Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Born 1770 – Died 1831

~ Jannelle Garcia ~ Lucas Snow-Llerena
Hegel’s Biography – George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, was a German philosopher and one of the creators of German Idealism. He was born on August 27, 1770, in Stuttgart in southwestern Germany, and died on November 14, 1831. He attended German school at the age of three, and went on to Latin school at the age of 5. At the age of eighteen, in 1788, Hegel attended a Protestant seminary University; the records showed he was deficient in philosophy, but in reality he was not terrible at it, he just didn’t take many courses. In 1793 Hegel became a tutor to a prominent family, and later on taught classes, lectured on philosophy and accepted the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin. Over the years Hegel developed a philosophy of his own, while completing a draft of his book, “Science of Logic”. Hegel’s contribution to the journal, “Critical Journal of Philosophy” founded by him and his old friend Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, showed the Hegel was an original thinker. At the age of 37, Hegel published his first major book, “The Phenomenology of the Mind” in 1807. Hegel’s works are known for their difficulty and for the breadth of topics they attempt to cover, but is his later writings it is shown that he was trying harder to communicate with his audience. Hegel died from either cholera or gastrointestinal disease. Hegel was towering intellectual figure, and a great influence over the development of philosophy through his lectures on law, religion, esthetics, and history, including the history of philosophy, “Philosophical thought develops like a vast dialogue, different philosophies represent different positions, none can compete for a claim in the truth, they build on one another’s insights. Behind the entire process is reason trying to express itself.” (Hegel).

Hegel claims these opposites must be brought together. yet the contradiction is the moving force of the Dialectical process whose task is to preserve the difference between them. What are three themes running through German Idealist? o 1. Explain Hegel’s view of how knowledge begins and how it advances. The self or subject is central. Hegel believed you could know by utilizing your rationality over and against ones emotions and passions. yet at the same time unify them. and Jean Paul Sartre. the process in knowledge is affected from one scientific truth to another. What was Hegel’s response to Hume and Kant regarding “How can we know?” and “What can we know?” o We must first discover whether knowledge is possible. the full truth that embraces both sameness and difference. What are the three stages of Hegel’s Dialectic? . Soren Keirkegaard. He also believed man can know everything. Parts and Whole or Particulars and Universals: Does Hegel give up a hope of finding a unity of knowledge? o No. the rationality of reality. before we set out to know – knowing before you know. Nature of knowledge and of reason. The importance of religion. o Knowledge begins by apprehending existing objects in their specific differences. o 2.Syllabus Questions Who were the three people that Hegel influenced? o Three people whom Hegel had greatly influenced were Karl Marx. subjectivity has a rational objective structure. and o 3. he believes there is a tension between them because they are not the same. the Particulars and the Universal are united in the individual. Knower and Moral Agent.

the organic and constructive form of all philosophical thinking. Being is the concept implicit. The Positive Dialectic is reason. we now know explicitly all that is connected. which Hegel call’s the Universal. Dialectic is an essential phase in the development of positive reason. The move to the individual is in the third step in the Dialectic. and the second side is the implicit content (rationality) that “being” embodies. The Dialectical process includes both subject and object. wherever anything is carried into actual affect in this world. contradiction emerges – a tension between the Particulars and the Universal. it’s the rational form of reality itself as it develops.A Resolution. The first side is the immediate content of direct experience. rather than working against each other to produce a new. is has two sides. All details about the object are brought out and expressed in concept. the Universal and the Particulars are united in the individual. Hegel’s Dialectic Hegel believed that there was a Negative and Positive Dialectic. Hegel’s Dialectic has given man a new way of viewing history and a new way of determining what is true. The Resolution. Hegel believes the Dialectic to be an organic development that leads to positive results. Would you say that Hegel’s system is based upon Thesis and Anti-thesis? . their Dialectic is at work. The development of being and knowledge is led to the pair of opposites – the contradiction is the moving force of the Dialectical process. a situation where no progress can be made or no advancement is possible. In the Negative Dialectic.o Stage 1 – A Beginning o Stage 2 . and the rational pattern is the form of the entire system. The first step of the Dialectic is The Beginning. He also believed that the Dialectic has two sides. The second stage of the Dialectic is called The Advance. whose task is to preserve the difference between them yet also unify them.An Advance o Stage 3 . better and higher reality. the stage of Particulars. Dialectic is not a form imposed by the thinker. We now grasp the subject as that individual who is the unity of that unique set of Particulars. the opposites work against each other to produce a stalemate. The second side is that the Dialectic is the logical form of reason as it grasps this rational pattern and sets it forth as a coherent system both sides are together. The first side of the Dialectic is that it is the rational pattern that determines all growth in the world. which is being. they’re not the same. Wherever there is movement there is life. only this process can give us the kind of knowledge that makes us self conscious beings. Hegel claims these opposites must be brought together.

Yet through this settlement the Synthesis turns once again into a Thesis and the whole chain reaction starts up again with no end in the form of a triangle. it is based upon Synthesis. specified version of the Thesis. one must recognize their own self consciousness by being recognized by other self-conscience beings. leaving Truth no longer absolute but questionable. . That is one of the reason’s Francis Schaeffer called Hegel’s Philosophy the doorway to despair. Class Antagonisms based on social and economic inequalities 3. The Reason that is in nature is a mirror in which we see our rationality. Contrast the thoughts of Hegel and Marx on freedom.Hegel saw Nature as a living embodiment of the same spirit that is manifested in us. o Marx on the other hand.” (Hegel). Mankind. and these institutions encourage people to view everyone as equals. o Hegel taught that society must be organized through free institutions. Thesis and Anti-thesis contradict one another. and Synthesis theory is extremely important in Hegel’s philosophy and greatly emphasized in textbooks yet in reality Hegel didn’t use this concept. He cites 3 evils that arise from a free market economy. “The mind shall recognize itself in everything in heaven and on earth. Anti-thesis.o No. What were the 3 evils? 1. which in a way is a further thought out. Anti-thesis. He used his Dialectic more. and Synthesis theory Explain Hegel’s understanding of the relationship between man and Nature. believed that the working class should be exploited Hegel taught that government intervention is necessary to overcome the many problems facing a society. because man can no longer have a basis for truth. technical. Alienation of the disinherited . Poverty – endless desire for material goods causes poverty 2. so they must find and settle on a compromise. we are in a world where we are at home. The Thesis. According to the Biblical World View what is this relationship? According to Hegel how is the mind and spirit related? o To achieve a connection between mind and spirit. which is the Synthesis.

but this opens the door to evil. Spirit is supposed to be free. to a combination of thesis and antithesis – a synthesis. Mankind becomes the spirit of creation developing until it calls for redemption. What do the statements mean? o Hegel thought of history as a flow of powerful events which I believe is the meaning of “Organic Development” – history unfolds under new and meaningful events. He is both the sum total and the ground of all reality. Philosophy can recognize its own forms in the categories of religious conscience Hegel spoke of “Organic Development” – an ongoing process – the growth of becoming. not in a circle. o Hegel explains that God Creates His Son done to the form of universreality. Explain Hegel’s Position of History. Reason is need to comprehend faith. and finally the Son enters the world as mediator.Do you Agree with Hegel? Compare Kant and Hegel on their understanding of God. . Hegel’s thinking of a flow of events rather than cause and effect thinking changed the world. o Kant believed that man can have no knowledge of God. Religion can reject understanding that disintegrates things. o All these are concrete spiritual forms o Philosophy alone attains the concept of absolute mind o Art and religion are limited because they rely on sensible materials Reason is a living process that unites and integrates all that has been fragmented by understanding. Talk with Hegel about his understanding of the Trinity. Hegel shifted thinking from cause and effect. History has a purpose. religion and philosophy. What is his belief about mankind? o Evil is found in pride and self deception. Explain Hegel’s view of reason and understanding. o History is a dynamic order of novel and creative events – time flows in a straight line.

. Do you agree with Hegel? Do we live in a normal or abnormal world? o Hegel says the world might be as it ought to be (normal world).o The very concept of spirit is enough to show that man is evil by nature. but who are we to judge what is normal or abnormal? The Teachings of Hegel arrived at just the right moment of history for his thinking to have its maximum affect.

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