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Disaster means a catastrophe, a calamity or mishap, a grave
occurrence, which causes a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses exceeding the ability of the affected society to cope using only its resources.
WHO: Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological
disruption, loss of human life and detoriation of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community.
It lead to ecological disruption which exceeds the capacity
of a community to adjust and require assistance from the outside.
W. Nick Carter defined as an event natural or man-made, sudden or progressive which impact with such severity that the affected community has to respond by taking exceptional measures.
Disaster Classification Natural Man made .
Biological: Epidemic of communicable diseases . hurricanes. Tsunamis. tornadoes. Landslides & Floods Telluric & Teutonic: Earthquakes. Typological: Avalanches.Natural DisasterMeteorological: storm. cyclones. cold spells heat waves & droughts. and Volcanic Eruptions.
Technological failures: mishap at nuclear power station. Accidents: Transportation calamities (Land. mine disaster.Manmade DisasterCivil Disturbances: Riots & Demonstrations Warfare: Conventional Warfare (bombardment. . water). Guerrilla Warfare. blockage) Non Conventional Warfare: Nuclear. Collapse of buildings. Biological & Chemical Warfare. Terrorism Refugees: Forced Movement of large number of people usually across frontiers. Breakdown of a public sanitation system etc. dams etc. leak at a chemical plant. air.
Disaster Process Preparedness Warning Threat Impact Immediate Action Rescue Assessment Initial Recovery Long Term Rehabilitation Prevention .
Disaster Impact Preparedness Mitigation Response Disaster Cycle Prevention Recovery Development .
risk analysis and impact analysis). 1. 2. . Cortez Lawrence of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) formulate eight principles of emergency management. Progressive – anticipate future disaster and take preventive and preparatory measures to build disaster resistant and disaster resilient communities.Principles of Emergency Management In 2007 Dr. 3. Comprehensive – consider and take into account all hazards. all stakeholders and all impact relevant to disaster. Wayne Blanchand and Dr. Risk driven – use sound risk management principles (hazard identification. all phases.
public stewardship and continuous improvement. Integrated – ensure unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community. Flexible – use creative and innovative approaches in solving disaster challengers. . Co-ordinated – synchronize the activities of all relevant stakeholders to achieve a common purpose. 8. experience. training. 5. ethical practice. 6.Contd……… 4. Professional – Knowledge based approach. Collaborative – create and sustain sincere relationship among individuals and organization and facilitate communication. based on education. 7.
.Morbidities classified into 4 groups Injuries Emotional Stress Epidemic of diseases Increase of indigenous diseases.
No / damaged advance medical care. Non-availability / inadequate immediate medical care. . Delay in evacuation. Delay in transportation to medical centres. injuries during earthquake.Health Problems are mainly due to: Impact of drowning during flood.
. of factors Population density Population displacement Disruption of pre-existing facilities Disruption of normal health programme Increase vector breeding Climatic exposure Inadequate of food and nutrition.These consequences or hazards again depends on a large no.
Organization for medical relief Pre-hospital care Hospital care Mass Casualty management .
. Delayed treatment:.Triage Cat I Cat II Cat III- Cat IV- Immediate treatment:.Severely injuries and critical patient need immediate treatment to save their life.Also urgent but can be wait for 8 – 10 hrs. Can transfer to hospital without ambulance. Minimal treatment:. for surgery.Walking wounded can be attended. Injury not serious or moribund cases under irreversible shock and no hope.
8% of total areas is prone to cyclone. About 60% of landmass is prone to earthquake over 40 million is prone to flood. drought. 68% of area is susceptible to drought. cyclone.Disaster in India Vulnerable due to unique geo-climatic condition. earthquake and landslide are important. . In decade 1990-2000 an average 4344 people lost their live & 30 million people were affected by Disaster every year. Flood.
Flood scene .
Flood Scene .
9 Seismic Disturbances upto Magnitude 4.Recent Map indicating Earthquakes Zones in India Zone Zone V Magnitude Very High Risk Quakes of magnitude 8 and greater High Risk Quakes upto Magnitude 7.9 Moderate Risk Quakes upto Magnitude 6.9 Zone IV Zone III Zone II .
Organizational Component.M.National Crisis management group under the Chairmanship of Central Relief Commissioner – to co-ordinate the activities of the Central Ministers and State Govt. .Cabinet committee headed by P. . .National Crisis Management Committee headed by Cabinet Secretary – give direction to any specific action needed for meeting the crisis.Disaster Management in India At the National level the Ministry of Home Affairs is the Nodal Ministry of Disaster Management.Empowered grout of ministers headed by Deputy P. Central Relief Commissioners (CRC) in the Ministry of Home Affairs is the Nodal Officer to coordinate relief operations for natural disasters. .M.
Contingency Action Plan.(Emergency operation Room) exists in the Nodal Ministry of Home Affairs to transmit the information concerning natural calamities keep in touch with Govt. It facilitate the launching of relief operation without delay.is created at the Central Govt. Control room. of the affected state. Of Agriculture with the objective to focus preparedness and mitigation to reduce adverse impact of disaster. Within the scheme – National Centre for Disaster Management has set up for research and consultancy and training. level.Contd……. Natural Disaster Management Programme has been implemented since 1993-94 by the Deptt. .is to dealing with the contingencies situation. National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF).
This committee reviewed the action taken for response and relief and give the direction as necessary. of Relief and Rehabilitation. A Control Room is established under Relief Commissioner and is constant touch with the climate monitoring and monitor the action being taken by various agencies in performing their responsibilities. Response. relief and rehabilitation are handled by deptt. .State Level State Crisis Management Committee headed by Chief Secretary. form the part. The Senior Officers of various deptt.
drinking water surface transport.District Level District Co-ordination and Relief Committee headed by DC – A close liaison with dist. District have their contingency plan which is updated from time to time. . & state Govt. and nearest unit of Armed forces / central police organization and other agencies like water resource.
of death and disabilities.Hospital Disaster Plan 1. Internal Disaster Plan 2. External Disaster Plan Principle of Hospital Disaster Plan To provide maximum treatment & to reduces the No. .
Train the staff for evaluation and update .Objective of the Plan To prepare the staff and institutional resources for optimal performance in an emergency situation. To make community aware of the importance of disaster plan.
Determine organizational structure for Disaster. Determine response capabilities. Assess the resource available.Development of Disaster Plan should Analyze the geographic location and risk & hazard. . Carry out vulnerability analysis of the community exposed to the risk and hazards. Periodic revision of both the plan and organization. Probable demand and nature of work expected during Disaster.
Blood bank & laboratory. Planning use of OT. Establishment of a public information centre. Procedure for prompt transfer patients within the hospital. Security arrangements. Special Disaster Medical record & medical tag. patient observation and medical care.Hospital Disaster Plan Provisions should include Efficient system of alert and staff assignment. . Evaluation of hospital service. Special medical service for Disaster Cases. Conversion of a usable space into clearly defined area for triage. X-ray.
The hospital administration. The Nursing Supdt. . In-charge of accident and emergency service. Departmental Heads. The staff representative.Hospital Disaster Committee The Director of Hospital.
Renew and revise the Disaster Plan at regular intervals. Established standards of emergency care. . Conduct and supervise training programme .Functions of Hospital Committee Develop Hospital Disaster Plan. Develop Departmental Plan in support of Hospital plan. Allocate duties of hospital staff.
Operating Unit Diagnostic Deptt. dietary service. 2. Secondary treatment area Critical Care unit 4.Facilities at Hospital 1. Triage or sorting area Primary treatment area Immediate care area Urgent Care area Non-urgent Care area (special care area) 3. . Support facilities – Pharmacy. security service & transport. Inpatient evacuation holding area Additional facilities Control & information centre Volunteer reception Relatives waiting area Media Room 5.
. of Relief and Rehabilitation to convert as deptt. of Disaster Management with enhancing responsibilities of mitigation and preparedness.Some existing and newer initiatives A National Policy on Disaster Management has been drafted. Deptt. Constitute a National Emergency Management Authority at National Level.
has relief manual and code – to identify the role of each deptt. State Level Disaster management authority under CM. For NE state –North Eastern Council has been made the Nodal Agency. Each state govt.Contd……. .
The path ahead which looks difficult to day will become a lot easier as we move along together.Our Vision Our vision 2020 is to build a safer and secure India through sustained collective effort. . What looks a dream today will be transformer into reality in the next two decades. synergy of national capabilities and people’s participation.
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