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PESTEL ANALYSIS

SWEDEN RAHUL

INTRODUCTION
Sweden officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland, and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the resund. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of about 9.4 million. Sweden has a low population density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre (54 /sq mi) with the population mostly concentrated to the southern half of the country. About 85% of the population live in urban areas. Sweden's capital is Stockholm, which is also the largest city. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire. The empire grew to be one of the great powers of Europe in the 17th and early 18th century. Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. The eastern half of Sweden, present-day Finland, was lost to Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Sweden by military means forced Norway into a personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. Today, Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy of government and a highly developed economy. In 2010, it ranked fourth in the world in The Economist's Democracy Index and ninth in the United Nations' Human Development Index. In 2010, the World Economic Forum ranked Sweden as the second most competitive country in the world, after Switzerland.[14] Sweden has the lowest Gini coefficient of all countries (0.23) which makes Sweden the most equal country on earth in terms of economic division. Sweden has been a member of the European Union since 1 January 1995 and is a member of the OECD.

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POLITICS
Sweden's government is a limited constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Constitutional monarchy (or limited monarchy) is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution. This form of government differs from absolute monarchy in which an absolute monarch serves as the source of power in the state and is not legally bound by any constitution and has the powers to regulate his or her respective government. All power comes from the people is the foundation of Swedens parliamentary democracy. Everyone has the same rights and a chance to have their say, and everyone is free to scrutinize how politicians and public agencies exercise their power. Swedish governance as a whole is built on decentralization. On a local and regional level, municipalities and county councils are autonomous political bodies with clearly defined areas of responsibility. Municipalities deal with city planning and schools, for example, while county councils are in charge of areas such as healthcare and infrastructure. Popular government in Sweden rests upon ancient tradition. The Swedish Parliament (Riksdag) stems from tribal courts (Ting) and the election of kings during the Viking era. It became a permanent institution in the 15th century. . Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Prime Minister of Sweden. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party system. The Judiciary is independent, appointed by the government and employed until retirement. The executive authority of the government is vested in the cabinet, which consists of a Prime Minister and roughly 22 Ministers who run the government departments. The Ministers are appointed by the Prime Minister without any confirmation of the Parliament. The Prime Minister is first appointed by the Speaker of Parliament and then confirmed by Parliament. The monarch plays no part in this process

Sweden has three levels of government: national, regional, and local. In addition, there is a European level, which has acquired increasing importance following Sweden's entry into the EU

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and the EUs adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. Parliamentary, municipal, and county council elections are held every 4 years. Ordinary general elections to the Swedish Parliament are held every fourth year on the third Sunday in September. County council and municipal council elections take place at the same time. A party must receive at least 4% of the votes in the entire country or 12% in a single electoral district to qualify for any seats in Parliament. The most recent elections were held on September 19, 2010. The Alliance for Sweden (a coalition of four center-right parties--the Moderate Party, the Liberal Party, the Christian Democrats, and the Center Party) won 173 of the 349 seats, securing Moderate Fredrik Reinfeldt the position of Prime Minister. The Social Democratic Party (SDP) has a base of blue-collar workers and public sector employees. It derives much of its power from strong links with the National Swedish Confederation of Trade Unions (LO), which represents blue-collar workers. The party program combines a commitment to social welfare programs and government direction of the economy..

The Moderate Party emphasizes personal freedom, free enterprise, and reduction of the publicsector growth rate, while still supporting most of the social benefits introduced since the 1930s. The party also supports a strong military and Sweden's membership in the EU. Its voter base is urban business people and professionals, but the party also attracts young voters, main-street shop owners, and, some blue-collar workers. The Green Party is a left-leaning, environmentalist party that attracts young people. The Greens strongly support greater public transportation and environmental taxation, and replacing nuclear energy in Sweden with alternative, environmentally friendly energy sources. The Liberal Party's platform is "social responsibility without socialism," which includes a commitment to a free-market economy combined with comprehensive Swedish social welfare programs. Foreign aid, education, and women's equality also are popular issues. The Liberal Party base is mainly centered in educated, middle-class voters, and is pro-EU.

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The Center Party maintains close ties to rural Sweden. The main priorities of the party include providing a sound economic climate for business and job creation, rural development, climate change and environmental concerns, and health and welfare issues. The Sweden Democrats gained representation in Parliament for the first time in 2010. It is a nationalist, right-wing party. Its main priority is to protect Swedish culture and values, mostly by reducing immigration to Sweden. In the 2010 elections, the Sweden Democrats were particularly successful in getting votes from the unemployed, laborers, men, and those between 18 and 30 years.

The Left Party, formerly the Communist Party, focuses on feminist issues, employment in the public sector, and the environment. It opposes privatization, cuts in public expenditure, Swedish participation in NATO activities, and EU membership. Its voter base consists mainly of young people, public sector employees, feminists, journalists, and former social democrats. The Christian Democrat Party is conservative and value-oriented. Its voter base is primarily among members of conservative churches and rural populations. Christian Democrats seek government support for families and better ethical practices to improve care for the elderly.

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ECONOMICS
The Swedish economy emerged from the financial crisis as one of the strongest in Europe. A high-tech local economy and a comprehensive system of welfare benefits allow Sweden to enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world. Sweden has one of the most globalized and competitive economies today. From the early 1990s until 2008, Sweden enjoyed a sustained economic upswing fueled by strong exports and rising domestic demand. In the fourth quarter of 2008, Sweden entered a recession. Heavily dependent on exports of autos, telecommunications, construction equipment, and other investment goods, Sweden was hit hard by the contraction in external demand due to the global financial and economic crisis. As a result, GDP fell 4.9% in 2009.

GDP grew by 5.5% in 2010, beating expectations. It is expected to grow 4.2% in 2011. The Swedish economy bounced back more quickly than other similar economies due to strong public sector finances and a reliable export-driven economy. Main Swedish exports include machinery and transport equipment, chemical and rubber products, food, clothing, textiles and furniture, and wood products. Exports and investments are rapidly increasing, and the Swedish export market is expected to grow by 8% each year through 2013. Central Bank policy is guided by inflation targeting to keep the Consumer Price Index (CPI) at or around 2% on an annual basis. To meet the monetary policy target, the Central Bank recently raised the main steering rate to 2%. One of Swedens tools in maintaining solid public figure finances is a budget process that calls for Parliamentary-designated spending ceilings. The ceilings are set for SEK 1.024 trillion (U.S. $144.7 billion) in 2010, SEK 1.063 trillion (U.S. $150.3 billion) in 2011, SEK 1.083 trillion (U.S. $153.1 billion) in 2012, and SEK 1.093 trillion (U.S. $154.5 billion) in 2013. While spending ceilings can technically be surpassed, they represent a promise the government makes to the people and they are adhered to.

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Sweden entered the financial crisis with a budget surplus due to prior economic growth and conservative fiscal policy. This was a key factor that allowed Sweden to ride out the crisis better than most other economies. In 2008, Sweden had a surplus of SEK 58 billion (U.S. $8.2 billion). By 2009, the surplus dipped into a deficit of SEK 176 billion (U.S. $24.8 billion). The budget showed only a slight deficit for 2010, and the budget will go back into surplus again for the full year 2011. The Swedish Government released a conservative budget for 2011 aimed at reestablishing a surplus and consolidating the economic recovery. The budget contains new spending aimed at job creation, maintaining the welfare state, promoting exports and tackling climate change. A series of additional reforms, such as lowering taxes on low and middle income earners, may be implemented if economic conditions allow. One of the ways Sweden stimulates growth and raises revenue is through the sale of public assets. The government set a goal of selling some $31 billion in state assets between 2007 and 2010. Major sales have included selling V&S (Vin & Sprit AB) to French Pernod Ricard for some $8.3 billion, and the Swedish OMX stock exchange to Borse Dubai/Nasdaq for $318 million. Additionally, the government sold most of its 946 apoteket (pharmacy) stores and eliminated its monopoly on pharmacies. The government has also approved the sale of Svensk Bilprovning (the Swedish Motor Vehicle Inspection Company). The Swedish banking sector is highly concentrated, with the four large banking groups (Nordea, Svenska Handelsbanken, Swedbank, and SEB) accounting for roughly 80% of sector assets. Swedish banks are heavily invested in the Baltic states, some of the countries hardest hit during the financial crisis. Swedish banks suffered considerably as a result, forcing authorities to respond with a bank support package in 2008. The package included guarantees for new debt insurance, increased deposit insurance, and a fund that would provide up to $6 billion in equity injection to systemically important institutions. In August 2010, the government revoked the license of the embattled HQ Bank, as risky securities deals and an over-valued trading portfolio threatened its survival. The bank was subsequently purchased by investment bank Carnegie.

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Despite this, the Swedish banking industry is strong. All Swedish banks passed summer 2010 EU stress tests with wide margins. Profit returned to the Baltic states in the third quarter of 2010, as the economies stabilized and funding costs to Swedish banks in the Baltic region decreased. Swedbank, one of the Swedish banks most heavily invested in the Baltics, showed a net interest income rise in the third quarter of 2010, the same time that the Baltic market began to turn. This was the first such rise in six quarters and growth has continued. Unemployment is slowly falling and was at 7.9% as of May 2011. Continued decline is expected, to an estimated 7.2% in 2012 and 6.4% in 2013. Youth unemployment is disproportionately high at around 28% for those between 15 and 24. The 2011 budget includes programs designed to better prepare young people to enter the work force and bring the economy into full employment. In contrast with most other European countries, Sweden maintained an unemployment rate around 2% or 3% of the work force throughout the 1980s. This was, however, accompanied by high and accelerating inflation. It became evident that such low unemployment rates were not sustainable, and in the severe crisis of the early 1990s the rate increased to more than 8%. In 1996 the government set out a goal of reducing unemployment to 4% by 2000. During 2000 employment rose by 90,000 people, the greatest increase in 40 years, and the goal was reached in the autumn of 2000. The same autumn the government set out its new target: that 80% of the working age population will have a regular job by 2004. Some have expressed concern that meeting the employment target may come at a cost of too high a rate of wage increases hence increasing inflation. However, as of August 2006, roughly 5% of working age Swedes were unemployed, over the government-established goal. However, some of the people who cannot find work are put away in so-called "labour market political activities", referred to as "AMStgrder".According to Swedish Statistics, unemployment in May 2011 was 7.9% in the general population and 25.9% amongst 15-25 year olds. Over 70% of the Swedish labor force is unionized; however, membership is decreasing. For most unions there is a counterpart employers' organization for businesses. The unions and employer
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organizations are independent of both the government and political parties, although the largest federation of unions, the National Swedish Confederation of Trade Unions (LO), always has maintained close links to the largest political party, the Social Democrats. There is no national minimum wage. Instead, wages are set by collective bargaining. The World Bank ranked Sweden 18th in ease of doing business and 43rd in ease of starting a business in 2010. Starting a business in Sweden takes 15 days and costs 0.57% of GNI per capita. The World Bank ranking data set included 183 economies worldwide, including 27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) high-income economies. As of 2009, there were 1,100 American companies operating in Sweden. American companies in Sweden employed 101,700 Swedes in 2008--the largest number of employees of all foreign countries doing business in Sweden. The majority of employees in Swedish-controlled affiliates abroad are in Europe and America, although the number of employees in America was decreasing as of 2008. As of 2009, the total population of Sweden was estimated to be 9,325,429. The population exceeded 9 million for the first time on approximately 12 August 2004 according to Statistics Sweden. The population density is 20.6 people per km (53.3 per square mile) and it is substantially higher in the south than in the north. About 85% of the population live in urban areas.[12] The capital city Stockholm has a population of about 800,000 (with 1.3 million in the urban area and 2 million in the metropolitan area). The second and third largest cities are Gothenburg and Malm. Between 1820 and 1930, approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population, emigrated to North America, and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million Swedish Americans according to a 2006 U.S. Census Bureau estimate. In Canada, the community of Swedish ancestry is 330,000 strong. Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy featuring a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labour force. Timber, hydropower and iron

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ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Sweden's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Agriculture accounts for 2% of GDP and employment. Income is relatively flatly distributed, Sweden has the lowest Gini coefficient (0.23) of any country.The largest trade flows are with Germany, United States, Norway, United Kingdom, Denmark and Finland. In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector, an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector, and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations both in manufacturing and services dominate the Swedish economy. The 20 largest (by turnover in 2007) companies registered in Sweden are Volvo, Ericsson, Vattenfall, Skanska, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, Electrolux, Volvo Personvagnar, TeliaSonera, Sandvik, Scania, ICA, Hennes & Mauritz, IKEA, Nordea, Preem, Atlas Copco, Securitas, Nordstjernan and SKF. Sweden's industry is overwhelmingly in private control; unlike some other industrialised Western countries, such as Austria and Italy, publicly owned enterprises have always been of minor importance.

ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 1990


Sweden has had a unique economic model in the post-World War II era, characterized by close cooperation between the government, labour unions and corporations. The Swedish economy has extensive and universal social benefits funded by high taxes, close to 50% of GDP. In the 1980s, a real estate and financial bubble formed, driven by a rapid increase in lending. A restructuring of the tax system, in order to emphasize low inflation combined with an international economic slowdown in the early 1990s, caused the bubble to burst. Between 1990 and 1993 GDP went down by 5% and unemployment skyrocketed, causing the worst economic crisis in Sweden since the 1930s. According to an analysis by George Berglund published in Computer Sweden in

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1992, the investment level decreased drastically for information technology and computing equipment, except in the financial and banking sector, the part of the industry that created the crisis. The investment levels for IT and computers were restored as early as 1993. In 1992 there was a run on the currency, the central bank briefly jacking up interest to 500% in an unsuccessful effort to defend the currency's fixed exchange rate. Total employment fell by almost 10% during the crisis. A real estate boom ended in a bust. The government took over nearly a quarter of banking assets at a cost of about 4% of the nation's GDP. This was known colloquially as the "Stockholm Solution". The United States Federal Reserve remarked in 2007, that "In the early 1970s, Sweden had one of the highest income levels in Europe; today, its lead has all but disappeared... So, even well-managed financial crises don't really have a happy ending. The welfare system that had been growing rapidly since the 1970s could not be sustained with a falling GDP, lower employment and larger welfare payments. In 1994 the government budget deficit exceeded 15% of GDP. The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden's competitiveness. When the international economic outlook improved combined with a rapid growth in the IT sector, which Sweden was well positioned to capitalize on, the country was able to emerge from the crisis. The crisis of the 1990s was by some viewed as the end of the much buzzed welfare model called "Svenska modellen", literally "The Swedish Model", as it proved that governmental spending at the levels previously experienced in Sweden was not long term sustainable in a global open economy. Much of the Swedish Model's acclaimed advantages actually had to be viewed as a result of the post WWII special situation, which left Sweden untouched when competitors' economies were comparatively weak. However, the reforms enacted during the 1990s seem to have created a model in which extensive welfare benefits can be maintained in a global economy.

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SOCIO-CULTURAL
Sweden has one of the world's longest life expectancies and lowest birth rates. The country counts at least 20,000 indigenous Sami among its population. About one in every five Swedes is an immigrant or has at least one foreign-born parent. The largest immigrant groups are from Finland, Iraq, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Iran, Norway, Denmark, and Poland. This reflects Nordic immigration, earlier periods of labor immigration, and more recent refugee and family immigration. Swedish is a Germanic language related to Danish and Norwegian but different in pronunciation and orthography. English is widely spoken, particularly by Swedes under the age of 50.

Sweden has an extensive child-care system that guarantees a place for all young children ages two through six in a public day-care facility. From ages seven to 16, children participate in compulsory education. After completing the ninth grade, 90% attend upper secondary school for either academic or technical education. Swedes benefit from an extensive social welfare system, which provides childcare and maternity and paternity leave, a ceiling on health care costs, old-age pensions, and sick leave, among other benefits. Parents are entitled to a total of 480 days' paid leave at 80% of a governmentdetermined salary cap between birth and the child's eighth birthday. The parents may split those days however they wish, but 60 of the days are reserved specifically for the father. The parents may also take an additional 5 months of unpaid leave. Sweden was Christianized from Norse paganism in the 11th century. Since the 16th century Sweden has been predominantly Lutheran. From the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s until 2000, the Lutheran Church of Sweden was the state church. As of 2010, about 70% of Swedes are members of the Church of Sweden, compared to over 95% in 1970, and 83% in 2000.

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The history of the Jews in Sweden can be traced back to the 17th century. Due to immigration in the later 20th century, there is today a sizeable minority of Muslims (5% of population) and Roman Catholics (2%). Swedish culture has been described as Lutheranism, trade unionism, and self-reliance, aspects that have been associated with Swedish mentality. Sweden did not formally abolish slavery until the middle of the 14th century, but it did not have serfdom in the Middle Ages; peasant freeholders constituted about 40% of the population, and were one of four estates (together with nobles, clergy, and burghers) in the Diet. One of the key characteristics of Swedish culture is that Swedes are egalitarian in nature, humble and find boasting absolutely unacceptable. In many ways, Swedes prefer to listen to others as opposed to ensuring that their own voice is heard. When speaking, Swedes speak softly and calmly. It is rare that you were witness a Swede demonstrating anger or strong emotion in public. In terms, Swedes rarely take hospitality or kindness for granted and as such, they will give often give thanks. Failing to say thank you for something is perceived negatively in Sweden. Behaviours in Sweden are strongly balanced towards lagom or, everything in moderation. Excess, flashiness and boasting are abhorred in Sweden and individuals strive towards the middle way. As an example, work hard and play hard are not common concepts in Sweden. People work hard but not too hard, they go out and enjoy themselves, but without participating in anything extreme. Due to the strong leaning towards egalitarianism in Sweden, competition is not encouraged and children are not raised to believe that they are any more special than any other child. The family in Sweden is extremely important and as such, the rights of children are well protected. The rights afforded to Swedish families to ensure that they are able to adquately care for their children are some of the best rights in the world. An overview of these rights is as follows: Either the mother or father is entitled to be absent from work until their child reaches 18 months old.

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. Either parent has the right to reduce their workload by 25% until their child reaches 8 years old (and is formally ready for school). A parental allowance is paid for 480 days, which is intended for both parents. Sixty of these days must be used by the minority parents. For this reason, this element of the allowance is often known as Daddys months. You have the right to up to 60 days off per year to care for a sick child. Anyone travelling to Sweden will notice the family friendly environment of most resturants and other such establishments. Even trains have a toy and play area! Singing is popular in Sweden, and of its 9 million inhabitants, 600,000 belong to various choirs. Two of the world's leading songwriters, Jrgen Elofsson and Max Martin, live in Sweden.In popular music, the group ABBA became the essence of Swedish music during the 1970s and early 1980s. Later Roxette emerged, mostly performing joyful songs in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This band was also successful in the USA. Europe, Ace of Base and The Cardigans are Swedish pop groups that have been popular internationally. Pop star Britney Spears had at least one of her early albums produced in Sweden, as did Bon Jovi and the Backstreet Boys. Pop promo director Jonas kerlund is from Sweden. He is perhaps best known for The Prodigy's Smack My Bitch Up video. Indie pop/rock is very big in Sweden. Gothenburg especially has spawned a great number of prominent bands and artists, thanks to labels such as Sincerely Yours, Service, and Luxury. Notable Swedish indie bands and artists include Jens Lekman, The Knife, Love Is All, The Concretes, Broder Daniel, The Tough Alliance, Peter, Bjorn and John, Fever Ray, Popsicle, Studio, The Embassy, The Honeydrips, Brainpool, Air France, jj, Joel Alme, Pacific!, etc. In contrast with its large pop music scene, Sweden also boasts one of the most prolific death metal scenes in the world. Gothenburg is famed in the scene for the "melodic death metal" sound. Many of these bands such as In Flames, Dark Tranquillity, At the Gates, The Haunted, as well as Stockholm's Amon Amarth and Opeth have seen growing commercial success throughout Europe and the United States. Melodic death metal is quite a broad genre with many

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variations, but with its more obvious roots in traditional death metal, black metal and classic metal such as Iron Maiden. Still, many bands are influenced by genres as broad as Swedish folk music, alternative music, electronica, gothic music, progressive music and even neo-classical music. Sweden is known in the extreme metal community for its famous late 80s-early 90s death metal scene, spawning important bands such as Entombed, Dismember, Grave and Unleashed as well as more obscure, brutal bands as God Macabre, Obscurity, Treblinka (later Tiamat) and Grotesque. Highly influential band Bathory also had a huge impact on the then-to-come black metal scene of Norway and the 1990s, with albums Bathory (1984), The Return (1985), and Under the Sign of the Black Mark (1987), as well as being the first Viking metal band. There is a notable Swedish hip hop scene. This culture has spawned a new sociolect or dialect, Rinkeby Swedish, so named after the Rinkeby subur. Sweden has produced several notable opera singers. In the 1850s, Jenny Lind (a.k.a. the Swedish Nightingale) toured the United States, and the price of admission for her performances was at a rate never before seen. In the 1950s, Jussi Bjrling was one of few non-Italian opera singers, and he is to this day a household name in opera circles. Other Swedish bands and artists who seem to manage the international crowd better than others are Dungen, Jos Gonzlez, Mando Diao, The Sounds, The Hives, Neverstore, Sahara Hotnights, Robyn, Tages, The Mascots, The Shanes, etc. However, there are a lot of other bands and artists who dominate the national music scene, such as Kent, Hkan Hellstrm and Lars Winnerbck. Swedish literature is vibrant and active. Sweden jointly ranks fifth in the list of countries with most Nobel Prize laureates in literature. Famous Swedish writers and poets are Astrid Lindgren, Selma Lagerlf, August Strindberg, Hjalmar Sderberg, Tomas Transtrmer, Karin Boye, Stieg Larsson, Henning Mankell, etc. Before the 13th century, most buildings were made of brick. Around that time, a shift began towards stone. The early Swedish stone buildings are Romanesque churches on the countryside. Many of them were built in Scania, and are thus stylistically like Danish churches. This includes the magnificent Lund Cathedral from the 11th century, and the somewhat younger church in

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Dalby, but also many early Gothic churches built through the influence of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malm and Helsingborg. Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th. In 1230, the foundations of the Linkping Cathedral were laid; the material used was limestone, and the building took some 250 years to finish. Older Iron Age and medieval structures also include some significant fortresses, and other historical buildings such as Borgholm Castle, Eketorp fortress (both on land) and the Visby city wall. In the 1520s, Sweden emerged from the Middle Ages and once again asserted her independence under King Gustav Vasa. The king initiated a building program of grand mansions and fortresses, both for defense and to represent the new monarchy; much of this was continued by his sons in the latter half of the century. The more imposing ones include the castles of Kalmar, Gripsholm and Vadstena. In the next two centuries, Sweden was the site of Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has been declared a World Heritage Site, the Drottningholm Palace, and Stockholm Palace, still the official seat of the monarchy. Modern clothing is very internationally influenced, but traditional Swedish national costumes are sometimes worn on special occasions, such as Midsummer. Sweden has in recent years taken an interest in the fashion industry, headquartering famous brands like Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M), J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), Gina Tricot, Tiger of Sweden, Acne Jeans, and Filippa K within its borders. These companies, however, are made up largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from places throughout Europe and the Americas, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency, like many of Sweden's neighbours.

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A new breed of smaller Swedish fashion labels like Diana Orving, So Last Season, Odd molly, WESC, Whyred, Hope, Nakkna, Velour, Carin Wester, Ida Sjstedt, Unwind Clothing, Fifth Avenue Shoe Repair, Acne, Cheap Monday, Nudie Jeans, and The Local Firm are emerging and getting recognition. The oldest remains of Swedish art are found in the churches: frescos, altar pieces, and baptismal founts. The motifs represent religious beliefs, focused on purgatory, the devil, Jesus Christ, and the Virgin Mary In the 19th century, the painter Carl Larsson (18531919) shaped the image of the idyllic countryside home with his nave picturesque illustrations. The Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national film industries in the world. The silent period saw the flourish of the gifted visionaries Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjstrm, who brought international attention to Swedish filmmaking and its particular vision of the world. Ingmar Bergman, regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers of the 20th Century, emerged as a prominent figure in world cinema during the 1950s, with his existential epic The Seventh Seal, which he followed with a host of critically revered psychological dramas. Two of his films in particular, Persona and Cries and Whispers, received unparalleled critical adoration, and put Sweden on the map as one of the most progressive cinematic entities. The revered naturalist Jan Troell, as well as the socially conscious Bo Widerberg, would quickly follow Bergman as the country's foremost visual artists. Famous actresses and actors include Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo, Max von Sydow, Alexander Skarsgrd, Stellan Skarsgrd, Ingrid Thulin, Lena Olin, Dolph Lundgren Malin kerman and Peter Stormare. Swedish food has traditionally been practical and sustaining. A typical old-fashioned meal consists of boiled potatoes, some kind of meat or fish, a sauce, and some vegetables. Fish has historically been very important. Swedes are among the heaviest coffee drinkers in the world, second only to natives of Finland. Brewed coffee is predominant. For meals, cider, beer, milk,

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juice, or water is standard. Swedish cider is sweeter and fruitier than foreign ciders, and is enjoyed in almost as large quantities as beer is. However, the consumption of alcohol is less than in many other European countries, owing to the state monopoly on alcoholic beverages, except at restaurants and bars. Swedes like straight forward meals, mainly prepared from the freshest ingredients. As a seafaring country with many freshwater lakes, fish dishes are popular on hotel or restaurant menus. Smrgsbord, which is a Scandinavian cold table, is traditional. 1st pickled herring with boiled potatoes, then perhaps a couple more fish courses, anchovies or smoked salmon, followed by sliced beef, cold meat, pt, stuffed veal or smoked reindeer. The hot dishes come after this, for instance, small meatballs (kttbullar), another herring dish, or an omelette. A fruit salad and cheese with crisp breads generally round off the meal. Other dishes popular with travellers are smoked reindeer from Lapland, gravlax, salmon that has been specially prepared and marinated, wild strawberries, and cloudberries, which are unique to Scandinavia.Numerous restaurants all over Sweden offer a special dish of the day at a reduced price, which includes a main course, salad, a soft drink and a coffee. Waiter service is ordinary, however there are many self service snack bars. Snapps is the collective name for aquavit or brnnvin, and is a Swedish liqueur which is customarily drunk chilled with smrgsbord. It is made under a variety of brand names with flavors varying from virtually tasteless to sweetly spiced.Swedish beers are lager and pilsner type brews and come in 4 strengths. Wine, beer and spirits are sold through the state owned monopoly, Systembolaget, with are open during normal shopping hours. Alcohol cannot be bought in bars, cafes or restaurants before 1.00 pm on Sundays. After midnight alcohol can only be bought in nightclubs that stay open until between 2.00 am and 5.00 am. In restaurants and nightclubs the minimum age for buying alcoholic beverages is 18 and stiff penalties are enforced for drinking and driving. The minimum age for buying alcohol is 20, however alcohol can be consumed in bars from restaurants from 18 onwards.

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The official language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians. The dialects spoken in Scania, the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it. Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority, comprising about 5% of Sweden's population, and Finnish is recognized as a minority language. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognized: Menkieli, Sami, Romani and Yiddish. Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented. The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language has been raised in the past, and the parliament voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English due to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier. In a 2005 survey by Eurobarometer, 89% of Swedes reported the ability to speak English. English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s.[135] Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers.

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The official language of Sweden is Swedish and it is spoken by the majority of individuals living in Sweden. One of two key minority languages is Saami, which is spoken in the Northern regions of Sweden and finally Finnish. There are also a number of Romanies in Sweden who speak in Romani. Swedish is not only the official language of Sweden. It is also one of the official languages of Finland. nfluences on the Swedish language have come primarily from Latin, German and Danish. Sports activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in.organized sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners, mostly women. Thereafter follow golf, athletics, and the team sports of handball, floorball, basketball and bandy. Swedish ice hockey team Tre Kronor is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the World Championships eight times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in 1994 and 2006. In 2006, Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in 1950 and 1994. Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years Sweden hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in 1958. Other big sports events held here include 1992 UEFA European Football Championship, FIFA Women's World Cup 1995, and several championships of ice hockey, curling, athletics, skiing, bandy. The Swedish lifestyle brings together a love of nature, good housing, environmental thinking and lots of culture all tied up with awareness of health and a strong sense of equality. Efficiency is combined with a laid-back attitude, and old traditions blended with openness for new technologies. Swedes in general work hard but treasure their free time and enjoy long relaxing holidays.

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The Swedish lifestyle varies greatly with the seasons. During the darker winter months, there are lights in the windows, evenings in the cinema, and winter sports during the day. In spring and summer, life is lived outdoors: music festivals, outdoor theatres and open-air museums are popular. Not only are the flowers blooming, the Swedes themselves are too. Traditions such as Junes Midsummer and Decembers Lucia are of great importance to Swedes and are celebrated just as enthusiastically today as they have been for generations. This sense of heritage is mixed with an open-mindedness for other cultures, due to the facts that one-fifth of the population has roots in other countries, that Swedes travel a great deal, and that they speak other languages. The most innovative country in the world, as highlighted by numerous reports, is not only the home of inventors and entrepreneurs but also a creative hub for fashion, music and food. Sweden remains one of the most egalitarian countries in terms of income distribution, and has one of the worlds lowest levels of poverty. Its no surprise that Sweden consistently appears near the top of the Human Development Index, which ranks countries according to life expectancy, education and standard of living. While Swedes pay high taxes to maintain their prized social welfare system, they are no longer the highest-taxed people in the world. Sweden has succeeded in creating a balance between social equality and economic success. Education is free (except for nursery schools and higher education, which are partly funded by the government), healthcare is cheap, childcare is universal and the streets are clean but there is still the opportunity to control your own economic destiny. The driving forces behind the Swedish model were the Social Democratic Party and the trade unions, although it has its roots in the 19th century when poor relief laws were passed. The Swedish model is still alive, if not as all-encompassing as it once was. There is greater privatization in the healthcare sector and the number of private schools is growing rapidly. But not even parties on the right of the political spectrum talk of dismantling the welfare state, as Swedens voters would simply not stand for it.

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TECHNOLOGY
Swedish inventions are novel ideas and machines that have been pioneered in Sweden. In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from professionals who had immigrated from mainland Europe. In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. Sweden has a total of 33523 patents as of 2007 according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and only ten other countries have more patents than Sweden. Modern research at Swedish universities and companies have resulted in a number of successful inventions. Some examples are: the computer mouse, Bluetooth for internet mobility, the pacemaker, the AXE telephone exchange, the Tetra Pak beverage packaging system, the dialysis machine, the Brnemark System (osseointegration) and the Leksell Gamma knife (surgery). In 1881, Lars Magnus Ericsson the founder of Ericsson released the worlds first telephone handset to the market. Four years later the Swedish capital of Stockholm had the worlds highest density of telephones, in terms of both the number of apparatuses and telephones per inhabitants. In the early 1980s, the Swedish telecom company Ericsson launched the first NMT-system, which was a breakthrough for modern mobile telephony. Ericsson has since then played an essential role in the development of mobile telephony globally. Some other examples of Swedish inventions are the Celsius thermometer, the safety match, the ship propeller, dynamite, the cream separator, the adjustable wrench, the ball bearing, the unmanned lighthouse and the steam turbine. These Swedish inventions have become well known and used internationally, and constitute the foundation for many of the major Swedish international export companies. The modern telephone was constructed by a Swede with the name Lars Magnus Ericsson. At that time, telephones had the mouthpiece built in, while the speaker was connected to the telephone
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by a flex. Ericsson's new idea was to combine the two into a single receiver. In 1876 he founded the Ericsson company in Stockholm. The automatic exchange was invented in the 1940's by a man called Axel Hultman, together with a team of engineers from the Ericsson company. Since then, over one million exchanges of the 500 type have been manufactured and sold. The computerized AXE exchange is also a Swedish invention. It was introduced in the mid 70's as the result of a cooperation between Ericsson and Telia, the major Swedish telecom operator. The AXE technology offers several new services, such as three-part communication and automatic wake-up calls. It is now installed in most parts of Sweden and has also been introduced on foreign markets. The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors. In conclusion, Sweden has long been at the forefront of research in natural science, starting with Carl Linnaeus and Anders Celsius 300 years ago. Still today Sweden is a country where innovation and entrepreneurship run deep.

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LEGAL ANALYSIS
Judicial system of Sweden The judicial system of Sweden consists of the law of Sweden and a number of government agencies tasked with upholding security and rule of law within the country.[1] The activities of these agencies include police and law enforcement, prosecution, courts, and prisons and other correctional services. The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems, general courts for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts for administrative cases.[4] Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system typically only will hear cases that may become precedent. General courts:

The Supreme Court of Sweden 6 courts of appeals 53 district courts

General administrative courts:


The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden . 4 administrative courts of appeals. 12 administrative courts .

The Supreme Court of Sweden is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Councillors of Justice or justitierd which are

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appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. Law enforcement in Sweden is carried out by several government entities. The Swedish Police Service is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the National Criminal Investigation Department. Swedish Security Service's responsibilities are counter-espionage, anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people. According to a victimization survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Sweden has above average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare. Sweden has a penal law system and a civil law system with laws created by the Parliament of Sweden. However, Sweden also has an extensive system of "droit administratif". The role of judicial review of legislation is not practiced by the courts; instead the Council on Legislation gives non-binding opinions on legality. There is no stare decisis in that courts are not bound by precedent, although it is influential. The main body for law enforcement in Sweden is the Swedish Police Service (Polisen). The entire police service is under the national government; since January 1, 1965, there is no municipal police in Sweden.

Intellectual property rights


Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind - inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. They are protected against infringement through IP regulations.

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The main Swedish IP laws are as follows:


Copyright Act Patent Act Trademark Act

The Swedish Patent and Registration Office (Swedish: Patent- och registreringsverket or PRV) is a Swedish government agency based in Stockholm and Sderhamn. The agency is in charge of patents, trademarks and industrial designs. The Office acts as Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) authority, i.e. International Searching Authority (ISA) and International Preliminary Examining Authority (IPEA). Susanne s Sivborg is the current Director General of the Office. Copyright law protects the rights of writers, composers, painters and other creative persons to control the use of what they have created. Copyright is governed by the provisions in the Act on Copyright in Literary and Artistic Works (Swedish Code of Statutes, SFS 1960:729) - the Copyright Act. Additional provisions are contained in the Copyright Regulation (1993:1212) and the International Copyright Regulation (1994:193).Compositions in speech or in writing, computer programmes, databases, musical and stage works, works of pictorial art, architectural art, applied art - as well as all types of spiritual creation of a literary or artistic work - are protected by copyright law. The law gives artists, authors, composers or other creative persons the right to decide how their literary or artistic works are to be used A trademark may consist of any sign capable of being represented graphically, in particular, words, including personal names, as well as designs, letters, numerals or the shape or the ornamental aspects of goods or their packages, provided that such signs are capable of distinguishing goods which are made available in one business activity from those which are made available in another one. The provisions of this Act in respect of goods apply also to services. Special provisions apply in respect of collective marks. The notion "Community trademarks" means trademarks under the Council Regulation (EC) No 40/94 of 20 December 1993 on the Community trademark.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
WEBSITES: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweden www.sweden.se www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Business/Economy/ www.economist.com/node/18805503 www.swedenabroad.com/Page____50008.aspx world.einnews.com/news/sweden-technology www.everyculture.com / Sa-Th www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/sweden.html www.wise-wise.eu/Sweden http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt.4.367010ad11497db6cba800054503.html JOURNAL: Skills and Wages in European Labour Markets Structure and Change -Michael Thlin Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI),Stockholm University. Occupational Distribution within Swedish Industries- an identification and market relation analysis by Charlotta Mellander(CISEG and CESIS)October 2008. Swedish Family Policy controversial reform of a success story byTommy Ferrarini, AnnZofie Duvander. Socio-cultural determinants ofInnovation TECHNOPOLIS by Nelly Bruno, Michal Miedzinski Alasdair Reid, Miriam Ruiz Yaniz. Implementing an open access policy at chalmers university of technology by Jonas Gilbert, Maria Kinger and Lars Kullman ,Chalmers Library, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden The Swedish judicial system by Ministry of Justice, March 2006. Printed by NRS Tryckeri

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