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WHAT IS QUALITY? Quality is simply meeting customer requirements. Fitness for purpose or use- Juran.

an. The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer, present and future- Deming. The total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacture and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectation by the customer- Feigenbaum. Conformance to requirements- Crosby.

FIVE APPROACHES TO DEFINING QUALITY 1. The Transcendent Approach- Definition: A condition of excellence implying fine quality as distinct from poor quality. Quality is achieving or reaching for the highest standard as against being satisfied with the sloppy or the fraudulent. There is lack of objectivity which creates a problem for the worker in a business environment who is striving for quality. Why? Because: When a factory worker produces an item, this definition does not allow that person to state definitively that the item is of high quality. 2. The Product-based Approach - Definition: Identifies specific features or attributes that can be measured to indicate higher quality. This approach provides objective measures of quality. Its disadvantage is that it assumes that the absence or presence of an attribute implies higher quality. 3. The User-based Approach Definition: The user determines the quality of the goods. The product or service that best satisfies the user is the higher quality product. Fitness for use, Juran. Learning how the user plans to use the product and making the product to fit that need.

This approach equates customer satisfaction with quality. Customer satisfaction reflects the attitudes of the consumer. Until the customer says the product is good, it will not be considered good quality.

4. The Manufacturing-based Approach Definition:Conformance to requirements- Crosby. Engineering specifies the product characteristics, and the more closely manufacturing can conform to those requirements, the better the quality of the product. Advantage: Providing objectively measurable quality standards and of reducing the costs of quality. Disadvantage: Lack of concern for the customers preferences. Implicit Assumption: Meeting the target specifications of a product or service.

5. Value-based Approach Definition: Quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price and the control of variability at an acceptable cost. This approach assumes that consumers purcahse decisions are based on a model similar to one proposed by well-known marketing consultant, Gale (Exhibit 2.1).

Service industry and manufacturing industry dimensions of quality `1. Performance: refers to the primary operating characteristics of the product or service; they are usually measurable. 2. Features: are additional characteristics that enhance the product/services appeal to the user. 3. Reliability of a product: is the likelihood that a product will not fail within a specific time period. This is a key element for users who need the product to work without fail. 4. Conformance: is the precision with which the product or service meets the specified standards. 5. Durability: measures the length of a products life.When the product can be repaired, estimating durability is more complicated. The item will be used until it is no longer economical to operate it. This happens when the repair rate and the associated costs increase significantly. 6. Serviceability: is the speed with which the product can be put into service when it breaks down, as well as the competence and the behavior of the serviceperson. 7. Aesthetics: is the subjective dimension indicating the kind of response a user has to a product. It represents the individuals personal preference. 8. Perceived Quality: is also a subjective dimension: it is the quality attributes to a good or service based on indirect measures.

QUALITY IN MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE SYSTEMS Quality assurance refers to the entire system of policies, procedures, and guidelines established by an organization for the purpose of achieving and maintaining quality. Quality assurance consists of three principal functions: quality engineering, quality control, and quality management. The aim of quality engineering is to incorporate quality into the design of products and processes and to predict potential quality problems prior to delivery of the product. Quality control involves making a series of planned measurements in order to determine if quality standards are being met. If not, then corrective action and future preventive action must be taken to achieve and maintain conformance. Quality management involves the planning, organization, direction, and control of all quality assurance activities. While many manufacturing firms have quality control departments to provide technical support, successful businesses have found that quality must be integrated throughout the firm. This concept of integrating quality throughout all business functions-total quality managementis the theme of this course. Quality in Manufacturing Systems In manufacturing, quality is an important component of all functions. For example, effective market research is necessary to determine customer needs and identify functional requirements for product designers. Product designers must take care to neither overengineer (resulting in inefficient use of a firm's resources) nor underengineer products (resulting in poor quality). Purchasing must ensure that suppliers meet quality requirements. Production planning and scheduling should not put undue pressure on manufacturing that will degrade quality. Tool engineering and maintenance are responsible for ensuring that tools, gages, and equipment are properly maintained. Industrial engineering must select the appropriate technology that is capable of meeting design requirements and developing appropriate work methods. Packaging, shipping, and warehousing have the responsibility of ensuring the condition, availability, and timely delivery of products in transit. Ancillary functions such as finance, human resources, and legal services support the quality effort by providing realistic budgets, a well-trained and motivated workforce, and reviews of warranty, safety, and liability issues.

Quality in Services The importance of quality in services cannot be underestimated. Service is a "social act which takes place in direct contact between the customer and representatives of the service company" (Norman, 1984). Technical Assistance Research Programs, Inc., has conducted studies that reveal the following: The average company never hears from 96 percent of its unhappy customers. For every complaint received, the company has 24 customers with problems, 6 of which are serious. Of the customers who make a complaint, more than half will do business again with that organization if their complaint is resolved. If the customer

feels that the complaint was resolved quickly, this figure jumps to 95 percent. The average customer who has had a problem will tell 9 or 10 others about it. Customers who have had complaints resolved satisfactorily will tell only about 5 others. (Albrecht & Zemke, 1985) In services, the distinguishing features that determine quality differ from manufacturing. The most important dimensions of service quality include: Time: How long must a customer wait? Timelines: Will a package be delivered by 10:30 the next morning? Completeness: Are all items in the order included? Courtesy: Do front-line employees greet each customer cheerfully? Consistency: Are services delivered in the same fashion for every customer? Accessibility and convenience: Is the service easy to obtain? Accuracy: Is the service performed right the first time? Responsiveness: Can service personnel react quickly and resolve unexpected problems?

Define International Quality Standards

Maintaining a minimum standard of quality for product design and function has become a priority for companies entering the global market. Competition on the international market means competing against different sets of markers and criteria that vary from nation to nation and region to region. In order to compete on this level, companies must adhere to principals of quality that are often set by international organization


International quality standards are criteria or rules set up by organizations that help determine compliance across national borders. These rules make it easier to conduct business on a level playing field and also allow more collaboration by overcoming local or regional constraints.


International standards center around issues such as the rules of measurement units, use of symbols or how to define a process to meet quality control.

International Organization for Standardization

A number of organizations have taken the lead to set, monitor and manage these standards.The most influential group that monitors global standards is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO helps define a consensus among participating groups, such as national standards institutes from over 160 counties and various industry associations. The 18,000 and still growing number of consensus points

define standardization rules around environmental issues, telecommunications guidelines and product design.

Management and leadership standards

ISO standards that provide requirements or give guidance on good management practice are among the best known of ISO's offering. Many, although not all, are modelled on the management system structure of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. In addition, the management standards are divided into those which can be used for certification, such as ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, and those which are not certifiable, requirements standards, but provide guidance, such as ISO 26000 and ISO 31000.

ISO 26000 - Social responsibility ISO 31000 - Risk management Management system basics | Auditing ISO 50001 - Energy management ISO 9000 - Quality management ISO 14000 - Environmental management

ISO 9000 family

The ISO 9000 family addresses "Quality management". This means what the organization does to fulfil:

The customer's quality requirements, and Applicable regulatory requirements, while aiming to Enhance customer satisfaction, and

Achieve continual improvement of its performance in pursuit of these objectives

This section provides a concise overview of ISO's best known management system standards and their impact on the world. ISO 9001:2008 is implemented by over a million organizations in 176 countries.

ISO 9000 essentials

This section concisely describes the essential features of the ISO 9000 family. The ISO 9000 family of standards represents an international consensus on good quality management practices. It consists of standards and guidelines relating to quality management systems and related supporting standards. ISO 9001:2008 is the standard that provides a set of standardized requirements for a quality management system, regardless of what the user organization does, its size, or whether it is in the private, or public sector. It is the only standard in the family against which organizations can be certified although certification is not a compulsory requirement of the standard. The other standards in the family cover specific aspects such as fundamentals and vocabulary, performance improvements, documentation, training, and financial and economic aspects. Why an organization should implement ISO 9001:2008 Without satisfied customers, an organization is in peril! To keep customers satisfied, the organization needs to meet their requirements. The ISO 9001:2008 standard provides a tried and tested framework for taking a systematic approach to managing

the organization's processes so that they consistently turn out product that satisfies customers' expectations. How the ISO 9001:2008 model works The requirements for a quality system have been standardized but many organizations like to think of themselves as unique. So how does ISO 9001:2008 allow for the diversity of say, on the one hand, a "Mr. and Mrs." enterprise, and on the other, to a multinational manufacturing company with service components, or a public utility, or a government administration? The answer is that ISO 9001:2008 lays down what requirements your quality system must meet, but does not dictate how they should be met in any particular organization. This leaves great scope and flexibility for implementation in different business sectors and business cultures, as well as in different national cultures. Checking that it works 1. The standard requires the organization itself to audit its ISO 9001:2008-based quality system to verify that it is managing its processes effectively - or, to put it another way, to check that it is fully in control of its activities. 2. In addition, the organization may invite its clients to audit the quality system in order to give them confidence that the organization is capable of delivering products or services that will meet their requirements. 3. Lastly, the organization may engage the services of an independent quality system certification body to obtain an ISO 9001:2008 certificate of conformity. This last option has proved extremely popular in the market-place because of the perceived credibility of an independent assessment. The organization may thus avoid multiple audits by its clients, or reduce the frequency or duration of client audits. The certificate can also serve as a business referencebetween the organization and potential clients, especially when supplier and

client are new to each other, or far removed geographically, as in an export context.
There are many methods for quality improvement. These cover product improvement, process improvement and people based improvement. In the following list are methods of quality management and techniques that incorporate and drive quality improvement: 1. ISO 9004:2008 guidelines for performance improvement. 2. ISO 15504-4: 2005 information technology process assessment Part 4: Guidance on use for process improvement and process capability determination. 3. QFD quality function deployment, also known as the house of quality approach. 4. Kaizen , Japanese for change for the better; the common English term is continuous improvement. 5. Zero Defect Program created by NEC Corporation of Japan, based upon statistical process control and one of the inputs for the inventors of Six Sigma. 6. Six Sigma 6, Six Sigma combines established methods such as statistical process control, design of experiments and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in an overall framework. 7. PDCA plan, do, check, act cycle for quality control purposes. (Six Sigma's DMAIC method (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) may be viewed as a particular implementation of this.) 8. Quality circle a group (people oriented) approach to improvement. 9. Taguchi methods statistical oriented methods including quality robustness, quality loss function, and target specifications. 10. The Toyota Production System reworked in the west into lean manufacturing. 11. Kansei Engineering an approach that focuses on capturing customer emotional feedback about products to drive improvement. 12. TQM total quality management is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. First promoted in Japan with the Deming prize which was adopted and adapted in USA as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and in Europe as the European Foundation for Quality Management award (each with their own variations). 13. TRIZ meaning "theory of inventive problem solving" 14. BPR business process reengineering, a management approach aiming at 'clean slate' improvements (That is, ignoring existing practices). 15. OQM Object-oriented Quality Management, a model for quality management.