The Administrative, Economic and Social Functions of Turkish Guilds Author(s): Gabriel Baer Reviewed work(s): Source: International

Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1970), pp. 28-50 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 03/01/2012 03:53
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Int. J. Middle East Stud. I, 28-50

Printed in Great Britain



In memory of Uriel Heyd

A discussion of Turkish guild history becomes meaningless if it does not take as its point of departure that a guild is a professional organization. This means that a guild is neither an organization which is grouped according to professional criteria, nor just another name for groups of artisans or merchants about whose organization nothing definite is known. One may be justified in speaking about the existence of guilds if within a certain area all the people occupied in a branch of the urban economy constitute a unit which, at one and the same time, fulfils various purposes, such as economic, fiscal, administrative and social functions. A further condition is the existence of a framework of officers or functionaries chosen from among the members of such a unit and headed by a headman. Apparently, there were no guilds with such attributes in Turkey until the fifteenth century. Scholars who have studied that era have found no proof for the existence of guilds at that time.' Although the ahi movement, the popular organization of Anatolia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, recruited its members mainly among craftsmen, the association as such was non-professional.2 Unfortunately, most writers dealing with the early history of Turkish guilds have included in their writings long descriptions of the ahi movement and fiitiivvet literature without making it unequivocally clear that they were not talking about professional guilds.3 It is not known exactly when and where professional organizations first appeared in Turkey. Taeschner assumed that the transition from the freefiitiivvet associations to a system of professional guilds occurred at the beginning of the
I F. Taeschner, 'Futuwwa', El2, vol. 11, p. 967; F. Babinger, Mehmed der Eroberer und seine Zeit(Miinchen, 1953), p. 491: 'Gar nichts verlautet bislang ilber fachgenossenschaftZiinfte der Handwerker, wie sie im Osmanenreich des I6. und vor liche Vereinigungen, allem des 17. Jahrhunderts aus Schilderungen erweisbar sind.' 2 F. Taeschner, 'Akhi', E12, vol. I, pp. 32I-3. However, on the basis of Ibn Battuta's evidence, Professor Cahen assumes that beginnings of professional grouping of the ahis may have existed in the fourteenth century or even earlier. See C. Cahen, Pre-Ottoman Turkey (London, 1968), pp. I99-200. 3 This is a general affliction of writings on Islamic guilds. See G. Baer, 'Guilds in Middle Eastern history', paper submitted to the Conference on the Economic History of the Middle East, University of London, 4-6 July I967.

5 Information about guilds in the sixteenth century is rather sporadic. tanners. e. The various officers of the guilds. I962). erfaI3twerden konnte. v (1941). as well as the structure of the guilds in general. vol. p. we have the Surname of Murad III. been the unanimous observation of writers on this subject that all walks of life were encompassed in this system.4 Kethiidas. auch die I F. 'Das Zunftwesen in der Tiirkei'. vol. I333) (Refik X in later references). and yigit baqzsare mentioned in firmans of the I58os concerning the guilds of flour merchants and bakers. 6 Cf. Mecelle-i umur-ubelediye.. a kethiida and a yizit bait had been specially appointed for the guild of the varakfilar (gilders) in order to guarantee a regular supply of gold and silver leaf to the Sultan's court at reasonable prices. weshalb auch die Regierung ein Interesse an diesen Ziinften hatte. pp. Onuncuaszr-i hicride Istanbul hayatz (Istanbul. i8o-i. It has. pp. In this extremely important work many documents from the Ottoman archives are quoted verbatim. 178. First of all. von Hammer. 4 Refik X. 1903). 155-7. 14I. 695-9. dealers in candlesticks. I. 591-4. Istanbul dans la seconde moitie du XVIIe siecle (Paris. leather merchants. vi (Berlin. 349 n. 2 p. It is not correct that Nuri treats mainly the origin and early developments of the guilds until the beginning of the sixteenth century and examines only rapidly later periods. for instance. Taeschner.3 We learn from a firman of the year 981/I573 that. J. pp. i85. will be dealt with in a separate article. as claimed by R..2 But. that in the 157os. Zeitschriftfir Socialwissenschaft. makers of pins and needles. pp. i88. So waren alle Untertanen des Reiches. indeed. I78-9. thought that no one was exempt from belonging to a guild: 'Das Zunftwesen [war] damals die Form. I26 ff. possessed such an organization. 1922) (Nuri in later references). woollen drapers. der ja sonst im orientalischen Staatswesen gar nicht faI3barwar. Leipziger Vierteljahrsschriftfur Siidosteuropa. Mantran.g. a description of the procession on the occasion of the circumcision of his son Mehmed in the year 1582. . pp. 626-9. various professions.vol.Gabriel Baer 29 sixteenth century. This is borne out by a series of firmans collected by the Turkish historian Ahmet Refik. There can be no doubt. Iv (Pest. Taeschner. however. durch die allein auch der Einzelmensch.' He may well have been right: for from the end of the century we have a number of documents which show that by that time the guild must have been a well-established institution.6 They differ only with regard to the exceptions from this rule. headed by chiefs called kethiida who were assisted by officers called yigit baiz. I71. and certainly in the I58os. 3 Ahmet Refik. 'Tiirkische Basare und Ziinfte'. Osman Nuri. if not all of them. Cf. at that time. Refik's collections include a large number of important documents for Turkish guild history. i829). I (Istanbul. vol. sellers of sweets. H. Geschichte des osmanischenReiches. but from the seventeenth century onward it becomes so copious as to support the conclusion that by that time the entire population had become organized in an elaborate guild system. feyhs. there is no explicit mention of the existence of heads or officers of these organizations. pp. and founders. I69. Schurtz. 170. boatmen.. although many different crafts and professional groups are enumerated. much more so than in any western country. 5 Refik X..

Islamic Society and the West. See. the following formulation by Mantran seems to be more accurate: 'Toutes les classes. serifs. vol. as are guilds nos. Asia.6 (b) Workers in state factories and day-labourers. and an English one called Narrative of Travels in Europe. 398-52I (very much shortened). 'Zunftwesen'. whose functions are reflected in numerous other sources. 646). by Evliya Efendi.ortlich undgeschichtlichbeschrieben (Pest. 'Zunftwesen '. such as mystics. I. ou du palais. It is true that this translation too is 'nach einer liickenhaften Handschrift ungenau und unvollstaindig iibersetzt' (Taeschner. pp. guilds nos. Istanbul. 2 . R.elebi's enumeration of the guilds as they passed in procession on the occasion of their muster by Murad IV (i623-4o). or whether this was a theory used only on ceremonial occasions. This is more serious than Mantran (p. and Africa in the Seventeenth Century. I8o n.30 Administrative. I. " We have not found any confirmation in the sources for this somewhat astonishing view that soldiers and officials also were organized in guilds. des fonctionnaires et employes du gouvernement. a German one called Constantinopolisund der Bosporus. i (Istanbul. in Section III of the procession. Therefore. des Sipahis. 569 of the Turkish text). 3 Evliya Gelebi. which was prepared from a manuscript at least as lacunal as that from which the English translation was made. x. Hammer. Narrative of Travels. 5 All authors who mention the organization of these groups as guilds refer to Evliya or to Nuri. p. which is a summary of Evliya's enumeration. 7 Evliya. p. 14). von Hammer. vol. 230 to 302 (pp. whether Evliya's description of the all-embracing character of this system reflects the reality of daily life in seventeenth century Turkey. 6 Evliya. for instance. For instance. however. it may be useful to divide Evliya's guilds into two: one group which does not generally figure in other sources dealing with the function of the guilds in everyday life. p. pp. 480. It is interesting to note that the only source for the existence of guilds of day labourers in Egypt is also Evliya's description of the procession of the Egyptian guilds on the occasion of the ru'ya ceremony. I63 to 218 (pp. But it is not only much better than the German one. 222.3 It must be asked. but also in some parts more complete than the Turkish printed edition itself. Seyahatnamesi. 353-4.. etc. iio-6. a l'exception des Janissaires. 500-I. I822). the common source of both conclusions that the whole population of Turkish towns was organized in guilds was Evliya (. 231 (nos. Sudan. 104-205. pp. I950) (Gibb and Bowen in later references). 149-63 of the English translation) are missing from the Turkish printed edition (see p.. H. I846). 2 (London. enumerated. pp. See Mantran. 290. hatibs. Bowen. Narrative of Travels. vol. and many other religious functionaries or people belonging to Islamic institutions. This part of Evliya's work is included in two translations by J. Misir. 560. tous les individus composant la population stambouliote. 628. In order to answer this question. 353 n. 4) wishes us to believe. Seyahatnamesi. pp. 152. 563). die Soldaten und die Geistlichkeit zunftmaI3ig eingeteilt. vol. pt. including kadzs. Hammer. pp. See Evliya Celebi. 521-30. 512-669 (Evliya in later references). i80. p. I69-88 of the translation-see p. in I657. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds Beamten. 4 Some guilds of this group are mentioned also in a similar description of a muster of the guilds written by the Armenian traveller Eremya Celebi which took place 20 years later.7 (c) Farmers and peasants (reTaeschner. II. 1314). A.'2 In any case. vol. I45.. sont embrigades dans les corporations. pt. pp. 6i6. The first group includes the following:5 (a) The ulema. Mantran.4 and the other group. amongst others. i (London. et des etrangers. pp. 357. students of the medreses. Gibb and H. pp.

for Egypt. 233 ff. indeed. p. The Macedonian town of Seres (in Nuri's Arabic spelling: jj . Narrative of Travels. economic or social functions does not mean that they did not exist. first and foremost. For this purpose. and thus fulfilling at least the function of constituting a unit for the purpose of general control and supervision by the state.4But since many merchants dealing in Habes (1672-I68o) (Istanbul. p. those of the Galata bedesten. I4I (nos. Too much stress has been put by modern authors on the division of the guilds into merchants.3 In some cases. when the Bulgars entered it. Egyptian Guilds in Modern Times (Jerusalem. however. 517-9. We have no grounds for doubting Evliya's account of their forming a professional organization headed by feyhs.. 556. and craftsmen. p. or even the nineteenth. 13. 108-9. However. It should be mentioned. Hammer. kethiidas. pp. pickpockets. performed through their muster on the occasion of ceremonial processions. None of the sources for Egypt has mentioned a guild of farmers-except Evliya. 'merchants of Khan al-Khalili'. 669-70 (leather merchants). in later references).Gabriel Baer 3I siding in towns). pp. Egyptian Guilds. p. Secondly. 132). while it was of crucial importance for the public life of the second group. In addition to these artisan-merchants. etc. except the higher bureaucracy and the army. See Evliya.' (d) Entertainers of all kinds and members of the so-called 'immoral guilds'. After the second Balkan war. the entire urban population was comprised in the guild system. 3 See. G. and it would be very difficult indeed to decide whether many of them were 'craftsmen' or 'merchants'. it includes merchants of all kinds. . 224 (no. as. on the other. Egypt. Cf. Seres became Greek. In sources on Egypt too these guilds have been mentioned in connexion with public later references). I938). the guild organization of professions of this group apparently had no significance. Narrative of Travels. and perhaps by other means as well. Such a distinction may be useful for the orientation of the economic historian. 30. such as prostitutes. 27. A description of the guilds of Seres in the nineteenth century by Esad Bey. pp. Nuri. ceremonies or in comprehensive lists of guilds rather than as units fulfilling administrative. 690-7I6 of his work. 692). ) was occupied by the Turks in I368 and remained in their hands until 19I3. 4 Evliya. economic or social functions. is published by Nuri on pp. Baer. 363 (Evliya. p. etc. I964) (Baer. but it certainly had no fundamental significance in the economic and social reality of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 228-9. merchants proper also had their guilds. it was burnt down and the old city was completely destroyed. 5. p. 504). 625-7. in many other respects. and other officers. Baer. the merchants of a specific market were incorporated in one guild. Hammer. yigit baszs. artisans and craftsmen of all branches of industry. p. Narrative of Travels. complete with kethiidas. 673 (merchants of the Wallachia trade). for instance. 6i8. etc. Most artisans in the bazaar sold their own products. pp.2 The fact that these guilds do not generally figure in documents on the guilds' administrative. as a result of the Bucharest Treaty of o August I913. 'merchants of the Sfq al-Daqiq market'. pp. In the course of its changing hands. on one hand. 534. Egyptian Guilds in 1 Evliya. that farmers (fiftfiler) were in 1250/1834-5 one of the twenty-four guilds of Seres (Nuri. Cf. pp. 632 ff. Hammer. This second group includes. 62. etc. 119. Egypt. 2 Evliya. a native of that town who moved to Istanbul after the Balkan wars. for instance. in very general terms. 359.

000. 580-I. 7 For parallel observations on Egypt see Baer. according to another manuscript. and passim. surgeons. . 25. 605. Narrative of Travels. 632. pp. 520. and.000 members). one should include in this group of professions for which the guild organization was of paramount significance all those connected with medicine.084 shops).000 store houses).500 workers). merchants of the Black Sea (8. and has no significance whatever from the point of view of the life of these guilds or their function. the fire brigade (tulumbaczlar). called Kitab al-dhakhd'ir wa'l-tuhaffi bzral-sand'i'wa'l-hiraf. and the one-man 'guild' of the maker of torturing instruments.000ooo (with ten shops). however. distinguish carefully between his original observations and those passages which he copied from Evliya. has been studied in detail in Baer. Narrative of Travels. 6 Evliya. I43 (no. I5). 6oi. with three shops). pp. 649-50. 4 See observation by Nuri. of course. I845). 116-9. pp. A universal system of guilds consistently divided into professional groups (at least for the purpose of control by the government and of ceremonies) necessarily includes groups with extremely different sizes of membership. 2-3. on one hand. 323 ff. One must. III. water carriers (sakalar).3 It is this second group which will figure in the following study of the functions of Turkish guilds. and io0. pp. p. 604. tallow-chandlers (5. I45). Ch. 595.5 The section of building guilds included. Thirdly. Hammer. there were in Istanbul such large guilds as those of watchmen (I2. as well as strong guild organizations. pp. 219 (no. and such small guilds as those of map-makers (I 5. porters (hamallar). White's excellent observations are an indispensable source for the history of the Turkish guilds. or. this second group includes guilds of persons engaged in transport and services. 20i. ten litter-makers (one shop). oculists. whose author probably was closely connected with the guilds of barbers and physicians and which therefore reflects admirably their concepts and organization. 390). 425). etc. 2 Evliya. whose figures should be considered only rough approximations. This includes physicians. 3 An Egyptian manuscript dating from the end of the sixteenth or the seventeenth century. Narrative of Travels. with three shops). pp. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds specific goods were concentrated in one market. public weighers (kantarczlar).000 with 2. Egyptian Guilds. Hammer. Nuri.000 builders.4 According to Evliya. 212 (no. 107). pp. White.000 carpenters. I09 (no.32 Administrative. pp. 55I. 596. 335). pharmacists. 530-4. 7. day-labourers.2 Physicians in Middle Eastern countries had strong conceptual traditions connected with their profession. merchants of almond oil (seven.000 with I. with eight shops). pp. 170. nos. I96 (no. 627-8. pp. 636. 6i . etc.I Their classification as persons engaged in transport and services is again of course one of the modern historian. 638. 640. I33 (no. sling-makers (five. Nuri. I3I (no. 5 Evliya.6 The number of members in most guilds was. p. Three Yearsin Constantinople(London. 230-I. 12 upholsterers 3. 548. iII). there were guilds of the Bosporus boatmen (peremeciler). To give only a few examples. 559. and saddlers (5. between these extremes. Finally. Egyptian Guilds. 646. but it has not yet been used systematically for this purpose. Hammer. this may have been just another name for the guild of a certain branch of merchants. guilds of 4. 207 (no. 458). and even the one-man one-shop 'guild' of a painter-fortuneteller. 666-7. vol. 6io.7 I Refik X. on the other. pp. 594.

5 As we have remarked with regard to Egypt.' According to Evliya. since people employed in each craft and profession were registered through the guilds and their heads. Evliya. the guilds were among the most important of these.7 The guild kethiidas therefore were in a position to convey government orders and announcements to their I Cf. Baer. 4 5 White. Mantran. I.3 Even in the nineteenth century there were fourteen different guilds of shoemakers grouped according to the community of the craftsmen and the kind of shoes they made.6 FUNCTIONS (i) The guilds as an administrative link The most important function of the guilds throughout the centuries was their service as an administrative link between the government and the urban population. about eleven guilds of fishermen. such as the Ihtisab Aahlzg Nizamnamesi of September 1826 and the regulations for boatmen (kayzkfzlar) of 24 December i874. 571 (document dated 6 Cemaziyeldhir 1277/20 December I860). pp. pp. p. and 64 guilds of makers of different musical instruments. 26. p. 32. Schurtz.4 and White said that the tailors' trade was subdivided into nearly as many branches as there were kinds of apparel. there were in the seventeenth century about twenty different guilds of cooks and sellers of various dishes. 226-8. Nuri. Egyptian Guilds. as in Egypt. 7 3 MES II . Egyptian Guilds. As long as the state was unable to create a bureaucracy on a large scale. since in order to maintain close supervision over guild members it was necessary for the head of the guild to know his members personally. For such registration we have Evliya's evidence relating to the seventeenth century as well as documents from the nineteenth century. the extreme subdivision of trades and occupations into separate guilds was mainly the result of administrative considerations of government. 357. it was compelled to use intermediate units in order to carry out censuses and establish institutions necessary for direct relations between the government and the individual. Narrative of Travels. Doustour-i-Hamidie. p.Gabriel Baer 33 The reason for the existence of so many small guilds was the extreme tendency for occupations to split into guilds of specialized branches. 8-9.2 A firman from the eighteenth century informs us of the existence in Istanbul of a guild of weavers of ribbons for the fire-brigade (tulumbaczseridi dokuyan esnaf). 1878). pp. In Turkey. 698. D. 2 Hammer. 151-5. Nicolaides. 6 Nuri. pp. 'Zunftwesen'. 622-5. For Egypt cf. I8o. p. they accomplished the general supervision of the town population. vol. 289-91. p. p. 58-60 (both groups are missing from the Turkish printed text). appendice a la legislation ottomane (Constantinople. 3 Nuri. separated according to the system which each used for fishing and the different kinds of nets they used. Taeschner. p. Baer. Cf. pp. 558 (firman dated Cemaziyeldhir II92/July 1778). First of all. p. 341.

4 Refik X. 9).. pp. peared that non-Muslims (Greeks. Nicolaides. individual guilds also were required to supply guarantees that official orders would be carried out. economicand social functions of Turkishguilds members and to make certain that the instructions of the authorities were carried out. the guild usually was required to issue a guarantee for the good character of each of its members. 20I-3 (no. Thus in I222/1807. pp.5 Similarly. Nuri. the prohibition to make sharp-pointed shoes (I222/I807). and services. 54-6. 133 (nos.34 Administrative.' In some cases. were wearing green fabrics. providing the government with a kind of indirect control over each individual in the urban population.3 Moreover. I70 (no. 502. the kethiidas were charged with supervising the implementation of government orders regarding industry. 5 Refik XII. pp. contrary to tradition. pp. the sehbender(chief) and muhtars (assistants) of the (Istanbul. 140. 133). I932) (Refik XIII in later references). Nuri. pp. and use of new buildings erected after the destruction of the old ones by fire (I2I0/I795). and according to the above-mentioned Ihtisab AgalhzgNizamnamesi of September I826. Nuri. 34I. in 1766 a baker was punished for using false weights. 9-II 3 I Refik X. Armenians. the kethiida and yigit basz of every guild was required to furnish the ihtisab agaszwith a guarantee for the guild and its members. shape. and Jews) were imitating Muslims in the way they dressed. commerce. 79. Nuri. Throughout the whole period with which we are dealing. and many similar orders. 55). Hicri on ikinci asirda Istanbul hayati I930) (Refik XII in later references). 638-9. ibid. the prohibition to produce certain luxury goods in which gold and silver were used (1128/1716). pp.4 The guild of makers or casters of lead supplied a guarantee for the reliability of its members (document dated III4/I703). For instance. the exclusion of European style medical shops from the Muslim quarters of Istanbul (I22I/I806). etc. 36-7 (no. government supervision was carried out through the guilds and when it apother units of the population at the same time. p. sale. such as the regulations for boatmen (peremeciler) concerning the production. the order to the Muslim makers of kavuklar (wadded caps) to refrain from producing headgear worn by Jews (I141/1729). 2 Id. material. and traffic of boats in the year 985/1577 and those for porters of the year 1143/1730. and he was allowed to resume his business only after the guild had given a guarantee that he would not repeat his misdeed. . The existence of such guarantees for the boatmen of Istanbul is documented for a period extending from the end of the sixteenth century to the end of the nineteenth. the kadz assembled the kethiidas of the guilds of makers and sellers of various kinds of textiles as well as the heads of the communities concerned (the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs and the Jewish Hahambasz) and warned the former not to sell green fabrics to non-Muslims and the latter to see to it that their flock did not dress in the Muslim fashion. p. and. Ahmet Refik. 34). io). instructions concerning the height. Hicri on ii iinciiasrda Istanbul hayatt (Istanbul. (no. o08-9. 649-51. p.2 Nor was the government content with just charging the kethiidas with the implementation of its instructions.

622-3. nor in secondary sources using additional documents. and (4) the collecting of taxes by the guild seyhs. 697. 329 for Egypt see Baer. Nuri. almost all of them from Seres where guild organization was exceptionally strong and autonomous.2 In nineteenth century Seres. p. elected in an extraordinary meeting of the kdhyalar meclisi together with three masters from each guild. pp. etc. Egyptian Guilds. They were responsible to the government for ensuring that none of them had acquired his berat (patent) by fraud. and copper complained to the kadzof soldiers who interfered with the work of the guild members and molested them and violated guild traditions in various ways. brass. Thus. have we found traces of the four aspects of the guilds' fiscal function. 685. as well as complaints against government officials and other communications from the guilds.4Neither in the documents reproduced by Refik and Nuri. 88-93. In special cases. 3 5 Nuri. In Damascus the situation apparently was intermediate between that of Istanbul and Cairo: the Damascus guilds sometimes were charged with fiscal functions. 'Guilds in Middle Eastern history'. See Baer. Egyptians Guilds. 84.. For the most part the kethiida was the agent of the government rather than the spokesman of the guild: we have found only few examples for the latter function. Nuri. the communication was submitted by a delegation consisting of the kdhyalar basz. White tells us that in his time part of the earnings of the Istanbul porters was given to their vekil and used by him both to provide food 2 Document dated RebiyiildhzrI257/May-June 1841. but also the guild before the authorities. (2) distribution of the tax quota among members of the guild. and it was his task to submit to the government the decisions of the grand council (kdhyalar meclisi). 701.5 This statement must be qualified by some information relating to the early nineteenth century. pp. we learn from a document dating from 996/1588 that the kethiidaand officers of the guild of workers in bronze. this seems to have been a secondary function. and sometimes taxes were collected through the hdra system. two kdhyas and two workers.Gabriel Baer 35 guild of Muslim merchants called hayriye tiiccarz issued guarantees for the honesty and good character of all the merchants belonging to this guild. Baer. pp.3 (2) Guilds and taxation One of the most striking differences between the activities of Turkish and Egyptian guilds was the absence of fiscal functions among the former. pp. In Istanbul most urban taxes were collected by the ihtisab agasz (muhtesib)through agents called kol oglanlarz. However. about which copious information exists concerning those of Egypt: (I) assessment of the amount of taxes to be paid. I44. (3) the seyh's responsibility for payment of the taxes by individual members of the guilds. for instance. ff. as in Egypt.' The kethiida (or kdhya) represented not only the authorities to the guild. 3-2 . the chief kdhya (kdhyalar basz)was the spokesman for all the guilds. 682. 307-I5. 304-5. 4 Nuri. pp. Mantran. pp.

349-5I.4 (3) Control of the quality of products and of weights and measures In Turkey. Morocco. According to the resume of an undated reglement for the corporations. Tunis. the kethiida and yigit basz..500 kuruf yearly as imdadiye for the Imperial dockyards at Istanbul (tersane-i dmire). Equally interesting is the information that the seyh of the booksellers' guild collected from its members the sum to be paid for the rent of their shops-five to seven piastres per month each-and transmitted it to the administration of the Imperial foundations. Unfortunately this information is rather vague. pp. 96-7. The instructions were issued by the government. but made it clear that elsewhere this was not carried out through guilds. and the (undated) instructions concerning the measures of bath towels. v.36 Administrative. I04-5 (no. 684. 3 Nuri. pp. who is the source for this information. and Algeria). but White. Thus a firman to the kethiida. vol. In this respect only Egypt was an exception. II. 5 6 Nuri. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds and lodging and for the payment of government taxes. according to the same regulations.5 But neither in the Arab countries nor in Turkey was this control an exclusive affair of the guilds. These regulations also imposed upon kethiidas in the great market of Istanbul some duties connected with tax collection. 4 White. were charged with supervising the implementation of such instructions. Refik XII. the sehbenders. the kethiida of the gardeners collected 88. 325. Baer. reproduced (without reference) by G. it should be mentioned that in the eighteenth century the guild or its kethiida apparently occasionally guaranteed payments of rent by members. according to the Ihtisab AgalzgzNizamnamesi of September i826. as. as in many Arab countries (Syria. as documented in a firman concerning the printers' guild dated II42/I729. yigit bast. control of the quality of goods made or sold by artisans and merchants was one of the main tasks of the guilds. 404 if. III. even in Egypt. 288-9. since in general. 375. I34). pp. Nuri. 158. and ihtiyarlar of the makers and sellers of knives dated I 138/1725-6 required them to make sure that they were made of genuine steel (halis felikten). detailed regulations concerning the quality and measures of various goods and services included in the kanunnameof o091/I68o. for example. I 2 . vol. In connexion with the payment of rent through the guild. pp. 303.e. implies clearly that the seyh did not collect the tax they paid to the government. the ihtiyarlar.6 The guild officers. not of wrought iron White. p. monthly taxes were collected by the kdhyas according to an 'appended list' (missing from Young) and transmitted to the Prefecture. Egyptian Guilds. Corps de droit ottoman (Oxford. 1906).muhtars and kethiidas of some guilds of merchants and grocers were responsible for payment of the customs dues of imported material sold by them. customs were not among the payments made through the guilds or guaranteed by the guild. rather it was the responsibility of government authorities who used the guild system as an instrument for supervising the implementation of its instructions in this respect.' Similarly.and its elders. Young.3 This is remarkable. i.2 On the other hand. vol. pp. pp. p.

303. This was the case whether or not the culprit was a member of the complaining guild. According to a document dated 29 Zilhicce I206/I8 August I792 the kethiida. 202). 29). pp. and appointed a person to execute this order. rather than the guild. It could only denounce the culprit to the authorities and leave the punishment to them. 639. 19-20 (no. whereas formerly the kethiida of the shoemakers of the Grand Bazaar (biiyiik arastenin hafaflar kethiidasz) had served as a head kethiida (baf kethiida) of all the guilds and supervised the quality of their work. I69-70 pp. (no. 3 Nuri. 5 Nuri. In order to restore the original state of affairs. the guild's control of the quality of goods made or sold by its members and by others was rather limited.5 Thus it was the kadi. Nuri. and in view of this his punishment was postponed.Similarly.4 Another interesting example is a case of copper vessels made of inferior material and unfit for use.3 However. according to a document dated i6 5evval 1138/17 June 1726 the guild of sword makers denounced one of its members to the kadi for making hilts from inferior wood and painting them black to imitate ebony. It was the task of the kethiidas to confirm the stamps impressed on weights and on textiles as shown in a firman to the weighers dated 1200/1785-6. etc. By the middle of the nineteenth century the quality of shoes sold in the market of Istanbul had considerably deteriorated. pp. with the spreading use of tobacco a kethiida of the tobacconists was appointed in 1138/1725 to prevent the adulteration of tobacco practised by some Jewish merchants. pp. He was severely warned by the kadz not to do this again. p. brought before the kadi in I 131/I7I8-9 by the kethiidalar of the tin and copper merchants. who in the last Nuri. and the kethiidas of the guilds concerned were ordered in 1206/1792 to prevent the use of adulterated dyes. Refik XII. cobblers.' In certain cases a kethiida or a baqkethiidawas especially appointed for this purpose.yigit baztand ihtiyarlar of the guild of Istanbul weavers appeared before the kadi and complained about the illegal supply of inferior material by a certain silk merchant. 3).). pp. 608-9. a baq kethiida for 14 specified guilds of shoemakers of all kinds was appointed according to a document dated 6 Cemaziyeldhir 1277/20 December i86o. (no. Refik XIII. menders. The kadz ordered that the vessels be thrown into the sea. 609-10. 559. The guild was supposed to be alert to detect fraudulent practices and goods of inferior quality. this was explained by the extreme independence of the various guilds that took part in the process of producing shoes (workers. . 4 Nuri.2 An interesting case was that of the Istanbul shoemakers. 2 Nuri. Similarly. pp. 570-72. 3 pp. but it could not itself take any action. and similarly a kethiida was appointed in 1163/1750 for the makers of roof-tiles to supervise the adherence of the members of this craft to regulations concerning the measures of their roof-tiles. p.Gabriel Baer 37 (karademirden). 569-70. The latter promised the kadi not to supply such material again. Refik XII. each of whom had its own kethiida. Thus. a firman dated I06/1695 demanded that the yigit bafzs of the furriers see to it that traditional standards were kept.

the fact that the authorities punished offenders against the narh needs no particular elaboration. Baer. 459. etc. but these were minimum prices to protect the interests of the guild. says that the committee of six Armenian elders chosen by the esnaf of the sandal Bezesten determined factory and market prices. M. Despite the changes that occurred in this respect throughout the centuries. pp. ff. In addition. as defenders of the consuming population. I02-3. or exercise fraudulent practices. II. Egyptian Guilds. The narh was gradually abolished in the i86os. Pakalln. vol. vol. most of the implementation of these orders was in the hands of the official market inspector and was not a function of the guilds. for instance. Article 19 of the 1851 I White. 4I9-20 Nuri. II. 657. This fact conforms to other conclusions about the guilds' judicial functions to be dealt with later on. p. Pakalm. p. p. vol. p. in Arabic tas'zr)was always the prerogative of the authorities. that the guild's monopoly should not be abused for raising the prices of goods needed by the people. and the list of fixed maximum prices then was transmitted to the guilds as an order. Z. 5 Nuri. 4 Nuri. Pakaln. Pakaln. 254. and cf.z In the middle of the nineteenth century this function was transferred to the fehremaneti (prefecture) established at that time. II. (4) Fixing of prices (narh) and wages As we have seen. 643. 656. should adulterate materials made or sold by it. not the guilds. 3 p. II. produce or sell goods of inferior quality. and the authorities punished makers or sellers of goods of inferior quality. 282-3. and even less outsiders. Generally it was the kadi and the ihtisab agast who were charged with this task. 549. whose concern with preventing overcharging was extremely small and rather indirect.5 In view of this situation. Cf. vol.. the fixing of maximum prices (narh. pp.3 Such instructions were issued periodically-according to a document dated 29 Safar 1139/26 October 1726. and their goods were not vital consumer goods.4 The explanation that the narh was directed against the abuse of monopolies by the guilds is explicity given in another document dated I Rebiyiilevvel I 94/7 March I780. 302.38 Administrative. vol. See Nuri. but the custom for its decisions to be transmitted as orders to the guilds was maintained. The actual prices of goods also were fixed by the government. and those who sold at higher prices were punished by the authorities. 359-61. Osmanlh tarih deyimleri II. . economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds resort took effective measures to implement the regulations concerning the quality of goods made or sold by artisans or merchants. once in each of the year's four sea- sons. This emerges clearly. from the provisions of the 1840 and 1851 Ottoman penal codes. 419-20. 350. 443-8. Gibb and Bowen.). 2 Nuri. The guild only controlled implementation of the official instructions and denounced the offenders. The explanation of this difference is obvious: it was in the guild's interest that none of its members. pp. cf. 656. instructions concerning the quality of goods were issued by the authorities. 1946 et seq. ve terimleri sozliigii (Istanbul. p. p. 657.. but it was primarily in the interest of the authorities. pp. pp.

Nuri. pp. Mantran. p. 7 . the government encountered difficulties in implementing the narh and punishing offenders against its regulations. vol. but also the control of the implementation of the narh.3 Many other documents on the functions of the kadz and the ihtisab agasz imply the same. and Baer. Before the middle of the nineteenth century. 6 Cf. pp. cf. 157 and 172). 644. under the economic and administrative circumstances which prevailed until a century ago. A similar interpretation should be applied to the following statement by Taeschner 'Unterbietungen wie auch Uberforderungen wurden streng bestraft. and none of the documents known to us include cases in which guilds controlled such an implementation or denounced offenders.5 Thirdly. that the guilds had no connexion whatever with the narh. Baer. who in 1726 was dismissed by the government from his position as head of the guild because of an infringement of the narh regulations. 141 (nos. bisweilen mit Schliessung der Werkstatt und mit Ausschluss aus der Zunft'. 549. as did the coaldealers in II47/I734 and the butchers in II5I/I738. but this was a law laid down by the government. Many firmans were issued as a result of attempts by carpenters and other craftsmen and workers engaged in building to exploit a boom caused by fires to demand higher wages. and offenders were threatened with heavy cf. All this does not mean. Ahmed Lutfi. pp. pp. p. 419-20. however. 640-2. pp. p.2 Not only were the fixing of prices and punishing of offenders in official hands. Nuri. 655-6. 619. 'Zunftwesen'. Nuri. Egyptian Guilds. Taeschner. p. addressed to the kadz and the mimar bafz. and not an internal regulation of the guild. I29-30. IOI-2. weights and measures and prices of goods. p. detailed wage scales were fixed. all official activities concerning price fixing would have been practically impossible without the functioning of the guilds as an administrative link between the government and the population. In these firmans. 325-7. a prerequisite for fixing prices and implementing the narh was the guilds' monopoly of producing and/or selling specific goods.' An interesting case was that of the Ahi Baba of the Istanbul tanners.7 Like the instructions concerning the quality.Gabriel Baer 39 code says that he who relapses into this offence for the fourth time should be exiled and expelled from the guild. 127-46. Egyptian Guilds. A typical example is an order of March 1780 in which the kadi was charged with continually supervising implementation of the narh regulations by secret and open scrutiny. from time to time certain guilds asked the government (the kadi) to enforce maximum prices of materials supplied to them by wholesalers or transporters. Cf. 622. Whenever the guilds lost their grip over the urban population. the officials who fixed maximum prices of goods did so in the presence of the kethiidas of the guilds concerned. pp. 1304/1876-7). ii. pp. Refik XII. pp. i86. Nuri. 150-76. First. Mirat-i adalet (Istanbul. for instance as a result of the penetration of Janissaries into the artisan and merchant class. orders laying down wage scales also were issued by the government. I Nuri. also Pakalln.4 Secondly. there was an indirect connexion between the guilds and the narh. 1oI. 2 4 5 3 Nuri. 641. The guilds' monopolies and restrictive practices will be dealt with in a separate article.6 Finally.

economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds punishment. as well as the kethiidas of the building trades. but after its deterioration these services were supplied to the army by the guilds of Istanbul. the following with Baer. 70. see Nuri. this does not mean that they had nothing to do with wage fixing. Refik XIII. p. Edirne and Bursa. the su nazzrz. II. 20-23 (no. 193I) 4 Nuri. where an officer of the Janissaries or of another unit was appointed as Ordu-yu hiimayun Agasz. Refik XII. As to Turkey. 96. those who were selected See. e. pp. dated 9 Receb I o8/ii February 1697.3 This. 630-2 (cf Gibb and Bowen. 3 Cf. according to Nuri. i8). pp. The principal difference between Turkish and Egyptian guilds in this respect seems to have been that while the latter were required primarily to furnish the government with people engaged in building and transport for public works. For an example of such a firman. pp. i86). its own enterprises employed craftsmen.40 Administrative. 155-6 (nos. pp. Hicrt on birinci asirda Istanbul hayatz (Istanbul. as long as it flourished. dated Zilhicce I229/December 1814. Egyptian Guilds. (5) Supply of services and labour It was an important function of Turkish guilds to provide the government with needed services and labour. pp. In case of war. for the building of a palace. and they were threatened with heavy punishment in case of non-compliance. who assembled the kethiidas. was partly the result of the decline of the state's financial power. p. 729. with details about the required recruits. pp. 322). Thereupon the representative of the guilds declared their compliance and undertook not to demand higher wages in future. 2. vol. but again. 41 n. such as the mimar bati.g. 628. all Christian Greeks.. mentioned by name. 2 5 Nuri. pp. Pakaln. to supply 13 carpenters.4 It seems to have been one of the principal aims of the guild processions to muster this manpower. p. p. 93 ff. At that time additional officials of the state were concerned with the recruiting of guild members to the army. 629. 635-6). 5-6 (no. the services of Turkish guilds were needed mainly to recruit their members as civilian auxiliaries for the army in time of war.2 Thus it was the guilds' function to carry out the government's orders concerning wages in the same way that they were responsible for implementation of regulations regarding quality and the weights and measures of goods. See Ahmet Refik. io). In general the guilds were not mentioned in these firmans. and the lagimczbasi (see ibid. For an exception regarding Egypt see p. . Their task is made clear by one of these firmans. the firman by which he was appointed included the number of guild members to be recruited and the place where they were to assemble. For a further list of recruited members of guilds dated I809-IO see Nuri. where it is stated explicitly that the master carpenters and decorators. In order to perform his task he would have recourse to the kadz. we have also found instances in which the Turkish guilds were required to supply craftsmen for civilian needs: thus a firman to the kadz of Gelibolu dated 100II/I592-3 included an order to the yigit baiz of the carpenters of that town. 634-5. were assembled at the fer'i court where details of the wage scale were announced to them. (Refik XI in later references).5 After further consultations with the guild. yigit baits and veteran masters of the guilds concerned at the mahkeme (Law Court) and conveyed to them the contents of the firman.

and we have not found any in Nuri's collection of documents. Hammer. and those who remained at home had to supply means for keeping the recruits and their families. vol. generally lodge together in the outskirts of the city and suburbs. the guilds also fulfilled certain functions connected with the supply and distribution of goods..6 During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. as well as for hiring agents or deputies to run their businesses. according to which a kethiida and a yigit baszwere especially appointed for the guild of varakplar in order to guarantee the regular supply of gold and silver leaf of standard quality to the Sultan's court at reasonable prices. pp. p. I297/1870I). corresponding to the guilds' task of furnishing labour and services to the government. first and foremost. and pay a fixed sum monthly to their vekil. p. the guild of porters. 636. I I4- 5. 6. pp. cf. When Bonaparte approached Cairo in July 1798 the guilds furnished the means for those who were recruited in order to combat the invaders.. The occurrence of an interesting similar arrangement in Egypt is related by 'Abd alRahman al-Jabarti. Thus. In Egypt4 and Turkey. so that all may gain a fair livelihood. who regulates the employ of hands to the demand. there was.2 After the destruction of the Janissary corps in 1826 and the establishment of professional artisan units. they also were made responsible for the supply of certain goods to the authorities. In I 167/1754 and in I I96/1782 respectively the head of the quarrymen (tasczlar)was requested (among others) to ensure the supply of stones for the restoration of the Bayazid mosque and the supply of marble for the restoration of the mosque of Mehmed II. p.. p. 3 4 Cf. among the guilds in which this seems to have become a rule. Very early documentation for this function is found in a firman dated 26 Cemaziyeldhir 981/23 October 1573. 'Aj'dib al-dthar fi'l-tardjim wa'l-akhbar (Cairo-Bulaq. according to a firman dated 1140/I727 the head of the guild of shipowners (gemiciler kethiidasz)was made responsible for the regular supply of timber to Istanbul. Egyptian Guilds. 2 Nuri.. such items of information are very scarce. working at each station. pp. 5 White. who provides food and Thus even in the later stages of their history some functions of lodging. pp. i6).Gabriel Baer 41 for the army were sent to the mahkeme. Narrative of Travels. Nuri. III. 155-7 (no. 325. 527. guild members no longer were recruited into the army.INaturally.3 Later in the nineteenth century the heads of some guilds apparently turned into labour contractors. III. and an order of 1168/ Nuri. only a small part of a guild was recruited. . p. No hamal can ply at any station without the assent of this vekil.Divisions of men.'5 supply of labour and services were retained by the guilds. Baer. 6 Refik X. vol. (6) Supply and distributionof goods In addition to supplying labour and services. 633-4. Evliya. First. 633-5. The sums supplied in this manner were recorded in the kadz'sregister. They appear again in the eighteenth century. 99. 630. A contemporary observer wrote of the Istanbul porters in the early i84os: 'The number of porters at each station is determined by the vekil. These may be divided into two main categories.

p. This is how Taeschner described this function: So wissen wir. 4 . Taeschner. 27I). pp. yigit baszs and ihtiyarlar of the guilds concerned. vielmehr wurde zunachsteine allgemeineVerteilungvorgenommen. p. the yigit bait and the ihtiyarlar of their guild at current prices.' Another function connected with the supply of goods. seems to have been quite an important task of the guilds.damit der Handlermit seiner Ware nicht sitzen blieb und dann vielleicht nicht wiederkam. 97. p. dass die Zunft als Ganzes den Einkaufder Rohstoffe besorgte und fur eine gerechte Verteilung an die einzelnen Meister sorgte. economicand social functions of Turkishguilds I755 made the heads of the furriers' guild (kiirkfiiler) responsible for preventing the furs brought to Istanbul from being sold secretly at exorbitant prices instead of being sent to the Sultan's Court. Nevertheless. 669-70. 218. 2i6. Refik XII. and the same instruction was given to the ustalar (masters) and ihtiyarlar (elders) of the furriers in II68/I755 with regard to furs. 232 (nos. there can be no doubt that at least for some guilds and for specific periods his description is true. I86. Finally. The most important of these functions were the arbitration of disputes among members of the guilds and provision for mutual help. I 2 3 Refik XII. p. merchants and workers. Similarly. 77).42 Administrative. in IOI8/I609 the kethiida and yigit baszsof the linen-drapers were ordered to distribute the linen and cotton cloth imported into the town among their guild. according to a document dated 21 Cemaziyelevvel 180/25 October 1766 and other documents of the same period from the sicil of the kadi of Istanbul. 40 (nos. 230 (no. Nuri. Taeschner does not disclose his sources for this statement. However. 'Zunftwesen'. pp.3 Nuri says that all wares imported into Istanbul were brought to a place called kapan (originally kaban). There they were distributed by a naib (delegate of the kadi). namely the regulation of relations among the artisans and merchants themselves. a mart furnished with public steel yards for wholesale commodities. 14. 270 for the year 1I96/178I). that of distributing raw material needed by artisans and craftsmen. a firman dated IOOI/I593 provided for the distribution of wood brought to Istanbul by the kethiida of the sawyers to the members of this guild. dass nicht einige wenige wohlhabendeMeister das Rohstoffmaterial ganz an sich brachten. a secretary and the kethiidas. Refik XII. i8o (no.ja.4 (7) Judicial functions and arbitration of disputes So far we have dealt mainly with the activities of the guild as a link between the government and the craftsmen. 8.und erst vom Uberschusskonnten die wohlhabenderenMeister ihre Wiinsche nach mehr Arbeitsmaterialbefriedigen. 799. Refik XI. the distribution of raw material among guild members represents another aspect of the guilds' functions.2 Unfortunately. sie waren sogar dazu verpflichtet. Nuri. pp. the leather brought by the tanners to Istanbul was assembled in the lonca (lodgealso called tacirhane) of the leather merchants and there distributed among them by the kethiida. 218). I8o. dass die minderbemitteltenMeister leer ausgingen. Thus. I78. Vor allem wurde darauf gesehen.

63-4 and note 7 p. the guild-council. 83.3 There were. these two were among the few guilds which strictly preserved various traditions and enjoyed a great extent of autonomy for a long time. the Cf. vol. Exactly as in Damascus. however. and'after the verdict was confirmed by the kdhyalar meclisi. II. 7 Cf. it was this common chief who was authorized to punish guild members for their offences. Evliya ?elebi tells us that the guild of shoemakers had its particular officers. and bury them in the precinct of their establishment.8 According to the procedure current in Seres a culprit was judged by the lonca. Nuri. pp. was the existence of a common chief under whom the whole town guild system was united. p. the qehbenderof the guild of Muslim merchants called hayriye tiiccarzwas supposed to verify whether members of the guild had perpetrated a crime or offence.4 Apparently. and other punishments.' They had received this privilege as a reward for their support of Siileyman against the Janissaries. p. 5 See White. p. 598. Narrative of Travels. this also is shown by an order dated 1139/1726-7. who exempted them from the jurisdiction of all other commanding officers.) The Egyptian guild of shoemakers also exercised this privilege-see Baer. 99. 537. p. some important exceptions to this rule. but the kadz and the muhtesib. It is not surprising. it was not the only privilege which the shoemakers enjoyed. or workers for economic offences. the guild had the right to punish its members for crimes with the bastinado. merchants.7 Other guilds enjoying a large extent of autonomy were those of the Macedonian town of Seres. as in Damascus. Evliya.' In addition to the examples mentioned above. They punish their culprits themselves. 2 . First. Ilyas Qudsi. prevention of exercising their craft. the assembly of guild heads. 183-4. Gibb and Bowen. temporary prison. p.deuxieme partie. according to which the kethiida of the carpenters was required to make sure that no sawdust gathered in their workshops and no fire was lighted there.Gabriel Baer 43 We have seen that usually it was not the guilds or their officers who punished craftsmen. p. 6 Taeschner.6 Probably it was no coincidence that we have information on the existence of such privileges among the shoemakers and tanners. 'appointed by an Imperial Rescript of Sultan Suleiman. 39. Nuri. Actes du sixieme CongresInternational des Orientalistes. p. He was required to inform the kadi if this order was violated. One aspect of the guild autonomy in Seres. 'Nubdha ta'rikhiyya fi'l-hiraf al-dimashqiyya' ('Notice sur les corporations de Damas'). ii. (This information is missing from the published Turkish text-cf. Egyptian Guilds. even by death. therefore. 685. p. For the special position of the shoemakers' guild in various countries of the Middle East see Baer. Egyptian Guilds.2 Similarly. 'Zunftwesen'. 8 Cf. I885). 559. 209. pp. According to a firman dated I773 granted to the Ahi Baba of the tanners of Kir?ehir. but the actual punishment was effected by the official authorities. p. but not to punish offenders. 4 Hammer. 3 Nuri. that they too punished delinquent guild members. Section i: Semitique (Leiden.5 Another guild with similar privileges was that of the tanners. 288.

where means to increase its income were discussed. p. Narrative of Travels. The income consisted of voluntary contributions. yigit bast and ihtiyarlar. 579-80. pp. These vessels were held as foundations by the guilds. Nuri. pp. 580o-. p. regular contributions by guild members collected weekly or monthly. Until the beginning of the twentieth century a master of the guilds of the Uzuncarsi in Istanbul contributed 50 kurus whenever a fzrak of his became a kalfa and 300 kuruswhen a kalfa became usta.It was under the supervision of the guild's kethiida. pp. p. 3 Nuri. 694. Evliya. of the authorities.8 The guilds also owned common property in the form of copper vessels which were donated by the guardians of apprentices on the occasion of their promotions. p.3 This applied also to idleness. Hammer. pp. every Turkish guild had a fund for mutual help called teaviin sandigzor esnafin orta sandzgz. 576. 115. There were.2 If a member acted contrary to the guild's traditions. 'Zunftwesen'. other judicial functions which always were carried out by the officers of the guilds. however.e. 597. the common chief of all the Seres guilds. granted them as a vakif a thousand plates and five hundred kettles and pans. 697. 576. I83. drunkenness. 188. Nuri. the Turkish guilds resembled the Egyptian ones. 570 (where the number of plates is given as o. and they were rented out for celebrations. vol. Baer. 8 Nuri. 638. 347. p. in contrast to the situation in Egypt.7 According to Nuri. 708. cf. 9 Nuri.5 In this. where the arbitration of disputes among guild members was one of the most general and persistent function of the seyhs. p. i. where only the shoemakers made such arrangements. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds sentence was executed by the kdhyalar basz. Nuri. cf. The renting out of such vessels was prohibited in the Nizamname of I826-7. 2 Nuri.4 Finally. he could be banned from the guild by its officers and council and thus be deprived of the right to exercise his craft or trade. Thus the guild head or its officers dealt with disciplinary misdemeanours of guild members who did not obey their superiors. and special payments made by the masters on the occasion of the promotion of their fzraks (apprentices) to the rank of kalfa (journeyman) or of their kalfas to the rank of usta (master). Young. Taeschner. to show his favour to the goldsmiths. 6I3. p. pp. and even applied corporal punishment when necessary. Administrative. Baer. . it was the task of the heads or councils of practically all the guilds to arbitrate disputes among their members-often in order to prevent the intervention of the kadz. Evliya relates that Sultan Siileyman.9 I 4 5 6 Cf.6 (8) Providentfund and mutual help A provident fund and other arrangements for mutual help seem to have been an important feature of the Turkish guilds' activities. Egyptian Guilds. and its accounts were examined at the lonca. 6 1. 713. v. II4-16. 288. and other offences against religious precepts. Egyptian Guilds. p. 697. II3-14.I The foregoing relates to economic offences or crimes for which heavy penalties were fixed and which in general were dealt with by the kadt. cf. 7 Ibid.

for instance those wishing to enlarge their businesses.2 Turkish guilds also provided for mutual help in other ways. Nuri's information on funds for mutual help in the guilds of Istanbul does not include any detailed or specific example. to whom he had to submit yearly statements. for receipts and confirmed annual accounts.3 Whether this principle of mutual help was a survival from the Society of 2 Nuri. Nuri. interest (7. 7I3. and (6) the black bag.). Accumulated capital was lent to members in need of money. assistance to sick members. probably because they fulfilled this funcheads. (3) the plaited bag. such as the distribution of rice among poor members or other destitute persons. Cf. for documents relating to interest-bearing funds. esnaf or sandzgz vakzfsandzgz (previously: esnaf kisesi). allotments for education and ritual purposes (e. p. The accounts then were examined by the lonca. hacc.650 kuruf). .I Unfortunately. income from the guilds' funds was used for religious purposes. tion. and funerals of members who lacked sufficient resources for this purpose.700 kuru?). 656-7. many details of this kind are found in the sources available on the guilds of Seres. Qur'an reading. The miitevelli was responsible to the lonca. The members of a guild or all the owners of a gedik (right to a shop) belonging to a specific profession were mutually responsible for each other's debts. They were managed by the guilds' who also were called miitevelli. 672-3.The expenditure included payment for shops bought (2.050 kuru. also pp. 704-6. the management of the vakzfs.g. Details concerning the budget of the fund of the wool-carders' guild (hallaclar) in Seres for the year 1289-90 (1872-3) show that out of a total of 21. (2) the green bag.900 kuruq) and voluntary contributions (2. and afterwards were open to inspection by every master of the guild. pp. 704 and 707. and various other activities. repairs of bridges and roads. The fund was divided into six 'bags' (kese. (4) the red bag. (5) the white bag. In addition. for keeping vakfiyes and tapu (cadaster) documents belonging to the guild's real estate. certain merchant guilds (document from the end of the eighteenth century) and the guilds of Seres (nineteenth century).Gabriel Baer 45 The guilds' funds and the income derived from them served various purposes. 3 Nuri. pp. such as the recitation of the Qur'an in the mosque of Eyiib during the month of Ramazan. for keeping hiiccets (deeds) of the guild's vakzflar and the relevant correspondence. sacrifice. etc. However. and paid the taxes of destitute guild members. all kinds of charities.910 kuru?the largest items contributing income were rents (7. The interest from such loans (at the rate of one per cent) was assigned to charity. for unrealizable vouchers and various documents. We have evidence of this function for the guild of makers and sellers of snuff (undated document). 580. for cash. torba): (i) the satin bag.). There the guilds' funds were kept in the form of foundations called esnaf vakfz. The problems of the gedik will be analysed in a special article on the guilds' monopolies and restrictive practices.

Dii (Zurich). and the farmers had a bunch of corn. 8 and 9. for instance. Cf. 'Das Buch der Feste'.Egyptian Guilds. Surname-i Vehbi as quoted by Nuri. there was no difference between the dress of most of the guilds (with few exceptions). 20 and 27.. a certain esprit de corps. 3 4 I 2 Gibb and Bowen. The quilt makers. the farriers had a small silver horse-shoe. also p.Cf. 287 n. Egyptian Guilds. the makers of slippers had a nice little pair of child's shoes. 708. 588-9I. passim.2 but we have not yet found a convincing explanation for this difference. for instance. where a specific flag of each guild is mentioned in connexion with the pilgrimage. 5 Baer. pp. Baer. whose members 'lived almost communistically'. I1 5 nn. we must content ourselves with the examination of outward signs of guild solidarity. was the symbol of the guild. etc. p. pp. pp. Mouradgea d'Ohsson. 123. Turkish Miniatures from the Thirteenth to the Eighteenth Century (UNESCO. Nuri. and it may well be that among their members a feeling of loyalty developed. On top of the flagstaff there was a crescent. 7 See. p. p. New York.6 as well as by literary descriptions of their processions. Ettinghausen. 692-3.5 In this respect. Mazhar S. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds Virtue (fiitiivvet). of sailors and of tailors. for instance. fastened to a small cord.8 Cf. 57 if. Nuri. the confectioners a small sugar-loaf made of paper.' remains to be established by further research. Ipsiroglu. as quoted by Gibb and Bowen. but only between that of the official classes on one hand and the common people (including esnaf and dhadznasor avam) on the other. p. 1965). Evliya and Hammer. like the European guilds. this aspect of guild functions seems to have been much more important in Turkey than in the other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. the Turkish guilds constituted social units. 6 Cf. (9) Social functions In addition to their administrative and economic functions. See.3 Elsewhere. 286. It seems to be significantthat nothing for is said abouta fund or otherarrangements mutualhelp in Qudsi'sdetailedaccountof the Damascusguilds. by displaying the tools themselves and not. Narrative of Travels. 713. . R. also the miniaturesmentionedin note 6 below. had a small satin-made quilt measuring I5-20 square centimetres. 503-5 (documentsfrom the eighteenthand the beginningof the nineteenth century). pp. the members of each guild had their particular dresses. however. In Seres. Tableau general de l'Empire ottoman. Pls.7 In nineteenth-century Seres each guild had its own flagand standard-bearer. and because of the absence of literary sources. I. the barbers a barber's basin. 8 Nuri. especially the plates depicting the guilds of makers of ropes. Turkish guilds did not differ.4 The Egyptian guilds symbolized their trades only in a very concrete manner.46 Administrative. worn from the day of their promotion from apprentice to journeyman (kalfa). But since we have no means of testing the existence of such feelings by the methods of modern social research. and beneath it. by'adopting heraldic signs or pictures. p. December 1963. In any case. as is shown by numerous miniature representations.

187. 365. p. 6 Nuri. until the beginning of the twentieth century. 714. where a special ceremony was held. 704-5. also was an important occasion for the social activity of the guilds. Cf. for expenditure on such festivities included in the budget of the guild of wool-carders for the year 1872-3 see pp. vol. On this day receptions were held at the various loncas. Next morning. were displayed at various processions held by the guilds from time to time. where the author quotes details about such excursions in Qanklri as related by Hasan U9ok and reproduced in French by E. 698. and amusements were arranged. was called in Seres esnafgiinii (guilds' day). Another yearly festivity of the Seres guilds.3 Important occasions for reinforcing the solidarity of the guilds were yearly excursions to the countryside (tenezziih. It was arranged by the kdhyalar meclisi and attended by all 24 guilds of the town as well as by the notables and the common people of all the villages in the vicinity. In the Grand Bazaar there was a special place for this purpose called dua meydanz. Baer. the festival following the fast of Ramazan. or hacc. 700-1. of their social activities. 309 if. x (1936). 3 Schurtz. 713-14. 46. Similar processions met them on their return. 4 Nuri. p. 563. Egyptian Guilds.2Similarly. pp.8 I 2 See above. 'Zunftwesen'.6 While in Egypt this remained the most important of the regular public ceremonies in which all the guilds participated. 705-6. 8 Nuri. Egyptian Guilds. 580. pp. religious ceremonies were held. p. also sohbet). the flag of his guild was brought to the Grand Mosque of the town. held at the same place. Borrel in Revue des etudes Islamiques. or whenever the Sultans felt the necessity to muster them for other reasons. when a member of a Seres guild made the pilgrimage to Mecca. 117-18. On this occasion also meals were served. Less ostentatious but more frequent were the common prayers held by each of the guilds of the Istanbul markets early in the morning before the opening of their shops. and members of the guilds visited and congratulated each other. Baer. 5 For more details see Nuri. Nuri.7 in nineteenth century Turkey the connexion between the guilds and the hacc seems to have weakened considerably. the Ankara tanners had a special caf6 where they prayed every morning. pp. Nevertheless. p.Gabriel Baer 47 Symbols of this kind. p. The participation of the guilds in these processions was perhaps not the most important. pp. or the tools themselves. pp. 116-17. . pp. teferriic. 7 Cf. and meals. It was one of the principal functions of the qeyhs of Turkish guilds to accompany members who departed for the hacc or returned from it. Such processions are described in several surnames. each guild assembled once a year outside the town behind the fortress for a picnic called ziyafet-i ictimat which lasted for one day and included amusements.4In Seres. lasted for three days and was therefore called u giinler. 56I.5 In the early period of Turkish guild history the pilgrimage. but certainly the most conspicuous. Taeschner. well as in Evliya's account. p. the departing pilgrims were accompanied by a procession of their respective guilds and their flags. the third day of the bayram. Other occasions of social gatherings of the guilds are mentioned by Mantran. notes 6 and 7. but no sources are mentioned. whenever they attended the festivities arranged by the Sultans on the occasion of the birth or circumcision of their sons. Finally.

seem to have co-existed on different levels. 603-8. pp. pp. integrity. pp. Hammer. 286.5 but he does not cite any documents as proof. 32I. Narrative of Travels. respect to guild masters and members and to customers. pp.. by their religious affiliation. he talks about crafts. p. and even indicates that there was no such tie and that in the same tarikat different crafts were represented. p. . honesty. The detailed account of the Melami seyhs who practised various crafts6 does not prove any connexion. 552. and that the Melamis often practised the craft only as a cover for their sufi activity.48 Administrative. 8 Nuri. 362) also maintains: 'Que des corporations aient conserve des liens avec des ordres mystiques n'est pas niable'. Detailed analysis of the situation in Egypt has led us to the conclusion that. The saddlers also met at the same place every 20 years. 553-6. This religious personality encouraged the qualities of honesty and sobriety. Middle Eastern Studies (London). 4 Nuri. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds Among the particular ceremonies of specific guilds. pp. Egyptian Guilds. The same seems to have been the case in the Maghrib. and performed various ceremonies. cf. I88-9. I. but not about guilds. p. In Seres the ceremony of transition to the rank of master included a sermon delivered by the kdhya to the candidate in which the commendable qualities required of a master were enumerated: faithfulness. the proposition that they encouraged qualities of honesty and sobriety has often been discussed. pp. I 13. met the Sultan. Nuri leaves no doubt that in his view it was Islam and the religious education which developed favourable qualities among the artisans and merchants. Nuri. '3 This seems to be based on Nuri's statement that the guilds were connected with the turuk-u aliye. Gibb and Bowen.4 But this connexion is highly doubtful. Moreover.7 In any case. who developed among them qualities of dogruluk(righteousness) and kanaatkdrlzk (contentment). 570. 3 Gibb and Bowen. Nuri. no. p. 277. 86. 3. goldsmiths from all over the Empire assembled. Baer. Egyptian Guilds. pp. 3. the two frameworks. I 2 Evliya. 5 6 Nuri. 6I3-I4. but he too does not prove this assertion. I07. On these occasions. inter alia a procession at which they exhibited on wagons and litters a large variety of precious articles made or sold by them. a large part of the population belonging to both at the same time..2 It has been claimed that the guilds did this through their affiliations with the tarikats: 'The social function of the corporations was enhanced. no. Nuri frequently reiterates the claim that members of certain tarikats were all from the same guild or that there was a connexion between the guilds and the tarikats. II.I In the context of the guilds' social functions. and not some institution peculiar to the guilds. there were exceptions. p.. 582-3. usually to one of the great religious orders.. vol.. p. 7 Mantran (p. III. 603. vol. See Baer. in spite of many points of contact. vol.8 Again. 275. which had different functions. no. p. 125-6.. III. the most famous was that of the goldsmiths held every 20 (or 40) years for a duration of ten (or 20) days and nights in the meadow of Kagithane. the valley of the Sweet Waters of Europe at the top of the Golden Horn. and what he says further on rather disproves it. 484.

obedience to the sovereign. eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with the free. helpfulness. The shoemakers and tanners. such as those concerning control of the quality of goods or wage scales. probably under the auspices of the official authorities. Egyptian Guilds. enjoyed judicial privileges. but not all of them. there occurred a transition from free associations to professional guilds. such as the encouragement of honesty and sobriety. MES I I 4 . veneration of the ulema. the culprits were punished by the kadi. pp. p. love of children. 'Zunftwesen'. CONCLUSION This study of the various functions performed by Turkish guilds in the course of about three centuries shows clearly that the guild system was closely connected with the government. 52-3. What happened was that at a certain juncture. and the consideration of apprentices and journeymen as the master's children. kept some of the traditions of the old free associations. in contrast with most other guilds. not the guilds. I83. popular and relatively autonomous fiitiivvet and ahi associations of earlier times. kindness to other people. In addition. p. Instructions. these were guilds which had maintained the traditions particularly well.Gabriel Baer 49 consideration of other people's interests. Baer. It is important to stress these differences in order to avoid generalizations. Taeschner. also indicates that the impetus for its functioning did not come from below but rather that it was moulded from above. were issued by the authorities. and at the same time maintained many of the social traditions. But since the latter were not professional organizations. Cf. and it was the guilds' duty only to carry them out. Guilds differed considerably with regard to their relative autonomy and the maintaining of social traditions. in both I 2 Nuri. 70I. and their case does not justify the generalization that all guilds encouraged such qualities. the provincial guilds enjoyed greater autonomy. The all-embracing character of this system. the scope left to the guilds to fulfil this task independently was rather narrow. and many of the social functions of the guilds apparently were based on these.2 However. To judge by the detailed accounts we have of the guilds in Damascus and Seres.' Similar qualities apparently were required of apprentices of the tanners of Klr?ehir in the eighteenth century. which included extremely different elements of the urban population. The involvement of the guilds with the government often has been considered as a sign of their degeneration. for instance. apparently during the first half of the sixteenth century. One of its principal raisons d'etre was to serve as an administrative link between the ruling institution and the town population and as a means of supervision and control of this population by the rulers. Part of the newly established guilds. one cannot speak about the degeneration of the guilds as such. there were differences between guilds of Istanbul and those in the provinces. In cases of infringement. This view is based on a comparison between the guilds of the seventeenth. Moreover.

undertook the distribution of raw materials among their members and kept funds for mutual help. on the other hand. An evaluation of the significance of the differences and parallels between the guild functions in the two areas will be possible only as a result of further research into other aspects of their guild history and of their economic and social history in general. There were a number of differences between the Turkish guilds and those of other countries in the Middle East. especially Egypt.50 Administrative. and their kdhyas served them as genuine representatives vis a vis the official authorities. On the other hand there were many common features. economicand socialfunctions of Turkishguilds places there was a common guild chief with judicial powers. Their social traditions also seem to have been stronger than in most guilds of Istanbul. but. Turkish guilds performed no fiscal functions. .

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