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Hasan Safadi

Tatsuo Matsutomi Hiroaki Ishii

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Introduction. Formulation of the problem. Fuzzy Decisions. Properties of the chance constraint. Boundary of Feasible Region. Solution Procedure. Conclusion.

Introduction

because their locations are known only after a call is been made they assumed the made, locations of demand points are reandom variables. And thats why they introduced the y y fuzzy sets concepts into the problem. they have developed a solution procedure for an ambulance d b l depot l t location problem with ti bl ith fuzzy a chance constraint and fuzzy objective and constraint.

**Formulation F l ti Understanding the model
**

1. 2. 3.

An ambulance must respond to a call for service from the location of the incident. Transport the patient to the nearest hospital. Then it goes back to its depot, and wait for the next call call. From above, there are three important times to consider or to minimize:

1. 2. 3.

Response time. Time the ambulance takes from the incident location to the nearest hospital. Time f the ambulance to go back to its depot. for

Formulation F l ti Notations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

[Xi,Yi],i=1,2,…,n locations of demand (calls) points. Assumed to be independently, identically distributed (i.i.d). (x,y) ( ) locations of a new f ilit ( l ti f facility. (emergency d depot). t) (a,b) locations of existing facilities (hospitals). ro maximum time or distance allowed between a demand point and both the depot and the hospital. rc maximum time or distance allowed between the existing facility and the depot. rp maximum time or distance allowed between a demand point and the depot. Di(x,y) distance function from the depot to the demand point plus the distance between the demand point to the hospital. d(x,y) distance function between depot and the hospital. di(x,y) ( ,y) distance function between depot and the demand p p point. α is a probability level to which the chance constraint should hold.

**Formulation F l ti The model
**

The problem P was formulated as follows:

P

: E(

∑

n

Di(x, : d(x, d( y) )

y))

i=1

p ro

Subject to

Pr [ max di(x, y) ≤ rp] (x, y) ∈ [0, L] * [0, M],

p rc

≥ α 0 ≤ α

≤ 1.

first constraint can be violated up to a certain threshold.

p means that the objective function and the

**Formulation F l ti Membership function
**

The functions µo (x,y) and µc (x,y) are introduced in-order to reduce the problem P to ordinary equivalent location problem.

µo ( x, y ) =

0 ⎡ ⎢1 − ( r − ro ) / lo ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎣

µc ( x, y ) =

n i

0 ⎡ ⎢1 − ( d ( x , y ) − rc ) / lc ⎢ ⎢ 1 ⎣

⎤ if ro < r < ro + lo ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ if r ≤ ro ⎦ if r ≥ ro + lo

if r ≥ ro + lo

⎤ if ro < r < ro + lo ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ if r ≤ ro ⎦

r = E ( ∑ Di ( x , y )), lo > 0 , lc > 0 .

formulation

µo indicates the degree to which the objective is satisfied and lo is a maximum threshold. In other words it means the decision maker thinks he want the value r to be at most ro but he can accept bigger values of r but decreasing the satisfaction degree to the limit of ro+lo. Properties of the membership functions: μo

1. 2.

Decreasing over the interval [ro,ro+lo]. Has the value of 0 at ro+lo and 1 at ro.

1 ro 0 r lo

Fuzzy Decision

Their first step in generating the solution was to d t reduce the problem P i t t th bl into two problems bl P1 and P2 as follows:

**P1 : Maximize {µo(x y) ∧ µc(x y)} o(x, µc(x, Pr [max di(x, y) ≤ rp] ≥ α
**

Here they used the minimum-operator.

(x, y) ∈ [0, L] * [0, M], 0 ≤ α ≤ 1

Fuzzy Decision

And For the fuzzy constraint:

P2 : Maximize S.T : Pr [ max di(x y) ≤ rp] ≥ α di(x, (x, y) ∈ [0, L] * [0, M], 0 ≤ α ≤1 {Wo * µ o(x, y) + Wc * µ c(x, y)}

Here they used an add-operator. add operator.

Fuzzy decision

In order to solve P1 and P2 they had to transform them into equivalent problem problem.

P1 S.T : Maximize : n E( ∑ Di(x, i = 1 d(x, d(x y) ≤ rc Pr (x, y)) ≤ ro + lo(1 - λ )

λ

+ lc(1

- λ ) ≥ α 0 ≤ α ≤ 1.

[ max di(x, y) ∈ [0, L]

y) ≤ rp] * [0, M],

Fuzzy decision

P2 S.T : Maximize : n E( ∑ Di(x, i = 1 d(x, d( y) ≤ rc ) Pr (x, 0 ≤ [max y) ∈ λo, y)) + ≤ lc(1 l (1 ro + lo(1 - λo) Wo * λo + Wc * λc

- λ ) λc) ≥ α

di(x, [0, L] λc, α

y) ≤ rp] * [0, M], ≤ 1.

**Properties of the P ti f th chance constraint
**

Pr [max di(x, y) ≤ rp] = ( Pr [ d ( x, y) ≤ rp] ) n

Property 1: The probability Pr[ rp ] is equal to the proportion of the th area where a rotated square region (di h t t d i (diamond ( x,y )) whose d h center is (x , y ) is included in the rectangular [ 0,L ] * [ 0,M ] Where Pr[ rp ] = Pr [ d(x,y)]

**Properties of the P ti f th chance constraint
**

A(x,y) is the area of intersection of rectangular [0 L]*[0 M] and the diamond ( ) t l [0,L]*[0,M] d th di d (x,y)

M rp(x,y) ( )

A(x,y) 0 L

**Properties of the P ti f th chance constraint
**

Property 2:The probability Pr[ rp ] takes maximum value where ( ) = (L/2 M/2) and i l h (x,y) (L/2,M/2) d takes minimum value where (x,y) (0 0) (L 0) (0 M) d (L,M). ( ) =(0,0),(L,0),(0,M) and (L M)

**Boundary of Feasible Region
**

From Property 2 we can identify the feasible region where the chance constraint is satisfied satisfied. we define the region R1(α,rp) as follows

Rl( α , rp) = [ ( x , y) A(x, y)/L * M ≥ α

1

n

]

**Boundary of Feasible Region
**

R1(α,rp) can be identified by following procedure in which we take into account the Property 2 . We assume that a ≥ L/2, b ≥ M/2 STEP 1:If A (L, M)/(L

* M) ≥ α 1 n

then R1(α,rp) coincide with a rectangular area [0,L]*[0,M]. Stop. Otherwise, go to STEP 2 .

**Boundary of Feasible Region
**

STEP 2:If A (L, M/2)/(L * M) ≥ α 1 n find i t 1 (L,y1) d 1 ( i M) fi d points p1 = (L 1) and q1=(xi,M) such h that 1 1 A (L y1)/(L * M) = α n , A ( 1 M)/(L * M) = α n (L, 1)/(L (x1, Then find the relation between x and y that 1 ( satisfy A (x,, y) = L * M * α n Stop. Otherwise, go to STEP 3.

**Boundary of Feasible Region
**

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

STEP 3: Find a point q2=(x2,M/2) such that A(x2,M/2)=L*M*(α^1/n). If rp<M/2. find q3=(x2,y2) such that A(x2,y2)=L*M*(α^1/n). Y2=M-rp. Find a point p2=(x3,M) such that A(x3,M)=L*M*(α^1/n). if such p2 is found and rp<L/2. Find q4=(x4,y3) such that A(x4,y3)=L*M*(α^1/n). X4=L-rp. q ( ,y ) ( ,y ) ( ) p Then find a relation between x and y that satisfy A(x,y)=L*M*(α^1/n),where x3<=x<=x2 and M/2<=y<=M , Stop. I f such p2 does not exist, find a point p ( ,y ) such that A(L/2,y4)=L*M *(α^1/n). instead of p p3=(L/2,y4) ( ,y ) ( ) p2. find a relation between x and y that satisfy A(x,y)=L*M *(α^1/n). where L/2<=x<=x2 and M/2<= y <= y2.

Solution Method

Let ( x * , y * ) denotes an optimal solution of P1 . So g procedure: we obtain the following p STEP 1: Identify the boundary of R1(α,rp). STEP 2: Find (xo(λ),yo(λ) ).If (xo(λ),yo(λ))ε R1(α,rp) then (x*,y ) (xo(λ) ,yo(λ) ) , stop. Otherwise (x y*)=(xo(λ) yo(λ) stop Otherwise. STEP 3: Find a point of contact (xd(λ),yd(λ)) of the boundary of R1(α,rp) and the diamond. If (xd(λ),yd(λ)) satisfies constraint (10) , then (x ,y ) = (x*,y*) (xd(λ),yd(λ)), stop. Otherwise, find a point which satisfies constraint (10) and (11) on the boundary of R1(α,rp). Terminate.

1. 2. 3.

Solution Method

Problem P2 can be solved almost using the same procedure as in Problem P1 From (13) and (14) , if ellipse (λo) expressed by equation (x - L/2) 2 /L + (y − M/2) 2 /M ≤ (ro + lo(1 - λo))/n - constant and diamond (λc) with center (a,b) and radius rc+lc*(1-λc) have a point of contact, the value of objective function is maximized.

Solution Method

So we find the relation between λo and λc for ellipse (λ ) and di lli (λo) d diamond (λ ) h i a d (λc) having contact point. Let (x”,y”) denotes a contact points. (x y”)ε R1(α,rp), points If (x”,y )ε R1(α rp) then input the relation of λo and λc into the objective function of P2, we can easily find an optimal , y p solution.

Conclusion

In this paper they developed a solution procedure of an emergency facility l d f f ilit location ti problem with fuzzy objective and constraint. One uses a minimum operator and the other minimum-operator uses an add-operator.

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