2.
4 R=287 Jkg-1K-1 cp=1005 Jkg-1K-1 9-122 .rel -35. m 250 ms-1 α1 10° 9-121 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Blade Performance (at above operating point): rotor pressure loss coefficient rotor relative exit angle Yp 0.050 m r 0.4 bar 16.034 α2.3 Example: Flow Through an Axial Compressor Rotor For the high Mach number compressor rotor blade described below.0 kgs-1 U . the absolute exit flow angle (α2) and the exit Mach number (M2).300 m ⇒ annulus cross-sectional area Operating Conditions: blade speed mass flow rate inlet stagnation pressure (abs) inlet stagnation temperature (abs) absolute inlet swirl T01 340 K p01 1.0° Assume that the working fluid is air with γ=1. Geometrical Data: mean radius (constant) blade height (span.0942 m2 0. constant) h Ax 0.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 9. find the static pressure ratio (p2/p1) across the rotor.
976 P1/P01 = 0.350 and V1/ c p T01 = 0.4 × 105 = 0.287 bar 9-124 .0 ms-1 T1 = 331.rel V2. 9-123 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH We note that the flow area normal to the flow vector (this is very important) is given by A = Ax cos α1 Then.219 T1/T01 = 0.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Step 1 First.0942 × cos10° × 1.919 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ V1 = 128.8 K P1 = 1. in the absolute frame.rel U ROTOR Note that the velocities (and the velocity triangles) may be converted to Mach numbers (and geometrically equivalent triangles) by dividing by the local sound speed γRT . we draw velocity triangles: Blade Speed U V1 V 2 U V1.720 Using the tables gives M1 = 0. we find the inlet flow conditions using & m c pT01 Ap01 = & m c pT01 Ax cos α1 p01 = 16 × 1005 × 340 0.
0° M1.034 P01.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Step 2 From the triangles. we find that: T1/T01. a fixed radius combined with the Rothalpy equation ( h0 − UV = h0.1 ms-1 Vθ1 = V1sinα1 = 22.rel = Vθ1 – U = –227.rel = 365. rel − 1 U 2 = constant ) 2 ⇒ Hence T01.rel = 1.rel = 365.rel = 0.805 bar Note that we could also have used T01. we examine the rotor in the relative frame.713 P01.5 K ⇒ T01.4 K ⇒ 9-125 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Step 3 Here.rel = 1.908 P1/P01.rel)2/2cp = 365.rel = -35° ⇒ Exit angle (given) θ 9-126 .rel = T02.rel .rel = T1 + (V1.rel = 1.2 ms-1 Vθ1.isen = P01.8 ms-1 V1. we observe that Vx1 = V1cosα1 = 126.713 From the Tables.rel = V1/ c p T1 = 0.4 ms-1 α1.rel = 260.rel = 0.4 K P02.rel − P02.rel = -61.rel − P1 P02. applying the loss and flow turning Now.787 bar α2.805 bar Loss Coefficient (given) YP = P01.rel = 0.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Step 4 Here.4 Using the tables (γ=1. rel P02.4) gives: The other flow properties are obtained (from tables): V2.649 P1 = 1.1 ms-1 T2 = 357.945 ⇒ T02 = 377.287 = 1. we find the rotor exit conditions in the relative frame: & m c pT02.rel = 0.rel = 129.rel/ c pT02.rel + U = 176.relcosα2.rel = -74.787 × 105 M2.rel = V2.0942 × cos(−35°) × 1.8 ms-1 T2/T02. we can check this result: h02 – h01 = U(Vθ2 – Vθ1) = 38.45 kJkg-1 ⇒ ∆T0 = 38.28 9-127 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH Step 5 Here. we find that: T2/T02 = 0.8 – 340 = 37.4).3 K 9-128 .8 K ⇒ Using Euler's Work Equation. convert back to absolute flow conditions downstream of the rotor Vx2 = V2. rel = 0. rel Ax cos α 2.rel = M2.rel = 0.542 From the Tables (γ=1.923 Note that we could also have used ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ The static pressure ratio is then given by P2 1.0 K P2 = 1.rel = 0.977 P2/P02.8 ms-1 < Vx1 due to compressibility Vθ2.0° M2 = V2/ c pT2 = 0.rel × γRT2 = 128.703 16 × 1005 × 365.0 ms-1 V2 = 205.8 K ∆T0 = 377. we.4 ms-1 α2 = 59.rel = 0.340 = 0.rel sinα2.rel = 105.213 V2.649 bar V2.0 ms-1 Vθ2 = Vθ2.
rel given M 1. .rel given M 1. for example. rel and α 2..α1. we have made significant progress using • 1-D mean-line analyses turbomachine The next stage is to use • Simple Radial Equilibrium theory or • Streamline Curvature calculations to examine the hub-tip variations in. we can use to find o M 2. • Remember: Effective flow area = A = Ax cos α • Conservation of mass means that if we know T01.α1.rel …… etc 10 Hub-Tip Variations 10. P01.and M 2. rel .1 Introduction So far..rel . α 1 1 ( Ax cos 1 )P01 α 9-129 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH ( Ax cos 2 )P02 2 2 α α 10-130 α α & m c pT01 = f(M1 ) = T01 P02 cos T02 P01 cos = f(M 2 ) T01 P02 cos T02 P01 cos & m c pT02 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 9. . rel o α 2. Vr and Vθ • flow angle α at the inlet and exit of each bladerow. T0 p0 Ap0 V c pT0 can be used in absolute or relative frames so long as correct values (absolute or relative) are used. T02 and P02 .4 Summary • The functions of Mach number & T p m c pT0 .rel . the circumferential averages of • the velocities Vx.
all velocities are absolute. we are dealing with the equilibrium of a swirling flow where the pressure forces create the centripetal acceleration: ρ dr Now. even for a rotor) • Axisymmetric flow ( ∂ ∂θ = 0 ) • Curvature of the streamlines in the Meridional (x-r) plane is negligible (no accelerations normal to the stream surface) • Radial velocity Vr is negligible • Isentropic Flow4 Simple Radial Equilibrium r r θ x 4 Simple Radial Equilibrium theory does not require this but this is a convenient and common simplification 10-131 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH p+dp dr r p Vθ Under these circumstances.2 We will assume • Analysis applies in stationary frame (i.e. for isentropic flow 1 dp V 2 = θ r Tds = dh − dp ρ =0 10-132 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 10.
the above becomes ρ dr 1 dp0 = Vx dVx V d (rVθ ) + θ dr r dr We see that for a given radial distribution of stagnation enthalpy (or stagnation pressure) • rVθ (which results from the radial distribution of work according to Euler’s equation) • Vx • the flow angle α = tan −1 (Vθ Vx ) are all dependent on each other 10-134 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH ⇒ Now if Vr = 0 h0 ≡ h + 1 V 2 2 dh 1 dp V 2 = = θ dr ρ dr r ⇒ ⇒ dh 0 = dh + V dVx + V dVθ x θ dr dr dr dr h0 = h + 1 Vx2 + 1 Vθ2 2 2 Substituting for dh/dr gives ⇒ dh0 V 2 dV dV = θ + Vx x + Vθ θ dr r dr dr 10-133 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH This can be re-arranged to give the Simple Radial Equilibrium equation for isentropic flow dh0 dV V d (rVθ ) = Vx x + θ dr dr r dr For incompressible flow.
IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 10.3 “Free vortex” means rVθ = constant The majority of axial machines do not deviate far from a free vortex design. Example: Free Vortex Compressor Rotor Consider the case where the stagnation enthalpy is radially uniform at inlet r 1 R 2 S 3 x 10-135 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH In this case we have h01 = const rVθ 1 = const = C1 rVθ 2 = const = C2 Now. upstream of the rotor. the SRE gives dh 01 = V dVx1 + Vθ 1 d (rVθ 1 ) x1 dr dr r dr ⇒ ⇒ 0 = Vx1 dVx1 dr Vx1 = const The specific work at a radius r is given by Euler’s work equation wx = ∆(UVθ ) = Ω(rVθ 1 − rVθ 2 ) = Ω(C1 − C2 ) = constant But wx = h01 − h02 10-136 .
rel ROTOR Mean line rotor velocity triangles 10-138 .IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH ⇒ Therefore.rel V2.rel U2 x α2. rel = tan −1 Blade Speed Vθ 2. the radial distributions of the absolute and relative flow angles are given by α1 = tan −1 Vθ 1 −1 C r 1 = tan V Vx x α1. by the same argument as above. rel −1 V − Ωr −1 C r − Ωr θ2 2 = tan V = tan Vx Vx x rθ V1 α1 U1 α1. rel −1 Vθ 1 − Ωr −1 C1 r − Ωr = tan −1 = tan = tan V Vx Vx x 10-137 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH α 2. h02 = const Vx 2 = const ⇒ Conservation of mass for incompressible flow therefore gives ⇒ Vx1 = Vx 2 = Vx = const Finally.rel V2 α2 V1. rel α 2 = tan −1 Vθ 2 −1 C2 r = tan V Vx x V θ 1.
5 0.00 α1 = 0 20.00 Abs Inlet Abs Exit Rel Inlet Rel Exit and at mean radius: angle ψ = U2 = 0.952 U 10-140 .00 -40.4 0. a free vortex design has • a uniform work distribution across the span • constant axial velocity • varying blade shape (inlet and exit angles) along the span Hub Mean Tip HUB MEAN TIP 10-139 IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 60.7 0.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH So.00 1 r/rtip V φ = x = 0.408 ∆h0 0.00 0.8 0.00 -80.9 -20.6 0.00 -60.00 rmean Example: 40.
10-141 . the above becomes dVx V d (rVθ ) + θ dr r dr Summary ρ dr So the radial distributions of • rVθ • Vx • the flow angles α = tan −1 (Vθ Vr ) cannot be chosen independently 1 dp0 = Vx As a result of the above • blade shapes (i. inlet and exit angles) vary along the span.IIA Paper 3A3 Fluid Mechanics II: Turbomachinery/HPH 10.e.4 The Simple Radial Equilibrium equation for isentropic flow is dh0 dV V d (rVθ ) = Vx x + θ dr dr r dr For incompressible flow.