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# Lectures on

**RADIOPROPAGAZIONE ED IMPATTO AMBIENTALE
**

Lecturer: Prof. Giovanni Riccio

ARRAYS

The antenna elements comprising an array may be arranged in various configurations. " ) " ) = e 0 A C (! .Antenna arrays When two or more antennas are used together.! . wherein the elements form a rectangular grid. " ) ˆ E ( r. In the far-field region of any radiating element. but the most common are the linear one-dimensional configuration. " ) is the antenna characteristic function. and the two-dimensional lattice configuration. The purpose of this section is to introduce to the basic principles of array theory and to design techniques used in shaping the antenna pattern and steering the main lobe. most arrays usually are formed by identical elements excited by the same type of current or field distribution. # j$ r $0% 0 e # j $0 r ' ˆ + N (! . . " )! " * 4& r ( r where A is the feeding coefficient representing the amplitude and phase of the excitation giving rise to the radiated field and C (! . which accounts for the directional dependence of the element’s electric field. the combination is called antenna array. wherein the elements are arranged along a straight line. Although an array need not consist of similar radiating elements. " ) = # j N! (! .

For each radiator it results: # j $0 Rn e # j $0 Rn j% n e E n ( r.Linear array A linear array of N identical radiating elements is considered. In each branch. " ) = $ n=0 N #1 E n ( r. . an attenuator (or amplifier) and a phase shifter are inserted in series to control the amplitude and phase of the signal feeding the antenna element in that branch. " ) Ar $ n=0 N #1 An e # j %0 Rn Ar Rn where Ar is the excitation of the element used as reference. " ) = an e C n (! .! .! . " ) Rn Rn ! E ( r. " ) = An C n (! . " ) = C (! .! . The radiators are fed by a common oscillator through a branching network. The spacing between adjacent elements is d.

" ) Ar r e # j $0 r = C (! . " ) Ar % % % n=0 n=0 N #1 n=0 N #1 e # j $0 r = C (! .To satisfy the far-field condition for an array of length l = ( N ! 1) d .! . " ) = e # j $0 r phase term Rn ! r N #1 ˆ An j $0 r n &r e = Ar magnitude term r C (! . " ) Ar r An j $0 (zn z)&(sin ! cos " x+sin ! sin " y+cos ! z) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ e = Ar An j $0 nd cos ! e Ar . the observation point distance r should be sufficiently large that rF = 2l = !0 2 ( N "1 d2 !0 2 ) 2 Far-field (Fraunhofer’s) region r > rF of a linear array ( ) ˆ Rn ! r " r # r n E ( r.

The pattern multiplication principle allows the valutation of the array power density by first computing the power pattern with the array elements replaced with isotropic radiators. " ) = Ar 2 C (! . and the array phase distribution ! n . The first factor Se is the power density radiated by an individual element assumed as reference.! . but not a function of the specific type of used radiators. which can be used to steer its direction.! . which serves to control the shape of the array radiation pattern.Pattern multiplication principle S ( r. which yields the array factor. " ) 2 2# 0 r 2 % n=0 N $1 2 An j &0 nd cos ! e = Se ( r. and the second is Fa = " n=0 N !1 2 An j #0 nd cos $ e Ar = " n=0 N !1 2 an j (% n !% r ) j #0 nd cos $ e e ar array factor The array factor is a function of the positions of the individual elements and their feeding coefficients. and then multiplying the result by the power density for a single element. The array factor is governed by the array amplitude distribution an . " ) Fa Ar The array power density is a product of two factors. .

#. & d )1 I0 % 0 2 cos ( $0 sin % sin .! ) = j 2# r1 E 2 ( r2 . #.! ) = j &# ) cos ( cos! + '2 * ˆ I1 ! sin ! &# ) cos ( cos! + '2 * ˆ I2 ! sin ! d r2 = r $ sin ! sin .+ 3 ' 2 *2 sin % / . # . # j & $0 d sin % sin . 2 I1 = I 0 e j- E = E1 + E 2 = j !0 e 2" r # j $0 r &" ) cos ( cos% + '2 * I0 sin % & d ) . 2 I 2 = I 0 e $ j1 2 "0 e 2# r2 $ j %0 r2 d r1 = r + sin ! sin .Two half-wave dipoles " 0 e $ j %0 r1 E1 ( r1.) j ( $0 sin % sin .+ 1 ( + * *3 ˆ 0e ' 2 +e ' 2 % 0 3 / 2 ! 0 e # j $0 r =j 2" r &" ) cos ( cos% + '2 * ˆ.

Note that the element with index 0 is assumed as reference.The uniform linear array A linear array having a uniform amplitude distribution ( an a0 = 1) and a linearly progressive phase delay from element to element across the array (! n " ! 0 = n# ) is considered. Fa = # n=0 N "1 2 e jn! e j $0 nd cos % = # n=0 N "1 2 e jn( $0 d cos % +! ) = # n=0 N "1 2 e jn& = f (& ) 2 where f (! ) = 1" e jN! 1" e j! = e jN ! e 2 e " jN ! 2 " e jN ! e " j! 2 2 j! 2 "e j! 2 =e j(N "1)! 2 sin ( N ! 2 ) sin (! 2 ) sin ( N ! 2 ) Fa (! ) = sin (! 2 ) 2 ! Famax (" ) = N 2 at!" = #0 d cos$ + % = 0 .

2 Fa (! ) Fa (! ) sin ( N ! 2 ) Fan (! ) = = = 2 2 Famax Fa ( 0 ) N sin (! 2 ) normalized array factor cos! " 1 # $ %0 d + & " ' " %0 d + & .

! max % "# ( + = cos ' = & $0 d * 2 ) "1 . !0 d cos ( # = '2 2 + * 2 - & $.Broadside linear array This array has the main beam of the radiation pattern always in the direction orthogonal to the array axis. # =0 A broadside linear array consists of in-phase elements beamwidth # !" & 10 log Fan % = )3 . ) $% = 2 sin #1 ( ' 2 !0 d + * directivity Dmax ! 2N d "0 . $ 2 ( ' & " $% ) $.

# = $0 d "# ' "* $ !0 d & cos ! 1) = 2 2 % ( + .Endfire linear array This array has the main beam of the radiation pattern along the array axis. 2 !0 d 1 directivity Dmax ! 4 N d "0 ."* 0 "# = 2 cos. $ 2 ( ' .1 / ± 12 . ! max % "# ( = cos ' =0 & $ d* ) "1 + 0 # = " $0 d % "# ( ! max = cos "1 ' * =+ & $0 d ) beamwidth # !" & 10 log Fan % = )3 .

In addition to eliminating the need to mechanically steer an antenna to change its beam direction.Linear array feeding The phase delay ! between adjacent elements can be used for steering the direction of the array beam from broadside at ! = 90° to any desired angle ! 0 . electronic steering through the use of electronically controlled phase shifters allows beam scanning at very fast rates. .

where ! = 2"f v p is the phase constant and v p is the phase velocity. ln = l0 + nl . If l0 is the path length of the zeroth element. Signal propagation on a transmission line of length ln is characterized by a phase factor e ! j " ln .A technique known as frequency scanning can be used to provide control of the phase of all the elements simultaneously. A common feed point is connected to the radiating elements through transmission lines of varying lengths. ! n ( f ) " ! 0 ( f ) = n# ( f ) = # n ( f ) = " $ ( ln " l0 ) = " 2%f 2%f (ln " l0 ) = " nl vp vp .

.At a frequency f0 . if the incremental length l is choosen such that l = n0 vp f0 n0 is a specific positive integer so that !1 ( f0 ) = " 2#f0 2#f0 $ v p ' l=" & n0 f ) = "2#n0 vp vp % 0( ! 2 ( f0 ) = " ! 3 ( f0 ) = " • • • 2#f0 2l = "4#n0 vp 2#f0 3l = "6#n0 vp All the radiating elements have equal phase and the main beam is in the broadside direction.

!0 also changes with frequency. thus controlling !f provides a direct control of ! . !0 can be considered constant and equal to !0 = 2"f0 c0 . However. # 0 = cos + * " 0 d f0 . ! = "0 d cos# + $ = 0 % 'f "0 d cos# 0 = 2&n0 f0 % 'f .At a frequency f1 = f0 + !f . !1 ( f0 + "f ) = # 2$ ( f0 + "f ) 2$f0 "f "f l = #2$n0 # l = #2$n0 # 2$n0 = #2$n0 + ! vp v p f0 f0 ! 2 ( f0 + "f ) = 2!1 ( f0 + "f ) = #4$n0 + 2! ! 3 ( f0 + "f ) = 3!1 ( f0 + "f ) = #6$n0 + 3! • • • The incremental phase shifts are directly proportional to the fractional frequency deviation. . which in turn controls the scan angle ! 0 . - (1 ) 2&n0 As f is changed from f0 to f0 + !f . if !f f0 is small.