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BY GISELA M.
YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS
BY YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
Printed in the United States of America by Vail-Ballou Press, Inc., Binghamton, N.Y.
may not be
reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. Library of Congress Catalog Card
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
the publication in 1936 of the two-volume catalogue, Athenian Vases in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1 have repeatedly been asked to republish part of the volume; At last I have been able text in a smaller, less
expensive out the suggestion. In preparing the book here offered have freely borrowed from my catalogue, but I have also added much that is new. Our understanding of Attic vases has been increased enlarged and deepened during the last generation by a knowledge of the painters who decorated them. To present therefore necessary general survey of Athenian red-figure it was
most prominent of these As many of them were not represented in the Metroin the catalogue, politan Museum and had not been discussed accounts of them had to be supplied. Naturally it was imposto give descriptions of at least the
sible in a short survey to discuss every
hundred painters who have by now been recognized I have mentioned fewer than half but enough, I hope, to give an idea o the manifold activity in the Attic potteries. In the descriptions of actual examples I have put the primary stress on the vases in New York, so that the book may also serve as a guide to that collection. It seemed a gain to view the New York vases as a part of a larger context. Though my chief theme is red-figure I have occasionally included short discussions of contemporary black-figured and white-ground vases, for the three techniques sometimes went on concurrently in the same potteries. It would have been pleasant to give a wealth of illustrations. Descriptions of scenes and analyses of style without a picture ready to hand are tedious. As one of the primary motives, however, in writing the new book was to produce a low-priced volume, and as illustrations of course add to the cost of production, I have had to confine myself to relatively few pictures. I have in many cases chosen details instead of whole composi-
tions, for large-scale single figures often bring out the style of a painter better than entire scenes on a small scale. In the selection preference has been given to examples in the Metropolitan
The numbers I give for vases attributed to specific painters are no longer quite correct (see forthcoming and ed. whose encouragement induced me finally to undertake the writing of this Survey. My text has been read by Miss Christine Alexander and Miss Marjorie J. I have been able. Beazley is greater than I can express in words. I gratefully dedicate this book to him. His writings have revolutionized the study of Athenian vase painting and are an inspiration to us all. where lists of the works of each painter as well as full bibliographies of the illustrations will be found. R. 2730) has had to be rewritten in view of recent discoveries. to add short descriptions of some new accessions to the New York collection and to make . Many of the notes on the inscriptions and kalos names are by Miss Milne (often quoted with her signature). Fieldman has helped me with the preparation of the Index. Vase inscriptions are transliterated into the Ionic alphabet when it was desirable for obvious reasons to show the except exact spelling of the original. With his usual generosity he has read my manuscript and has sent me many important comments. W. when possible in easily accessible books.a number of corrections. D. PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION this new edition I have had to confine myself to the fewest possible corrections. either drawn from the originals or redrawn from other publications. Finally I want to thank the Metropolitan Museum and the Yale University Press for making this publication possible. I have adopted throughout the attributions given in that epoch-making book. Museum.. In . Attic Red-figure Vase-painters. and I owe to them valuable suggestions and corrections. von Bothmer. The majority The notes give references to illustrations of all the published vases mentioned. Mr. of Beazley's ARV). however.vi ATTIC RED-FIUURJUJ of the pictures on the plates are reproduced from photographs. Milne. I have also in every case given a reference to Professor Beazley's latest book. I want also to thank Professor H. many of which I owe to Sir John Beazley and Mr. The part of the Introduction that deals with the black glaze (pp. D. 1942. My debt to my friend J. Hall. Smith. The section on Technique has been revised and greatly improved by Miss Maude Robinson. A. the line drawings in the text are by Lindsley F.
Athenische Abteilung. from 1902. Berlin. ETC. Concord. 1843-85. Brunn and Bruckmann's Denkmaler griechischer und romischer Sculbtur. 1828-1877. Archdologischer Anzeiger. Mitteilungen des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. from 1885. from 1877. Paris. BSA Annual of the British School at Athens. CV Ephemeris archaiologike. minor. Corpus vasorum antiquorum. Atti Soc. Berlin. Berlin. from 1881. Athens. Bulletin of the Metropolitan York. Corpus inscriptionum graecarum. from 1888. Jahrbuch des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. from 1913. ed. from 1894. London. Archaiologikon Deltion. CIG Boeckh. Princeton. Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. Dictionnaire des antiquity's grecques et romaines. Br. Athens. Beazley. Arch. Ztg. Delt. and others. d'arch. PERIODICALS. Berlin. Annali Annali dell' Institute di Corrispondenza Archeologica. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Saglio. 1877-1919. Inscriptions graecae. from 1922. IG Jb. Baltimore. from 1876. 1886. CORPUSES. Archaologische Zeitung. Nor- AA AM wood. from 1915. from 1880. Daremberg-Saglio Daremberg. from 1873. The bibliographies on special subjects are given in notes to the relevant sections of the Introduction. from JHS Mel.ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY The list of abbreviations will serve as a general bibliography. 1942. 1829-85. London. Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters. Museum New . Bulletin de correspondance helle'nique. Br. MM Bulletin I'&cole francaise de Rome. BSR Papers of the British School at Rome. from 1883. Paris. Berlin. AJA American Journal of Archaeology. Melan'ges d'archeologie et d'histoire publics par of Art. Eph. August. For a more extended list cf. E. Arch. 1928-32.. Rome. Athens. Munich. C. Oxford. from 1905. BCH Rome. London. Rome. LEXICONS.. Paris and elsewhere. Magna Grecia Atti e memorie della Societa Magna Grecia. from 1889.
from 1925. Museum Journal The Museum Journal (The University Museum. Attic White Lekythoi. 1933. Vienna. The Metropolitan Museum Inst. Beazley. D. antichi pubblicati per cura della Reale Accademia del Lincei. 1910-33. J. D. Beazley. Roemische Abteilung. tutes in from 1894. D. Paulys Real-Encyclopddie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. from BOOKS Albizzati Albizzati. Milan. Piot Monuments et memoires public's par VAcademic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Fondation Eugene Piot). Der Pan-Maler. D. Beazley. Ox- Beazley. 1933. Roscher's Lexikon 1937- Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der griechischen und romischen Mythologie. Salvatore. . Museo di Spina Beazley Beazley. Beazley. Kroll and others. London. 1925. Beazley. Line. Berl ford. ABS J. J. University of Pennsylvania). Attische Vasenmaler des rotfigurigen ford.Vlll Al 11^ Jt^UJLI-ri^UJSJlJU V/YOJLO MM Studies 36. dell' Monumenti Corrispondenza Archeologica. Tubingen. from 1894. from 1889. Leipzig. II Rome. Mon. 1936. Attic Red-figure Vase-Painters. D. 1928- Mon. W. Philadelphia. Beazley. Vasi antichi dipinti del Vaticano. 1938. Beazley. Paris. Beazley. Alt. D. 1935. Campana Fragments in Florence. Beazley. Oxford. J. Rome. J. Berlin. Beazley. (ed. edited by W. 1931. Rome. AB V Beazley. Der Berliner Maler. S S Aurigemma. 1956. Beazley. Ferrara. communicate alia Reale Accademia dei Lincei. D. Panm. Mon. London. Oest. H. Berlin. . from 1898. Wissowa. Monumenti inediti pubblicati dall'Institute di Rome and Paris. J. Beazley. 1942. 1930. Jahreshefte des oesterreichischen archdologischen InstiPauly-Wissowa Stuttgart. New York. Attic Black-figure Vase-Painters. R. Instituts. OxBeazley. V. A WL CF 7. JVS Notizie degli scavi di antichita. Der Rleophrades-Maler. D. Stils. J. J. Beazley. 1884- RM Mitteilungen des deutschen archaeologischen 1886. Roscher. Jh. edited by G. 1928. i and 2). 1829-91. D. Wien. J. Berlin. Carlo. from 1876. Attic Black-figure: a Sketch. Studies. 1 2 Aurigemma.
Personennamen Bechtel. Grab Buschor. Encyclopedic photographique de I' art: le Muse"e du Louvre. Princeton. D. Gottingen. Fick. D< Potter and Painter in Ancient VA Beazley. zeit. Griechische Vasen. Adolf. London. zum Theaterwesen Lekythen der Parthenonfrom Miinchner Jahrbuch n. Ducati. AVP Caskey. Fairbanks. Cr. Storia della ceramica greca. V. Leipzig. with the cooperation of Buschor. 1918. 1945. Athenian White Lekythoi. 2d ed. Arthur. Potter Beazley. "Attische Beazley.). Charles. ix Beazley. Caskey and Beazley. Pericle. Paris. Boston. 1917. Buschor. II. Accademia ii. Oxford. Griechische Vasenmalerei: Auswahl hervorragender Vasenbilder. II. 1904-32." Memorie della dei Lincei. "Vasi dipinti nello stile del ceramista dei Lincei> 5th series. Ernst. Margarete. and Bechtel. 1937. and II. Rome. "Saggio di studio sulla ceramica Ducati. Florence. vols. 1939. American Museums. Cambridge Beazley. Pol. D. Die griechischen Personennamen nach ihrer Bildung erkldrt und systematisch geordnet.. Aison et la peinture ceramique a Athenes a I'dpoque de Pericles. D. Theater. V. HT Bieber. Athens. J. fascicule iii. 1920. Diepolder. Ducati. Enc. Gr. August. Pericle. Attic Vase Paintings in the I. 1925. AWL . L. 1930. Die historischen Personennamen des Griechischen bis zur Kaiserzeit. Ducati. D. 5th series. Munich. Munich. 1928. Aison Dugas. 14. Der Penthesilea-Maler. New York. See also note on Sir John Beazley's publications at the end of this list. FR Furtwangler. Saggio attica figurata del secolo iv av. Ernst. Pericle. J. Ernst. 15. and others. 1954. Oxford. Midia Midia. phot. and Reichhold. Attic Red-figured Vases in (Mass. 1909. Storm 1922. Ducati. Die Denkmdler im Altertum. 1916. s. Rome. 1907 and 1914. Museum of Fine Arts. Karl. Roman Bieber. Berlin. Grab eines attischen Mddchens." fascicule Memorie della R." ALP Buschor. Friedrich. Munich. I Dugas. 1936- 1931. Halle. Accademia Ducati. Margarete. Paris. The History of the Greek and Bechtel. J. Hans. Th. Buschor. 3 vols. Bieber. R. Buschor. Beazley. Fritz. J. Personennamen Fick. Bieber. 1894.ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Beazley. Greek Vases in Poland. Fairbanks. 1940. 1939. P Diepolder.
Gerhard. Berlin. 1929. Kretschmer. 1930. Hoppin. Museum Etruscum Gregorianum. Paul. 1924. Vaseninschnften Kretschmer. Repr. Langlotz. Klein. signed by or attributed to the various masters of the sixth and fifth century B. Norman. Akropolis. Hahland. Walter. Lekythoi Haspels. 2 vols.x ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Gardiner. Licht. Langlotz. Graef and Langlotz. 1930. Philipps-Universi. Gr. Grammatik Meisterhans. Joseph Clark. 1931. Athletics of the Ancient World. Berlin. 1932. Stuttgart and Berlin. Gottfried. Die griechischen Vaseninschriften. II) with the cooperation of Paul Hartwig. Cambridge (Mass. 1921. The Meisterhans. F. edited by Botho Graef (vol. Berlin. Berlin. Leipzig.). ad ed.C. Sittengeschichte Griechengriechi- Lowy. 1919. Lowy. Hartwig. Greg. M. Tnnkschalen und Gefasse des Komghchen Museums zu Berlin. Die griechischen Klein. GV Hague. Hahland. Wurzbttrg der strengrotfigurigen Vasenmalerei und der gleichzeitigen Plastik. I) and Botho Graef and Ernst Langlotz (vol. 1900. 2 vols. C. Euthymides and His Fellows. Athl. 1894. Paul Wolters. . 1933. Wilhelm. Emanuel. lands. Paris. A Handbook of Attic Redfigured Vases. M tat). Leipzig. Hoppin. 1848-50. Studien zur attischen Vasenmalerei um 400 v.. Gardiner. 1911-14. Joseph Clark. and Robert Zahn. K. 1936. Die grieschischen Meisterchalen der Bluthezeit des strengen rothfiguren Stiles. Dresden. Hoppin. Emilie. Zur Zeitbestimmung Langlotz. (Inauguraldissertation. von Lucken. Marburg. Greek Vase Paintings. Studien Hahland. Munich. Friedrich. Bf. Bf.). Walter. 3d ed. Met/ger. revised by Eduard Schwyzer. Sittengeschichte Licht. Chr. Zeitbestimmung Langlotz. H. Hahland. 1925-28. Lieblingsinschriften Vasen mit Lieblingsinschriften. Joseph Clark. E. Oxford. Ernst. H. Griechische Vasen in Wiirzburg. Giitersloh. la du IV siecle Metzger. 1898. ihrer Sprache nach untersucht. Ernst. A Handbook of Greek Black- Hoppin. Euth. P. 1917. Les representations dans siecle. Cambridge (Mass. 1951. I and II Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen. Paris. 1842. 1893- Haspels. Attic Black-figured Lekythoi. figured Vases. ceramique attique du IV Mus. Hoppin. Trinkschalen Gerhard. Polygnot: ein Buch von scher Malerei. Hartwig. Vienna. 1920. Paris. Rome. I and II Hoppin. Vasen um Meidias. Hans. Polygnot vonLiicken. Grammatik der attischen Inschriften.
Sc. D. 1923. Sc. M. edited by J. Gisela M. Brussels. Gisela M. Philippart. Richter. Robinson and Harcum. Red-figured Athenian Vases in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Rumpf. Edmond. and Harcum. 1932. 1834. 1930. A. Ernst. 1900.u.. Munich.Z. Walter. Craft Graeco-Roman Times. Catalogue Robinson. Richter and Milne Richter. G. Toronto. Les coupes attiques a fond blanc. 1935. Pfuhl Pfuhl. Riezler. 1942. 1936. Gisela M. Malerei und Zeichnung der Griechen.. Kouroi Richter. Vasen. Richter. A Study of the Development of the Greek Kouros from the Late Seventh to the Early Fifth Century B. 1950. 2 vols. Kouroi. 1930. Weissgrundige attische Lekythen. M. Ernst. Nicole.. II Neugebauer. IV. New Haven. Paris. A. M. CAB Philippart. 1914. Geneva. New Haven. G. Nicole. Gisela M. A Catalogue of the Greek Vases in the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology. 6th ed. Theodor Sigismund. 1936. A. 1952. Richter. antichi Pellegrini. Vases antiques du Louvre.. L F. 1903. A. with the cooperation of Irma A. 2d ed. 1953. Pettier Pettier.ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY xi Neugebauer. Fuhier. Pourt. Filhret durch das Antiquanum II.C. Richter. Richter. and Hall. Richter and Hall Richter. Handbook Classical Collection York. Gisela M. Malerei und Zeichnung. Gisela M. Antiques du Cabinet du Comte de Pourtales-Gorgier. The Craft of Athenian Pottery.. Marjorie J. Beazley). New ed. Masterpieces of Greek Drawing and Painting (translated by J. Hubert. 1950. Rumpf. London. The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks. Ihffe. and Milne. Toronto. Paris. Greek Painting: The Development of Pictorial Representation from Archaic to New Richter. . Meid. Munich. 1923. Haven. 1897-1922. Giuseppe. Shapes and Riezler. Berlin. K. 3 vols. new. Panofka. Georges. Catalogo dei vast dipinti delle collezioni Palagi ed Universitaria. revised ed. New York. A. Handbuch der i. Masterpieces Pfuhl. 1908. MM Handbook Richter. Meidias et le style fleuri. 1930. Names WAL of Athenian Vases. VPU Munich. Archaologie. C. New York. H. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Panofka. A. New York. New (The Metropolitan Museum of of the Art). Pfuhl. A. Young. Richter. Richter. Two hundred and eight photographs by Gerard M. A. Bologna. Pellegrini. Greek Painting* Richter. A. D. 2 vols.
1935. 1929- Webster. 225 f. Karl. 1929. In 1951 the Clarendon Press published a complete list of Beazley's publications. N Webster. W. AP Swindler. Leipzig. Karl. Berkeley. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES KV U Schefold. Berlin and Leipzig. W. Strena Strena Helbigiana. a list was given of Beazley's articles and reviews on red-figure published up to 1936. no. 1900. . III). Menon Painter Smith. H. Kertscher Vasen. D. 1939. Mary Hamilton. Untersuchungen zu den Kertscher Schefold. Smith.xii Schefold. pp. Painter.).. 1933. Swindler. New Haven. "New Aspects of the Menon Cambridge (Mass. Thomas Bertrand Lonsdale. BEAZLEY In Richter and Hall. 193- AV Classical Lectures. 1934. Attic Vase-Painting (Martin Seltman. from the Earliest J^imes to the Period of Christian Art. Leipzig. Charles T. Vasen. H. R. R. tier Lewismaler. Leipzig. Ancient Painting." University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology . L Smith. i. Der Niobiden- maler. ARTICLES ON RED-FIGURE BY J. Berlin-Wilmersdorf. Selfman. Schefold. I. Smith.
CONTENTS PREFACE ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS V vii xix INTRODUCTION General Importance of Greek vase paintings. Greek kilns V. 19. mural and panel paintings. i. Salient characteristics. Attic. 8. Style of individual painters. and attire. 11. Comparison with subjects in later Difference between 8. Attraction for potters. occasionally from contemporary events. Throwing Turning Molding Building b. 7. to 4. Repertoire. 5. (2) (3) (4) Ornaments Function. there surface 10. 3. I. inscriptions. Wheel work a. Dipinti and Faulty spelling. i. Period of Athenian red-figure. and Ionic forms of letters. Doric. (1) (2) DECORATION OF THE VASE The The black glaze treatment of the Shapes Reminiscent of architecture. 15. General development. 2. 22. 14. ACCIDENTS 14. Names of IV. VI. Assigned names. Technique PREPARATION OF THE CLAY FASHIONING OF THE VASE 24 24 II. and historians of art. Interest added by furnishings. THE shapes. 3. 33 Inscriptions 34 35 Referring to figures represented. 16. utensils. Signatures. 2. relative chronology on the degree of riaturalism attained. White ground FIRING many variations. 9. painters. ATHENIAN POTTERIES . Meaningless graffiti. Subjects Subjects taken from mythology and daily life. (1) paintings. 10. ai. Many variations on a few standard motives. an underlying principle of design?. 28 29 29 31 31 Was (3) The a. Our Chronology Absolute chronology based on dated events. 10. 15. Attachment of handles 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 III. ai. A few standard shapes with painting Red-figure b. 10. Greek and later outlook. archaeologists. 19. knowledge of the artists. Kalos names. 2. Relation Addressed to the beholder. 11.
stylistic analysis. 72 78 parisons with sculpture. Shapes. Com64. 64. Euthymides. and the Goluchow 46 46 46 48 (3) Skythes Hegesiboulos Painter Kiss Painter Ambrosios Painter Hermaios Painter Chelis Painter Painter Andokides Painter Psiax (2) Oltos. RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE. Phintias. Chronological data. 36. the Berlin Painter. Painters. 63. Chronological data. The Diogenes Painter Tyszkiewicz Painter Troilos Painter (2) The Kleophrades Painter. parisons with painting and sculpture. 66. and. In Red-figure Dutuit Painter 66 68 70 Tithonos Painter Providence Painter Bowdoin Painter b. 500-475 B. 50 51 Smikros Sosias Painter 5i 51 Vienna Painter Dikaios Painter Apollodoros Painter?) (= Epidromos Painter and Kleomelos Hypsis Gales Painter 53 53 55 56 56 57 57 57 57 58 CHAPTER II. Com43. Techni- and 42. (i) Shapes. Technique. 45. Goluchow Painter and other cup painters Bowdoin-Eye Painter Nikosthenes Painter Epeleios Painter Painter of Berlin 2268 Euphronios. 52 58 58 58 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 Historical background. (i) The painters. ABOUT analysis. Myson Geras Painter Harrow Painter Syleus Painter In Black-figure Diosphos Painter 7* 78 78 Sappho Painter Athena Painter Haimon Painter . ABOUT Peithinos 530-500 B. Epiktetos. 59.XIV ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES I. CHAPTER cal EARLY STYLE.C. The Andokides Psiax. 36. Painter. 45. 65. Stylistic 59. Copenhagen Painter Syriskos Painter Gallatin Painter Historical background. other painters of large pots 66 (Epiktetos) 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 Kleophrades Painter Berlin Painter Nikoxenos Painter Eucharides Painter Painters of small pots a. Oltos Epiktetos 48 48 49 5 and their followers Pheidippos Hischylos Painter Thaliarchos Painter Euergides Painter Pasiades Euphronios Euthymides Phintias.C.
93. 90. Chronological data. EARLY FREE STYLE. 93.C. The The Pan Painter and other mannerists Pan Painter Pig Painter Leningrad Painter Agrigento Painter Nausikaa Painter (Polygnotos) 94 94 96 96 96 97 Other Painters Telephos Painter Clinic Painter Amymone Painter Hermonax Oionokles Painter 107 107 108 108 108 109 109 (2) The Penthesileia Painter and his associates Penthesileia Painter Pistoxenos Painter Splanchnopt Painter Painter of Bologna 417 Wedding Painter Painter of Brussels R 330 (3) 97 97 gq 100 100 100 Nikon Painter Painter of the Yale Oinochoe Painter of the Yale Lekythos Painter of London E 342 Syracuse Painter Cleveland Painter Painter of London E 100 Aigisthos Painter Orchard Painter Painter of Bologna 228 Alkimachos Painter Deepdene Painter Sotades Painter Lewis Painter (Polygnotos) Zephyros Painter Sabouroff Painter Painter of Munich 2363 Ethiop Painter 100 109 109 109 109 109 The Niobid Painter and associates his Niobid Painter Altamura Painter Painter of die Woolly Silens Painter of the Berlin Hydria Painter of Bologna 279 Geneva Painter (4) 100 100 101 no no no 1 10 101 no no 103 102 102 m The Villa his Gtulia Painter associates. 92. 89. Technique. and other cup painters Panaitios Painter Eleusis Painter Brygos Painter Onesimos Colmar Painter 76 76 77 78 81 Antiphon Painter Thorvaldsen Group Magnoncourt Painter Foundry Painter Briseis Painter Painter of the Paris Gigan- Makron Douris Triptolemos Painter 83 83 tomachy Dokimasia Painter CHAPTER III. Historical background. 94. Makron. Stylistic analysis. Com- Villa Giulia Painter 104 105 106 106 107 107 107 107 parisons with sculpture.CONTENTS Theseus Painter (3) xv 83 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 87 88 75 Cartellino Painter The Panaitios Painter. (1) Chicago Painter Methyse Painter Akestorides Painter Painter of Munich a 660 Euaion Painter Painter of Louvre C A 1694 "Euaichme Painter (5) 93. Douris. "fol- 112 112 112 113 113 and lowers of Douris" 104 . the Brygos Painter. ABOUT 475-450 B. Shapes. Painters.
The Achilles Painter and 118 118 121 121 his followers Achilles Painter Other Painters of Pots 130 Naples Painter 130 Painter of the Louvre Cen- Bosanquet Painter Thanatos Painter Painter of Munich 2335 Phiale Painter tauromachy Nekyia Painter 130 130 ' 122 Persephone Painter '2) 123 Dwarf Painter 124 The Mannheim Painter and others (5) Trophy Painter Athanasia Painter Penelope Painter Marlay Painter 132 132 124 Mannheim Painter Danae Painter Painter of London E 497 Menelaos Painter Kleio Painter Eupolis Painter Painter of Athens 1943 Cassel Painter Polydektek Painter Richmond Painter (3) The Eretna Painter and other painters of cups and small vases Eretria Painter 124 125 126 126 132 132 Kalliope Painter Kodros Painter Painter of London 135 D *35 14 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 128 Polygnotos and his Polygnotos Lykaon Painter Kraipale Painter Washing Painter Shuvalov Painter Disney Painter Painter of the Edinburgh 136 136 136 137 137 circle Oinochoe Kliigmann Painter Xenotimos Painter 137 '37 138 CHAPTER V LATE ABOUT FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE. 139. (i) Hektor Painter Peleus Painter Coghill Painter (4) The 117. the Dinos and Painter. 117. 450-420 B.C. 141. IV. Chronological data. 129 130 130 130 130 Historical background. ABOUT 116. 141. Comparisons with sculpture. painters. Late followers of Painter Pothos Painter Polygnotos . 420-390 B. FREE STYLE. Kleophon Painter Dinos Painter Chrysis Painter Historical background. Stylistic Technique. 117. The Kleophon Painter. 115. (i) H3 '43 144 The painters. 1 14*.XVI ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 114 114 114 Vouni Painter Inscription Painter Aischines Painter Tymbos Painter Carlsruhe Painter Ikaros Painter 114 CHAPTER analysis. 115. 139. Chronological data. Technique. 117. Com- Orpheus Painter Christie Painter parisons with sculpture. 141. Polion 144 146 146 146 Aison Kadmos 143 Others.C. Shapes. Stylistic analysis.
THE FOURTH CENTURY Oinomaos Painter b. the Pronomos Painter. (i) The plainer style: The Erbach Painter. VASES WITH RELIEFS 159 162 NOTES INDEX 165 401 . Erbach Painter style: The ornate of The Painter of Painter painter the New London F 64 of London F i 158 158 158 159 159 York Centauromachy Jena Painter and other pot painters 157 Painter of the New York Centauromachy Meleager Painter 157 157 Q Painter Painter of Vienna 155 Painter of Vienna 202 159 159 159 Painter of Vienna 116 Xenophantos Painter 157 Painter of the Oxford Fat Boy Group Brown-Egg Painter (2) 159 Grypomachy Retorted Painter Black-Thyrsos Painter 158 158 158 (3) THE KERCH STYLE. and others FIRST THIRD OF THE 157 158 158 CENTURY a. Stylistic 158 Technique. 155. Historical background. 154. 156. Shapes. 155. the Jena Painter. 156. Chronological data. VI.CONTENTS (2) xvn and small 151 The Meidias his school Painter and (4) Painters of cups vases 146 146 149 Meidias Painter Aristophanes Mikion Painter (Euemporos?) Painter of London 106 152 155? Mouret Painter Straggly Painter 152 152 149 150 Mina Painter Nikias Painter (3) The Tolas fainter. 154. Comparisons with sculpture. ABOUT 370-320 B C. and the Suessula Painter (5) Worst Painter Gaurion (potter) White-ground vases 152 152 152 150 150 150 151 Tales Painter Pronomos Painter Suessula Painter Manner of Woman Reed Painter Triglyph Painter Painter 155 153 153 CHAPTER analysis.
Hall. 11.210.ILLUSTRATIONS Figures i through 33 are in the grouped following page 164.234.210. Jb. 17. the kylix 12. drawn from the Figure 1 .19 by the Berlin Painter in New York 18. X the kylix by Oltos in Tarquinia (Redrawn from Pfuhl.10 by Oltos in New York 44 From the kylix 14. perhaps by Epiktetos.231.19 by the Berlin Painter in 39 New York 8. From From VII. in New 12. 45 From the hydria 10. 7. Ill.210.18 by Oltos in New York From the fragmentary kylix 07.210. drawn from Caskey and Beazley. Trom 6.162. 16.50 by the Kiss Painter in 12 13 38 38 39 New York 5. the hydria 10. Shapes of Athenian red-figured vases Shapes of Athenian red-figured vases Front the psykter 10. pi. i). 360) From the kylix by Psiax in Munich (Redrawn from . 6) From an amphora by the Andokides Painter in 14. 40 41 41 10. From From the kylix 14. 3.146. 4) From the kylix by Skythes in the Villa Giulia Museum.286.1 by Makron in New York 62 . Page 2. York the kylix 10. text and figures 34 through 125 are The figures in the text are by Lindsley F. 111) 43 From the psykter 10. Piot. the amphora by the Andokides Painter in Munich (Redrawn from FR. 15. fig. 60 From in the kantharos 12. pi.5 the pelike by the Brygos Painter 61 New York 19. Louvre (Redrawn from FR. A VP} pi. 4. From From G R 578 by the Geras Painter in 61 New York 20. pi.1 by Psiax in New York 44.1 by Psiax in New York the kylix 41.112.146. 40 9. either originals or redrawn from other publications. Rome (Redrawn from Mon. XX . pi.. 4).212 by Epiktetos in Boston (Re- 42 43 the From 13.
286.1079 by the Penthesileia Painter . From the hydria 11.77 by Hermonax b. 30.230.60. f. From the column krater no. 54) the amphora by the Berlin Painter in Berlin 62 22.286. From Painter i. 52) From the lekythos 25.227. Painter in New York From the lekythos 13.286.1 by the Panaitios Painter in Bowdoin College.246 by Makrorj the amphora 13. b. GV. VA. From the stamnos 17. 64 64 64 65 65 65 91 92 New York 27.12 by the Brygos Painter d. 29.67 by the Providence 29. From the lekythos 26. Maine (Redrawn from Beazley. 31. 32. Brunswick.131.86 by the Painter of the Berlin Hydria in New York Eyes on vases of the Early Free Style in New York a. 28.286. pi.19 by the Berlin Painter in 63 63 63 25. From the kylix 20. From the skyphos 06. 26. From the neck of a loutrophoros 07.7 by the Painter of Bologna 228 d.227. From From the kylix the lekythos GR 1 120 by Makron in New York 07. h. 24.57.xx Figure 21.2 by the Tithonos Painter in New York From the calyx krater 07.70 by the Painter of Bologna 228 e.19 by the Berlin Painter c.78.210. fig.16 by the Dutuit Painter in New York From the lekythos 25.7 by the Syleus Painter From the lekythos 07. From the hydria 10. (Redrawn from von Liicken.1 by the Brygos Painter in New York Eyes on vases of the ripe archaic style in New York a.212.37 by the Deepdene Painter c. p.233 by the Kleophrades g. From 23.189. From the lekythos 13. 86.67 by the Providence Painter in New York From the hydria 10. From the lekythos 28.210.16 by the Dutuit Painter e. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Page From the kylix 30.
by Psiax. column krater 34.85 the Villa Giulia m.116 by the Lykaon Painter e.8 in the Metropolitan Museum.18 by the Achilles Painter b. From From heim the bell krater 23.286.11.258. Milla. Athletes.97. From the Painter 33. Man dancing to the music of the flute. by Epiktetos.167 by the Penthesileia the xxi Painter g.23 by the Persephone Painter c. by the Gales Painter. Photograph by E. From the bell krater 28. ILLUSTRATIONS From From From the double disk 28. Photograph by Marie Beazley. 41. cock. From the kylix 41. From the bell krater 28.35 by the Phiale Painter f. 40.18 in the Metropolitan From Museum.162. From the lekythos 17.195 in the Museum of Fine Arts.47 in the Metropolitan Museum. From the lekythos 13.Fieure f.230.286.57. Mann- 1. d. E.160.23 by the Persephone Painter 34. by the Hegesiboulos Painter. Victorious young athlete being crowned. by the Andokides Painter. From the amphora 06. Boston. the hydria 06.96 by Painter bell krater 07. Photograph by E.1021. j.1021. From Youth riding a Castle Ashby.57.210.190 by the Chicago Painter i. From the bell krater 24. Herakles and Kerberos. From the kylix 07. walking with his dog.189 by the Painter Danae Painter k. Cow led to sacrifice.7 by the Orchard Painter h. Man . Milla.1021. 35. Photograph by 36. by Oltos. From the lekythos 08. the amphora F 204 in the Louvre. a plate in the collection of Monsieur Jameson Paris. by Pheidippos. by the Methyse 116 Eyes on vases of the Free Style in New York a. 39. From the psykter 10. 37. Milla. From a plate in 38.80 by the the oinochoe 06.
14. From the column krater 07. Warrior. Berlin.188 in the Museum of Fine Arts. 52. by Euthymides.. From the amphora 56. Milla. by the Tithonos Painter.2 in the Metropolitan Museum. FR.38 in the Metropolitan Museum. pi. by Myson. 123. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Boxer. Milla. From the amphora C 6843 in the Museum of Tarquinia.18 in the Metropolitan 54. 50. From the kylix 2278 in the Staatliche Museen. by the Gallatin Painter. From the lekythos 25.16 in the Metropolitan Museum. Achilles bandaging the wounded arm of Patroklos. From the pelike in the Metropolitan Museum. Drawing by Reichhold. by the Kleophrades Painter. 46. by Sosias. by the Hischylos Painter. G R 578 by E. Thetis and Hephaistos. FR. Photograph by E. by Phintias. lekythos 41. Boston. Revelers. by the Providence Painter. by the Dutuit Painter. 53. Youth playing the kithara. Photograph by E. Munich. Photograph by E.227. Photograph by E. phora 44.xxii 42. Fragment of a kylix. FR. 22. Herakles and Antaios. From the amphora 13.258. Artemis. by the Geras Painter. From the amG 103 in the Louvre. From the calyx krater 08. From the amphora 2307 in the Museum antiker Kleinkunst. 43.162. pi. From the Museum. Theseus and Skiron. Drawing by Reichhold. 49. by the Dutuit Painter. Reichhold. Milla. . 55. pi.171. Photograph Milla.286. Satyr. by the Berlin Painter. E. McAdams. Hermes.101 in the Metropolitan Museum. Milla.162. Nike. From the amphora 41.139. Satyr and Maenad. 51. in the Metropolitan Museum. 45. 93. 91. Dionysos. Photograph by E.78. Photograph by T. Drawing by Reichhold. Milla. Drawing by R 47. From the lekythos 13. FR. pi. Photograph by E. Photo- graph by 48. Milla. Milla.81.58 in the Metropolitan Museum. by Euphronios.73 in the Metropolitan Museum.
Athena. by Douris. by the Panaitios Painter. Photograph by E. Pan. by an artist of the Thorvaldsen Group. xxiii Woman working wool. Boston. by the Penthesileia Painter. Milla. Milla. From .160. 59. Photograph by E. 63. Oest.11. From the kylix 12. 70. by Douris. Artemis. Milla. Photograph by E. Go. From the lekythos 25. by the Diosphos Painter. From the kylix 53. British Satyr. Herakles. Photograph by E. by the Brygos Painter. 61.189.1021. From the lekythos 670 67. in the Hermitage. by the Pan Painter. by Makron. From the lekythos 06.185 in the Museum of Fine Arts. Photograph by E. XVI (1913). Milla. Maenad and Satyr.160. by the Panaitios the kyathos 2322 in the Staatliche Museen. pi. Athena. II. 58. From the kylix 41. Milla. From the kylix 23. Milla. by the Pan Painter. 65.90 in the Metropolitan Museum. by the Brygos Painter. Milla.. From to listeners. From the oinochoe 23. Milla.1152 in the Metropolitan Museum. Drawing by Reichhold. by the Briseis Painter.167 in the Metropolitan Museum. Milla.43 in the Metropolitan Museum. Man and boar.54 in the Metropolitan Museum. Berlin.162.231. Photograph by E. 64. Theseus welcomed by Athena. Double disk 28. Photograph by E. 48. FR. From the kylix 41. Perseus and Medusa. From the lekythos. Milla. Photograph by E.162.1 in the Metropolitan Museum. Woman putting away her clothes. Photograph by E. 71. pi. Photograph by E.221. 09. Ganymede.55 in the Metropolitan Museum. McAdams. by the Penthesileia Painter. 62. From the psykter E 786 in the Museum. 68. 69. by the Bowdoin Painter. Photograph by T. 57.1 in the Metropolitan Museum. Nike crowning a victorious youth.4 in the Metropolitan Museum. Youth reading aloud Painter.9 in the Metropolitan Museum. Warrior. From the bell krater 10. 66. ]h. by the Pan Painter. From the kylix 06.2 in the Metropolitan Museum.ILLUSTRATIONS 56.
by the Wedding Painter. Photograph by E. 79. Museum.xxiv ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 72.11. Photograph by E.84 in the Metropolitan Museum. 77. Milla. 83. Charon's boat. From the sky- . From the bell krater 07.88. 85. Herdsman. the lekythos 06. Photograph by E. Seated man.286. 75.162. From the lekythos 35.21 in the Metropolitan Museum.162. Triptolemos. 2. Milla. From the hydria 41.19 in the Metropolitan Museum.5 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. Milla.11. by the Sabouroff Painter. Volute krater 07. by the Painter of the Woolly Silens.40 in the Metropolitan Museum. the lying in state of the dead.17 in the Metropolitan Museum.36 in the Metropolitan Museum. by the Niobid Painter. Eros and Aphrodite. From the amphora 41. Photograph by E. Maenad. Maenad. 82. Mourners at two graves. by the Euaichme Painter. 78. by the Penthesileia Painter. Flying figures. 84. by the Oionokles Painter. by Hermonax. Hermes and the infant Dionysos. on a vase in the form of a knucklebone (astragalos) E 804 in the British Museum. Milla.8 in the Metropolitan Museum. Milla. Photograph by E. pi. on a cup in the form of a hoof 38. Milla. From the pyxis 74. by the Sotades Painter. Dionysos.85 in the Metropolitan Museum. 76. Photograph E. FR. Milla. Photograph by E. by the Vouni Painter. by the Sabouroff Painter. 73. by a follower of the Brygos Painter. From the lekythos 21. 80. Paris. From the bell krater E 492 in the British Prothesis. Milla. From the lekythos 41. From the pyxis 39. Photograph by E.286. Battles of Lapiths and Centaurs and of Greeks and Amazons.286. Milla. From the lekythos 07. 07. by the Methyse Painter. Drawing by Reichhold. Milla.98 in the Metropolitan Museum. 81. Photograph by E.286.11. by 136. Milla. Photograph by E. Milla.2 in the Metropolitan Museum.162.1070 in the Metropolitan Museum. by the Villa Giulia Painter. Photograph by E.
From a lekythos in the collection of Baron von Schoen. 12.72 in the Metropolitan Museum. by the Danae Painter. by the Chicago Painter. by 92. 95. Satyr. The shade of Elpenor and Odysseus. Photograph by E. From the pelike 34. Museum. Photograph by E.80 in the Metropolitan Museum. From the lekythos 17. 96. From the bell krater in the Metropolitan Museum. by the Lykaon Painter. Amymone.139. From the fragment of a krater. Fragment of a bell krater. by the Phiale Painter. From the kylix 06. 98.ILLUSTRATIONS 86. Milla. phos 41. From the oinochoe 06. Girls listening to music. by the Akestorides Painter. Milla. Hermes. Boy playing the lyre. Milla. From the bell krater 23. of a kylix. Metropolitan Muisland of Lemnos. From the kylix 22.11.1 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. In the seum. Athanasia and Tydeus.14. Milla. Photograph by E. Amazon. Woman. Milla. Photograph by E. by Polygnotos. Photograph by E. 90. by the Painter of London E 497.23. the Metropolitan 17.230. McAdams. The wounded Philoktetes on the From the lekythos 56.171. Museum. From the bell krater 28. xxv 87. 07. Photograph by E. in the Metropolitan Museum.8. by the Persephone Painter. Persephone. Milla. E. 100. Milla. Boston. 99.23 in the Metropolitan 93. Photograph by E.1021. Photograph by E. Milla. trainer (?) From the fragment by the Foundry Painter. Photograph by E. by the Euaion Painter. From the pelike 45. by the Mannheim Painter. 89. Milla. Milla.160. 156. Photograph by T.79 in the Museum of Fine Arts. . Photograph 91. Muse on Mount Helikon.5 in the Metropolitan Museum. 1 02 1 . Photograph by E.177 in the Metropolitan Museum. Milla. Perseus and Medusa.189 in the Metropolitan Museum. Milla.58 in 97. 88.57. and Hekate. Orpheus and the Thracians. Munich. A .162.35 in the Metropolitan Museum.229.230. 94. In the Metropolitan Museum. by the Achilles Painter.
Female head. by or near the Coghill Painter. Youths at an incense burner. Milla. Milla. in the Metropolitan Museum. by the Eretria Painter. Painter. by the Meidias Painter.8 in the Metropolitan Museum. Pelops. Sikinnos) 1 06. by the Talos the pelike 1951. Photograph by Marie Beazley.11. by Aison from the head-kantharos 27.9 in the Metropolitan Museum. Chariot with Erotes.8 in the Metropolitan 1 02.13 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. 12. From the amphora 1 460 in the Municipal Museum. 103. Milla. 104. by an artist near the Meidias Painter. Nereid. Milla.352 in the Museum of Fine Arts. Photograph by E. From the volute krater 27. 107. Male head. From the volute krater 24.38. by the Eretria Painter.122. 116.11. Photograph by E. Florence. 112.25 in the Metropolitan Museum. 1 1 4. 113.11. by the Shuvalov Painter. Milla. Athens. Satyr. Milla. Boxers. From the oinochoe 08. Arezzo. by the Meidias Painter.24 in the Metropolitan Museum. Warrior leaving home. 115.229. Photograph by E.97. 111. Photograph by E.11. From the squat lekythos 30.xxvi 101. Boston. by the Kraipale Painter. From the stand no. Youth reclining.15 in the Metropolitan Museum. Youth sitting at his grave. Milla. Museum. Photograph by E.23 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. Maenads and Satyr (Kraipale.258. Woman putting on her chiton. From the onos 1629 in the National Museum. Milla.2 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. by the Eretria Painter. by the Dinos Painter. Milla. Fragment of a bell krater. Milla. Thetis.122. 108. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Preparations for the wedding of Thetis. Ephymnia.1 in the British Museum. From the oinochoe 00. From the hydria 81947 in the Archaeological Museum. From the lekythos 31. D 105. Photograph by E. by Polion. From the pyxis 40. From the pelike 37. by the Painter of London 14. in the manner of the . 24. Photograph by E.9-9. Aphrodite.97. From 109. in the manner of the Kleophon Painter.
From the skyphos 06. Photograph by 118.181 in the Metropolitan Museum. From the oinochoe 25. Milla.ILLUSTRATIONS Woman Painter. Photograph by E. From the hydria 22. Youth sitting at his grave. . pis. Herakles and a Hesperid. and Eros.88.12 in the Metropolitan Museum.11. at a grave. 117. Milla. Photograph by E. 125. Photograph by E. 190 in the Metropolitan Musuem.45 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. 143144. xxvii From the white lekythos 06. Milla. From the white lekythos 07.1021. Woman and her maid. Milla. Milla. Photograph by E. Naples. 119. From the amphora 2340 in the National Museum. Museum. 122. Milla.1169 in the Metropolitan Museum.139. Pompe.286. The flute player Pronomos. From the amphora 44.26 in the Metropolitan Museum. Photograph by E. Milla.162 in the Metropolitan 121. 130. Drawing by Reichhold. Photograph by E. Dionysos. 123. Mourners E. From the hydria 21. Poseidon. by the Suessula Painter. Greeks and Amazons. FR. Milla. 124. From the white lekythos 41. by the Pronomos Painter.162.12 in the Metropolitan Museum.
thanks to the beneficent reforms of Solon and the brilliant rule of Peisistratos. and follow the development of ancient painting step by step just as we might glean something of the evolution of modern painting from the graphic arts of to-day.C. During the whole of the fifth century Athenian redfigured vases retained their ascendancy but the long-drawn-out . for the simple destruction. friezes.INTRODUCTION GENERAL WHEN we We speak of the art of the Greeks most of us think of their sculpture and architecture the statues. when Athens. pottery discussed in this book is the so-called Athenian in red against red-figure. not to the creative early periods when the foundations of European painting were laid. South The reversal of Italy. and temples that have withstood two or three thousand years of seldom think of Greek painting. Athenian black-figured pottery with the decoration black glaze on the red background of the terracotta had already conquered foreign markets. the color scheme from the time-honored dark on light to the new to an already flourishlight on dark opened up fresh possibilities ing craft. The beginnings of this ware can be placed in the last third of the sixth century B.. when painting developed from a decorative to a representational art. in which the decoration is "reserved" a black-glazed background. which were praised in such enthusiastic terms by Greek and Roman writers. by the wealth of painted scenes on Greek pottery that have come down to us. and the Eastern Mediterranean testify. It was produced in Athens during even over and above their The her greatest political and economic prosperity. in the middle of the sixth cenin tury. Before that time. This great gap is filled. as the graves of Etruria. to some extent at least. Through them we may in some measure visualize the lost monu- mental pictures. Greek vase decorations therefore assume an importance own intrinsic worth. had risen from a comparatively small though enterprising community to a powerful city-state. reason that practically all the murals and panels that have survived to our day belong to a later age.
later archaic period. the time frieze. The precision of the shapes and the black glaze are an inspiration to the potter. to that of Praxiteles. and then was finally ousted by the more popular relief ware. and they are distinguishable in the same ways. Each artist reveals himself by the general effect of his picture and by his own particular rendering of individual forms. solved one by one the problems of foreshortening. which above all others interested the Greek artist. The vase paintings alone have survived to tell this captivating tale. for Greek myths and Athenian life are here illustrated in a series of "conis The attraction of this manifold and temporary" pictures. The scenes supply invaluable material to the archaeologist for the understanding of Greek life and thought. Athenian red-figure still enjoyed a limited popularity until about 320 B. Slowly he gained a knowledge of the complex^ mechanism of the human frame.2 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Peloponnesian War and Athens' final defeat by Sparta at Aigospotamoi in 405 B. and decline took up approximately two centuries of the Siphnian or from the time of Simonides. 1 positions. therefore acme. seriously crippled her once far-flung commerce.C. Pindar. The fine thin. The history of Attic red-figured pottery. trace more than a general development. from the and Aeschylus to that of Menander. that is. its rise. was able to represent the folds of thin and heavy draperies. To the historian of art a rich feast is likewise presented. Skopas. He finds here a wealth of paintings. ranging in date from the archaic to the fully developed style. and Lysippos. in which the many problems of representation are gradually solved. Here we can trace the gradual evolution of representational The rendering of the human figure was the subject drawing. its study should pottery appeal to a wide public. vol- ume to his figures. only the dif- Greek painting we can imparted and introduced spatial relations into his comMoreover in this slow unfolding of the history of . satiny line drawing and the adaptation of the figures to allotted spaces of varying shapes and curving surfaces afford pleasure to the painter. Individual personalities stand out as clearly as in Renaissance painting.C. It is one of the great achievements of the Greeks to have emancipated the art of drawing from a conventional system of two-dimensional formulas and to have shown the way to represent on a flat surface three-dimensional figures as they appear to the eye.
and on vast surfaces display the variety of naturalistic form immersed in light and atmosphere. These are derived from various sources from the name of the potter who signed at least one of the vases decorated by the painter (the Brygos Painter. Thanks chiefly to the astonishing acumen of Beazley we are now able to differentiate more than five hundred vase painters active between 530 and 330. In classifying the work of various masters and searching out their individual characteristics. 46. of the salient characteristics of Athenian vase paintings is the economy of means employed. but the subject of Greek pottery has immeasurably gained in interest thereby. from a kalos name (the Euaion Painter). the Lewis Painter with Polygnotos II. largely of our generation. thus identified with Psiax. for the Greek in the vase painter worked with a simpler color scheme and within the restraint of conventionalized design. By the simple expedient of beautiapplying a black glaze to the red clay the artist produced ful compositions of figured scenes framed by ornamental bands. from the subject of a characteristic work loca(the Persephone Painter. and variety and richness are added by the decorative treatment of hair and One . 16).INTRODUCTION ferentiation is 3 subtler than in the later paintings. Occasionally it has happened that after such a name was invented the real name became known by the discovery of a signed piece or the recognition of an artist's the Menon Painter has now been style in a signed work. the Methyse Painter). we penetrate more deeply into early Greek art and so derive a fuller understanding of it. 66. The dark and light surfaces are finely interrelated. and so forth. from the name given to one of the figures (the Lykaon Painter. for the variations of style are not always obvious. the Kleophrades Painter with Epiktetos II (see pp. the Meidias Painter). earlier periods He could not express his individuality with the same freedom as did a Raphael and a Titian. a few Greek vase painters have recorded their names by Only their signatures. from the tion of an outstanding painting (the Berlin Painter. the Providence Painter). To the anonymous artists of whom no signature has survived names have had to be assigned. This differentiation requires intensive study. the Penelope Painter). who could dip their brushes into rich colors. The majority did not sign their works (see To distinguish these nameless artists has been the task p. 127).
at first at least. a little curve for the nostril these suffice for the face. The economy of means lies not only in the color scheme. for. We must not look for individualized character on Greek vases. 140). sharp contour and a few strokes inside it for anatomical details express the body. and. as relation that these vase paintings bear to the panel and is a question of engrossing inter- we have said. It is only when our and concave fields of the vases themeye travels along the convex selves that we can appreciate how perfectly the designs have been how both figures and "intervals" adapted to the given spaces. 8). It is the type not the individual that is brought before us (see p. and other details. that a richer color scheme is adopted. there is no shading. while the lustrous black glaze. inscriptions. gesture. It is as exthis limited field pressive designs that we must view them. there are power and a rhythm runs and swing in the direct. weapons. practically no large paintings have been . in the earlier examples at least. anatomical wreaths. Straight line A ventionalized patterns indicate the folds of the garments and the locks of the hair. for hair. the modern sense of the word. but and curve were never more a dot and two lines single stroke for the eyebrow. no modeling. And so no plays. drapery and by Here and there a discrete use is made of applied red for fillets. for the eye. conalso in the rendering. in the composition of the whole (see p. gives illustrations can do justice to the originals. and in they excel. the feeling for depth. for they lack the varied color scheme. and emotions are indicated by gestures. utensils. expressive. The beauty of these patterned fields is enhanced by the curvseem to impart movement to the figures and ing surfaces which ornaments. Vase paintlines. only rarely by the features. a short dash for the mouth.4 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the ornamentation on dress. the only suggestion of space being the drawing of one form over another. the atmosphere. and of thinned glaze It is only in the late phase of the art markings. The mural paintings of their time est. Of course there are also limitations. unhesitat- ings cannot be regarded as paintings in. Yet the figures are convincing in movement and ing through the composition. on which the light a certain atmospheric effect (see p. And. 41). a clean. and their play part how the glaze lends luminosity.
Apollodoros. Naturally decorations of pots would not make the same stir as large panels or mural paintings. We We Mikon. these Athenian pots enjoyed a great vogue not only in Greece but throughout the Mediterranean world. with a gradual increase in the knowledge of can do must fill this gap. Apart from a few incidental remarks about potters in general. who showed such marked individualities of style. on the other hand. and of the rendering of form. 4 the Greek and Latin writers never refer have frequent and sometimes lengthy accounts of to them. and the vase decorations this to the extent that limited color scheme. but. but never a word about Epiktetos or Euphronios or Douris. And they pictures on a small scale with a anatomy. one a black glaze. Apelles. there are no identical scenes by different artists which can be interpreted as direct copies from a common original (see p. if the vase painters had merely reproduced the famous paintings of their time. the pathfinders in these trails of discovery (see p. Zeuxis. the artists of the larger pictures were presumably often the pioneers. we meet with a great obstacle the practically complete silence of ancient writers concerning them. the great mural and panel painters of the time Polygnotos. should we not find more identical designs by different 8 artists? Though a few "duplicates" exist by the same artist. In fact. would never have been content to copy other artists. as we know from the thousands of Attic vases found in the tombs of Italy. can therefore regard the vase painters as working in the same traditions as other Greek artists. who were such masters of drawing in a difficult medium. and in the larger paintings there must have been the same development from a two-dimensional design to a naturalistic rendering. and in such outlying places as Upper Egypt. 89).INTRODUCTION 2 5 preserved. And that such artists as the Kleophrades . Moreover. The repertoire of subjects was doubtless similar. 104). and imbued with the same originality and sense of adventure. of foreshortening. etc. Asia Minor. People that the vase paintings were copied from monumental who so perfectly adapted designs to their own requirements. coping with similar problems. If we try to picture the artists who worked in the potters' quarter in Athens from the sixth to the fourth century. can suggest large paintings with many colors. But we should go too far if we were to assert as is sometimes done paintings. Sicily.
exception.).) the had already passed its prime. from the occasional remarks inscribed on Greek vases. above all. 6 as is indeed natural in the far do not realize how are. and his products were treasured in antiquity as they 5 are to-day.6 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Painter and the Panaitios Painter must also have been distinguished in their time is shown by the simple fact that they distanced their contemporaries. Plato. and in the time of Aristophanes. etc. we know from the dedicatory offerings found on the Akropolis that certain potters were wealthy and so presumably of some consequence. and. which include some non-Attic names such as Phintias. Excavators or A case of persbns associated with so flourishing a trade. which tell the same story and suggest expect a semiliterate class. referred little to current fashions. The complete silence. therefore. the sculptures and mural paintings were still there to act as witnesses of their makers. Writers like Aeschylus and Pindar. These artists lived during a period of intense creative activity but before the time of art histories. but the pottery had been buried in tombs or was hidden in dump heaps. of the orators (Lysias. Students who know Athenian vases only from museum specimens or from illustrations in handbooks above the average these selected examples buyers in the antiquity shops of Athens are much better judges of the average output of Athenian potters first-rate vase painter was an than museum visitors. not the rule. Moreover. therefore. etc. . and of the writers of art of vase painting memoirs and dialogues (Xenophon. from the faulty or non-Attic spellings (see what we might p. concerning the outstanding Athenian vase painters might seem strange did we not remember one fact. concerning the makers of the vases glean from the vases themselves: from the signatures. 21). and some non-Greek ethnic names such as Brygos and Skythes. AlLinformation. from the character of the paintings themselves which fortunately are more eloquent than any amount of literature concerning them. who were contemporary with the most distinguished of the vase painters. 7 When in the fourth and subsequent centuries writers began to record the artistic events of the preceding epochs. Now that we have again brought it to light it constitutes our chief source of knowledge also for the lost major paintings. 8 and show we must that gifted aliens came to Athens to work side by side with Athenian potters.
he watched them in their homes and painted the gay banquets. and at play with their balls carding wool. He watched the youths in the gymnasiums and dethem at their exercises running. nor Dionysos with his merry retinue of satyrs and maenads. or symposia. and being crowned for victory. getting married. and being buried. The stories are no longer rendered so closely according to traditional forms. the individual artist gives more scope to his imagination. eating and drinking. 10 But side by side with these pictures from everyday life the mythological scenes remain. throwing the javelin and the discus. he depicted the women busy with their household and other occupapicted tions ing. Records of contemporary life are comparatively few. making music. dogs. But even here there is more variety in the representations than before. legends of the Olympian gods. departing for battle. dancperforming religious rites the children and little carts. And so the exploits of Herakles and of the other heroes against monsters and wicked men are not forgotten. with men reclining on their couches. nor the gay adventures of the Olympians. their tops.INTRODUCTION SUBJECTS 7 in the earlier. There was no censorship in Greek art. weaving. Everything that the artist saw around him he drew with the same frank and eager interest. and pet birds. and flute girls and hetairai ministering to their pleasures. for instance contests of Greeks and Persians or the sojourn of the poet Anakreon in Athens. however. of Herakles and Theseus. . arming. and fighting. supply a large proportion of the themes. jumping. he represented them riding. dressing. the artist drew his inspiration increasingly from the life around him. and he showed mourners at biers and graves. nor the Amazons and centaurs. of the Trojan War. As time progressed. bathing. he delighted in the riotous antics of the revelers. Occasionally he even represents historical events. even subjects which the modern artist avoids he unhesitatingly brings before us as part of life and nature. The myths were too much part of Greek thought to be discarded. he represented men and women making love. black-figured vases the subjects in red-figure 9 are at first taken largely from The time-honored As mythology. hoops. spinning.
the sticks of the young men. the dresses. Though furnishings play an important role as accessories. and animals are popular companions. and headgear. shoes. great the furnishings. from everyday life. Except for these important omissions the repertoire of the early Greek artist is not unlike that of later times.8 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES In all these scenes. they too are really types rather than individuals types of an Oriental. as those of the As the subjects of red-figured vase paintings are much the same contemporary monumental Greek paintings judging at least from descriptions of these in ancient literature they can help us to visualize the scope and the limitations of Greek painting in general. a sorrowing woman. Likewise. The interest centers in the human figures. He too chose his topics from legend. for instance there is no attempt to make him look different from his companions (see p. 58). the flute cases and sword sheaths. it is confined to an occasional tree or shrub or rock suggesting an outdoor scene and serving merely as the setting in which human figures enact their parts. of the baskets and chests. mythological. is 11 interest added by the paraphernalia learn from. of the couches with their mattresses. But. Without these representations our knowledge of the details of Greek life would be meager in- deed. and pillows. and occasionally from . When we compare them with those current in art to-day we note two great gaps in the ancient reperlandscape and portraiture. destroyed and which often survive only in these representations the forms of the Greek chairs and tables. utensils. an old man. Interest in individual character per se does toire art is not appear in Greek painting until a later period. Landscape in classical Greek always subsidiary. though these are deviations from the typical young men and women favored in Greek art. an old man or an old woman. a father or mother grieving for a dead son. portraiture in our sense of the word is practically nonexistent in Athenian vase painting. It does not form a separate study for its own sake. or historical. It is true that occasionally what have been called individualized figures appear in the midst of the more generalized types an old Oriental walking with his dog. The same is true of 12 still life and animals. they rarely appear by themselves. and We everyday. covers. them of: many things which time has attire. Even when a figure is given the name of a specific contemporary person Anakreon.
. that are brought out. The pattern that underlies their works has given them permanence. . but the general idea is the same. They too chose for their subjects illustrations from the life of Christ. but the action in each scene differs according to the circumstance. the deeds of saints.. the of primary gives Greeks achieved a quality of greatness that remains potent today. of life had Though the content of religion and some aspects artist's method of translating these into pictorial form remained the same. a farewell. In a pregnant phrase George Santayana sums up this fundamental difference between the ancient and modern outlook: ". and Forain a dancer. The ancients similar or even identical woman dancing poetized the actual surroundings and destiny of man rather than the travesty of these facts in human fancy and the consequent dramas within the spirit. and the happenings of daily life. shaped by the circumstances of his life. Though from our modern viewpoint the Greek conception may not seem sufficiently individualized. hand. heroic or humble. a battle. in depicting the events of life. When Schongauer portrays a saint. The expressions of Theseus and Herakles hardly vary in their many adventures. a but the treatment of it is unlike. it is the character and personality of the individual. the subject may a mighty deed. whereas in our time artists can choose from the stories of many nations.INTRODUCTION history. by lifting their representations into the impersonal sphere. By not stressing the accidental. And it is this action that the Greek artist poetized by his imaginative conception. also inspired the majority of mediaeval and later European artists. though rather despised by some modern critics as being merely illustrative. whereas later artists were more interested in the human reaction to these surroundings. in the "dramas within the spirit. the Greek artist's chief interest is in story-telling. This theme. In Greek on the other representations. Naturally his 9 myths and events are purely Greek. Nevertheless there is a great difference between the Greek and the later outlook. it is after all this very detachment which Greek art its peculiar value. it is not the individual but the action that is interest. sacred or profane." 18 It is "the actual surroundings and destiny of man" that formed the chief preoccupation of the Greek artist and constituted the subjects he preferably treated. Rembrandt an old man. In other words." which these events produce. The be changed.
to They stand out against the plain black portions. at other times profusely. Greek pottery gives the impression of sturdy architecture. in rare instances. checkers. and a rich assortment of ivy and lotos patterns. is (see p. palmettes. the shoulder. double. spirals. foot. 14 Each motive is infinitely varied. rays. while current for a considerable time. Sometimes they were used sparingly. quadruple. dots. scrolls. appear parts as three-dimensional designs. has a certain chrono- And even during one period the ornament often drawn and composed in so individual a manner that we can either assign it definitely to the artist of the picture or. neck. triple. and simple lines practically make up the list. body. palmettes interlaced with scrolls. There are single. Compared to the vases of other countries with their softly undusense for lating contours. single. Different patterns are favored at different times. the base of the body. conclude that it was added by another painter logical development. but always. handles are nicely related to one another and to the whole. and interlocking meanders. crosses. they play an important part in the composition. SHAPES symmetry and proportion conspicuous in the decorations of Greek vases is equally apparent in their shapes. the ivy. their composition varies from period to period. They are drawn free hand without stencils or other guiding instrument. often derived from The metalwork. meanders alternating with saltires. the lotos. eggs. helping to link the figured scenes to the shape of the vase. lending richness to the effect of the whole. tongues. As our eye glides up and down . the laurel. the various mouth. crosses. the spaces round the handles. the neck. double. though subsidiary. and slanting palmettes. The strongly articulated forms. and checkers. 69).10 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES ORNAMENTS Ornamental bands and designs were used on Athenian vases frame the figured scenes and to decorate the portions of the vase not occupied by these scenes the mouth. The repertoire is not large meanders. each motive.
the calyx krater. And perhaps this underlying scheme gradually became instinctive and was not worked out in every instance. 18 To become intimately acquainted with these Greek forms. with changes in details. and the Panathenaic. including the neck amphora. Be may. and to watch their slow development is to obtain an insight into the mind of the Greeks and their approach to art. the lebes. would affect us unpleasantly. for instance. there are no dinner sets with dozens of identical dishes. the number of the shapes is greatly increased. only occasionally instances occur of vases made in pairs or groups. the column krater. In the course of time we can note a certain development in these shapes. when carefully measured and analyzed. 15 Was such perfect pro- Or was it the result of an underlying principle of design? The question is a moot one. at least two chief varieties of water jar. slightly changing the size. oil. the proportions. the bell krater. but many portion obtained by instinct? vases. An obvious arithmetical proportion does not seem to hold. Broadly speaking. for the Greek potter. the pointed. And as each potter makes his pot he creates an individual design. and 17 perfume jugs and many types of cups. the modern potter anxious to improve his sense much from the study of Greek vases however different in composition from his own. 16 It does not seem farfetched to shown and to suppose. to appreciate their subtle distinctions. was content to adhere to a few prescribed types. as mixing bowls the volute krater. numerous forms of wine. considering the known Greek interest in geometry. have been to correspond to certain simple geometrical proportions circle geometry. reminded of the Greek definition of beauty as an interrelation of parts to the whole and to one another. that as it of form can learn . like the early Greek sculptor. there are only a few standard shapes in Athenian pottery. There is no mass production in Attic red-figure. the curves. We have. several forms of amphora. a little change in the are position of the handles. Each shape is expressive of the function it has to perform. By such variations. that the designers of this architectural pottery felt the same need that the architects did in their temples of having the given areas proportionately interrelated. The sturdy early forms tend gradually to become slenderer.INTRODUCTION We 11 the satisfying curves we feel that even a slight variation in the widths or the heights of the various parts. however.
the amphora a storage jar.Amphora (Panathenaic) Neck Amphora Column Krater Caly)i Krutcr lobes fell Krater Hydria Hydria (Klf>i) Psykter FIGURE 1 The various kraters and the lebes were bowls for mixing wine and water. . the psykter was a wine cooler. the pelike a container. the stamnos a wine container. the hydria a water jar.
The pyxis or kylichnis was a box for toilet as a wedding present.x Loirtrophoros Skyphoa StmlM Kylix Skyphos Kyathoa Squat Lakythoa Lekythoj Arybilloj Lebes Gamikos FIGURE 2 The lebes gamikos was a wedding vase. The lekythos and oil bottles. the loutrophoros both a the aryballos were wedding and a sepulchral vase. the oinochoe a wine jug. the alabastron a perfume bottle. the kantharos. the lekanis a covered dish often used . and skyphos were drinking cups. kylix. articles. the kyathos may have been a dipper.Oinochoe Oinochoe (Chousi Kylix Kyl.
to go over the field again here. but for Nereids. e. Since names of heroes and deities were not as a rule given 28 to individuals in classical times. Perrephatta and Pherrephatta (Persephone)." The names given to deities and heroes jar. The vases were for use. or an object is described: 0a*o<r. Perreus (Perseus).. 20 They served days before glass well adapted for their various functions. therefore. occasionally 22 "likeness. Thus what appears to be an ordinary household is trans- .." for a horse. The names are in the genitive (with generally in the nominative. satyrs. The subject of the names of Athenian vases and the development of each shape are discussed in Miss Milne's and my Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases (1935)5 and a list of all the various shapes in use during redfigure is given by Beazley in his recently published Athenian Red- figure Vase-Painters. supplying their of the extant inscriptions refer to the figures reprenames and thus making the task of identi- Aphrodite. Amazons." dSput. It is unnecessary. "Ajax". "of euctov. not merely for ornament. as practical experias utensils of rich and poor in the came into general use." Kprjvjj. and are ments show. especially in the period preceding the fourth century. 'A^poSi-rqs. vase painters often invented names at least the names they use do not always tally with those in the literary works preserved Olytteus to us.g. They are of various kinds: (i) Many fication easy. Muses. "a are generally those known from Greek literature mostly in the forms current in the Attic dialect. "a water fountain. sented. we can take it for granted that when they occur on the vases the scene is intended for a mythological one." understood): A*a. pp. 2). but for the convenience of the reader we include line drawings 19 of the principal shapes with the names which have been generally assigned to them (figs. "a seat. i. especially in mythological scenes. etc. INSCRIPTIONS The inscriptions on Athenian vases form an important study 21 which opens up many avenues of research. original Greek names of some ot for others names have had to be invented.i 4 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES The the shapes are known. VIII f. (Odysseus)." Sometimes an animal is named: "Xanthos. maenads.
25 IXa. Rarely a whole dialogue is given: ISov x^Swv. the words dai." shouts a driver to his 20 horses. We have many radiant descriptions of these boys in Plato's Dialogues. or. "I greet you" (see p. but occasionally the boy or girl depicted appears to be the favorite named. "he generally issuing from his mouth: oii Swap." says a boy. .' ov." says a man reclining on a couch.AT} (the former much more fre- S1 or merely the words 6 irat* KaAos. sometimes vat^t." 80 Sometimes the inscription is not explanatory of the scene depicted but is addressed to the person using or looking at the vase: irpoaayopfvu). The formulas employed so *aA. in the other his cup. "I cannot (sing). "get up. you are right." says an oil merchant under his breath in another oil-selling scene. 28 toast to Euthymides and one to Leagros appear on vases by Phintias and Euphronios." without the mention of a name.Trapa/3<ipaKtv." says a youth looking at a flying bird. "the boy is handsome. by his side is the title of the picture. IXa. 29 A apparently spoken by the hetairai represented on the vases. standing between them. The custom among girl is youth or are: so and vase painters of naming a favorite of particular interest. would that I might get rich. the very words used in Greece to-day to urge on a horse." or Kapra. These inscriptions need not have any relation to the subject represented.os. "Euphronios never did anything like this. ws ouSeVoTc Eu</xwos. 51)." are added for emphasis. cap 7/877. pointing to the bird." is written next to a youth swinging his jumping weights. "there it is. 32 We may suppose that the boy called "handsome" by the vase painter was a favorite of the client or of the quently)." on a scene by Euthymides (see (4) p. avrrjL. 7r\o[v]. "look. "by Herakles. just KaAo's is used." rejoins a man. so and so KO. We know from literature the admiration of the Greeks for the beauty of boys. no I cannot. 24 Or a person is making a remark.INTRODUCTION ferred to Olympos or the bottom of the sea by the to the individual figures. 55). "it is as full as it can be. "very. 7/S?7 fj^ev r/S?? "Zeus. one hand to his head. "yes. a swallow. Boys rather than women formed the center of attraction. v? TOV 'HpcucAea. "spring (3) is here. often. it is spilling over. (2) 15 names given Occasionally the action of a figure is described: aXov/wvo? is going to jump." declares an oil merchant to his customer about an amphora 27 and & Zcv irare/s aife TrAouo-tos yi>[oi'/xav].
and perhaps a second time. tells Sokrates 88 The same kalos name of the new "beauties" Trepl rS>v /caAwv. distinguished Athenian generals. To mention a few instances: Myson's name is known from a single Some column krater found on the Akropobut he did not sign his extant masterpieces the amphora with Croesus in the Louvre and the krater with Aithra in the British Museum (see p. And so on. On the many works attributed to the signature on a second-rate lis. In fact most of the do.\l/ev Katrot-rjtrev). on his masterpiece in Boston. Not only the best work was signed. for pots with the same kalos names must be contemporary and occasionally a fair boy became a prominent man. so and so "made it" (cTroirjacv. the victor of Marathon in 490. Zypa<}>6). about 520-510. at least their names are not recorded on the vases stylistically identified as theirs. such signatures are rare.\pf. These chronological data will be discussed in detail in the introductory chapters of the different sections. that is. The formula employed by the artist is either. Thus Miltiades. "painted and made it" (typa. 71). on a pyxis in Athens (see p. for after an absence at the siege of Poteidaia instance. This law of nature has provided archaeologists with clues for the dating of vases. finest vases have no signature and some poor ones distinguished artists signed a few of their works (not necessarily their best) but left many unsigned. perhaps had his praises sung on a vase twenty to thirty years earlier than that event." Kritias. (5) Most precious of all are the signatures of artists. the Achilles Painter not a single painter's signature appears.v. Considering the large number of vases preserved. Makron's name occurs once. most of them occurring several times. is apt to occur on a number of vases by one artist and is employed also by others. but only by contemporaries (except when different boys with the same name are meant). . give landmarks for the vases of about 5 10-505 and 470. for the bloom of youth fades after a few years and one does not remain a fair boy for 8* long. the Brygos Painter. A few times a double signature occurs: "so and so made it and so SO "paillted it" (lypa. 81). firoUi) or. Only about fifty names of artists (including potters and painters) are preserved on red-figured vases.i6 artist ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES or was a universally acknowledged "beauty. SO and Rarely he uses both. other equally great or perhaps greater artists never signed. the Berlin Painter. Panaitios Painter. Leagros and his son Glaukon.
" he is the potter as well as the painter." of course refers to the decorator. their harmonious proportions. Myson. and Pasiades occur on some vases with epoiesen and on others with egrapsen. rather than on a few? 8T Furthermore epoiesen means "made it. The beauty of the Greek shapes. Phintras. 51. And though the names of Euphronios. but we can never be sure. the employer of the "factory hands. however. since in one case Makron signed as painter (egrapsen) jointly with Hieron as potter.." In two instances on 85 two men sign with epoiesen. 56). sometimes with "made it. 53 f. One individual may have both gifts the ability to fashion vases and the ability to ornament them." It is the word regularly used by the sculptor when he signs. Now and then the same name occurs on different vases. Occa- sionally the verb epoiesen may refer also to the painting. would not this trademark occur on all the better pieces. It has sometimes been interpreted to indicate that the name which appears with epoiesen is that of the owner of the pottery. and it would be the natural term for the potter. and perhaps Epiktetos. is he only the potter or the painter as well? We know definitely that in some cases he is not the painter. that is." 38 But if this were true. It is the term regularly employed by a painter." sometimes with "painted it. 88 9 Egrapsen* "painted it." 17 "Made it" is the commonest form. as we know from present experience. and the majority of the vases signed only by Hieron are painted in the same style as the specimen he signed with Makron (see p. As a matter of fact. make it only natural that the potter should be considered at least on a par with the decorator. the maker.INTRODUCTION and so painted it. there are very few certain instances in Athenian red-figure of the same men having both potted and painted. The vases signed by Hieron as potter (epoiesen) cannot have been also painted by him. "painted and made it. if "so and so made it" were the mark of an atelier. black-figured little-master cups Such is the evidence. to employ. The feeling for form and for decoration are often allied. the double signature egrapsen kapoiesen is only preserved of Douris. . the achievement implied in such products as a kylix with a bowl twelve inches or more in diameter or a large stamnos with overhanging shoulder. 81). But when a man signs only with epoiesen. the decorators of the epoiesen vases are not identical with those of the egrapsen ones (see pp. Of course when a man signs egrapsen ka- poiesen. but not necessarily.
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
In a few cases the same name, with the verb egrapsen, occurs on vases which are different in style. For instance, a pelfke in Berlin is signed Epiktetos egrapsen, but the decoration is not in the style of the well-known vase painter Epiktetos, but in that of the artist who has been called the Kleophrades Painter, since he decorated a cup potted by Kleophrades (see p. 66). The name Polygnotos occurs with the verb egrapsen on vases by at least three different artists the man whom we have called Polygnotos for some time (see p. 127), the so-called Lewis Painter (see p. 112), and the so-called Nausikaa Painter (see p. 97). The name Douris occurs with egrapsen not only on the many vases by the
painter who has long been familiar by that name, but on a vase by the so-called Triptolemos Painter (see p. 83). In these cases the most reasonable explanation is that more than one vase painter bore the name in question. Most signatures are painted in the fields of the vases, before firing, but they also occur on handles or feet or rims; and some-
times they are incised instead of painted, before or after firing. 40 generally incised his name on the handle, occa-
Andokides on the
signatures, including those with epoiesen, are painted, presumably by the decorator of the vase, has been advanced as an argu-
against the theory that epoiesen refers to the potter. But surely the potter even when he did not paint the decoration could nevertheless sign his work with the brush or could let
do it for him. 42 know too little of ancient pracmatters to have definite opinions. It is tempting to speculate regarding the why's and wherefore's of signatures. If a signature did not signify an artist's pride in his handiwork as presumably it did not, since so much first-rate work is unsigned and there are a number of signed inferior vases why did the artist sign? Hardly to advertise his work, for in
else tice in these
that case he
would have made
a practice of signing his best prod-
autograph gifts to friends, for most signatures were affixed before firing. Not, as was sometimes the case in the
Renaissance, for identification away from home, for many vases found in Italy have no signatures and many examples discovered in Athens have. On the present evidence, the only answer is that we do not know. It looks as if a signature were due merely
whim of the maker.
of the extant signatures on red-figured vases belong to the late sixth and early fifth centuries. The great names of An-
dokides, Epiktetos, Euphronios, Euthymides, Phintias, Sosias, Smikros, Onesimos, Kleophrades, Brygos, Hieron, Makron, Douris, all date from that time. But the custom continued through
the fifth century (Sotades,
Hermonax, Polygnotos, Epigenes,
to its closing years (Meidias, Aristophanes,
early fourth century (Xenophantos). The only Athenian signatures of the later fourth century so far known are on
and into the
Panathenaic amphorae. are many meaningless inscriptions. Apparently the (6) There a kalos painter began to give names to his figures or to supply name and then added letters that made no sense. Since inscriptions generally have a decorative value and play their part in the to supply design, the artist may sometimes have felt it necessary them regardless of whether they had any meaning. 43
the under side of the feet of Greek vases (rarely else-
where) there sometimes appear inscriptions, dipinti (painted) or graffiti (scratched in the clay). They consist of marks, one or
of vases (often abbreviated), de-
numerals (sometimes scriptions of vases ("large" or "small"), with TIM, "price," added), kalos names, and so on. One might for instance, expect, therefore, to learn from them many things, detailed study, the correct ancient names of some of the vases.
has shown that this is not the case; that many of the price graffiti are apparently memoranda of transactions, often with no relation to the vase on which they have been scratched. Nevertheless one can glean from them a
however, by Hackl and others
of interesting facts. Ionic forms of letters, though they do not occur in other vases until about 490-480, appear earlier in the inscriptions on on the same vase there are an inscription graffiti. Occasionally in pure Attic and a graffito with Ionic forms. Hackl, therefore, surmised that the writers of the graffiti were die traders who
memoranda of their orders on sample vases, and that middlemen, who formed the link between the Athenian Kerameikos and the Etruscan market, were lonians, at least up to about 480. After that date the Ionian script was used increastherefore no longer a distinguishing mark. ingly in Athens and is We must remember, however, that the Ionian alphabet was the
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
so that any trader script even before 480; 48 it as an international handwriting.
the numerals employed in the graffiti (b) Before about 480 belong to the so-called Milesian or alphabet system, after that time to the Attic decimal (acrophonic) system,* 7 The change from the convenient Milesian system to the more clumsy Attic has been explained by the theory that Athenian traders stepped in
at that time,
nature of the
affords a glimpse of
the negotiations were made. The letters, marks, ligatures, abbreviations probably stood for the name of the buyer, the names and descriptions of vases for the order given, and the numerals for
the quantity of vases ordered or for their price (in drachmas
The prices mentioned are particularly interesting.* 8 There many certain instances, but enough to give us an idea.
Six kraters cost 4 drachmas; twenty bathea i drachma and i obol; twenty oxides 3 obols.* This information tallies with that derived from Aristophanes, Frogs 1236, that a lekythion cost an
obol. Large vases were of course more expensive than small ones, and decorated ones than plain ones as is shown by the graffiti which refer to vS(ptot) TTO^KI'ACU) costing fully 3 and 2 drachmas 60 Considering that a drachma was a good day's wage in apiece. the fifth century, the prices are on the whole what one would
(e) By far the majority of the graffiti of the kind described above occur on vases found in Italy. This supposedly favors the 61 theory that Ionian traders carried on the overseas trade. (f) Recently a number of vases with graffiti have been found 52 These consist chiefly of names on osin the Athenian Agora. traka (sherds used in ostracism), kalos names, or two or three
presumably for demosia
(perhaps indications of ownership), or a ligature of de, state property, for occasionally the entire word is written out.
The few Etruscan graffiti
are mostly owners'
BS which occur on Athenian vases names and such words as suthina, "tomb ar-
menece on a red-figured fragment from Populonia w which has
call attention in this
therefore probably inscribed in Etruria. connection to the inscription raetru
been tentatively read
or "Metru gave
painted on the glaze and fired and must there-
been added when the vase was made. This would seem and presumably some other Attic vases, were actually made in Italy unless we assume that the Etruscan inscription on the vase from Populonia was added in Athens for the benefit of an Etruscan client. (h) Some graffiti in the Cypriot syllabary occur on Attic vases. 56 They usually consist of a dedication or an owner's name; but two on a red-figured bell krater have been interpreted as 57 This would point to lively traveling by price memoranda.
to indicate that this vase,
technique of the inscriptions
saw in the case of the signatures, are painted in a dark red pigment either on the black glaze or on the red terracotta; a few are incised before firing (and occasionally glazed over 58 or filled with white paint); 59 some, like the graffiti, are incised, generally after
firing; in rare instances
they are in
Athenian vase painters were often faulty spellers; and since many apparently spelled by sound, their inscriptions throw light on the way a word was pronounced by the populace. 61 For instance,
New York 62
of the well-
painter is spelt with an c Kletias showing for the first time that his name was really Kleitias, not Klitias as spelt on the Francois and other vases, and that the pronunciation of
the "e" sound in this word as is, in certain circles at least, as old as the sixth century B.C. Occasionally, but not often, nonAttic forms appear chiefly Doric ones, once in a while Ionic ones. 68 Up to about 490 the letters are written in Attic script (except the graffiti, see p. 19); after 480, Ionic letters begin to 6* then A for lambda, r for gamma, and first a= and * appear: 06 The early fi finally H for 77 instead of for the rough breathing. of these Ionic letters on the vases, as compared with appearance official stone inscriptions, is of course explained by the fact that pots are not official documents; the Ionic forms were in general use long before they were adopted by the state. 66 After about 450 we otten find A for A and * for $ ; but even on vases by the same artist varying forms occur. 67
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
chronology of red-figured Athenian vases both relative has by now become reliably established. The absolute dating is based on landmarks similar to those used for the sculptures of that period. These landmarks are dated events
the Samian attack on Siphnos before 524 B.C., which supplies a date for the reliefs of the Siphnian Treasury and the vases related to them (see p. 43); the sojourn of Anakreon in Athens in the late sixth century, which gives a date to the vases with repre-
him (see p. 58); the battle of Marathon in 490, which dates the mound in which the fallen Athenians and some vases were buried (see p. 64); the sack of Athens by the Persians in 480 and 479 with the consequent stowing away of the broken statues and vases in pits on the Akropolis (see p. 65); the battles of Samos and Corcyra in 441-440 and 433-432 under the general Glaukon, who was probably the fair youth named on vases of
the "Early Free" period (see p. 93); the erection of the Periklean and post-Periklean buildings to whose sculptures the vase paintings of the second half of the fifth century are stylistically related (see p. 117); the purification of the island of
in 425 when the contents of certain graves including vases were transferred to Rheneia (see p. 141); the death of Dexileos in the battle of Corinth in 394 B.C. which gives an approximate
date for the vases found in his burial-plot (see p. 142); the visit
to Athens of the Theban musician Pronomos, who is mentioned by Aristophanes and in an inscription, and is named on a volute krater in Naples (see p. 142); the burial of Lacedaemonians in 403 B.C. in the Athenian Kerameikos which dates the vase fragments found in their grave (see p. 142); the occurrence of names of Athenian archons on late Panathenaic vases (see p. 156); and
framework of absolute dates
has been possible to
establish a general chronology for red-figured vases. more precise dating of individual vases is based on relative chronology. Since the absolute landmarks show that, just as in the
stylization to naturalism was steadily progressive, date vase paintings in relation to one another, according
just as there are to-day. The Athenian black glaze and the practice of making line drawings with it has no exact modern analogy. Only by realizing the possibilities and limitations inherent in tools and materials can we estimate the value of the achievement.INTRODUCTION 23 to the degree of naturalism attained in the renderings of the figures and of the draperies. their style was We generally practised. throughout the period we are discussing there was a constant progression from conventionalized to naturalistic painting. for it is the artist's style not his individual propensities that concerns us here. it is quite possible that some people lagged behind and during solute dates. stylistically. for. Of course in these relative dates a certain leeway must be allowed when we connect them with ab- we pointed out in Kouroif* there must have been progressives and conservatives among ancient artists. Much of what is said below about the preparation of the clay and the fashioning of the vase is drawn from modern practice. for any potter. . works within the limits of his material clay. In spite of the undoubted fact that. TECHNIQUE In every form of art it is important to understand the technique involved. and secondly from the vases themselves. The wealth of vases at our command has made it possible in many cases to be more precise in the assignment of dates than is possible in contemporary sculptures. which has supplied the dates of our periods and of the works of individual artists. whether ancient or modern. We have recorded in our various sections the specific evidence. both absolute and relative. firstly from a few statements by ancient writers and from representations of potters at work on Greek vases and 89 plaques. Neither kind of data can usefully be interpreted except in the light of the modern potter's experience. as must date their works in the period in which their maturity painted in the style current in their youth. Our information on the technique of Athenian pottery is from two sources.
II. and the clay must be wedged or beaten to remove air and to even the texture. The shapes testify to an unusual degree of plasticity. . and so forth and in its journeys has picked up and incorporated various ingredients or "sediments. constantly 71 adding water. The smaller Greek vases were thrown in one the larger ones in sections. The joins of the latter were piece. (see p. floods. porosity (to enable it to dry properly and the water to escape). fires white. The potter places a ball of on the wheel head. 31). or pink. lift the whole lump. washed. pocket. and blunged. It had a high is A residual percentage of iron in its composition and fired pinkish red. and then forms the desired shape. in an American studio pottery the procedure is to cut a ball of clay in two on a taut wire. To prepare the clay for the potter. In modern Greece the wedging is done by treading the clay with bare feet. Athenian pottery was made of sedimentary clay. The white residual clay was used by the Athenians only for a coating or en- gobe on the white-ground vases sieved. PREPARATION OF THE CLAY 70 There are two classes of clay sedimentary and residual. throwing the two parts vigorously one on top of the other on a plaster or hardwood stationary board. cut it in two again. and is nonplastic. excess water must be pressed out to obtain the right consistency. mixed. Sedimentary clay has been moved about on the earth's surface by rains. red according to the amount of iron in A sedimentary clay is often in its natural state a satisbody or base without the addition of other inand answers the three requirements of the potter factory pottery gredients. it has to be mined." Consequently when fired it is buff. and vitrification (to enable the clay to be fired without cracking or too great shrinkage). or it. and repeat the process until the air is beaten out and the texture is even. centers it as the wheel rotates by the firm grip of his moist hands. plasticity (to enable it to hold its form). FASHIONING OF THE VASE (l) WHEEL WORK wedged clay \a) Throwing. It clay has remained or "resided" in its original the purest form of clay.s>4 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES I.
were sometimes added. the joins are often clearly visible. all the intricate. 7 * Though employment of the kick wheel from the second century B. 73 Many potters paper first. 78 Complete accuracy is not required at this stage. it is recentered and re77 fined with metal cutting-tools while it revolves on the wheel. On the inside. to-day carefully design and it is and draw their shapes on possible that Athenian potters did the same (see pp. 10 f. this continued trimming off of shavings of clay the walls can By be thinned.. of course. that is. Nowadays plaster. there is no information regard78 ing its use earlier. shoulder. or leather-hard.INTRODUCTION 25 generally made at structural points. coils of soft clay. have been known. Judging from experience. and mouth in Athenian vases could be obtained by 78 tools of a few standard shapes in various sizes. for instance. is be made to correspond exactly to a is made in sections. After having been left to dry until firm. delicate details of foot. The only wheel heads which have survived are Aegean or Roman and of terracotta. the vase is turned. each mouthed Athenian sides vases.). The extant representations of the potter's wheel on Greek vases was of the type propelled by a helper. the inwere not turned. The required proportions could easily be obtained while throwing by checking with rule and calipers. if necessary. and any adjustments made in width and height. to conceal them on the outside. (b) Turning. where the inside as conspicuous as the outside. the moldings sharpened and refined. but it may. like the amphora and hydria. We can often see the as he lifted the clay in ridges caused by the fingers of the potter is throwing the shape But wide-mouthed vases. .C. and the whole is turned once more. metal. were carefully turned through- out. and to add strength. for minor changes can be made during the subsequent process of "turning" (see below). and wood are used for the purindicate that it there is literary evidence for the pose. at the junction of neck and body or of body and foot. When more clay was needed it could be added in slip (liquid) form. for the mechanics involved are simple enough. or slip (liquid clay). but left as thrown. Thus the vase could If the vase modern planned design. separately turned. the sections are assembled and set together with slip in between the 79 In the narrowsections.
when once the art of throwing on the wheel was invented. also the they had pressed the clay. Nowadays. metal scrapers and soft sponges are found useful now and doubtless were employed in ancient times. on the wheel and attached. served several replicas of the same vase. the joins being made with slip. fashioning a vase by building it was practised in Greece during the Early Bronze Age. for. Cyprus. coarse "household" pots and pitchers used for storing and cooking. the two processes of building and throwing are practised side by side in studio potteries. the slower process of building was abandoned except for the plain. Finally the parts were joined with Often the lip was thrown separately slip and the seams effaced. (4) ATTACHMENT OF HANDLES Handles are attached in leather-hard condition. and elsewhere have survived. However. The clay was pressed to harden. 88a There art of The building that up with coils or slabs of clay are no built Attic black. they can be refined with . The molds were not made of plaster as nowadays but of terracotta. On the insides of the vases the several marks of the fingers where joins are often clearly visible. Many examples of that period from Crete.or red-figured vases. and re(not poured) into each part separately. 80 the better-worked examples are generally beautifully smooth. The 82 Only in a few cases has chance presingle figures or groups. then. (2) MOLDING process which enables the potter to produce a number of identical vases by pouring or pressing clay into a mold was used in red-figure only for plastic vases where the work demanded it. though the marks of the turning tools can often be detected here and there on Athenian vases. The majority of the extant examples 81 some in that of are in the shape of human and animal heads. left leased itself upon shrinkage. 88 (3) BUILDING is. Their general shape is obtained while the clay is soft. on the other hand. Occasionally a plastic head was added to a vase. and generally in two parts.26 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES For the smoothing of the surface and the removal of the turning marks. when leather-hard.
DECORATION OF THE VASE (l) THE BLACK GLAZE Instead of attempting the brilliant color effects of the Egyptians. iron-containing clay. 85 He demonstrated that not a glaze in the modern sense. until it was successfully re- produced by Theodor Schumann in experiments made during the last war at Heisterholz. oxidizing fire. which was made to contrast with the vivid orange-red of fired clay. It was no use spending time on unnecessary toil. Schumann's experiments fire). three stages of the same proved this . not molded.INTRODUCTION 27 modeling tools. By using the fluid made of the lighter particles of the clay. he obtained a "glaze" of remarkable thinness and smoothness. with the heavier particles eliminated by means of protective colloid. but in the black is sufficient alkali to Dr. it is simply liquid. that is. and Chinese. and finally under reoxidizing conditions (not in three separate firings. III. and yet which had sufficient body to make single lines stand out in relief. Persians. the parts which were hidden (for instance the under parts of columnkrater handles) were left rough 8 * just as were the insides of narrow-mouthed vases. Westphalia. when there is an excess of air and oxygen. In the first. The consistency of this black medium was long a puzzle. the Greek potters confined themselves to a single variety of black. whereas in the subsequent reducing fire. then under reducing. the carbon of the fuel combines with the two atoms of oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Athenian handles were handmade. similar to that out of which the Attic pottery was made. who was apt to leave unfinished those parts of his statue which were not visible. but peptized that is. The Greek potter's attitude was evidently the same as that of the Greek sculptor. surmise to be correct. Only those parts which showed were carefully smoothed. Charles F. for it contains inrender it fusible at a given temperature. Better to bestow inthe shapes and proportions finite care on what was important and the finish of the parts which showed. Binns had in 1929 86 put forward the theory that the Greek black was not produced by the addition of a separate substance but by the action of the fire. the pottery was fired first under oxidizing.
it was much less affected by the reducing fire than was the black glaze (made of the redburning clay) and so only assumed occasionally an ivory hue in the reoxidizing fire. the carbon monoxide (CO) which is very hungry for oxygen extracts oxygen from the red ferric oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) present in the clay and converts it into black magnetic oxide of iron (Fe 3 O 4 ) or ferrous oxide (Fe 2 O). 83 But it had gradually improved in quality until it had developed into the rich. it again derequired delicate manipulation. The black glaze of Athenian pottery was essentially the same as that used centuries before on the geometric and other early vases. whereas the denser 88 The red spots that frequently occur on glaze remains black. satiny black of the sixth it and fifth cen- turies B. Marie Farnsworth.28 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the air is shut off and smoke introduced. the clay (which together with the glaze turned black during the reducing fire) becomes again red. indicating that (2) South Italian wares. not accidentally. then. or to the addition of red ocher to the glaze for the parts that were to when become red. 87 then in the third. what were intended to be black areas can be explained as caused either by the fact that the glaze was applied too thinly and so was porous enough to reabsorb the oxygen during the third stage of the firing. it seems. suffi92 ciently porous to reabsorb the oxygen. which imparted a slightly glossy. in which air is again introduced. 89 The relatively few cases where red-glazed areas were inthat is. when they octentionally. 31) contained only a small quantity of iron. or by the clay having been protected from reduction in the kiln through stacking or contact with a jet of air. TREATMENT OF SURFACE process in the decoration of a red-figured vase was. teriorated. That the second. protective wash made of diluted peptized clay (Lasur).C. produced cur in precisely defined areas. consciously contrasted with the black may be explained as due either to a second. purely oxidizing firing for those parts that were to come out red. in the later. reoxidizing fire. first The . since it is sufficiently porous to readmit the oxygen. to cover the surface with a thin. p.. The red ocher applications (cf. below) and the red accessory colors were. simpler method is possible has been demonstrated by Dr. 90 Since the white slip of the white-ground vases (cf. like the terra-cotta body.
The relief lines for the contours and inner markings of the figures were perhaps drawn with a special tool (see below). then by a broader stripe. has been filled in. vases the other hand on various fragments of unfinished the background has not been filled in. Finally the details within the red silhouette were painted. features. various sizes being used as required. and certain details (hair. whereas the interior markings are completed. The red was further intensified by the application of red ocher over the surface.INTRODUCTION 29 reddish hue after firing (since it was applied thinly it reoxidized in the third stage of the firing). Of course the procedure was doubtless not always the same. 98 All this work was done with the brush. probably with a wooden tool.. 95 The smooth. (3) (a) THE PAINTING Red-figure. 38 f. depending largely on the whim of the artist. shallow lines of this sketch are plainly visible on most vases. Also lines and washes were added in thinned glaze where they were intended to appear brown (see pp. in an unfinished scene on a krater in New York " the outlines of the the background figures have been indicated by contour stripes. The tool used to produce the famous black relief line a glaze 10 On . first by a narrow line of glaze. Somefrom the preliminary drew his decoration directly on the vase and frequently changed his design as he painted it in permanently. An examination of the paintings on red-figured Athenian vases suggests the procedure to have been somewhat as follows: A preliminary sketch for the decoration was made. 63). only in a few instances is it well enough preserved to convey an idea of the 94 original effect. For instance. Bands and plain uninterrupted glaze surfaces were applied as the vase revolved on the wheel or in the hand. but the relief lines are lacking throughout. folds) have been painted in flat lines. 96 Doubtless as to-day the painter decoration to a curving vase is something difficult to anticipate in the flat surface of a cartoon. flat or in relief. at least in certain lights. 97 In painting the decoration in glaze the outlines of the figures were drawn outside the spaces intended for them. Then perhaps the background was filled in. for the application of an elaborate times the final design in glaze differs sketch.
The commonest was fillets. Their choice and the pleted the accessory colors extent to which they were used differed somewhat in the various periods. and occasionally a line with a ridge continues into one with a groove. Moreover. on a kylix in Boston. which gave them a lighter. red. on a bell krater in Oxford. which holds enough glaze to produce the long-drawn-out unbroken lines so frequent in red-figure. krater. green. weapons. 102 painters on the Caputi hydria grasp their brushes in their fists. the bristles downward in Japanese fashion. Gold leaf was used rarely at first. more profusely later. White appears occasion107 ally for details in the early period. As the taste for polychromy grew we find red. a feather. a pen. The groove which often runs down the middle of the relief line is not a clue. more luminous tone. That these colors were fired is shown by the discoloration of the black details as glaze beneath them. their irregularities conclusively 10S show (see p. to indicate jewelry. The chief requirement is a tool pliant yet offering a certain amount of resistance. likewise the youth painting a. 10). and numerous suggestions have been made a fine brush. and other gleaming objects. a quill. pp. as some have thought. Both methods were therefore in use. for actual experiments indicate that a slight pressure of any instrument produces such a result. 101 The whole question can now be viewed in a new light since the discovery of the consistency of the black medium. which was employed for such wreaths. freehand without the aid of as stencils. When the decoration in black and diluted black glaze was comwere added. 103 The vase The youth 104 and the decorating a kylix. The colors were often applied over a (fired) white undercoating. and pink applied in tempera technique after firing (cf. increasingly in the later periods. Over it we often find in the late period yellow lines in thinned glaze.30 line ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES which stands out in relief has been much discussed. some relief lines have.no groove but a ridge. 105 hold their brushes between painter on a fragment in Athens thumb and forefinger. rarely in the ripe archaic and early free periods. a reed. a single bristle. 155). occasionally even for whole figures . flowers. Either before or after the figured scenes the ornamental mo- tives were painted with the brush. often their former presence can be determined only by this discoloration. etc. 108 The coloring is in fact identical with that used in the terra-cotta statuettes. 141. blue.
163). purple. sometimes with a white undercoating of course after firing. (corresponding to about cone 08-07). Before being fired the vase was thoroughly dried. The outline technique. 163 f." 110 It gradually gained in favor on whiteground vases and presently ousted the black silhouettes. Applied clay was employed occasionally for objects which were meant etc. 109 to stand out in relief. Thereby plenty of time could be spent on the decoration if necessary. it was often gilded or painted various colors. throughout the sixth century. in solid black). inher- ited side from the seventh century. or in outline (with merely minor areas. mauve. by side with the broad stream of black-figure. for instance the hair. 110a IV. shields.INTRODUCTION It (see p. green. 41. 141). for gold leaf could not have stood burning. such as fillets. then partly in black was drawn partly in diluted glaze lines. It seems to have been about 111 least 95o-g6o C. it was used for entire figures (see p. and the work need not be hurried. 163). At first the whole drawing was in black-glaze lines. 75. Concurrently nique was in use in the later sixth and in the fifth century the white-ground. then the whole design in diluted glaze lines. spear shafts. had persisted "as a thin trickle. first red and yellow. and whole scenes (see pp. especially in the late period. 119-122. THE FIRING which Athenian vases were fired was temperature rather lower than is usual to-day. at The at . 31 was generally laid over applied buff clay. 64. Sometimes. in which a white slip (liquid clay) coating was applied on the body of the vase. 93. A similar technique was occasionally used directly on the black glaze. Over this the figures were painted in solid black in silhouette (with details incised as in black-figure). and lastly in matt black or reddish lines moreover solid washes in (see pp. or the two methods were employed together on the same vase. then also blue. with red-figure another tech(fr) White-ground. tempera colors were applied on draperies and on other large areas. While the vase was being decorated it was no doubt kept in leather-hard condition by being placed in a special room or closet where a damp atmosphere was induced to prevent the ware from drying.). and pink.
like most ancient wares.ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 32 any considerable increase over this temperature causes a change in the pinkish buff of the clay and the rich black of the glaze. The evidence favors the theory that Greek pottery was oncethat is. used to make certain details of the decoration stand out in relief (see pp. 141) must have been made before firing. 163). would never have adhered to already fired clay. As 950 C. 118 The only serious objection against a single fire that the vase 11T and the Boston painters represented on the Caputi hydria 11S handle their pots in what would seem a precarious way kylix for green ware can be met by the theory that the ancient Greek clay was as tough as is the modern Greek clay. as well as an additional contraction. But previous to the invention of these heat-recording cones firings were judged by the color of the burn through a spy hole. (3) The numerous dents on Athenian vases could only have occurred before the pots were fired. It must have been added to the vase while the latter was still leather-hard. 118 it follows that the ware must have been decorated before firing. 112 in the same way that modern potters use the Seger cones. and so stands up better while it is being thrown than most of our clays. 64. and smoothness could not have been attained by incision into hard. That this was also a characteristic of the ancient clay is suggested by the shapes of Athenian pottery . not twice-fired after glazing 11S like most modern pottery: (i) The incised lines on black-figured Athenian vases must have been made on the black glaze while the clay was leather-hard. and if black-figured ware was once-fired. but is not nearly so vulnerable when leather-hard or bone-dry. fired clay or even into dry clay. their delicacy. and it is perhaps more likely that the Greeks used this simple method. 31. before and fired. swing. At least actual with Athenian clay to-day have shown that there experiments would be no risk connected with holding a cup by its stem or 119 The clay not tipping a vase on its foot while leather-hard. surely the red-figured vases many of them contemporary with the black-figured ones were also. (4) The applied clay. is approximately the melting point of silver. "* since the marks left by the objects which caused the dents go over the glaze. only is unusually plastic. the ingenious suggestion has been made that silver was used by the Greeks for regulating the heat. (2) The light incisions on the glaze used for the indication of the ground and other details on late red-figured vases (see p.
About twelve hours or more are allowed to-day for firing an earthenware kiln of The unaverage size. placing as many vases together as practicable. for the obvious reason 120 But to conserve space. and other forms with overhanging rims and projecting handles. That such stacking sible shows the nonadhesive quality of the Greek glaze. evidently to prevent the strain would edge of the foot. partly under reducing conditions. the fact that such shapes current indicates that the clay must have been appropriate for them. especially on the and occasionally the glaze of insides and outsides of kylikes the covered area has fired a different color from the rest of the of such stacking in the case of vase. As was pointed out above (see pp.). It should be noted. From this evidence assuming the same general type to have been in use throughout antiquity we learn that the Greek kiln . moreover.INTRODUCTION 33 die wide-spreading kylikes. the Athenian potters fired their ware partly under oxidizing. 27 f. The fuel seems to have been wood or charcoal. The marks left on the glaze by such stacking can often be seen. prehistoric Greek 12 " of the classical period. If the vase had been fired this precaution not have been necessary. 123 Most of the representations on Corinthian 124 but several of actual kilns found are of the Roman period. and about three times as long for cooling. that in the Caputi hydria one of the vases (and perhaps also the other) is placed on a supfrom being borne by the port. were evidently stacked one inside another. 125 and a few times have recently come to light. Like modern potters the ancients doubtless packed their kilns as full as possible. GREEK KILNS Our chief information regarding Greek kilns is derived from and Attic pottery. 122 An additional m advantage a kylix would be that the slender stem did not have to carry the of glazed ware was posweight of the bowl. Though there are occasional instances of sagging were (probably due to uneven turning). the stamnoi with their incurving shoulders. at least some vases resting on their feet. for firing a long and expensive process. of the feet on which Athenian pots stand are almost der is parts that the vases were fired always unglazed.
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
was divided horizontally into two parts an upper, domed chamber for the placing of the pots and a lower one for the fuel; 127 and that there were three openings, one at the bottom to admit the fuel, one at the side to receive the ware and to serve as a spy hole, and one at the top to let out the smoke and to permit the
regulation of the draught. Mr. Binns made the plausible suggestion that the sides and domed top of the Greek kiln were made of brushwood (interlaced boughs
and osiers) plastered over with clay. have evithis practice obtained in neolithic 129 as well as
13 and baking ovens are still so made in modern Greece. 131 the walls of ancient Greek kilns were of a temporary nature and only the bottoms were of stone, this would explain why more Greek kilns have not been found or at least recognized. 132 More-
over, in such a kiln the process of firing under both reducing and oxidizing conditions known to have been in use by the Greeks would come about of its own accord. The burning of the branches and the resultant smoke would cause reduction; but after the branches had been burned there would be no more smoke and the fire would automatically turn into an oxidizing
a pot comes in the fire. Defects in the preparation of the clay, in the construction, in the glazing, in the firing, all are revealed when the vase emerges from the kiln. That there
were plenty of mistakes and mishaps in Greek vases as in modern ones becomes evident when we examine even museum pieces. We see many cases of warped lips 183 and sagged shoulders, 184 of dents 135 and cracks, 136 and of red spots in the black glaze. 137 Spalls that is, chips produced by particles of limestone which became embedded in the clay and then exploded in the fire are not infrequent,
188 likewise rifts in the glaze, caused by a more rapid 139 shrinkage of the glaze than of the clay. Occasionally the different sections in which the larger vases were made were not put together successfully. For instance, the body of a column krater 14t> was not set straight on the foot; it leans slightly in New York to one side; consequently neck and handles had to be shaped ir-
regularly so as to produce a level top. Sometimes the body is not the usual pinkish buff but has
35 turned gray, owing to a reducing fire. 141 Occasionally the different fragments of a vase differ in color (from pink to gray), the vase having evidently been broken at the funeral pyre and its
various parts subjected to different conditions. 1 * 2 Some injuries of course have happened since the burial of the vase. In this class belong the frequent cases in which the glaze has become disintegrated and has exposed what may be a red ocher application underneath, 143 and the vases in which the surface has deteriorated. 144 When a Greek pot was broken that was not the end of it. There are many instances of broken vases repaired with rivets in antiquity. Generally only the holes are preserved, occasionally parts of the bronze rivets also. The repairs sometimes go right through the decoration, even when this could have been avoided. 145 Pots were obviously prized for their use as well as their beauty. 140
gain a picture of what an Athenian pottery was like from the representations on Greek vases of potters at work. 147 It was probably not very different from the potteries of modern
open-air places for the preparation of the clay and for the kiln, closed rooms for the making of the vases and the glazing. That a number of people worked in one establishment is shown by the vase representations, and stands to reason. The keen rivalry between the various potteries is indicated by Aristotle's 14S remark: "We like those who resemble us and have the same tastes, provided their interests do not clash with ours and that they do not gain their living in the same way; for then it " becomes a case of 'Potter [being jealous] of potter.' 149
EARLY STYLE, ABOUT
momentous change from the black-figured to the redfigured technique took place about 530-525 B.C., that is perhaps in the concluding years of the reign of Peisistratos
background of the Early Style
fore, first the rule of the Peisistratids,
after the death of
Hipparchos (^14 B.C.) and the fall of Hippias (510 B.C.) the introduction of Kleisthenes' constitution (508-507) and the beginning of the Athenian democracy.
The change from the black-figured to the red-figured technique involved important innovations. The figures instead of being painted in black silhouettes on a red ground were "reserved" in red against a black-glaze background, and interior lines instead of being incised were drawn in black glaze full
strength for the salient parts, diluted, to appear yellowish brown, for details. To sharpen the outlines of the figure or parts of it a contour line in relief was often added (see p. 29). The red and
the white accessory colors so popular in black-figure were now used only sparingly. White was abandoned for the flesh of female figures and its use was confined to details, such as the white hair of an old man. Red appears more frequently than white for
inscriptions, wreaths, branches, fillets. In addition, applied clay was occasionally used (see p. 31). In other words, the variegated effect of black-figure was toned down considerably. Naturally the new technique was evolved only gradually. and red-figure went on concurrently for some time, Black-figure a few painters using both techniques, occasionally on the same 1 pot, and confirmed red-figure artists like Euthymides continuing to use effectively ornamental designs in black against red around their red-figure compositions. Moreover black-figure as an independent style continued at least until the second quarter
of the fifth century,
and long after for the Panathenaic amphorae. In fact the majority of black-figured vases now extant date from
the last third of the sixth century, when the red-figured style was already in vogue. The outstanding artists of black-figure, however Kleitias, Nearchos, Lydos, Exekias, Amasis all date from about 560 to 530. After 530 there are some first-class artists
to red-figure. 2 as far as
only black-figured vases, for instance the Acheloos Painter and the Antimenes Painter, but not many. The great talent of the time had evidently gone over
In the drawing of the figures the artists of red-figure at first adhered to the conventions which had prevailed in black-figure. They did not draw the human form direct from nature but conceived it in their minds as it could be most readily apprehended, using a set of formulas similar to that of the Egyptians. The head was shown in profile (rarely in front view), the eye in front view, the trunk in eithe^front or profile view, the legs were drawn in
various parts are distinct
although the figures thus pieced together often appear strangely distorted (see figs. g-n). The motion of these figures over the black ground made a lively surface pattern in which the laws of symmetry and balance were observed. The figures were all ranged along one line as if they all moved in the front plane. The action was carried across the stage but not into or out of it. There was as yet no feeling for depth; or next to none, for, however flattened out the figures were made to appear, the third dimension could not be entirely ignored. It made itself felt when figures were made to overlap or when one form was drawn across another or partly covering another, as was the case with the two profile thighs and with the arms placed in action. The rendering of profile views suggested a certain amount of plasticity; for instance, the profile of the head suggested the bulge of the skull,
lines of the drapery, though straight and shadowless, suggested depth in folds. Thus the third dimension insinuated itself somewhat incongruously into an otherwise two-dimensional design; and when the artist became aware of it he was faced
with the problem of representing form and space on a flat surface. Henceforth, with true Greek inquisitiveness he set out in
search of a solution, and
him experimenting and
groping his way.
so into the time-honored conventionalized
were gradually introduced important innovations. The transition between a full-front trunk and profile legs was made less forced by placing the rectus abdominis on one side (see fig. 3), sometimes at an angle (see fig. 4), below a full-front chest. Sometimes one leg was shown in front or back view, with the other
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
in profile (see
collarbone on the farther side
was occasionally made shorter than the nearer one to suggest the or it was omitted (see fig. 14). In the slanting away (see fig. 5)," male chest the farther side was sometimes drawn in ...."--.
contracted form alongside the median line (see fig.
in front view were represented by two profiles
turned right and
view two profile breasts were sometimes drawn in the same direction and
placed widely apart (see 41), but generally only
dicated (see figs. 8, 46). Occasionally the foreshorten-
ing of a limb was attempted (see figs. 9, 12). A fairly convincing a turn of the torso was attained by drawing the nearer shoulder across the front view of the chest (see fig. 45). The back view of a figure was occasionally indicated (see figs. 9-11), but as yet with little attempt at foreshortening, the farther shoulder blade being drawn without contraction; the only indication of the turn of the trunk was given by the direc-
way of rendering
tion of the spine.
At the end
of the century,
however, a fairly successful three-quarter back view was sometimes attained (see fig.
The indication of bones and muscles varied with individual artists; some gave
much, others little, anatomical detail. A regular scheme was developed, the most prominent divisions being generally marked in
thinned glaze (see
figs. 3, 6, 9, 17).
black, the rest in
the clavicles, shoulder
blades, pectorals, hips, spine,
and ankles were generally drawn
in black, whereas the serratus magnus, the rectus abdominis, and the bones and muscles of the arms (deltoid, biceps, triceps, the
extensors of the forearm) and legs (the hollow near the great trochanter, the thigh muscles, the two vasti, the kneecap, the calf, and the pero-
neal muscles) when shown were gener8 ally indicated in diluted glaze.
The forms were simplified: the ribs were indicated by a series of straight lines (see figs. 3, 9, 10); the serratus magnus by a set of single curves (see fig. 4); the rectus abdominis was at first marked by adjacent ovals (see figs. 10, 12), then FIGURE 5 loops were added above to show the connection with the thorax (see fig. 4). The eye, which is one of the most important criteria in the this stylistic development of Greek vases, was represented in early period in full-front view by two shallow curves, generally meeting at both corners, and a black dot or a circle and dot in the center (see figs. 4, 6, 8, 10, 13). As time progressed the curves became asymmetrical, to show the difference between the outer corner and the tear duct (see fig. 14). The distinction observed in black-figure between male and female the former round, the latter eloneyes gated was discarded; all were made
elongated, except, occasionally, Herakles'
simple scheme sufficed for the hair. The mass was painted black, with a row of short curls or strands along the brow, temples, and neck, sometimes with longer curls at the sides. In order to show up this black mass against the black background the upper contour was indicated at first by an incised, then by a reserved line. FIGURE 6 Just before the introduction of redhad taken place in the fashion of figure an important change women's dress the heavy woolen peplos was superseded by the 8 thin linen chiton. This change is clearly reflected in the vase In the black-figured vases before about 540 the regular
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
woman's costume is the heavy peplos, represented as foldless and ornamented with decorative designs. In the decade 540-530 both peplos and chiton occur, side by side. In the early redfigured vases the Ionic chiton has already become the prevailing
folds are represented
parallel or radiating, curved or straight lines with zigzags at the edges, at first run-
ning in one direction only, presently in two opposite directions, up and down from a central pleat (figs. 8, i6). 9 At the end of the period under discussion (the last decade or so of the sixth century) the
central pleat is generally drawn considerably higher than the lowest one, is broader than the others, and each group
of pleats is divided from the next by a smooth, unpleated portion sometimes diversified by curving lines (see fig. 45). The
same schemes were used
for chitons of
(see figs. 10, 15),
similar ones for mantles but in larger formation, to suggest the heavier material (see figs. 4, 16). The lower
edge of the garment on the farther side of the legs was indicated not by zigzags, 4ike the nearer edge, but by a curving, often
In the earliest red-figured scenes we sometimes note survivals of the blackfigured technique. Incisions appear for a few details regularly for the contour of
the hair, occasionally elsewhere, for instance for spear heads, anatomical markings, and folds of garments. Red is used as
an accessory color for such things as manes and tails of horses (see p. 48). White appears now and then as a wash on the figures
(see p. 46).
full possibilities of red-figure
only after some time. However, the greater swing with which the interior lines could be drawn in glaze instead of by incisions was bound to effect the general outlook of the vase painter. The new technique was a welcome help in his quest to portray what
change from black-figure to red-figure entailed structive lesson in the art of spacing; for, after having been accustomed to draw his
figures as patterns of
increasingly interested him the complicated mechanism of the human figure in its manifold movements and gestures. More-
now had to reverse the process. He had to
outline carefully with his brush and to cover with black the empty spaces of the
ground, reserving light shapes for the figures. In so doing his attention was
forcibly drawn to the pattern made by the background which sustained the
of his figures.
was well understood by the Greeks. We may quote from Xenophon's Oeconomica:
tance of these "intervals," which contribute much to the unity of the design,
claim that there is beauty in the order even of pots There is nothing, in short, set out in neat array.
. . .
that does not gain in beauty
out in order. For each
set looks like a troop of utensils, and the space between the sets is beautiful to see, when each set is kept clear of it, just as
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
a troop of dancers about the altar is a beautiful spectacle in looks beautiful and unencumitself, and even the free space
bered." Side by side with red-figure white-ground vases were produced in Attic potteries at this time. At first the old technique of blackfigure was retained, that is, the
were drawn in black on the white ground with inner markings and some
of the contours incised. Occasionally,
however, some of the were drawn in outline
in black glaze, as in red-figure
The innovations we have described were of course not confined to vase painting; they
must have been introduced also into the lost murals and panels FIGURE 11 of the time. The few paintings on marble stelai and on teru that have survived show the same evolution; and racotta slabs 12 there is among the scanty literary records on the subject an interesting tradition of epoch-making changes in the art of panel painting parallel to those we have noted on the vases. As 13 usual, the innovations are credited to one individual. Pliny tells us that a certain Kimon of Kleonai, whom he names as a successor of the Athenian Eumaros, "devised catagrapha, and represented the features in different postures, looking backward or upward or downward. He marked the attachments of the limbs, gave prominence to the veins, and also discovered the wrinkles and the folds of drapery." A Eumares is mentioned as the father of Antenor on an inscribed base from the Akropolis dated perhaps about 530-520 B.C." If Eumaros and Eumares are identical, Kimon, Eumaros' "successor," must have been either contemporary with Antenor or immediately posterior to him.
probably lived, therefore,
at the very
period of early red-
interest in foreshortening
and statues show the same and in the rendering of muscles
that is. and the trunk and one leg are placed in front view. as we have said.EARLY STYLE and similar devices for their representation. Besides such parallels on dated sculptures we have other clues for the dating of early red-figure in the kalos names. They have noted in early red-figure. Let us examine the evidence. for instance on the Lyons kore. for instance. on the pediments of the 17 temple of Apollo at Delphi and on the stele of Aristion. the same wavy lines for the chitons. the names of the young "beauties" of the time (see pp. middle of the sixth century. occasionally in two opposite ones but then in asymmetrical for- The stacking toward a central pleat appears first in tentative form on sculptures of the second quarter and the mation. They reliefs of are important evidence. some of these fair boys became prominent men later FIGURE and their dates are known. the same zigzag edges running mostly in one direction.). 18 the draperies are folds. 18 stylisti- therefore carefully 19 black-figured vase signed by Timagoras. the same radiating on the mantles which we 43 and on on no longer folds as in the earlier sculptures. Nevertheless. and later) " and the Siphnian frieze (probably 53O-525). 15 f. and in fully developed. Thus the figures of the Ephesos drums (550 B. symmetrical form in the sculptures datable about 525-500 B. the rectus abdominis is placed at an angle below a fullfront breast. stiff and practically foldless. here and there during the sec- FIGURE 12 ond half of the sixth century.C. for instance.C. On the one of the statue bases in Athens (about 510) there are attempts at foreshortening similar to those on the vases. the information is often inconclusive and we must be careful not to draw undue inferences. the other leg in profile. dated cally about 540. is the inscription 'Aj/So/cf&js KoAos So/cet On a . for..
we should obtain support for dating the plate considerably before 490. may well be he is identical with the distin- guished Hipparchos. dated stylistically about 520510. as has been thought.44 If this ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Andokides was the well-known potter. 20 it seems more likely that the Andokides praised as kalos was a young scion of that family than that he was the potter. 21 with a rider by the Cerberus Painter. Therefore in the decade 520-510 Miltiades was probably FIGURE 14 in his thirties. 23 archon in 496-495 and was ostracized in 487. the son of Peisistratos. and the phrades Painter are dated not earlier than the the sixth century. If this Miltiades was the victor of Marathon. and may have stayed on in 29 Athens after the fall of the tyranny. By this evidence the youth of Memnon and the productive period of Oltos. 29 who was elected work as well as on a lekythos signed by the 27 and on a fragment of a potter Gales calyx krater by the early Kleophrades Painter 2S are pictures of the poet Anakreon. On a plate in Oxford. 2S on one of these. as we have records of a distinguished Athenian family from about the middle of the sixth century on in which this rare name also occurs. we should obtain support for dating the vases signed by him about 525-520. FIGURE 15 early Kleo- last quarter ol .2* he would help to date the of Epiktetos as contemporary with his youth. Memnon is called fair on cups by the vase painter Oltos. But. a Miltiades is praised as kalos. The last was entertained in Athens by Hipparchos. But we also know that the great Miltiades was made tyrant of the Chersonese after 524-523 and before 514-513 and that in 493 his eldest son was old enough to command a ship. Gales. extolled. truyyev^s of Peisistratos. 22 which as is On cups by Epiktetos and others the beauty of a Hipparchos is If perhaps rather old for being called kalos.
it was nevertheless confined to a limited period. the Kiss Painter. 30 vases of the style of a generation later Glaukon. the early Panaitios Painter. and especially the kylix in a variety of forms. the hydria. the volute and column kraters.EARLY STYLE 45 Leagros is mentioned as kalos on vases by Euphronios. others during the last two decades of the century. The decade 510500 is therefore a possible date for Leagros' thus obtain additional support for youth. the kalpis. son of Leagros. or to his first cousin Megakles son of Kleisthenes. red-figure has been supplied by the broken vases that were dumped into unused wells and recently unearthed in the Athenian Agora. and elsewhere. The eye kylix gradually of prominent painters who can distinguish this period some at the very beginning of the new technique. "the son of 31 There was a general Leagros. From the foregoing analysis it is clear that the kalos names kles of the vases occasionally fortify dates obtained on stylistic grounds. and the potter Kachrylion. 80 and it might refer either to Megakles the son of who was ostracized in 486. the dates assigned on stylistic grounds to the and the potter above mentioned. the Eleusis Painter. Hippokrates. who was killed in battle in 465. 87a superseded the little-master cup. Corinth. On the general and the fair boy of Euphronios may well have been identical. 87 now became prevalent. Euthymides. Several new shapes now made their appearance the stamnos. The favorite shapes of this early period were the amphora. If either is identical with the Mega- we obtain additional support for the dates assigned to Phintias and Euthymides. 82 As boys in Greece were apt to be named after their grandfathers. who was ostracized at an unknown date. already used by Exekias in his late period. the Colmar Painter. and vases found together form an ap- proximately contemporary group. the neck amphora. as well as later. Further evidence for dating early." is so praised. Glaukon. 858 Though such dumping in the same well was not restricted to the same year. the pelike. and the psykter. We a number worked in . 38 painters On vases by Phintias and Euthymides a We 34 Megakles is praised as fair. 88 The calyx krater. This same name was found partially erased on a votive plaque FIGURE from the Akropolis.
* Pordax. 48 who signed. 34). Lysippi8 des. They may well be credited with the invention of the new technique unless there were other painters of whom no work has survived. And he was able to dramatize his pictures. Twenty-six other works have been attributed to him. 38 the amphora with Amazons and women bathing. AND THE GOLUCHOW PAINTER The foremost artists of the beginning of red-figure were the Andokides Painter and Psiax. on an amphora in the Louvre. 40 and the amphora with and the struggle for the tripod. with egrapsen. also in the Louvre. 89 the kylix with a trumpeter in Palermo. and the Herakles driv44 ing an ox to sacrifice. The wrestlers. 42 mostly on large vases amphorae and hydriai. with epoiesen. 40 placating the three-headed Kerberos while he holds the chain in readiness (see fig. but with a white slip on his figures. four were painted by one artist: the amphora with a combat and a kitharist in the Louvre. he used the new light-on-dark scheme. He painted in both black-figure and red-figure. The artist who decorated the amphora in Philadelphia 47 signed by the potter Menon used to be called the Menon Painter. As he worked at the beginning of a new technique he was naturally an experimenter. but he has recently been identified with PsiAX. the two alabastra in Carlsruhe 49 and Odessa B0 . is vividly characterized. Herakles. stand out by their clean contours and lively designs. on an amphora in Boston. wild-eyed satyrs on an amphora in Orvieto. 41 As the real name of this artist is not known he has been called the ANDOKIDES PAINTER. archers and wrestlers bring before us the luxurious Peisistratid days. Of the seven vases signed by the potter Andokides.46 (i) ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES THE ANDOKIDES PAINTER. often dressed in elaborately decorated and carefully pleated garments and posed in rather affected attitudes. they are the painted counterparts of some of the sculptured Maidens from the Akropolis. His figures. sometimes in both techniques on the same vase. for instance. On the amphora in the Louvre with women bathing. and so are the 46 gay. PSIAX. His work has strength as well as delicacy. in Berlin. on the Berlin amphora. and Mnesilla occur as kalos and kale names on his black-figured amphorae in London and Munich. a few on kylikes.
is sinking. the one in the middle. Besides these three vases twenty-eight others have been attributed to him. and Hermes. large Among them is an amphora in Madrid B2 signed by the potter Andokides and decorated with Apollo. The exterior is decorated with a (fragmentary) chariot scene and a battle. Besides the kalos name Menon those of Hippokrates. black-figured and red-figured. and a Dionysiac scene in on the other. 57 kyathos in Milan. and the wealth of detail.EARLY STYLE and small. 36) all highly finished works. on a white ground (fig. and a plate in a private collection 81 with a group of a man dancing and a woman playing the flute. and Ares in red-figure on one side. 51 47 potted by Hilinos. The name Psiax appears without a verb on two bilingual eye 62 and New York. 63 The decorations on them kylikes in Munich may or may not be by the artist himself. slightly hesitant line. four plates in London and Berao lin with single figures. and Maenads. red-figured kylix in New York of Psiax's best works. exquisitely modeled in relief. . On the left of the latter a youth is blowing a trumpet. the long spears going in different directions. and Smikrion occur on A Psiax's vases. near the base of the handle. and 58 a fragment of a kylix in Leningrad. Satyrs. Other lively combats comparable to the New York one ap65 86 pear on an aryballos once in Bologna. ready to kill him with the sword. Psiax's paintings are distinguished for their dainty grace and meticulous execution. the signal for attack. Artemis. Leto. with Dionysos. Then comes a group of three warriors. The turmoil is vividly conveyed by the attack and fall of the contestants. His style is distinctive and easily recognized. Perseus. Such "bilinguals" are of great interest. has a head. attacked from front and back. blood streaming from a wound in his leg. and the asymmetrical black-figure A composition. Another amphora in Munich 58 has a red-figured scene of Dionysos reclining and a black-figured chariot of Herakles. inside. On the interior is an archer in Oriental costume pointed cap with long lappets and long-sleeved jacket holding a horse by a long lead. Karystios. a kylix in Munich. Among the black89 with figured vases we may mention especially a kylix in Odessa Diomede. for they supply contemporary pictures by the same artist in the two " is one different techniques. To the right a warrior is standing over his fallen opponent. the delicate.
for infig. the farther edge of the chiton sleeve drawn as an arc of slightly wavy outline. Like the Andokides Painter. His style has been recognized in over a hundred vases. for instance applied red 64 and he placed some of his clay for such things as spear shafts. As a result the general effect is somewhat confused. 9) stance. He worked in different techniques black-figure. at other times they utilized the whole zone for their figured scenes. Only four works have so far been attributed to him. 70 very large one. Psiax was an experimenter. black on white. where the abdominal muscle and the patella of the right knee are shifted to one side and the shield is foreshortened. EPIKTETOS. AND CUP PAINTERS OTHER The rimless kylix with deep. (2) OLTOS. boneless hands with thumbs turned back at the tips. some signed by the potters . in Berlin. Sometimes. was evidently a challenge to the artists of the time and many specialized in its decoration. with deities.* 9 another. and the small. one with a discus thrower. strongly curving bowl. and red-figure with added colors he employed unusual technical devices. they subdivided the larger space now available by inserting large eyes on each side. Though as a rule he still pieced his figures together from separately conceived parts (see he occasionally attempted three-quarter views. the other with an akontist. the We importance of subordinating some details by painting them in diluted glaze not having yet been understood.48 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Similar renderings occur again and again. for instance. red-figure. in the New York attacking warrior (see fig. white on red. In these vigorous figures all the anatomical markings are drawn in full-strength glaze. figures in surprisingly bold attitudes. 10). 88 with egrapsen. 67 among them two oinochoai in Goluchow. 68 have here one of the earliest extant attempts of such renderings. in Tarquinia. which in the last third of the sixth century took the place of the littlemaster cup. The signature of OLTos. has been preserved on two kylikes one with Homeric heroes. with a little circle for the button. 66 THE GOLUCHOW PAINTER also belongs to the beginning of red-figure. like Pheidippos.
with branches. "he is going to jump. therefore. the often angular lobe of the ear. with egrapsen. incisive linesLhave a virile simplicity. is being crowned for his victory by the manager of the games (see fig. Kachrylion. but some of his best paintings are on the more monumental shapes Achilles and Briseis on an amphora in London. 71 Herakles and Acheloos on a stamnos." adjusted spaceTjWe derings the downward curving line for the mouth. He had mastered the use of the relief line and had learned to confine interiors of his kylikes are occasionally black-figured. 7S also with egrapsen). The scene on a psykter in New York 7 * is an outstanding work. a fragmentary plate in Athens: Memnon which 76 EPIKTETOS He (perhaps \E\piktetos epo\iesen Epiktetos egr]apsen. 35). signed. Oltos' thickset figures. several cups and plates. One is swinging his jumping weights. He was. Euxitheos. figures in similar attitudes occur again and again. himself to a sober color scheme. and perhaps Tleson. both painter and potter. but Whereas the Andokides Painter. and the Goluchow Painter were still in an experimental stage. skilfully to the curving may note as characteristic ren- ^ work. with epoiesen well as a calyx krater in Rome. Each stands out as a separate design. is art essentially in red-figure. boy. He frequently used the kalos name practically occurs only on his vases.EARLY STYLE The his 49 Pamphaios. Athletes with their trainers are practising in the palaestra to the music of a flutist. We are reminded of Pindar's descrip- A A A tion of the runner Alexidamos: him. Most of his eighty-odd extant works are . and we find him experimenting with foreshortening by shifting the abdominal muscle to one side and thereby suggesting the torsion of the figure (see fig. drawn with strong. laden swing. but he too was interested in the new conception of drawing. the hands either clenched or held loosely with thumb and fingers forming a broad loop. 72 and the satyrs and maenads on an 73 amphora with ribbon handles in Paris. Chelis. the well-developed the long. and many plumes of victory had he re7B ceived before. Psiax. youth is preparing to throw the javelin. 3). Oltos was at home in the new technique. flat feet. as 77 also signed." the indiscus thrower is ready for the backward scription informs us. His extant works are chiefly on cups. and "Many leaves did they fling upon many a wreath. There is much repetition in Oltos' thighs. also in London.
88 PHEiDiPFOS. The running warrior is a more modest. It is still rep- . and consist mostly of single figures of athletes and warriors. have a living quality and are masterpieces of design7]The action in each case is intimately studied. but narrowed to suggest fore8* 8B shortening. and short line for the mouth is ample. A kylix is On the inside a (drawn in full-strength glaze lines) is noteworthy. the satyr difficult indeed to excel some of his later pictures 81 holding a wineskin. less highly finished work (see fig. Python. gives little anatomical detail. in New York 88 is an excellent exrunning Dionysos in black-figure. with 87 egraphe. 40). a satyr's head. Pisand. long nose. In the early kylikes figured. in Castle on a kylix in New York Ashby (fig. with arms held close by his sides. 39. he repeatedly used the kalos name Hipparchos. the device on the profile shield. thick lines. and a warrior. an early contemporary of Epiktetos. on a kylix in the British Museum. is shown entire. He combined grace and elegance with strength. 83 for instance. in his later works. His ten extant works are all on eye cups. a cup in London." easily recognized. signed. The figure is drawn with the trunk in back view. spruce figures. 79 Epiktetos was one of the greatest masters of his time./Ris neat. on the outside are a runner. on a kylix in Baltimore. riding a cock. He uses bold. the exterior red-figured.5o ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES on cups and the interior is blackplates. His facial type. yet every line anoTspot of color including the inscriptions compositions. 11)." is Sir John Beazley's apt comment. and is apt to draw the profile chest of his figures in one sweeping curve. He worked with several potters toxenos Hischylos. generally with few anatomical markings. 89 who decorated a kylix in Munich * signed by Hischylos as potter. 37). Andokides. Nikosthenes. bending down to pick up his spear (figs. among them a boxer on the fragment of a cup in New York The rendering of the boxer's abdominal muscle (fig. the 82 and the lovely satyr drinking wine. drawn in flowing lines. you can only draw dif80 It would be ferently. play their part in the rhythmical "You cannot draw better. which also has the signature of the potter Hischylos. 42). was one of the earliest redfigure cup painters. the boy single figures and groups on his plates. THE HISCHYLOS PAINTER. Only a few works have been attributed to him. Pamphaios. the head and legs in profile. with narrow eye.
group of alabastra painted in the Euergides Painter's manner are inscribed prosagoreuo. but without delicacy or precision. his weights swung forward.EARLY STYLE ready used. on white ground A A with the figures drawn partly in black-glaze lines. or there were two named Pasiades. either the same PASIADES sometimes potted and sometimes painted. is THE THALIARCHOS movement are his favorite subjects. the long. and a youth preparing to throw the discus. three. 96 one in the Louvre 9T is signed Paidikos epoiesen. have here one of the pp. een other kylikes have been attributed to him. flowing line. one in the Louvre 101 with a symposion. Nimble youths in attitudes of used. two runners about to start. including one in New York. swinging his weights. earliest We attempts at foreshortening (see PAINTER. The white-ground vases with outline drawing just mentioned are among the earliartists extant in this technique (see p. and the bulge of the external oblique over the iliac is marked crest only on the near side to suggest the torsion. on two kylikes. are signed Pasiades epoiesen** The signature Pasiades egrapsen occurs on a 99 fragmentary white lekythos in Athens. several signed by Euergides as potter. typical example. have been attributed to him. among other groups. he was content to draw rapidly with a strong. Like in New York est The Apollodoros' other work it is delicately drawn with a flowing line. 31). with combats. 95 has athletes practising a youth preparing to jump. To judge from this evidence. but the figures on it are different in style from those on the vases signed by Pasiades as potter. 37. As a rule. however. 51 resented with three transverse divisions above the navel whereas in Psiax's pictures the later rendering with two divisions is al- Though drawn in full front it is shifted a little to the far side. is preserved signature of APOLLODOROS. THE EUERGIDES PAINTER 9S decorated over a hundred cups." called after a kalos name he related in style to Epiktetos. in New York. 102 Eightfragmentary. also a jumper. stacked folds of the mantle and the nervous hand . including one 303 with a youth standing before an altar. another. His best and most interest9* with a vase ing product is a fragmentary kylix in Athens painter and the goddess Athena. in Rome and Castle Ashby. 48). a third. IO with egrapsen. a potter and a painter. another about to throw the javelin. Four dainty little boxes. "I greet you".
It is not certain whether he is the same man as the Skythes who signed. to suggest foreshortening. The style is already ripe archaic. large. painted by the same later. 10 * On a third uo the name Skythes appears as black-figured plaque in Athens dedicator: Skythes man[etheken] "Skythes dedicated me. PEITHINOS signed with egrapsen the magnificent kylix in Ber10S with Peleus and Thetis. It is the only work by him so far recognized. uted to him. 107 and the gesticulating youths on a frag108 Twenty-six works have been attribmentary kylix in Berlin. on the interior of the kylix. the boy singing to the lyre on a kylix in Rome (fig." Again we do not know whether this Skythes is the same as the vase painter. artist as the 113 New York cup and is much whom the pictures on five kylikes THE Kiss PAINTER. is well charskull suggest that he a Phoenician. The chest is in full front. but Beazley thinks that we may have early works by this artist on the cups now attributed to THE EPIDROMOS AND KLEOMELOS PAINTERS 10 * (so called after their favorite kalos names). 106 whose signature with egrapsen is preserved on sevSK. is placed obliquely. white-ground picture on it a woman spinning a top was not acterized. two black-figured plaques in Athens. Of THE HEGESIBOULOS PAINTER only one certain work remains the kylix in New York ai1 signed Hegesiboulos epoiesen. but the masterly rendering of the drapery with its lin many stacked folds and the delicate drawing of every detail show that he was outstanding.YTHES. The torsion of his body is rendered in the piecemeal manner of the day. She has placed her arms round his neck and is putting her face up to his. with egrapsen. Paris. An- . and who frequently in Rome. 38). painted one in New York 114 with a youth to and a girl kissing (fig. The bearded old man going for a walk with his dog (fig. cushioned fingers are characteristic renderings. He too was an individualist. the legs in profile. or a Jew). 6). the abdominal muscle. except one on a small stand. though in full front. Another kylix 112 but the signed by the potter Hegesiboulos is in Brussels. has drawn a number of finely individualized figures. 4). and Berlin eral cups used the kalos name Epilykos. The hooked nose and long was an Oriental (a Syrian. for instance. have been assigned. all on kylikes.52 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES with slender.
vases. on one the verb is misswas never added. and THE PAINTER OF BERLIN 2268. On it. 120 who painted cups signed by the potter Chelis. rather coarse. several of which are signed by the potters Nikosthenes and 128 called after the kalos name Pamphaios. 43) and 126 the reclining the flute player on a calyx krater in the Louvre. Besides these able artists there were others." four (perhaps rated ing. 117 called after the name he gave a 118 THE HERMAIOS PAINTER. revelers. and Bryn Mawr. who painted in a cursory. (3) EUPHRONIOS. Such are THE BOWDOIN-YE PAINTER. "made signed with egrapsen and therefore certainly painted by Euphronios are: the contest of Herakles and Antaios (see fig. Euthymides. New York. . THE EPELEIOS PAINTER. 118 who youth on a kylix in Orvieto. including an eye kylix with jumpers at Bow122 who painted cups and other doin. jugs. PHINTIAS. athletes. "decoit". The vases signed by EUPHRONIOS present an interesting problem. The pictures on the vases five) it is epoiesen. of more average ability. They form the transition. and Phintias. so to speak. AND THEIR FOLLOWERS In the last decade of the sixth century three distinguished painters were active Euphronios. from the more restricted for they instyle of early red-figure to the broader ripe archaic. decorated several cups signed by the potter Hermaios. number of cups. 115 On a cup in Baltimore 118 the kalos names Leagros and Epidromos are inscribed.EARLY STYLE 53 other kissing scene appears on a kylix in Berlin. and THE CHELIS PAINTER. THE NIKOSTHENES PAINTER. Epeleios which he used on his kylikes in Munich. The evidence is as follows: 125 The name occurs on sixteen vases. on ten by it on another followed by egrapsen. EUTHYMIDES. troduced an ampler type of drawing which soon became com- mon property. warriors. 12 * who dec- orated cups. one perhaps together with Oltos. but often vivid 121 who decorated a style. and other small vases. are Other prominent artists who specialized in decorating cups THE AMBROSIOS PAINTER. and satyrs The favorite subjects are themes which gave op- portunity for depicting lively figures in rapid motion.
and the folds of draperies are drawn in rich. His often copious anatomical markings show his preoccupation with current problems. on the neck of a volute krater in 182 form a lively composition in which each figure is an Arezzo. however. 76). the nails and the joints of the fingers are marked. or there To were two one a painter who worked artists named Euphronios in the late sixth century. for which his massive style was specially suited. six to the Pistoxenos Painter. 181 In the signed picture of Peleus and Thetis. independent unit but all are interrelated. in Athens. with their undulating contours. lose himself in detail. the other a potter who was active in the first half of the fifth century. The painter Euphronios was an artist of great power. two. is a remarkable early representation of physical pain. but his early signed pots and his later paintings have not survived. 99). The contracted face of Antaios. He favored large vases. We know that EVtphronios epoiesen and are the painter Euphronios collaborated with the potters Kachrylion and [Euxijtheos and that Euphronios the potter collaborated with several painters: one of his cups is signed Onesimos have been attributed to the Panaitios egrapsen (see p. The eleven revelers. and the hetairai in Leningrad. or he may have done both concurrently. 43) the muscular structure of the two nude figures is drawn in uted great detail (with no foreshortening to speak of. are masterpieces of design. The aristocratic young horseman on the cup in Munich. Painter p. from Several kalos names appear on Euphronios' vases: Leagros . 129 ding of Peleus on a fragmentary kylix and the Herakles and youths on a fragmentary calyx krater in the Louvre. Euphronios did not. such as kraters and amphorae. comparable to that of the approximately contemporary giant on a metope Selinus. 180 These pictures are not in the same style as those signed somewhat earlier. story of Herakles in Athens and Chicago. a number of others have been attribto him. variegated patterns. 85). possibly three. with open mouth and teeth showing. 128 the wedand Geryon on a kylix in Munich. (see who was active in the next generation (see p.54 hetairai ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 127 the horseman and the on a psykter in Leningrad. three possibilities: judge by this evidence there are Euphronios may have started as a painter and later specialized in potting. Besides the five signed vases. however). In his signed group of Herakles and Antaios (fig.
including his We . these two revelers excel all Euphronios' extant work and are indeed among the most successful of their time in the foreshortening. Smikythos. "the son of Pollias. By way of contrast the other figures on the same vase and in fact in most of Euthymides' other paintings are still more or less pieced to- and this applies also to gether from full front and profile views. and especially the revelers near whom the inscription is written (see fig. best work by Euthymides. and the beautifully poised. with revelers and Hektor arming. is on his unsigned the statuesque group of Theseus carrying off Korone. Euthymides has proudly put "Euphronios never did anything like this": ws ouSeirore Ev<f>povios. with the letters Polio still preserved. In one respect. on an amphora in Munich. has survived on six vases: two amphorae in. Antaios. 135 the other with Thorykion arming and athletes. however. or the young horseman Euthymides' claim seems hardly justified. 148 On the signed amphora in Munich 2307. doubtless also originally A had his full signature. fleeing women on the same vase. The kalos name Megakles occurs on the signed hydria in Bonn. recently found in the Athenian Agora. Melas. a fragmentary plate in Adria 189 with a warrior. abdomen. however. back. 145 and the name Leagros. 14S the two richly draped. 144 They are drawn with an ease and a sureness of vases: The touch which only a great master can achieve. Most of The signature of EUTHYMIDES. 44). IS * with egrapsen or egraphe. Munich. Philiades. shoulder foreshortened with remarkable understanding. They are drawn in three-quarter front and three-quarter back views with the farther side of the chest. one with Hektor arming and revelers. 18 a kalpis in Bonn 13T with a symposion. But if we compare the paintings on this vase. 43). On three of these he calls himself 6 IIoAiou. them do not occur elsewhere*. may surmise. without kalos. single figures of a satyr and a youth pouring wine. clavicle.133 55 Xenon. a psykter in Turin 188 with athletes. on fragments of a pelike in the Louvre." 141 142 fragmentary cylinder. and a fragmentary kylix in Florence 14 with deities. on a neck amphora in Goluchow. The boast has been interpreted as a general challenge to a rival friendly or hostile. Euphronios' work.EARLY STYLE (several times). with some of Euphronios' masterpieces the Herakles and Antaios for instance (see fig.
that it among enhanced. but his figures are more winsome. survives on two stam- . of course they may well have been. therefore. His signature. One of those with epoiesen 148 with a warrior was not decorated by the kylix in Athens the two others are aryballoi without figure painter Phintias. Philtias. 46). not merely copying the mural and panel painters of the day. with egrapsen. Sostratos. A toast to Euthymides. also bears the signatripod.56 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES was the foreshortening in this picture on which Euthymides prided himself. ow appears on an unsigned hydria in Munich m rrjvSt with women reclining and a music lesson. Eu0v/u8a [Aarao-o-w]. The kalos names Megakles. Phintias' work resembles that of Euthymides and of Euphronios in a certain monumental quality." 9 tias the painter and Phintias the potter were the same man. Great artists like Euphronios and Euthymides naturally had 1" a follower of Euphronios. most gifted. Phintis. that Phindecoration. and Chairias occur on Phintias' vases. and do not know for certain. SMiKROs. a kylix in Baltimore temporary ing a vase in a potter's shop. Phitias. The signature of PHINTIAS 14r appears on four vases with egrapthe sen. The idyllic scene in London of youths at the fountain and the Munich music lesson are among the most sensitive pictures of their time. 83). The latter. and it shows that the vase painters were taking an active part in this terest of the inscription is greatly problem. his ture of the potter Deiniades. though. It voices the rivalry vase painters in the new manner of drawing that was being evolved and that gradually changed Greek painting from two-dimensional designs to three-dimensional pictures. purse in hand. a hydria in London 1S2 with a youth selectwater at a fountain. for they are conand we know definitely in the case of Douris that We a painter-potter collaborated with other potters (see p. was one of the imitators. on three with epoiesen. and a kylix in Munich 188 with Herakles and Alkyoneus and the struggle for the earliest extant work. The four vases which Phintias signed as decorator are an amphora in Tarquinia 15 with the struggle for the tripod and a Dionysiac 1S1 with youths fetching scene (see fig. and move with more grace and lightness of step. If this supposition is correct the intherefore. The two artists were evidently friends. The name Phintias is variously spelt in these signatures Phintias.
The picture of Herakles entering 16 is the only Olympos on a fragmentary kantharos in Athens other work definitely attributed to the Sosias Painter. The kalos names Antias. The preoccupation of Achilles as he bandages his friend's arm and the pain of Patroklos sitting on his round shield with averted face are admirably conveyed. the other is a lewd fellow. Two girls have come to a fountain. 166 and HYPSIS belong to the Euthymidean cirthe Amazons and the cle. called after his picture of Aigisthos on a pelike in Vienna. Pheidiades. . but is freshly observed. His best work is the signed symposion in Brussels. for the letters would fit the space. and Eualkides occur on Smikros' vases. The latter one of the most famous pictures in Greek vase painting and Olympos notable for its expressive attitudes. anatomy are drawn in fluid lines with a wealth of detail. Only two works of Hypsis remain 168 on which the full signachariot scene on a hydria in Munich. sensitive artist who painted Sosias' kylix. 16 * THE DIKAIOS PAINTER 165 named after the kalos name he used on an amphora with youths and warriors 16T in the Louvre. The inlel scription Sosias epoiesen occurs on a small stand in Berlin. a ruined one in London Brussels. On the outside Herakles is represented en- is is in the presence of deities. THE SOSIAS PAINTER 1B8 decorated a kylix in Berlin 1B9 signed noi. on the inside Achilles seen tending the wounded Patroklos (see fig. 169 which has only the name Hypsis. . On the foot of a bowl recently found in the Athenian Agora 162 is the 6 ypa^as. 45). has filled her jar lifting her skirt so as not to get wet. Armor. . The scene is remarkably lifelike and the rich. 157 Four other vases have 1" 6 EARLY STYLE by the potter tering is Sosias. ture Hypsis egrapsen appears. hair. The fragmentary name may have been Euphronios. The latter picture especially has great charm. 168 THE VIENNA PAINTER. drapery.57 and a well-preserved one in been attributed to him. conventional way with a row of women carrying water jars. One has placed her jar under a lion-headed spout and is stepping aside." .Ta-rrayti>v E[. with youths and women reclining on decorated couches while two servants fill a large wine bowl for the feast. but the vigorously drawn crouching Satyr on it can hardly be by the meticulous. says E[ ]ios.]tos <Jyr]mv inscription 5o>erias Ka. crowded composition on the one side makes a good contrast with the sparser grouping on the other. "Sosias . It is not composed in the old. and the two girls at a fountain on a kalpis in Rome.
The fountain house is inscribed krene Dionysia. and is evidently the well-known poet. "fountain of Dionysos. THE GALES PAINTER 1T1 also belongs here." well preserved hydria in New York 1TO with two armed youths performing a pyrrhic dance is also by some companion of Euthymides. who was also represented on other vases of this time. Both have little cushions for protection of A p. for one of the revelers inscribed Anakreon. for instance. the other in with from a satyr-headed spout and is supporting it on her knee. The latter is a famous vase. He decorated two one in Boston 172 with cows belekythoi signed Gales epoiesen 178 ing led to sacrifice (see fig. 41).58 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Syracuse three revelers. 44)- . before lifting it to her head. on a kylix by Oltos in London and on a fragment of a calyx krater by the early-Kleophrades Painter in private possession (see is their heads.
Though much the same scheme is adhered to for the rendering of muscles and bones. hair. Soon afterwards the Persian danger threatened and all energies had to be spent in the defense which culminated in the victories of the Persian wars. The style of this period is a continuation and expansion of that of the earlier one. We may surmise several reasons for this: pottery as a flourishing industry must have attracted the artistic talent of the time. and Plataiai (479).II. the attitudes are more expressive of the action varied. Hippias fell in 510. for they have and our literary records are scanty. the scope of the artist has become enfor design is still a determining factor. most important of all. the time was ripe for a flowering of the craft.C. and in 508-507 the constitution of Kleisthenes was introduced. of eye. the draperies have become more of the figures. and. Etruscan tomb 165. twist more easily and naturally. turn. (490). as little of the Greek panel and mural paintings of all disappeared period as of the preceding one. and drapery. perhaps suggest paintings. they bend. THE next period of Athenian red-figure is concurrent with At the end of the sixth century Athens had changed from a tyranny to a democracy. we note an unmistakable The bodies have developed. perhaps because of the national danger there were fewer commissions for large paintings and sculpture. Salamis (480). quickening of spirit. Though interest in nature had by now been fully aroused and the artists were eagerly watchthe great spectacle of life around them. noteworthy that during these times of stress Athenian vase painting excelled. but the outlook has changed. And yet the feeling that we can enjoy to the full the It is indeed in this period stylization of archaic Greek painting. larged. But it stands to reason that the art of the Sikyon panels and of the Gordion murals (see p. The finest work in red-figure was done in and It is Marathon just before this period. RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE. In other words. note 2) continued. the stylizing tradiing . ABOUT 500-475 B. and the late archaic We know this Greek influence. which show strong that mural painting was also practised in Greece.
18). either in a the single row as before (see fig. 18) or in a double one to show interlacement with the digitetions of the external oblique muscle no arising from the ribs (see fig. the draperies rich designs. and the compositions whose effectiveness is as yet little disturbed rhythmical patterns by attempts at plastic renderings. The shape of the obliquus externus ing over the iliac crest is shown by curved lines (see figs. 17. The set of formulas which served the preceding generation is enriched and enlarged. 17). The rectus abdominis is longer rendered by adjacent ovals. 17). Thus the serratus magnus is marked by a set of curves.6o tions ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES were still even their innovations potent and they translated into conventionalized schemes. The increased interest in nature is shown first by a more detailed study of the human body. The artist gradually learned . The muscles still form linear decorations. The individual parts are more FIGURE 17 carefully observed than before (contrast figs. its shape is more developed and its connection with the thorax is now commonly indicated abdominis bulg(see fig. Great progress has also been made in the understanding of foreshortening. 3 and 17).
Occasionally a leg in three-quarter view is attempted. that of a pursuing 24. and that end is often open to sugview (see fig. In male figures the farther side of the chest is often indicated by an additional curve (see fig. the iris (a large dot or circle and dot) is gradually moved toward the inner end. at least for a on. 13). and gradually a foreshortened hand or foot is achieved (see figs. 21). g-h). or other in The placing of one leg profile (see fig. one breast is drawn full-front. shoulder blade. Simple though the means were. 24. The full profile view becomes rarer. among the first Another slight but signifi- chin. Herecant change is noticeable in the rendering of the tofore the line of the profile chin generally stopped abruptly where it met the line of the neck (see fig. with the line of the shinbone and kneecap placed FIGURE l8 nearer to the inner side and the patella also shifted (see fig. in full-front (or full-back) view and the other in profile is common. 22). clavicle. e-f). the line of the chin is generally . or the eye of an attacking Achilles from that of a dying Amazon or could sug(fig. But side by side with these innovations the old renderings persist. the 20). The eye is now generally unsymmetrical. guish the rolling eye of a Herakles carrying off the tri- pod from Apollo (fig.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 61 to indicate the three-quarter view by contracting the farther side of the chest. In female figures the breasts are drawn side by side in profile pointing in one direction (see fig. abdominal muscle. 19) and part of the farther shoulder is drawn. From about 500 continued. 22. 24. a-b). lovgest the eagerness of two FIGURE 19 These are attempts at the rendering of emotion. especially in the earlier years of the period. the artist could distingest the profile 24). ers (fig. 23).
62 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES short distance. to mark the contour of the jaw (see fig. The general effect highly schematic. Gradually the zigzags become more rounded and the folds more diversified (see fig. Occasionally a differentiation of the black mass is attempted by the drawing of wavy lines on a background of diluted glaze. 61. Several stages of development can be noted in the rendering of the drapery. The contour is now reserved. then the zigzags become less regular. At first FIGURE 81 the zigzags are more or less pointed and the folds are drawn in straight. which now fly backward with the motion of the figure. the pleats are no longer arranged in groups. 27. and most important of all. 25). radiating lines (see fig. At first the central pleat is not placed so high as before nor is it so broad. and the groups of pleats move nearer together. A little later (see the zigzags disappear altogether. The lower edge is then drawn by a wavy line or a series of arcs (see fig. 30). 63). Gradually the scheme becomes looser. 29). 1 The hair is still generally a black mass with dots or short strands at the forehead and curling locks behind. The rendering of the himation shows a similar development from the sche- matic to the more naturalistic. The chitons by the Brygos Painter and Makron of about 480 are good examples of such renderings figs. 26). We have seen that toward the end of the sixth century the lower edges of the draperies were drawn in zigzag lines in two direcFIGURE 2O tions. 28) or merely by a curving line. but the practice of incision occurs sporadically for some time. . up and down from a 16. central pleat is (see figs. Thus the drapery has acquired a separate entity and successfully suggests movement. the lines of the chiton folds often assume expressive curves following the action of the figures. The rendering of the off lower of a edge garment (chiton or himation) by a wavy line or a simple curve.
RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 63 which was usual in the preceding period (see fig. fillets. 26-28). linear drawing toward a three-dimensional conoccasional use of apception. hair. of thinned glaze for muscles. they are important as progressions from the old two- <3Sr FIGURE 24 dimensional. he could model his forms. at least by some artists. He could make the contours of a figure and of its salient parts stand out F1GURE 00 by drawing them in black relief lines and marking the subsidiary parts in brown. strings). this soft brown. This brown color note gives a pleasing variety. 63). and even as washes here and there. 59. Moreover. in other words. taking the place in this respect of the former red and white accessories. and he could differentiate the nearer from the farther distance the drapery on the near side from that on the FIGURE 23 brown farther side (see fig. And he could suggest space and form. 53). he could successfully indithe diploidion cate that one part was over another of a chiton over the kolpos (see figs. folds of chitons. Though such instances are rare. helped the artist to distinguish between the more and the less prominent parts of his picture (see p. 29). By applying a wash of or by drawing brown brush strokes he could suggest the bulge of a shield or of a vessel (see fig. There is an increasing use. For instance. gilded a technique which in the course . was continued throughout this period (see figs. 16). less conspicuous than the black. which now red is fall more and more into disuse (though retained for such things as inscriptions. Further variety is obtained by the of time beplied clay. 60). In the technique also there are a few changes from the preceding period. by drawing the folds of some parts of the garment black and others brown. being wreaths.
For the facial type of the end of the period useful landmarks are sup'plied by the heads of Harmodios and Aristogeiton and by the head of Arethusa on the damareteion dated about 479Besides sculptural parallels we have other important chronological data for this period. some of the lines are now drawn in diluted glaze. 26 and p. also. The central pleat there is not so high in relation to the lowest pleat as it is in the Athena from the west pediment. comparable to that observed in the vases of the early fifth century. corresponds to that in the later vases by Makron and Douris. besides late black-figured vases. The drapery of the Athena from the east pediment of this temple corresponds to that noted on vases of the the fifth century. The folds of the himation in the first decade or so of FIGURE 26 stele of Alxenor show a slight loosening of the strictly schematic rendering. On the Boston and Ludovisi three-sided reliefs (perhaps about 470) the zigzags have practically disappeared.C. 40) appear in the Mounting Charioteer from FIGURE 25 the Akropolis and in the Athena from the west pediment of the temple at Aigina. The mound at Marathon in which were buried those who fell in the battle of FIGURE 37 2 490 B. and the zigzag itself is not so regular. contained. The renderings which occur on vases at the turn of the century (see fig. A comparison with contemporary sculptures tive. Particularly striking is is again instructhe parallelism in the drapery. with its loose folds displaying a certain variety. one frag- . the lower edge being drawn by a wavy line. White-ground vases continued alongside red-figured ones. There. the lower edge is drawn in two zigzags up and down from a central pleat which is broader than the others and considerably higher than the lowest one.64 came ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES increasingly popular. The rendering of the mantle of Aristogeiton (dated 477-476).
however. Among the shapes the kylix continues its popuof the foremost larity during this period. Panathenaic. If at the time of discovery more attention had been paid to stratification." which is common at the end of the sixth century. now makes its first appearance and becomes increasingly popular. But unfortunately this evidence is not so helpful as might have been expected. amphorae of several forms (neck. whereas on his later vases the kalos name Panaitios appears. we should doubtless be better informed. and ripe archaic red-figured. we find fragments of vases of the early free style along with those of the styles of Epiktetos and Makron. was in good standing and attracted gifted . The "Nolan" amphora. a smallish neck FIGURE 30 amphora with ridged handles. as other debris was added later. hydriai. with twisted handles). the preference being for one sweeping curve from foot to lip. Some of the larger pots volute. It is clear that the potter's craft artists. which should FIGURE 28 antedate the year 480. remains that by far the majority of the vase fragments are black-figured. The fact. and stamnoi are great achievements from the potter's point of view. the decorative apotropaic eyes are abandoned. calyx. 4 who therefore must be anterior to the date of the battle. and there are superb examples extant. early red-figured. and column kraters. That is 490 also indicated this painter started his career before by the fact that on one of his earliest vases occurs the inscription "Leagros kalos. for. A potentially important landmark is given B by the potsherds found in the Persian debris on the Athenian Akropolis. The smaller vases are often highly finished. for in them all the vase fragments are early.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 8 65 mentary red-figured kyllx. It was used by some decorators. pointed. In spite of the scanty remnants the cup can be assigned to the time of the Panaitios Painter. The offset mouth becomes less frequent. often of large FIGURE 29 dimensions. Some refuse heaps apparently remained undisturbed.
Again we know the real names of com- paratively few. If the signature on the pelike had been an ancient have expected some have thought. AND OTHER PAINTERS OF LARGE POTS gifted painters of large pots are the so-called The two most PAINTER ters fl Kleophrades Painter and the Berlin Painter. including nine black-figured Panathenaic . just as we cannot tell why Makron signed only one (possibly two) of his many extant products and the Berlin Painter. derived his I THE KLEOPHRADES name from : signed KAco^pa8 eTrotco-ev A/wio: the kylix in Paris 7 which is si The missing let- have been restored as to? hw. (i) THE KLEOPHRADES PAINTER. the drawing is frankly that of the Kleophrades Painter in his latest phase. Instead. Many vase painters now prefer to use the major part of the surface instead of framing the pictures within borders. This restoration would make 8 Kleophrades the son of Amasis. for a pelike in Berlin 9 bearing the signature Epiktetos egrapsen has been identified as one of his late works. the Brygos Painter. Over a hundred vases have been attributed to the Kleophrades forgery. according to the shapes they preferred and cups.66 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Ornaments are no longer used so freely as before. Why Epiktetos II signed only one late. 16). many have been recognized by their individThey may be conveniently divided into three groups large pots. but ual styles. but the styles of the two artists are quite different. Titian would hardly have forged the name of Bellini to increase the value of one of his pictures. We now also know his real name. In no other period of Athenian vase painting were there so many significant artists. as at least Painter 11 (we shall retain the familiar name as less confusing than Epiktetos II). small pots. one could an attempt to imitate the style of the early Epiktetos. THE BERLIN PAINTER. and the Achilles Painter none (see p. Moreover by that time the fame of the early Epiktetos had doubtless been overshadowed by his many brilliant successors and there would have been no point in forging his signature. The name happens to be the same as that of an earlier vase painter. insignificant work and none of his many 10 masterpieces we do not know.
lizards. 14 Muand Vienna. and the maenads on a pointed amphora in Munich 2 * show him early in this mature stage. both as a pot and served side we see two warriors arming. a sword hangs from his shoulder. He must have been active a considerable time. and in the strangely moving Ilioupersis on a hydria in 27 Naples. we have said. the pelikai in Copenhagen we can liest 15 works Let us look at the two vases by this artist in New York. And yet this elaboration in gernails. for trace several stages of development in his style. 19 Athens. a star. on the helmet checkers. As he matured. 13 the Vatican. One holds out a helmet. ciousness. he developed a personality with greater emotional 21 power. 17 Paris. must have been very imas a decoration. his shield is him. His work reflects better perhaps than that of any of his contemporaries the strenuous and exalted His best paintings have a grandeur and spaspirit of the time. however. The delicate folds of the of toe. 18 and nich. 47). and are drawn with a flowing line which has seldom been excelled. The earthe amphorae in Wiirzburg. 16 the psykters in Compiegne. The next phase is seen in the majestic. is leaning on his spear and is holding out 47). and puts the other hand on his head. the occasional indication finish. belong to his mature period. palmettes. with the baldric hanging. The youths on the calyx kraters in Tarquinia and New York (see fig. somewhat more simplified Apollo and Herakles on an amphora in New York. . 20 in the rhapsodist and flutist on an amphora in Lon26 don. on the sword hilt is a strip of meander. Then his strength waned and he produced such second28 and rate pictures as those on the stamnos in the Villa Giulia 20 and Berlin. and on the ground is a shield (see fig. and the volute krater with satyrs in a private collection 20 resemble the work of Euthymides. The calyx krater.and fintunics. The other youth a sword in its scabbard. Both." the warrior putting on his greave and The28 seus performing his deeds on the two kylikes in Paris. the ornaments.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 67 12 amphorae (two in New York). all bespeak unusual no way detracts from the grandeur of the design. Every detail is drawn with the utmost care. The cuirasses are elaborately lying on the ground beside decorated with sal tires. which is unfortunately fragmentary. perhaps to smooth his hair preparatory to putting on his helmet. and dots. from whom he clearly derived his firm drawing and monumental style. as the strap hanging. On the better prepressive.
the hooked line for the ankle. More than two hundred vases (including fragments and a few black-figured Panathenaic am88 phorae) have been attributed to him. the velvety sheen of the glaze. the 32 THE such masterpieces as the Berlin amphora. giving roundness to his shapes thereby. while he travels over the sea. 80 style may are the large nose with (not black) circle the brown rounded line for the nosand dot for the iris and pupil. The firm. bold drawing. in the act of carrying away the Delphic tripod.68 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES The amphora with Apollo and Herakles is in good preserva- enabling us to appreciate more fully the original effect. a quiver hangs at his back and he wears a mantle and a laurel wreath. and of these the best belong to the first two decades of the fifth century. the other grasping a handsomely carved bow. elaborate at first. and the beautiful form of the vase combine to make it an outtion. and he grasps the club firmly in his hand.C. the brown whiskers. worked for about forty years. thinned BERLIN PAINTER derives his name from one of his most amphora in Berlin with Hermes and two He must have started his career around 500 B. the greave with modeled knees and indication of muscles. He was evidently interested in the current problem of suggesting the third dimension. his bow and quiver are hanging from a belt round his waist. the broad frontal knee. It is one of several tall side. are simplified as time goes on. They comprise careful works. and many more modest works on Nolan the British . standing piece. Some renderings. Herakles wears the lionskin over his head and back. He is in pursuit of Herakles (painted on the other side of the vase). 81 Occasionally he used washes of glaze. Apollo is represented as advancing. one hand outstretched. pauses to look back at his pursuer (note the large rolling eye). In his representations of armor he draws the cuirass with high. the hydria in the Vatican 38 with Apollo sitting on his winged tripod and playing the lyre. the scabbard with squared end and loops for the attachment of the baldric. the black edging of the lips with a fossette at the corner. the volute krater in Museum * with the contests of Achilles and Hektor and of Achilles and Memnon. and satyrs. who. amphorae by this artist with a single figure on each Among the many criteria by which the Kleophrades' be recognized tril. the ear with a projecting lobe. straight neckpiece and squared shoulder flap.
An amphora. to suggest that she is dying. who falls back fatally wounded. Satyrs with finely curving tails made specially good subjects and are There are fine examples on the back of accordingly popular. into the The scene is a less intimate. and a dog. typical to the work a boy. Blood flows from wounds in her thigh and beneath her breast. but though rendered in the impersonal. except for part of the foot and the frontal toes.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 69 amphorae and lekythoi. 48). though its parts are not yet foreshortened. listens. archaic fashion. singing anoT sway- The youth rhythm and ing to the rhythm of the music (fig. 17. now in New York. The sweep of the falling Amazon and the self-confident stride of the warrior make a finely contrasted composition. 40 shows the artist in the fullness of his power. 97). The black dot for the iris is nearer the upper lid than the lower. One 38 Achilles 26). Penthesileia's right leg and foot are shown in full front. striking the strings. plunging his spear Amazon. His figures have a litheness and elasticity. with the lower part not indicated. an angular grace which make them a good foil for the more massive types of the Kleophrades Painter. while on the other side . the boy holds his master's stick the dog too is listening and lifts a paw. the Berlin amphora and on a Panathenaic amphora in Mu3G the portly ones on a Nolan amphora in New York ST are nich. 89 is a of the Berlin Painter's early to middle period. is Achilles represented striding forward. less emotional representation than the one of the same subject by the Penthesileia Painter on the famous cup in Munich (see p. but are lively and well characterized. on an oinochoe in New York. A youth. She stretches out one hand in entreaty while the other still holds the bow. formerly in the Hearst Collection. In the Achilles the three-quarter view is suggested by the placing of the rectus abdominis muscle on one side of the trunk. not drawn with the same care. Single figures on tall vases particularly appealed to him. The breasts are drawn far apart and in two profile views facing right and left. On one side is depicted a youth playing the kithara. and moving of the music. the left leg is bent. To give them the necessary width he generally placed large objects in outstretched hands. it is grandly conceived. of the Berlin Painter's earliest works is the group of and Penthesileia on a hydria in New York (see figs. is playing the lyre.
black arc. for instance in the Achilles and Penthesileia in New York (see fig. The Berlin Painter's scheme for expressing in linear patterns the complicated anatomy of the human body varies little during his long period of activity. 17). the thigh muscles. less if the scene is an actual performance. The eye is long. 41 and in two lekythoi. he neither shows fear nor begs for mercy.* thirty-nine vases have so far been attributed.** We find it already fully developed in his earliest works. and the depression above the great trochanter. We called after the kalos name Nikoxenos on an amphora in Balti- more.* style. work by the Berlin Painter may be seen New York in a Nolan amphora with Poseidon and a youth. brown added forming a small triangle to indicate the depression at the bottom of the sternum. the nipples are generally rosettes of dots. Two lines indicate the chief muscles of the neck. a small projection the wrist. below. the lips are generally not edged. at the junction of the breast lines a short. We are . On the arms two arcs convex to one another mark the biceps and triceps. while Neoptolemos advances spear in hand. 46 He had an angular. can only mention a few of the many other pot painters active in the late archaic period. and often have a fossette at the corner. somewhat ungainly 5 7 but occasionally produced so moving a picture as the Death of Priam. late. a small arc the elbow. the outline and divisions of the deltoid are marked by curving line is lines. above.* 8 In spite of the stiffness of the attitudes it makes us feel the pathos of Priam's death better than many more skilful renderings: Priam has taken refuge on the altar of Zeus. long curves mark the vasti. one with a woman 42 the other with running. the clavicles recurve at the inner ends and do not touch the median line. The outer protuberance at the ankle is regularly drawn as two black curves. including thirteen in black-figure. the trainer careful in several examples in The Poseidon pursuing a woman 43 both perhaps school-pieces. holding a torch and a libation bowl. but merely puts his hand to his head as if dazed by his sufferings. The kneecap is drawn as an arc with a smaller arc below it.70 is ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES or the judge. To THE NIKOXENOS PAINTER. on an amphora in New York. three (or two) long lines the muscles on the profile forearm. a curve outlines the calf. the nostril is marked by a deep. the ear has a hooked line for its inner marking. often open at the inner end and has a black dot for the iris. two long lines indicate the peroneal muscles.
Slay me. 88 His virile." Anguish and horror Something of this dignity of Priam in his extremity the artist has been able to convey. 52 The seventy works now attributed to him include several black-figured Panathenaic amphorae. I have no will to see the sun's light more. and so forget of war. The pictures on an amphora in New York are typical examples. idly on the ground they move about as if in often looking back and down over their shoulders. 49 71 to Neoptolemos in Quintus Smyr- "Fierce-hearted son of Achilles strong in war. and also something of the ruthlessness of Neoptolemos as he advances "in murderous mood" with his "resistless lance. for he signed a column krater in Athens egrapsen kapoiesen. works are* the Burning of Croesus on an amphora in the of Aithra on a calyx krater in London.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE reminded of Priam's words naeus. With my sons would I die. but more graceful. 58 His style marks the beginning of the mannerist movement (see p. for a number of renderings are identical in both artists' works and unusual elsewhere. for instance." the Release and the Struggle for the Tripod on a Panathenaic amphora in Florence. On the other side of the vase young athlete and his trainer. The figures are long limbed and rather affected. MYSON was a potter as well as a painter. somewhat angular figures have a monumental character which is enhanced by ample spacing. 58 Louvre. 85 Most of the forty-seven other works attributed to him are on column kraters and of dress are a His finest pictures apparently early average workmanship. not so strong and vigorous as those. The figures 69 . Who have suffered woes so many and so dread. his left hand in the retaining band. his right holding the plektron. the latter grasps a long rod and pegs for marking the ground. the double-lobed ear. and pity not my misery. Apollo in a long tunic and mantle is playing the lyre. by the Eucharides Painter. in spite of his shortcomings." named after the stamnos in CoB1 penhagen inscribed Eucharides kalos. Artemis picks up a fold of her THE M and holds up a lighted torch. Instead of standing sola rhythmic dance. for instance. must have been a pupil of the Nikoxenos Painter." EUCHARIDES PAINTER. 94). heavy.
and a wreathed youth. almost comical touch. An amphora and a hydria with youths in 68 statuesque poses 70 are products of the Syleus Painter's maturity. THE HARROW PAINTER is named after one the boy with a of his best works 84 hoop on an oinochoe at Harrow. its left hind leg against his head. on an amphora in Copen- . He is represented in the New York collection by three typical examples. one hand on its belly. His tall. THE COPENHAGEN PAINTER 71 and his PAINTER 72 "brother" THE SYRISKOS The former is are able. Dionysos is leaning on a knotted stick holding out his kantharos to have it filled by a satyr (painted on the other side of the vase). so called after his picture of Herakles and Syleus on a stamnos in Copenhagen. The picture has an individual. Old Age. with the other he grasps a pair of jumping weights (the tips of his fingers can be seen through the hole). On the ground lie a discus with an owl 6T as emblem and a pickax used for loosening the soil in the palaestra. A hydria with Herakles and the Nemean lion 69 is an early work: Herakles has thrown himself on the lion and holds it tight with both arms. balancing a cup on the palm of his hand and on grasping a knotted stick. 66 has an unusual scene a satyr fragmentary jug in New York in a palaestra playing the athlete. often carelessly. and a full wineskin (see fig. with a cup and a large vine branch. An attractive scene 63 is on a pelike in New York. the other on its forelegs. academic artists of this time. The lion roars with pain. The tree in the background indicates the valley of Nemea. often lean figures are generally in rather stiff attitudes but have a pleasing vivacity. Most of the Geras Painter's twenty-seven extant one or two figures. 50). 49). Fifty-one works have been attributed to THE SYLEUS PAINTER. walking and turning round as he goes (see fig. He decorated 65 A chiefly neck amphorae and column kraters.72 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES a column krater in New York 60 are typical Dionysos. named after his attractive pictures. stems its right foreleg against Herakles' shoulder. One hand is on his hip. and the accessories play a happy part in the composition. evidently on his way home from a party. who is hurrying to him with a jug pictures are on pelikai and consist of in unusual subjects. The Greek love of youth and hatred of ugliness are here shown in concrete fashion. THE GERAS PAINTER 81 produced the remarkable painting on a pelike in Paris 62 of Herakles clubbing Geras. and lashes its tail.
recalls the Berlin Painter. polishing the shield of Achilles to give it to Thetis for her son Achilles. with scenes of Theseus and the Minotaur and of Theseus and Skiron (see fig. the latter after the vase in the form of a knuckle bone in the Villa Giulia Museum/ 4 which he decorated with a Nike. THE DUTUIT PAINTER/ The second group to most eighteen works have been attributed. A the Troilos Painter 78 shows Triptolemos in his winged chariot holding ears of grain.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE hagen. Hephaistos. DIOGENES. but . TYSZKIEWICZ. THE GALLATIN. lekythoi." They lead gradually to the early classical period. and a lion. is among the He is named from his picture of Artemis caress80 ing a fawn. 77 It is an amphora. once in the Dutuit Collection. 73 73 of an old man with a negro slave boy and of a youth buying an amphora. formerly in the Gallatin Collection." who decorated a Nolan amphora in 88 Boston with Eos and Tithonos. whom A two of his vases. behind her is a cushioned chair. and which is signed by the potter Syriskos: Syriskos epoiesen. Theseus has seized Skiron by one leg and scene on a hydria in is New York by about to hurl him over the cliff. On another lekythos 82 York a woman is standing in front of an incense burner. 51). 53). is him in Boston (see fig. 88 represented on a Nolan amphora by Among the minor artists of this period he stands out as a singuThe kalos name Archinos occurs on larly gracious personality. an Eros. THE TITHONOS PAINTER. on an oinochoe in Paris. and TROILOS PAINTERS decorated mostly large vases in an ample style. the whole skillfully composed on the strongly curving surface. An excellent example by the Gallatin Painter (who was perhaps the Diogenes Painter in an early phase) 76 is in New York. 9 oinochoai includes several good artists. holding a flower and a large scroll. a fillet and mirror are hanging on the wall. 52). Nike by him holding an incense burner and gliding on a through the air with feet picked up in dainty fashion is 81 in New lekythos in New York (see fig. (2) PAINTERS OF SMALL POTS (a) IN RED-FIGURE those who of late archaic pot painters and specialized in small vases such as Nolan amphorae. attractive.
These two paintings rank among the artist's best works. Two are at Bowdoin College. He began his work in the ripe archaic period. The stately Athena. 91 His figures have a quiet solemnity and a statuesque quality. Four 92 a flying figure. On another lekythos in New York 8T Hermes. The satyr pursuing a maenad. a youth painted on lekythoi. with winged boots and a hat hanging down his back. she has espied a victim and is taking an arrow from her quiver to shoot it from her bow (see fig. wearengaging pictures is on a lekythos in Boston. 55). himation. is represented holding a hydria presumably a 83 a stately prize for a victorious athlete.74 is ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES more heavy handed. THE BOWDOIN PAINTER also bridges the ripe archaic with the early free period. On a lekythos inscribed Nike. cap. pictures by him are in New York. on a lekythos. also a diadem with leaves along the top. She wears a peplos with handsomely decorated borders and over it the aegis. The kalos names Kallikles. but continued into the early free. 54). cheekpieces. is looking at herself in a mirror before going out. mostly single figures a Nike. some on a white ground. but most of his eighty-nine extant works are on Nolan amphorae and lekythoi. many of his paintings. a maenad. His name is derived from his picture of Apollo on an amphora in Providence. A THE PROVIDENCE PAINTER 89 is another artist whose style resembles that of the Berlin Painter. 90 He decorated a few large pots. and peak decorated with a fringe of hair. on 94 a Nolan amphora. Glaukon. a woman. grasping the herald's staff (see fig. Hippon occur on the Providence Painter's vases. On another lekythos Artemis is seen rushing through the woods. His pictures are in no way remarkable for technique or subject. bracelet. earrings. but attractive in . and the woman running with a torch in each hand. is running rapidly to the left acteristic product. Nineteen works have been attributed to him. on a lekythos in New York. One of this artist's most 88 woman. really belong in the next period. Over two hundred works have been attributed to him. his work in fact continues into the third quarter of the fifth century. 95 are of only average workmanship. 97 hence his name. 86 is a char- The goddess is represented standing in full holding her spear (the butt end down) and an Attic helmet with large crest. therefore. The kalos name Diokles is inscribed on a neck amphora in London. array. a deer by her side. ing a chiton.
109 decorated by the Sappho Painter. jects in the New York examples are varied and interesting. 108 and others decorated a host of lekythoi and other small vases in the old technique often on a white ground (see p. the black-figured technique went on concurrently with red-figure for a considerable time (see p. 119). Helios. is walking on the is floor. The subing. (b) IN BLACK-FIGURE As we have said. These outline drawings on white slip mark the beginning of a class of vases which were presently to enjoy a great vogue in Attica (see p. 98 A making skeins of wool which she is the trend of her thoughts flying tame quail tron (fig. THE THESEUS PAINTER. and white herons. 105 Herakles 71). The comparatively rare subject of Herakles killing the sleeping giant Alkyoneus is depicted on a white-ground lekythos by the Haimon Painter. lekythos has a scene of Perseus and Medusa by the Diosphos 104 Perseus has cut off Medusa's head and is flying off with Painter. while . In the ripe archaic period THE DIOSPHOS PAINTER. from a basket by her side. It a simple Greek version of the later Dutch interiors representing women at work. his prize safely in his bag. perhaps suggestive of toward her with a fillet. A remarkable group of four white-ground lekythoi. a on the wall hangs an alabas- 56). an Eros is 75 on a lekythos in New York. 107 Two redground skyphoi with wrestlers. are by the Theseus Painter. and on a white-ground lekythos by him loe Achilles is dragging Hektor's body past the tomb of Patroklos. are said to have been found in one tomb in Attica. On a red-ground amphora by the same painter is taking the dog Kerberos from the house of Hades. Poseidon riding a hippo108 camp." THE SAPPHO 100 THE ATHENA PAINTER. his winged boots. the sungod. 31) but in the new. 101 THE HAIMON PAINTER. 102 PAINTER. 36). A typical one woman pulls is sitting on a chair. developed style of draw- In the white-ground pictures the figures are occasionally depicted not only in silhouette but partly or wholly in glaze outlines either full strength or diluted. is seen rising from the sea in his four-horse chariot. from the neck of A the collapsing Medusa springs the winged horse Pegasos (fig. The subject on one is unique.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE their simplicity. boxers.
He decorated six cups signed Euphronios epoiesen. Their names are among the best known in Greek vase painting. on the third Herakles is in Olympos. we may be sure. serpent. and a drinking horn at his side. drinking-horn. as if smelling the food. MAKRON. The technique is unusual: The body of sits A the vase is painted black. while a serpent is wending its way across the scene. an amphora lekythos in New York. above and (3) THE PANAITIOS PAINTER. its head raised. Perhaps Herakles is sacrificing to Helios preparatory to asking him for the golden bowl in which he crossed the ocean in his successful expedition against Geryon. who on his throne. and the satyr's hair. amphora. Still another work by the Sappho Painter is on a 110 satyr is sitting on a rock. On such occasions. the rocks. On the other side of the vase Herakles is squatting on a rock and roasting pieces of meat on long a burning altar. the satyr is incised.76 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the goddesses Night and Dawn are disappearing in their chariots. Makron. tail are painted white. the Brygos Painter. Ares in the offing. being escorted by Athena and Iris into the presence of Zeus. At the Greek symposia. CUP PAINTERS third THE BRYGOS AND OTHER those The group of late archaic vase painters who spe- cialized in the decoration of cups. particularly kylikes includes four great artists: the Panaitios Painter. the pictures both in the circular field of the interiors and on the curving surfaces of the exteriors could be seen and enjoyed. To judge by the many extant works attributed to them. cups painted by them were. enveloped in streaky clouds. On one of the other lekythoi a Nereid is driving over the sea in a chariot with sickle-winged horses. An able painter had an opportunity to display his skill. and below the scene are red bands. THE PANAITIOS PAINTER 111 is named after the kalos name Panaitios which frequently appears on his works. the inscriptions (three times kalos). his cupbearer Ganymede behind him. PAINTER. their output must have been considerable. DOURIS. while the guests drank their wine. beard. and Douris. his dog is lying at the foot of the spits over rock. At one time it was thought . in great demand. on another Athena is fighting a giant.
116 the Dolon in the Cabinet London. At the same time his compositions have a harmony and flow which distinguish them from even the best work of his contemporaries. and has assigned several kylikes which were also once considered early works by the Panaitios Painter to an 112 This leaves six artist whom he has called the ELEUSIS PAINTER. using his club as a walking stick. but the manner of drawing does not seem close enough for identity (see p. The delicate curvature of Even forms practically all his lines is particularly noteworthy. 59). 54). des Medailles. On the interior Herakles . which other artists are apt to indicate by straight lines he makes to his work its slightly curving. The Panaitios Painter was a master draughtsman. His kylix in JBoston. The breath of life seems to animate their movements and expressions. He not only could draw his figures in violent action. He represented walking is evidently setting out for an expedition. early works by the Panaitios Painter and thirty-five in his developed style. who signed several vases Euphronios egrapsen. 116 the komasts in Boston. a wineskin hangs from a hat. in is New York. the potter Euphronios belong paintings on the kylikes signed by to his developed period. cup in the Louvre signed Euphronios epoiesen Oncsimos egrapsen has pictures of riders which resemble those by the Panaitios Painter in A a late stage. They are the famous Theseus and 114 the Herakles and Eurystheus in Amphitrite in the Louvre. 118 117 and the Herakles the athletes in Amsterdam. Recently Beazley has tentatively placed fourteen cups which used to be regarded as very early works by the Panaitios Painter in a ProtoPanaitian group. but he could imbue them with an abounding vitality. 85). 119 The good idea of last is in bad condition. on the inside of a 118 is one of his most powerful early works. These undulating shapes give vibrant quality. The boy perhaps his son Hyllos 12 -is wearing a wide-brimmed a mantle. The Satyr sitting on a pointed amphora. this painter's style. fully equipped. and high-laced sandals. It has therefore been suggested that Onesimos was the name of the Panaitios Painter. Leagros and Athenodotos occur as kalos names. in addition to Panaitios. but it is now realized that the two are different personalities (see p. but what remains gives a with a little companion (see fig. his bow and arrow ready for action.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 77 that he was identical with the vase painter Euphronios.
the bold s-shaped breast arm. but occasionally he produced quiet. The heads of his figures are relatively large with strong noses and finely curving nostrils. mirably suggested by There are many other masterpieces by this gifted artist on unthe animated youth reading aloud signed vases. and battles. long curving lines indicate the lines reach to the and the exuberant upper muscles of arms and legs. The brothers of Klytios are approaching side. Dionysiac ecstasies. in the place at a banquet. him by in Baltimore. The contest of Herakles with the is taking sons of Eurytos is depicted on die exterior. The fight as indicated by the couches. On the neck is generally a single brown line. 126 the ecstatic maenads in Munich (with the interior picture on komos in Wiirzburg. bunched folds convincingly suggestive of depth. We can distinguish two distinct stages in his career. hands and feet are finely articulated.78 stick carried ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES on his shoulder. decorated five kylikes signed by Bry124 After the Panaitios Painter he was perhaps the gos as potter. he has to fight with his bare hands. 127 the wild satyrs atand Hera. in London. he painted scenes of pursuit. 128 and Zeus pursuing Ganymede on a kantharos in Boston 129 are such animated pictures. a white ground). Several works by the Brygos Painter of this period are in New York. The famous Ilioupersis in the Louvre. The confusion of the combat is adrapidly from either the draperies thrown hither and yon. because his club and bow have been taken from him and are being used against his enemies. The earlier works are characterized by a strong. the clavicles are black with long. 57). 121 from a book to two listeners. and though they are not elaborate compositions they il- . One hundred to him. stately and seventy-one works have been attributed figures. the mantles have heavy. most gifted cup decorator of his time. on a kyathos in Berlin (see fig. 122 satyrs on a kylix Considerable variety is displayed in the Panaitios Painter's He had not the methodical temrenderings of individual forms. revels. Being fond of violent THE BRYGOS PAINTER 12S movement. incisive line and an 125 infectious joie de vivre. has given young Klytios with his fist. for instance. a crushing blow center of the picture. the tacking Iris full of lifelike touches. Painter who developed a fixed scheme perament of the Berlin and adhered to it with but few variations. brown recurves. Herakles.
and shoes. her hair flying. and also more refined. and spear 18 * (see fig. satyrs are painted on the broad of a molded kantharos. wing-fashion. The exuberance has gone.lustrate his style well. A figure in a similar pose on another 188 is identified as Athena lekythos by her aegis. but is turning round to call his companion. head in profile in one direction. double flute. and nervous hand give it vivacity. On the other side a maenad is dancing to the flutist's music. On the wall hangs a wineskin. expressive face. the lines have become thinner and the pictures make an almost ethereal impression. it seems best to attribute them also to him as products of his old age. His long hair is tied at the back with a fillet ending in dangles. 138 Good examples of these late Brygan pictures are the woman working wool on a lekythos to . his tail is drawn in a decorative curve alongside the support. Another attractive 131 On one side a maenad is playing the picture is on a skyphos." 185 but as the renderings of the individual forms are the same as in the Brygos Painter's earlier works. a tall rock on either side. The picGreek in the simplicity of the rendering. 18). he leans against a wineskin. The majestic 182 is a good goddess perhaps Hera or Demeter on a lekythos example of this artist's work in a quieter mood. we can catch something of the ecstasy of the dancer as she bends forward. A reveler on the inside of a kylix. a leopard's skin. The stylized rocks sufficiently convey the impression of a mountainous glen. She too wears a leopard's skin over her chiton. conveys the impression of high-strung life better than many scenes of intense action. 180 One is stretched out full RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE Two 79 rim length. She stands in a frontal pose. His momentary pose effectively contrasts with the luxurious abandon of his companion. These vases used his early products. though repreof tures are typically sented resting. helmet. The later works by the Brygos Painter are weaker in style than attenuated. which she holds the sleeves extended. he is playing the castanets. a tall rock in front of her. propped against a support. one leg raised as if beating time. She wears a chiton. left leg in profile in the other direction. behind her a thyrsos stuck in the ground. more be assigned to "the manner of the Brygos Painter. which is doubled up for better support (see fig. her arms outstretched. 61). playing the double flute a picture of comfort and contentment. for the rhythmical composition. we feel the wind blowing against the flute player's drapery. The other satyr is also lying down.
a single. and a curved line for the protuberance at the ankle. with upper lid curving strongly downward at the inner corner to meet the lower lid. the eyebrow and high strongly arched . The attribute held by the later Athena an ornament from the stern of a ship (akroteriori) appears on several vases of this period. a large rectangular cloth. the himation is often decorated with dots or little circles and with dotted borders. kolpos. in the later the three-quarter view is suggested by the placing of both breasts side by side in profile to the right. Though she is depicted in rapid motion she seems tame and delicate compared to the exuberant creations of the master's earlier period. The change in the Brygos Painter's style in later life is also apparent in his picture of a Thracian woman on the interior of a kylix in New York 141 probably part of a representation of the Death of Orpheus. low forehead. along the other arm. a spear in one hand. finely shaped lips. arcs for the deltoid muscle. 60) convincingly. parallel lines appear lier advance in time is also indicated by the drawing of the breasts. eye. earring. . In the chitons little arcs generally bound the sleeves. She is rushing forward. That there is an grasps her spear. a forehead-nose line slightly convex to the face. parison of an Athena of this period on a lekythos in New York 189 with an earlier one (fig. found both in his earlier and later works: a long skull. with a full curve for the nostril. and strong round chin. locks. long. lips. lines of varying lengths for the muscles of the lower leg. draperies are strikingly similar in the two figures. brown line for the chief muscle of the neck. In the earlier Athena they are shown (on the aegis) in profile to right and left. a series of short arcs for the serratus magnus. but in the later one the lines are thin and delicate and the draperies with their stiff and lifeless compared to the earmore varied rendering. Evidently the victory of Salamis and the growing impor- tance of the Athenian navy made the vase painters see the pre140 siding deity of their city in terms of this new outlook. The renderings of nose. The following are some of the many renderings characteristic of the Brygos Painter. serving as a shield. 1 long curves for the biceps and triceps. narrow eye. whereas the earlier Athena firmly the later one hardly holds it. a long. dots or circles for the nipples.8o ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES A 138 comin Boston 187 and the Nike on a lekythos in Oxford. 61). and lower edge. shows the change (see fig.
Philon.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE There is 81 a good deal of repetition in the paraphernalia which enliven the scenes in the flute cases. He had not the vitality of the Panaitios Painter or the fire of the early Brygos Painter. Briseis on his paintings are 146 Triptolemos and an assembly of deities skyphos in the Louvre. 148 his vases MAKRON name is a skyphos with Menelaos preserved only on one. are in New York. On . in Berlin Several excellent works on kylikes. and Alkmeon. is dancing with rhythmical steps. youths. youth leaning on a stick. he signed jointly with Hieron (Hieron epoiesen. and women making love sometimes in singularly harmonious compositions. shoes. and to his music in hand. the the 149 A drapery. and headdresses. are preserved. some of which are signed has an inby the potter Hieron. the baskets. one in profile. Makron egrap146 on which the letters Makr sen]. Only three kalos names appear on the vases painted by the Brygos Painter Diphilos. the other in full front. . possibly on two and Helen. The earliest terior picture only. through trunk is frontal. 108). Though over two hundred and forty works have been attributed to him. Makron's often careless drawing of details. thyrsos is playing the double flute. the stools with fringed cushions. 147 and the dancing maenads on a kylix 148 are some of his masterpieces. both breasts are in profile to the left. It is a charmThe outlines of the girl's legs are seen ingly lifelike picture. Among his favorite subjects are men. and a pyxis in Athens. and one kale name N ikophile. especially in the rendering of the folds of women's clothes. 107. the earrings. which also helps adthe exterior is a banquet scene with mirably to fill the circle. He also painted a mythological scenes. Altogether his works are easily recognized. but made notable by his masterly line. 14 * which . wreaths. is watching a slim young girl dancing. his right hand on his hip. The pictures on another kylix 150 show Makron in his fully with a finely curved tail a developed period. is an instance of right hand. In the interior satyr a maenad. The motion of the dance is suggested by her oblique posture. painted all except three of about thirty extant vases 2 signed by Hieron as potter" (for the three see pp. The youth's with its clumsy long first finger. in Boston. especially of the Trojan War. . on a skyphos in London. bracelets. and lyres. but the verb is missing.
Unfortunately the surface is not well preserved and we miss many a lovely detail. the clavicles are continuous with the median line and do not recurve. as often in Makron's work. the chin is prominent. the three-legged tables are standing by the couches. The groups of men and women are beautifully varied. the underlip droops. youths. The signature Hieron epoesen is incised under one handle. pouring the wine through his strainer. the . strigils. thyrsos in hand. flowers. And the figures are drawn with an unhesitating brush that can draw contours of bodies. a maenad with streaming to escape many conversation scenes. meal at hair. Figures in similar attitudes and groupings occur again and again with the same paraphernalia stools. On the candelabrum is a lighted lamp. lending a dim light to the evening scene. On the insix couches on. The hair is often drawn in black lines on a brown ground. and locks of hair with equal ease and knowledge. ready for use. The design as a whole has great beauty. The an end. 63). and women in beautifully balanced compositions appear on two other large kylikes in New York. wreathed krater painted under the other handle.82 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES is which recline bearded men and hetairai. wreaths. Another strainer and a ladle are hanging from a candelabrum beside one of the couches. and slightly oblique. There is much repetition in Makron's work. A small slave boy painted under one handle is serving wine from a large. but they are empty except for the gay branches (the equivalent of our flower pieces) hanging down their sides. sticks. 1B1 and the scene on still another kylix 1C2 is full of movement. Men. cushions. sponges. baskets. especially in his terior. narrow. a hooked line serves for the inner marking of the ear. the muscles on the neck are marked by two lines. the eye long. the multitudinous folds of rich garments. The straight legged couches and tables with the black spaces between them form a decorative band and seem to supply an architectural base for the undulating lines of the figures above them. We have here in fact a richer assortment of lovely poses than this artist is wont to give us. it is only the hands which sometimes seem helpless and clumsy. is trying from a satyr. and the same theme of pursuing satyrs is repeated on the outside in several lively groups (see fig. His task is to fill the cups of the guests with his jug. The renderings adopted by Makron serve as useful criteria for recognizing his work: The skull is long and flat.
drawn with an amazingly sure hand. Doris signature on a kantharos in Brussels." Beazley has to the "CARassigned these vases. TELLINO PAINTER. On the chest the divisions of the great pectorat muscle are marked by two converging lines running upward toward the clavicle instead of outward toward the arm. is inscribed in a "cartellino. and was loved by Sappho's brother about Over two hundred vases have been attributed to Douius 1M and over thirty are signed by him as painter Doris egrapsen. and one uninscribed example. Melitta. and a late period.evidently active a long time. exeis no reason why he should have signed one of his works cuted in his characteristic style with some other artist's name. and Berlin the name Douris. also several kale Nauklea. and Python. but identical with that of a group of other vases. Syracuse. Doris epoiesen. expressive folds. and sleeves. The last is the same who made a costly dedi1B8 name as that of the celebrated hetaira cation at Delphi a century earlier. We know that he was a potter as well as a painter from the 155 Doris egrapsen. Kalliades. painters by the name of Douris. The hands are apt to be clumsily and care- magnus is lessly drawn. names The kalos names Antiphanes. without a verb. Praxiteles. We can distinguish 161 The signed kylix in an early. The folds of the chiton sleeves are often indicated and two rows of arcs edge the chiton at neck outlines of the figures are generally drawn in black glaze under the chitons. The heavy mantles have simple. a middle. On five lekythoi in Athens. In fact some of them are signed by other Kleophrades." 16 Douris was. for there Louvre.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE serratus 83 occasionally placed very low. The artist of this group has been called THE TRIPTOLEMOS PAINTER 158 after his picture of Triptolemos on a stamnos in the There were evidently two 159 but his real name was presumably Douris. At this time soon . Hippodamas occur on his vases. to show the transparency of the material. Vienna 162 with arming scenes and that in Boston with a discus thrower 16S are examples of his early style. for 1B7 decothe signature Doris egrapsen appears on a kylix in Berlin rated with a symposion in a style different from that of the wellknown Douris. 156 ep\oieseri\ } and from that on an aryballos by him in Athens. and Rhodopis. The in thinned glaze. potters It does not of course follow that he potted all the vases he decorated.
The interior design on a 167 two women putting away their clothes kylix in New York is one of his ablest products in this last phase (see fig. Hermogenes. he felt at home with the ampler forms introduced at this time.C. fig. 65). and an ivy twig. accomplished. a new monumental quality has taken its place. academic and henceforth remains remarkably uniform. A 169 of this period has the kalos name kylix in Munich Polyphrasmon. The favorite kalos name is Chairestratos. the Kleophrades Painter for instance. in the field. 166 His style is now fully They kylix in the Louvre developed distinguished. The clavicle now has a hook at the inner end. 165 A more typical work is the kylix with youths and men. the single shallow curve for the hip furrow. The outsides of both these kylikes are decorated with more or less conventional conversation scenes. become dent. . palmette designs round the handles. a characteristic of Douris. A maenad and two satyrs on the interior of a kylix in Boston 168 is a comparable work. The include such masterpieces as the Eos and Memnon on a 18 * and the satyrs on the psykter in the British Museum (cf. his style has not yet crystallized. At first Chairestratos continues as a kalos name. Pythaios also occur. like those of some other longlived artists. We may note the careful rendering of the expressive hands. Since Douris The works had always inclined to statuesque types. then Hippodamas. They are not merely weak reproductions of earlier achievements. great majority of Douris' extant paintings belong to his middle period. the hip furrow is marked by two distinct curves instead of one. the influence of the Panaitios Painter is eviB. of Douris' third and last phase (around 470 B. Aristagoras. and the zigzags along the lower edges of the chiton are less deep than before. the late nineties and eighties of the fifth century. The names Panaitios and Athenodotos also occur. Menon.C. 64).) belong to the early free period. like a trademark. Specific distinguishing marks are the simple form of clavicle which does not recurve at the inner end (or has the recurve marked only in thinned glaze). The women with their undulating contours and quiet poses show the new elevation of spirit.84 after ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 500 his figures are animated. Diogenes. in New York. Though some of the earlier vitality has gone. and the deep zigzags along the edges of the chitons. but they have a beauty of their own.
He is PAINTER. seem to proceed from two different Onesimos is not an old. holds a pair of jumping weights and two javelins. His works and those in his manner used to be assigned to the so called after three kalos names Lysis. Lykos. On another kylix in New York 178 a youth. 54) Painter. 106). all kylikes. different in spirit from those by the Panaitios Painter at any time their styles. though often carelessly. have been attributed to him. 180 PAINTER. personalities. Laches. accomplished. It so closely re- m sembles that of the Panaitios Painter in that master's latest phase that some archaeologists have even thought that the two were 178 But it seems best to keep the two artists apart. On the exterior is a banquet with youths reclining on couches and conversing in animated fashion. One of his most charming figures is the running * archer turning round to shoot an arrow. for identical. The quiet. all kylikes except the . including one in Perugia 172 with Achilles and Troilos. may Painter. classical style appealed and we shall find it especially potent in the succeeding period (see p. and Lykos group. He likes to attempt back and three-quarter views. Seventy-five vases have now been attributed to the Antiphon Painter. and Aristarchos occur as kalos names on his vases. Fifty-nine vases. drawn in back view. tired Panaitios Painter. 179 is the Panaitian circle. likewise a named after member of the kalos name on a which often occur on these vases. It is inscribed Panaitios kalos. refined. ONEsiMOS 170 who signed. signed by Euphronios as potter. a kylix in the which was also signed by Euphronios as potter (see Louvre may be said to have continued the work of the Panaitios p. THE ANTIPHON stand in Berlin. Erothemis. 17 A kylix in New York 17T has on the interior a youth preparing to throw a javelin holding it in his right hand and steadying it with his left before the actual throw. THE COLMAR with athletes.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE The 85 influence of Douris was widespread and lasted a considerable time. but an artist who could produce paintings of great grace and delicacy. of his career. on a kylix in Orvieto. with egrapsen. and athletes and banqueters serve his purpose well. Panaitios. His drawing is lively. though close. a provision basket with a cloth over it is suspended from the wall. IT * called after his kylix in Colmar 1T5 also be placed in the cycle of the Panaitios fond of lively scenes and draws them with charm and animation.
187 two also with the kalos name Panaitios. Beazley has placed the "THE THORVALDSEN GROUP. ers and their trainers. On the exterior are youths in various attitudes. Incision is mostly hair (see p. the inside. 85).86 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES much in stand in Berlin. but occasionally with fairly successful three-quarter views. The compositions are generally used for the contours of the loosely spaced. The after-dinner scene is continued a third cup 183 on the exterior with dancers and musicians. was painted by a contemporary of the Panaitios Painter. the other in the attendant (see 58). but we can make out a finely composed group of a satyr and maenad on the inside and Dionysiac scenes with chariots on the outside. going On are athletes with javelins and strigils. or popular." 18 THE MAGNONCOURT PAINTER is another gifted artist in the Museum circle of the Panaitios Painter. preferably in action. one in Berlin. Three other works have been attributed to this artist. His style has common with that of the Panaitios Painter. The words Panaitios kalos are inscribed. Often (see p. are to the hips. the young men engage in violent exercise. an before him are his a little On armed warrior is seen leaning on his spear. A lection. On Painter are in typical works by the Antiphon the interior of a cup 1S1 is a flutist. one is holding a hare by the ears. leaning forward on their sticks. his double flute in to his New one hand. The Thorvaldsen three cups in in Copenhagen. often the hands are brought held up in graceful attitudes. contradition of the Colmar Painter tinuing rather the more modest The chief theme is youth. 62). Three York. He is named after a kylix in New 188 York. carrying a cup and supporting his uncertain steps with a stick. All sorts of turnings are favored. On the outside are groups of boxscenes are painted with a wealth of detail in sure. showing it 182 is a youth. or the head. The pictures are not well preserved. flowing lines. formerly in the Magnoncourt Collection. On another cup evidently head to adjust the verti- home after a party. but lacks the latter's verve and vivacity. . the other brought up cal strings of his mouth band. behind him fig. round shield and crested helmet. drawn mostly in the archaic piecemeal and twis tings manner. Youths with mantles. 184 formerly in the Gallatin Colsuperb kylix in New York. Only two other works have so far been connected with this artist. off to his companions.
Lea. with here and there a successful attempt at foreshortening. one of them a centauromachy. approximates THE BRISEIS PAINTER is another follower of the Brygos Painter. on a cup in London. which is in full front. Another fine cup in New York 198 has scenes from the story of Theseus: his departure for Crete. in the Cabinet des Me* dailies. The only genuine exof the Foundry Painter's work in New York is a fragment ample of a cup with a man. therefore. In the Metropolitan Museum 192 is a modern replica of the cup. that so difficult a posture was attempted shows an ambitious kylix in Philadelphia paring to ladle wine into a cup from a large krater. 62). with the delicately curved that of the Brygos Painter. He was fond of scenes of movement fights. 199 named after one also belongs of his chief works. on a kylix in Berlin. The centaur. works. purchased in 1896 with the Baxter Collection in Florence. Brygan . and mutules. 190 is one of his Lapith spearing a centaur. The head is drawn in three-quarter view. seen from below. on a kylix in Munich. 197 The locale is indicated as a colonnade with columns. and on the exterior two lively combats. has a cupbearer on the interior. eyes and nostril. The A 191 interest in the problem. The ren- lines for dering of the man's face. and tail are in profile. perhaps a trainer 198 (see fig. Q7). THE FOUNDRY PAINTER 18S in particular is distinguished for his firm drawing and lively designs. pre- cup was given to the University Museum in Philadelphia by the family of the late Henry C. 194 Fifty works have been attributed to him. is an interesting study in partial foreshortening. the Philadelphia cup must have been in Italy and have been copied by a forger. circle. He derives his name from the picture of Briseis and Achilles. in whose collection it had been. 198 A good example is on a well-preserved kylix with offset rim in New York. The very fact. architrave. and Athena welcoming him on his safe return to Athens THE PAINTER OF THE PARIS GiGANTOMACHY. except the nose. 196 on which youths are represented singing to the music of the flute. In other words the figure is still pieced together from separately conceived parts. which is depicted as collapsmost powerful ing on the ground. seen from underneath.RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 87 The Brygan cycle includes several gifted artists. however. the legs. arms. The name is derived from his picture of a 189 The foundry with sculptors at work. Previous to that date. to the 200 (fig. the body is in full front.
with the same mixture of liveliness and refinement. athletes practising. other follower of the Brygos Painter. the examination of horsemen. his picture of .88 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES and lively revelers. careless He sometimes closely apfire proaches the style of his master. on a 202 His style is somewhat like that of the Briseis kylix in Berlin. but never matches his and abandon.IMASIA PAINTER. Painter. 201 still anFinally we may mention THE DOK. The name is derived from a dokimasia.
Their works have all perished. EARLY FREE STYLE. at the Battle of Cumae (474). We shall see that these very qualities are conspicuous in some of the vases of this period. In the west. placed at the head of the Delian Confederacy. and the battles of Greeks and Amazons and of Lapiths and centaurs in the Theseion at Athens. 1 especially from Pausanias' detailed descriptions of some of their paintings of the Ilioupersis ("Troy Sacked") and the Nekyia ("The Lower World") in the Lesche at Delphi.C. the disposition of the figures on different and at various depths (some above. the Etruscans were defeated by Syracuse and Cumae. though they still exist. artistic talent are on the whole fewer than before. Henceforth. Vase decorators of the first caliber. rose steadily in power and influence. it is natural to suppose that he was the leading spirit of his time and influlevels others). The famous mural painters Polygnotos of Thasos and Mikon of Athens were active at this time. the Ilioupersis and the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile at Athens. enced his contemporaries. including the vase painters. ABOUT 475-45 B. It was the time of the administra- Kimon (476-461). but we can obtain a slight idea of their stupendous compositions from the many references to them in ancient literature. The revival of artistic undertakings in Athens affected vase painting also in another way. it was confined mostly to the cheaper wares. is In vase painting the exaltation over the Persian victories . though the importation of Attic vases to western Etruria did not stop. the expression of emotion in the faces. of recovery from the devastations of the enemy. was a period of re- quarter THE adjustment tion of second of die fifth century after the victories over Persia. The great was evidently finding scope elsewhere. when Athens. The grandiose vases of the period have been mostly found not in Etruria proper but in the Adriatic section and in the south. below. or in front of and the interest in foreshortening.III. The salient points we glean from these descriptions are the nobility of the types. Considering the great fame of Polygnotos.
once the source of much difficulty. No attempt is made to A represent these figures and objects viewed as a whole from one point of sight. 74). into one whole.C. and the feeling for space becomes more pronounced than before. and legs are increasingly popular. Especially frequent is a foreshortened hand or foot. 87) mounted Amazon in full-front view (see fig. Gradually vase paintings are becoming three-dimensional pictures rather than decorations. Vitruvius 2 records that Agatharchos of Samos painted a scene We . and the two feet of the same figure no longer always stand along one and the same line. head. Depth is suggested merely by the occasional over- lapping of forms and by the placing of one figure higher than another. Artists only gropingly attempted a reproduction of the appearance of things.) the underlying principles of linear perspective were discovered. a centaur in back view turning round to defend himself a warrior reaching for an arrow that has pierced his (fig. Even female breasts. are successfully rendered in three-quarter views. both in composition and in the treatment of individual figures. If rectangular shapes in furniture or architecture are introduced. separately conceived. only the front planes are indicated. however. often. with the ankle misplaced. The use of shading lines to indicate roundness of form becomes more common than before. back are some of the complicated attitudes which painters of the period try to represent. see p. though there were some examples in the preceding one bold foreshortenings involving the whole figure (see p. arms. Occasionally and this is particularly distinctive of the period. The conto that of the ception becomes nobler.go reflected in a ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES new breadth in the rendering of forms. the procedure is still the old one of piecing together different parts of the figure. seemingly on the same plane. know that in this very period (probably about 460 B. The old tradition of putting all the figures along one line in the front are occasionally placed plane is not always followed. some figures higher than others to suggest a farther plane (though they are still all drawn the same size. however. 140). Three-quarter views of trunk. ampler comparable Olympia sculptures. and the farther side is convincingly foreshortened. When the farther leg of a chair is indicated it is merely added alongside the front ones. are attempted. and such objects as vases are represented in profile not from above or below. Even here. 31).
32 b). 116." We shall see later the important consequences of this initial step (see pp. erally. The expression becomes more natural and a greater range of emotion can be portrayed a terrified nurse of Danae (fig. The eye is rendered in this period in a variety of ways. 32). showing how. The profile view is now gen- FIGURE 31 though not yet always. the lines should correspond as they do in nature to the point of sight and to the projection of the visual rays. 32 g). an eager Jason a dreamy boy playing the lyre (fig.EARLY FREE STYLE write further on the subject. As the passage quote it in full: "Agatharchus in Athens. all is and so drawn on that though vertical and plane surfaces some parts may seem to be withdrawing into the z background. an aging (fig. made a scene tary and it. father sorrowing over the departure of his son. given a certain central point. drawn with the inner corner open and the iris moved toward that corner (see fig. 91 for a tragedy of Aeschylus and wrote a commentary on it. left a commen- of This led De- mocritus and Anaxagoras to write on the same subject. and that this led the philosophers Anaxagoras and Demokritos to is important we shall when Aeschylus was bringing out a tragedy. Occasionally . so that from an unclear thing a clear representation of the appearance of buildings might be given in painted scenery. and others to be protruding in front. 86). Sometimes two lines are used for the upper lid and one or more lines are added for the lashes.
the center (fig. by a series of arcs. like those of the himation. The peplos.92 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES curving In a full-front or three-quarter view both eyes are drawn more or less in profile with the inner corners open. The folds assume natural shapes. gilded clay (found already hi the preceding period). they go in a number of directions. enlivened by the brown of the diluted glaze and occasional touches of applied red. placed convincingly in The solid black mass of the hair is now increasingly varied by strands either directly on the red ground the drawing of separate or on a wash of diluted glaze. and the indication of the farther edge. comes again into favor. and they have depth. rounded zigzags along the edges. the Penthesileia Painter used on the Munich cups. the last is now often put on white to make it more luminous (see p. Its heavy folds are rendered by a few lines. The bottom edge of the chiton is rendered no longer by zigzags but by a wavy line. Rarely a bold spirit tries some new scheme. 32 k). or merely by a curve. 32 j). sometimes. often with bold. prevalent in archaic times. by the chiton. Sometimes even their shadows are indicated by washes in diluted glaze. once the female garment par excellence but later ousted apparent. giving the appearance of a squint (fig. however. wavy contour often takes the A lines place of the separate and dots over brow and temple. 4 besides applied. the outer ones closed. 30). a wrinkled old man or woman with eyebrows occurring in the midst of the generalized types. is given up. red-brown and purple-brown . The color scheme of the preceding period continues red against black. for instance. both outer and inner corners are closed and the iris is there are attempts at realism. i j k FIGURE 3? 1 m In the treatment of the drapery the advance of naturalism is The old schematic arrangement is evolving into a more realistic rendering.
the whole The scene was drawn in outline in thinned glaze or dull paint. for instance. By these means colorful effects could be obtained which were impossible in the restricted scheme of red-figure. such as also occur. And the chiton has curving lines along the lower edge instead of the former zigzags. who was general at Samos in 441-440 and at Corcyra in 433-432 7 may well have been a fair boy in 470. dated about 460. This evidence suggests of the painters mentioned above. like those we observed on the vases. and the Pistoxenos Painter. and the garments were painted in matt tones red. with mourners at graves. significant folds. The Glaukon. It was used both in daily life and as a votive offering on graves. schematic box pleats have given place to a freer treatment. with the figures drawn in black silhouette or in outline (see p. the addition "son of Leagros" 6 which occurs. scheme influence o contemporary panel and mural paintings is also apparent in the increased popularity at this time of whiteground vases. The kylix. 75). occasionally with bold. and this date fits the father Leagros whom we met as a fair boy in 510500 and who was one of the generals killed in battle in 465 (see a date around 470 for the vases p. rounded zigzags along the edges. A An important chronological landmark for this period is furnished by the kalos name Glaukon sometimes with. 93 As a rule the old But such sufficed. for we find it decorated with scenes from the life of women and the kylix and pyxis. Other shapes. The himation and the now popular peplos fall in a few. 98). The favorite shape for the technique was the lekythos. In the choice of shapes we note a great change.EARLY FREE STYLE washes. son of Leagros. brown. so is popular with the great painters of the preceding periods. the Painter of the Yale Lekythos. the Nikon Painter. deviations are the exception. often with mythological subjects 5 (see p. or yellow with a few touches of black glaze. comparison between the vases of this period and contemporary sculptures will show interesting parallels in the broader modeling of the human body and the more naturalistic drathe former peries. these had been in use during the earlier periods. . By the second quarter of the fifth century the significant change of adding colored washes was made. As we saw. 45). In the Olympia sculptures. on vases by the Providence Painter.
His earliest extant ones . early free. the pelike. to and small him. (i) THE PAN PAINTER AND OTHER MANNERISTS 8 THE PAN PAINTER is the protagonist of the mannerists. Some decorated chiefly pots. The forms are old but the spirit is new and highly individual. while retaining the late archaic quaintness and grace. Some such as Nolan amphorae and lekythoi. and of course the different kraters for the more ambitious compositions. of the great masters of the preceding period. mostly minor. and (4) painters who favored quiet compositions. Naturally these groups are not always clear-cut. Over 130 different vase painters belonging to this period have been recognized. and a few other. the smaller vases the column krater enjoys a special vogue. foreshadowing the classicism of the Periklean period. who cling to the formulas of the preceding age but develop them into a new. others preferred favored large pots. artists favor it. 71). (2) an individualistic school. consciously archaizing. Over one hundred works have been attributed shapes cups. Among the Nolan amphora and the lekythos play promi- nent roles. carrying on the style of Myson (see p. Only the Penthesileia Painter and his eclipsed by other school. delighting in scenes of movement and dramatic incident. The stamnos. individualistic way. others started new Many continued their work beyond the middle of the century into the free period. large pots. but in a new. flowing style with graceful affectations. kylikes and skyphoi. He is one of the most engaging of Greek vase painters. (3) a group of artists who were strongly influenced by the contemporary large murals of Polygnotos and Mikon. and yet with a taste for the unusual and untried. reaching out boldly in the direction of naturalism. on a great variety of ones. are imbued with a new freedom. and the various forms of amphorae are popular. And so his pictures. others belong exclusively to the In this manifold activity we can distinguish several groups with different tendencies: (i) the mannerists. Some carried on the styles movements. and there are other artists who stood outside.94 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES forms. others small ones.
Another satyr painted on the other side of the vase is coming toward them. the arms. The kithara is carefully drawn with the different parts clearly marked the sound chest. On a Panathenaic amphora " a kitharist is depicted in a long chiton. in the other turned. The Pan Painter's figure is quieter nous mantle is musicians. Young Ganymede running away with is his playthings from the chief of the gods a subject which naturally . head is his dramatic touch. and the pelike with Herakles and Busiris. the elaborately designed strengthening pieces. and a stool with a handsome cushion. are in Several excellent examples of the Pan Painter's mature period New York. 12 They are magnificent in their exuberant vitality and dramatic force.EARLY FREE STYLE 95 are the psykter with Marpessa in Munich 9 and the lekythos with Artemis (on a white ground) in Leningrad (see fig. an ivy branch. the crossbar with a disk at each end. dressed in a long tunic and a volumiwalking evidently on his way to an important function. of an ethereal charm. The figure has the Pan Painter's grace and alertness. 129). his hoop and stick. his head raised in rapture over the music he is making. the pegs. 66). As a beautiful rendering of musical exaltation the kitharist may be compared with that by the Berlin Painter 15 and with the Orpheus in Berlin (see than the two other p. with the death of Aktaion and Pan pursuing a goatherd (see fig. 10 both somewhat stiff in design but. but the 68). for he holds it at the bottom with evident care. and the bridge. He is running at full speed. in Athens. He followed by a satyr carrying his master's cup. it is full. ending in a long fringe a picturesque addition. presumably toward a pursuing Zeus (not here represented). in one hand a cock. while the judge (on the other side of the vase) quietly listens. his highly finished drawing. whereby the instrument is kept in a vertical position and both hands are left free for playing. Hanging from the sound chest is a decorated cover. especially the Artemis. especially if we imagine it gaily colored and swinging with the player's movements. On a column kiater 1S Dionysos is represented in stately fashion. his long hair is arranged in braids or rolls round the back of his head. is especially attractive (fig. stir of feeling is The Ganymede on an oinochoe 16 a clearly conveyed. The masterpieces of his mature period are the bell krater in Boston X1 after which he is named. carrying a cup. stepping forward. The man's left wrist is put in the retaining band. 67).
the thick. is an artist of comparable caliber. characteristic renderings 20 we may the thin nose with delicate nostril line. Herakles. but appealed to stance are well characterized. the clavicle drawn as a shal- low curve not touching the median line and with a separate arc at the inner end. Most of his known works are kraters. for inon a Nolan amphora in Boston/ 7 where Zeus and Ganymede are combined in one group. and he painted it several times. 2 * A THE AGRIGENTO PAINTER. THE on large vases. the flight of the monster. Two typical on column kraters. the firm chin. The Theseus and Minotaur on a skyphos 18 in New York are not drawn with great care. One of the Pan Painter's latest works is the bell krater in Palermo 19 with Dionysos and a maenad a rhythmical but somewhat lifeless work. decorated the calyx krater at Agrigento 29 with Herakles and Nessos and the well-known hydria in London 80 with a music lesson. 28 also a good mannerist. the line at the armpit. Among this artist's many note the black dot for the iris. and the rocky landscape are all suggested with a few deft touches. THE LENINGRAD PAINTER. name is chiefly PIG PAINTER" is an able mannerist of this time. is turning has seized one of the Egyptians by the shoul- . both distinguished for their ones. His derived from the two pigs in his picture of Odysseus and Eumaios on a pelike in Cambridge. The scene of Herakles and Busiris on a column krater in New York 31 is a typical scene. 22 Thirty-nine other works. 26 lively scene of youths returning from a banquet is on a column krater in New York. By that time his strength was evidently spent. have been attributed to him. not executed with Though special care they have a pleasing vivacity and swing. the slightly pouting lips. He Egyptian king Busiris. His best-known paintis that of vase at work. short neck with one or two brown lines indicating the muscles. named after his two works in Len20 ingrad. are in New York 28 a satyr pursuing a maenad. 27 rhythmical compositions. The rapid pursuit of Theseus. the variously placed arc for the ankle. the short line often placed at the junction of the breast lines. on a hydria in ing painters private possession.96 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES this artist. the small round ear with arcs variously placed. who was the altar by the order of the about to have been sacrificed at on his enemies. and a youth and a boy.
She is fleeing to the right. a water jar. two other vase painters called known (see pp. Her husband Amphitryon has taken his sword out of the scabbard. 87 minor works by the Nausikaa Painter in New York are the Kronos and Rhea on a pelike. The lively scene brings to mind Pindar's his first slightly earlier and equally vivid account of the story in Nemean ode. 88 and the Nike driving a char38 iot on a column krater. A hydria in New York s6 with Herakles strangling the serpents is one of the most drato his scenes forty vases matic: the infant Herakles is kneeling on a couch. flat skulls. for he signed an amphora London 35 with women preparing oxen for sacrifice: Polygnohowever. though not comparable to the superb version of the theme by the Pan Painter (see p. in We now also know his real name. pouting lips. ready to strike the snakes. looking back in amazement. 95). as in most similar scenes. 127). it seems best to retain the assigned name. The others are fleeing right and left. 97. The so-called NAUSIKAA PAINTER 83 is the mannerist who decorated the famous amphora in Munich 3 * with Odysseus and Nausikaa.EARLY FREE STYLE 97 der and is clubbing him so that the blood streams down the man's face. and a basket. More than have been attributed to him. stretches out both arms to his mother Alkmene. while his twin brother Iphikles. calmly grasping a serpent in each hand. They are of the Ethiopian type. Though leaning to affectation and often carePolygnotos are less in his drawing he was able to impart psychological interest and thereby to render them attractive. and drooping mustaches. is depicted with a good deal of dash. As. 82 The picture. Two (2) THE PENTHESILEIA PAINTER AND ASSOCIATES PENTHESILEIA PAINTER. a table. He made the . shaved crowns. Behind the couch stands Athena in godlike calm. properly frightened. carrying the paraphernalia for the sacrifice a torch. spear in hand. The barbarians wear long tunics and have long. heavy jaws." named after HIS THE works one of his best 41 was one of the Achilles and Penthesileia in Munich the chief exponents of the new naturalistic trend. at least tos egrapsen.
and Apollo and Tityos 42 on the two large kylikes in Munich. The paintings on more than one hundred vases have been attributed to him. 73). Hera. a happy solution of a difficult problem. the eagerness of the goddess and the youth's reluctance are well expressed both in the faces and in the attitudes. The exalted Zephyros and Hyakinthos crowning a victorious youth (fig. The varied color scheme. while her son Eros is looking up at her admiringly. mostly on cups. on the New York double 5 disk. if we may judge by the dejected look of one of the older men. and gold and in the two polychrome. youths with horses are favorite subscenes. with the others as if hesitating to be the first to enter the contest. and the exceptional preservation combine to make this an outstand4* and the Nike ing piece. Besides the grandiose. white-ground pieces in New York. on a rock and looking up at Hermes (see fig. toilet box well characterized: Paris.98 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES them an inold. Athena in full array. in the other Eos is running after a long-haired youth Tithonos or perhaps Kephalos. Pursuit and maenads. in one Eos. The latter rank among his best works. A large kylix 4S has athletes on the exterior and on the interior a man fighting a boar with sword and club in a rocky glen (fig. yellow. Several less imposing works in New York show the Penthesileia Painter's average work. brown. he painted many slighter products in a spontaneous. The Judgment of Paris on the is Each figure 4a is treated in a light. humorous vein. satyrs jects. turning to explaining his mission. familiar stories live in vivid fashion by giving dividual interest. the other in strong backward motion is singularly vivacious.* are equal in caliber to the paintings of Penthesileia and Tityos. The design of the Nike and youth in particular both figures placed diagonally across the circular field. who is veil and scepter. His interest in technical problems is shown in the accessory colors he used on the Penthesileia cup red. 69). adjusting her mantle. one moving gently forward. Two lively groups on a skyphos * 9 are in the manner seated . the finely designed shape. a boy with pouting lips. On a skyphos 4T are bearded men and youths with armor perhaps departure scenes. 70) a well-spaced composition within the circle. both arms outstretched. On a stemless kylix 46 are two lively scenes. sketchy style. highly finished Achilles and Penthesileia. is pursuing Tithonos. the careful execution. and Aphrodite. The compositions have the same bold rhythm running through them.
Penthesileia Painter's style is easily recognized by his the turned-up nose with delicate nosthe pouting lips. His name is derived from a skyphos in Schwerin 51 signed Pistoxenos epoiesen which he decorated with young Herakles and the nurse Geropso. A women. the enlarged goddess. are favorite gestures. threatening with her thyrsos. in two lines. 54). the obliquely placed eyes. scepter. The characteristic renderings tril line. Eighteen works have been attributed to the Pistoxenos Painter. The only bit of painting by this artist in New York is on the 56 the upper part of a woman wearing a fragment of a kylix chiton. a mantle. the wavy curls. the variously placed arc for the ankle. but once a grandly conceived composition. that is. and a sakkos. The satyrs are drawn in three-quarter front and back views. and with We concepts of a new age. is signed by the potter Megakles. the inclined heads. and with Linos instructB2 with ing Iphikles in playing the lyre. or spear. better than words can convey. . and a maenad fleeing before a satyr who is after her in hot pursuit. pyxis in Brussels five hares in charmingly lifelike attitudes on the lid. Several cups with whiteground designs on the interior are signed by the potter Euphronios 58 (see p.EARLY FREE STYLE of the Penthesileia Painter: a satyr capering before a his hands outstretched to ward off the blow she is 99 maenad. the strongly curving lids. But the spirit of their different and the two artists have now been convinc- ingly separated again. and the fluffy hair are in his characteristic manner. The inscription ho pais kalos. The open hand emerging from the mantle and the outstretched arm. Her regal demeanor as she floats gently through the air marks her a see here. holding staff. occurs frequently. on a white-ground kylix in London. THE PISTOXENOS PAINTER'S B0 style is closely related to that of the Penthesileia Painter. They include one of the Pistoxenos Painter's 4 masterpieces: The Death of Orpheus on a kylix in Athens. also once the name Lysis. His 68 Aphrodite riding a goose. that the Pistoxenos is Painter works is the early Penthesileia Painter. is one of the most idyllic pictures in Greek vase painting. Some authorities have even thought that the two were the same person." now a mere fragment. The kalos name Glaukon occurs on several of the Pistoxenos Painter's vases. The rendering of the eye with a black iris in the inner corner.
The Penthesileia Painter himself apparently did not so collaborate. but seldom") is frequent. by his extant works." She is represented as a young girl welcomed by Eros and surrounded by excited women bringing sashes. have here a instance of sev- We convincing working in one establishment. named boy roasting splanchna (the viscera of ani60 is mals).JOG ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Penthesileia Painter's broad. A kylix decorated by the Painter of Bologna 417. in the interior. A 59 curs on a pyxis in Ancona. The inside of a cup is sometimes decorated by one painter. fl2 has called attention to the fact that in the school of Beazley the Penthesileia Painter collaboration of two painters on one cup ("which occurs elsewhere. eral artists (3) THE NIOBID PAINTER AND ASSOCIATES HIS The Niobid Painter and his associates are the most ambitious vase painters of their time. Among the works of these Penthesileians in New York one of the most in- teresting is the Birth of Aphrodite by the Wedding Painter on a pyxis (see fig. has scenes of women in lively conversation and. Their imagination was evidently fired by the mural and Mikon. the two outside scenes by another. a branch. at least. The unwilling one is carrying a writing tablet. In the interior a Nike confronts a boy holding a lyre evidently the winner in a contest. in Heidelberg. and some can be dated as late R as the end of the third quarter of the fifth century. represented by scenes of Nikai and 61 youths on a kylix. THE WEDDING sr Their PAINTER. a similar representation ocperfume vase. vivacious style appealed to THE SPLANCHhis contemporaries and he had many imitators The NOPT PAINTER. to judge. or perhaps she has received a after his picture of a letter. and others. a picture of two women or girls walking together. The Splanchnopt Painter. 72). and their paintings of Polygnotos . so a writing lesson may be the objective (though she seems rather big for this). THE PAINTER or BRUSSELS 330. and a chest. bands of palmettes and laurel form an effective framing. THE PAINTER OF BOLOGNA 417. one apparently being pulled forward against her will. decorations are chiefly on cups.
and the statue from South Italy in New York. statuesque postures of the figures reflect the elevation of spirit. Triptolemos is seated in a winged chariot. The New York ea Painter. 75). brings to mind tance. 67 are rapidly drawn. is named after one of his chief works the death of the Niobids and the assembly of Argonauts on a calyx krater in the Louvre. 66 is a typical latish work of this kind (see fig. centauromachies. self-contained pose. chiefly on large kraters. two good examples in New York: a pelike with a departing warand a stamnos with the Story of Peleus and Thetis. similar washes are used on Kadmos' hat and Ares' shield. in her dignified. C8a . have been attributed to the Niobid Painter. spatial depth is attempted. holding a scepter and the gift of grain which he is about to bring to mankind. effectively framing the central group. Many other grandiose compositions." who is represented by rior. Triptolemos with Demeter and Persephone. The roundness of Kadmos' water jar is suggested by a wash of thinned glaze. before his departure a libation is being poured. "an elder colleague. The Niobid Painter had a number of able associates THE ALTAMURA PAINTER. The Athena in the Argonaut scene. The four figures are drawn in three-quarter views. but are composed on different THE NIOBID PAINTER 6S levels in hilly landscapes. without great finish. 6 * The figures are no longer ranged along one line in the front plane. the Athenas of the Olympia 66 metopes. In addition he painted simpler designs on smaller vases in a somewhat formal style. with their elaborate compositions and bold attempts at foreshortening." It picture of Kadmos and the dragon on a calyx krater in has been attributed to "the manner of the Niobid is beautifully composed. 89). and Ares and Athena.EARLY FREE STYLE 101 Amazonomachies. the statue of Athena by Myron. for instance. and Iliouperseis. though not yet with a diminution of the figures in the farther dis- new The quiet. who are outside the contest yet determine its issue. Two libation scenes on a neck amphora in New York. with Kadmos confronting the serpent as the center of interest. and several are drawn in fairly correct three-quarter views. can give us some idea of the lost wall paintings described by Pausanias (see p. In other words. on a hydria in New York. Harmonia on a higher level in the farther distance.
Turning to the other side of the vase we see the continuation of the battle. A large volute krater in New York 70 by the Painter of the Woolly Silens can give a good idea of the imposing products turned out by Attic potters at this time (fig. is driving a four-horse chariot at full speed. goad in hand. he is drawn in threeforeshortened and the sole quarter back view with the left leg in full view. The hilly ground is marked by wavy lines cate foreshortening. she is hurrying to the rescue of a hard-pressed companion (shown under the second handle). Above is visible the head of an Amazon surveying the scene from behind a hill. the other hand on her breast. the sword blade is made quite short. blood is flowing from the wound she has inflicted. she is running her spear into a Greek who has fallen to the ground and is holding up his shield for protection. he is reaching with his hand to his wound. probably Theseus. The scene continues under the handle with a Greek spearing an Amazon who a hillock the upper part collapses in front of him.102 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES THE PAINTER OF THE WOOLLY SILENS. There are . The scene on the neck of the vase represents the combat of is Lapiths and centaurs at the wedding feast of Perithous. The latter has fallen on one knee (the leg is curiously foreshortened) and is wielding her sword to ward off a Greek advancing against her with his long spear. they are swinging two battle-axes. is seizing an Amazon by the arm to intercept her attack. one Amazon is in three-quarter view. he is attacking with his spear. A wounded Amazon approaches with halting steps leaning heavily on her spear. sword in hand. and THE GENEVA PAINTER. On the body of the vase is a battle of Greeks and Amazons. here and there flowering plants are growing on the hillsides. one arm over her head. so we may describe it in detail. composed in several groups: at the left a Greek. Alongside. fighting drawn at different heights to indicate various levels. It too of great interest. is two Amazons. with the breasts foreshortened and her shield drawn as an ellipse with the rim wider at the ends than at the sides. THE PAINTER OF THE BERLIN HYDRIA. an Amazon. 69 THE PAINTER OF BOLOGNA 279. Then comes an Amazon on horseback presumably the queen. An Amazon has shot an arrow which has struck a Greek in the back. called after his picture on a bell krater in Syracuse. From behind of a fallen Amazon is visible in front view. for she wears a rich costume. again to indi- To the right a Greek. 74).
spearing a centaur. Lapiths and centaurs have seized what weapons have come to their hand clubs. the equine part of his body is in three-quarter back view. In the center is probably Theseus. an ax. on a stand at one end is a large lebes. both wielding their weapons. drawn in back view. Her head is in full front. who in turn is being attacked by an Amazon at his back (above the handle of the vase). Then comes. On the left a bearded Greek is aiming his long spear right across the center at two Amazons who are attacking with spear and battle-ax. The paintings on six other vases have been attributed to this 71 but none are comparable to the New York krater. battle of Greeks and Amazons on a calyx krater in New York 72 by the Painter of the Berlin Hydria is another fine painting of this period. swinging an ax. On the floor is combat scenes on the New York vase. while her legs and the horse's go in different directions. and the head in profile. one arm.EARLY FREE STYLE 103 four banquet couches. and a centaur and a Lapith on opposite sides of a couch. a pillow. his human trunk full front. riding out of the picture toward us (fig. placed end to end and spread with covers and pillows. her feet hidden by a hillock. 31). Hurrying to the scene from the right is an old man with stick and spear presumably the bride's rather. In the center is an Amazon on horseback. His opponent has taken a pillow from a near-by couch and is holding it up to shield himself from the impending blow. Perithous. It painter. is instructive to realize that a painter of seemingly average rank if judged by his other work could rise to such achievements as for defense and attack swords. The fight is in full swing. the legs. Equally animated are the two groups at the left a centaur seizing a Lapith by the head (foreshadowing compositions of the Parthenon metopes). Below him an Amathe The zon is collapsing before the onslaught of a young Greek. The scene continues on the other side of the vase with two . his attitude and drapery like that of the well-known figure on the Olympia pediment. swinging her ax against a Greek. Round this central figure the battle is raging. the head and body of the horse near a three-quarter view. perhaps. and two long an overturned tripod. On the other side of the neck is a more conventional scene with youths and women. from which the wine has been dispensed. the youth with his mantle pulled up for a shield. To the right of the central group is an Amazon.
To the right a Greek is threatening an Amazon with his sword. on a calyx krater in Karlsruhe. a coland again. but most of his paintings consist of quiet. the washes of thinned glaze suggestion of shadows in the draperies by must have been inspired by the larger paintings of the time. the bold foreshortenings. but always lapsing Greek or Amazon appear again in different attitudes and groupings." named after his dancing women in the Villa Giulia the chief representative of the academic group which flourished side by side with the Niobid Painter and his associates. Behind them grows a tree. and arrows going in different directions and crossing one another at different points contribute to the general impression of tur- moil. Moreover. 84). serene figures with little animation or imaginative interest.104 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES is being attacked by a Greek groups. "FOLLOWERS OF DOURIS" Museum. The hilly ground is indicated by wavy lines with flowering plants growing upward and downward. He produced such winsome pictures as Hermes and the infant Dionysos on a bell krater in London (see fig. But that the vase painter did not directly copy is clear from the fact that there are no repetitions of groups or even of single figures in the vase representations. and which preferred calm. and the spears. 74 is THE VILLA GIULIA PAINTER.). An Amazon on horseback while another Amazon comes to the rescue with drawn sword.. an advancing Theseus. swords. (4) THE VILLA GIULIA PAINTER AND HIS ASSOCIATES. harmonious scenes to the latter's ambitious compositions. an Amazon lifting an ax with both hands. the crowded compositions in and similar vase paintings. Over ninety paintings have been attributed to him . 76 and the family of satyrs. As has often been pointed out. An Amazon on horseback. 37 f. Two generations of vase painters had already been at work on these such problems (see pp. 60 f. The figures borders do not divide into the usual closely knit groups but are composed in unsymmetrical fashion. as we have seen. the foreshortened figures on the vases are not sudden phenomena. The the stress and confusion of batcomposition admirably conveys some of which extend over the ornamental tle.
The eye is generally drawn with one or two lines for the upper lid (one strongly curving and generally touching the other at both ends). with ends hanging down front and back. 81 who decorated a stamnos in Chi82 with a scene of women at a Dionysiac festival. Two hydriai in New York. but the Chicago Painter has a more gracious personality. A white lekythos. three. and a libation scene 79 fully executed. and a relatively small iris touching the upper lid only. 99). THE CHICAGO Though not among of a the painter's best works. Artemis. Libations are one of about to be poured. and Leto on a bell krater " is and small pots. scene of Apollo. It is drawn in glaze outlines with added flesh of the white for the woman. less statuesque. They have not the Villa Giulia Painter's monumental quality. in the center. they are pleasing gives A fragment of a bell krater in New York woman in his characteristic style and gay and the good preservation them added 8* attraction. pelikai. Two are in New York. both with Peleus pursuing Thetis.EARLY FREE STYLE on large 105 The few on cups. a bearded man grasping a scepter. the same figure recurring often in different scenes a woman moving away. His figures are livelier. was a folcago lower of the Villa Giulia Painter. painted manner. Long hair in men is mostly indicated by a single tress falling down the back. and oinochoai. of the Chicago Paint- . 80 PAINTER. surrounded by his family. perhaps er's vases and that of Chains once. The kalos name (fig. has a scene of a woman in this artist's pouring a libation for a departing warrior. hydriai. one line for the is There much repetition in lashes. but they have more lightness of spirit. his favorite shapes were stam88 noi. The pictures on a stamnos 78 a youth armare less careing. this artist's work. a woman holding a jug and a phiale. has a charming head Alkimachos occurs on two. Behind Apollo is Leto. Apollo. and a narrow fillet wound round the chignon and three times round the head. To judge by the thirtyfive vases so far attributed to him. also in New York. were evidently made as a pair. also with a phiale. The favorite headdresses are a broad band passing over the chignon and fastened in front. a this painter's best products. The himation is regularly drawn with one end thrown over the left arm and with the zigzag folds often in thinned glaze. The styles of the two artists have much in common. is holding his kithara and a phiale which Artemis has just filled from her jug.
He is evidently much moved by the music. Though both artists use narrow fillets wound three times round the head. monumental scenes. christened after the name he gave to the lovely boy on a kylix in New York. 88 The boy is sitting on a stool in front o an altar. her head raised in ecstasy holding a kantharos and thyrsos. whereas the Villa Giulia Painter regularly has one end at the back and one in front. the Chicago Painter generally lets both ends hang down the back. though superficially those of the Villa Giulia Painter. the nose is larger The and more pointed. 89 but Akestorides has the added quality of We . Dionysos. by means so simple. and the Methyse Painter. Several artists who decorated chiefly cups show the same preference for quiet scenes. among them a magnificent bell krater in New York 86 with a Dionysiac scene. 87 One of the most attractive is THE AKESTORIDES PAINTER. reverent Greek boy. Both use the broad headband fastened in front. for he looks up as if inhave few pictures of such grace and feeling expressed spired. lines of the drapery are drawn with less THE METHYSE PAINTER 86 Giulia Painter and like belongs to the school of the Villa him favored quiet. Though the subject is a revel. but the Chicago Painter regularly places it below the chignon. 78). certain steps supported sical" period. and the line for the lashes is apt to have a pronounced curve. 86). playing the lyre and singing to its music (fig. In the Chicago Painter's works the dot for the iris is not nearer the upper lid but often reaches down to the lower. Greek art has lost the high spirits of youth and is assuming the serene outlook of the "clas(see fig.loG ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES like renderings of individual forms. the Chicago Painter. continued the tradition of Douris. When we contrast these stately figures with the ecstatic maenads by the Brygos Painter and the boisterous satyrs by the Kleophrades Painter we can gauge the change of outlook. with the Villa Giulia Painter. The figure is the embodiment of a modest. show important differences. the figures march in a dignified procession: the maenad Methyse playing the lyre. another maenad playing the flute. the Villa Giulia Painter above. the confidence. comparable to the lyre player on the Boston three-sided relief. and a satyr with a kantharos and a wineskin. his unby a little satyr who clasps both arms firmly round the god's body. Only a few works by him are extant. They.
in that case the seated bearded man would be the teacher talking to one of the boys. on the outside schoolboys. mostly on kylikes. with two male figures on either side (see fig. has the inscription Isthmodoros kalos. worked in a similar vein. The hand marks the center of the circle. Over one hundred works have been attributed to him." so called after a kalos his name on one of 98 cups in the Louvre. The scenes have a charming simbut the execution is not very careful and the proportions of the children are not convincing. The two satyrs on an oinochoe in New York A are characteristic works by him. THE PAINTER OF MUNICH 2660 90 (as well as of 2661 and 3662) decorated also a stemless cup in New York. in New York. 85). and the rendering of the iris as a line instead of a dot. carrying a writing tablet. His favorite subjects are youths and satyrs in quiet compositions with little action. 9B is close in style to the THE PAINTER OF LOUVRE C 1694 8 Euaion Painter. the angle at which the eye is placed. He is repin A New resented stoking the fire in an oven on which his dinner is cookabsent ing. The composition is admirably adapted to the circular field. THE EUAION PAINTER. the bag is balanced by the leg of the stool. 91 In the interior is a schoolboy. The writing tablet hanging on the wall suggests a schoolroom. THE TELEPHOS PAINTER 100 is one of a number of artists whom Beazley has two grouped as belonging to the school of Makron. drawn with a delicate line. He is called after the name he gave to a figure on a skyphos in 99 Boston. 87). with writing tablets and rolls of manuscript are approaching the teacher who looks just like the boys and may in fact be one of them playing plicity. THE EUAICHME PAINTER 97 also belongs in this general group.EARLY FREE STYLE exaltation. (5) OTHER PAINTERS mention only a few of the most prominent. 98 Another skyphos. Though slight. around it the lyre is drawn. satyr on a stemless cup York 9 * is one of his liveliest products (fig. and the three-quarter back view of the satyr is ably drawn. 107 conveyed by the upward tilt of the head. at being teacher. the scene has a pleasing vivacity often in this artist's rather academic paintings. He painted Among the many other painters of the early free period we can .
prevalent at the time he on two with gestures. a few on cups. with egrapsen. bleeding being a favorite treat- THE CLINIC PAINTER 103 is another pupil of interesting. A surgeon's basin and cupand fourteen ping glasses are ready to hand. 111 with a running maenad as the prinlekythos cipal picture (see fig. which is not elsewhere given. in Rome and Vienna. The kalos name Lichas occurs expressive of his vases. vivid style. also in New York. British Museum waited on by two satyrs. is preserved on six vases four stamnoi in Paris. including kylix in the 10S with Dionysos and Herakles dining together. Two other aryballoi a cups have been attributed to this artist. Boston. and Florence. Another maenad in a 112 More than quieter pose is on a lekythos. signed on the foot by the potter 101 is a scene of Telephos in the house of AgaHieron. 107 The name is derived from his 108 The picture of Poseidon and Amymone on a pyxis in Athens. Makron with an remarkable scene 10 * each in of patients in a clinic.io8 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES remarkable kylikes in Boston. 81). His style is highly individual. He continued the style of the Berlin Painter. 110 ing is the Birth. antiquity of the inscription has been doubted. on an aryballos in the Louvre. on the other festival in memory of the conquest of Salamis. most of his contemporaries Hennonax preserved the freshness and sense of movement characteristic of the preceding age. If it is ancient it supplies the name Medon as the father of Hieron. one of the latter is surreptitiously stealing a cake while his mate self-consciously looks the other way. the decorator of most of the vases signed by the potter Hieron (see p. Orvieto. and with the inscription "Hieron Medontos epoie" painted on the foot. and two pelikai. heroic types used cadaverous figures in angular poses. but by THE AMYMONE PAINTER. was not decorated by Makron. 77) and a crouching satyr on the shoulder. chiefly on cups. On one 102 a picture tentatively interpreted as a memnon. A kantharos in Boston. in New York. Thirty-six other works have been attributed to this painter. He is named after the ment in ancient times for many ills. HERMONAX'S signature. 108 with Dionysos and Poseidon fighting giants. of Erichthonios on a stamnos in Munich. is an attractive work in a lively vein. The A . turn is being bled by a physician. Instead of the comely. Almost one hundred paintings have been attributed 109 One of the most pleasto him mostly on pots.
The youth ad11B has a fine vancing with drawn sword. The satyrs and maenads on two Nolan amphorae in New York 114 are typical examples. one more or less straight. sword in hand. The scenes on three Nolans. Several artists of about the same measure as the Oionokles Painter are represented by good examples in New York: THE kalos with Demeter and a THE PAINTER OF THE YALE OINOCHOE with a youth pursuing by an amphora a woman. An interesting scene of satyrs making wine 12T is by THE CLEVELAND PAINTER." named after the kalos name which on four of his vases. How fresh and spontaneoccurs ous. was a pupil of the Berlin Painter. on a large lekythos. Two typical works are by THE SYRACUSE PAINTER 124 a tall amphora 125 with lively scenes of Nike pouring wine for Poseidon and of Dionysos 128 with going off to a function and an unusually large oinochoe satyrs pursuing maenads in a highly decorative composition. marks the profile ankle in the same way as the Berlin Painter He with two ing. statuesque quality. and perhaps Hilaron. for instance. like Orestes on the a NIKON PAINTER 116 by Nolan amphora 117 woman and with the inscription Kallikles 118 119 kalos. He was a follower of the Providence Painter (see p. lines. youths. A large amphora and a drinking horn are ready for use. 74). 128 decorated with figures of a Nike. In addition to Oionokles this artist uses the names Akestorides. Kallias. * the other strongly curv- THE OIONOKLES PAINTER. 128 easily. holding of the cloth to make the juice pass through more juice flows into a large cauldron placed under the . is treading grapes in a wooden trough. is the group of the fluting satyr marching along. worked in the same tradition as Hermonax.EARLY FREE STYLE manner in which he draws 109 the eye the upper lid convex instead of concave to the lower. who. and THE PAINTER OF THE YALE LEKYTHOS 12 by a Nolan amphora with a pursuit scene and by a small white-ground lekythos 122 with a warrior cutting a lock of his hair presumably to put it on a tomb. One up two corners The trough. and the iris a large black dot at the inner corner gives the face an uncommonly alert expression. like Hermonax. His pictures are mostly lively pursuit scenes on Nolan amphorae and lekythoi. and a man with a scabbard. m grave of Agamemnon. 76)! They are off on a gay adventure to the strains of music. followed by Dionysos with snake and thyrsos (see fig. are in the manner of THE PAINTER OF LONDON E 342.
97). 130 We saw that the ability to give psychological interest to a scene by a few realistic touches was a characteristic of the Penthesileia Painter and his followers (see p. but the drama is heightened by the attitudes expressions. 185 Instead of a conquering hero Jason here is a scared human being. wide-eyed and hesitant. attractive picture of five works attributed to THE lyre to listening friends. on the neck of a loutrophoros in New York. York. including the rather in an orchard on a column krater in New 13 * could individualize a Jason fetching the golden fleece. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 129 modeled in the form of a lamb's head with of a youth playing the sprouting horns. he thus becomes an effective foil for the fierce dragon and the calm Athena. THE PAINTER expressionless who produced many women OF BOLOGNA 228. 188 one of the most York. ready to depart. 143 named after his amphora with Athena and Herakles which was formerly in the Deepdene ColNolan amphora in lection. 131 132 is able in his Death of Tityos on a calyx krater in the Louvre. supporting himself on two spears and stretching out a limp hand. though boldly accomplishing his task. a prevalent at the New York are of the impersonal type time and show the influence of the Pan Painter. to bring out the contrast in expression between the triumphant 183 Apollo and the frightened Tityos. 186 who painted a number of impersonal pictures including the war chariot on a column krater in New 187 also produced the prothesis in Athens. 189 THE ALKIMACHOS PAINTER. in his Theseus in Hades on a lekythos in Berlin. It is one delicately PAINTER OF LONDON E ioo. conventional figures. could.no A cup. THE AIGISTHOS PAINTER. on a column krater in New York. has an. trusting the same artist on nos in New painted vivid scenes from the Danae legend on a stamYork. THE ORCHARD PAINTER. Herakles vigorously clasping it. 140 named after one of the kalos names which appear on his vases. the look of Theseus. the rolling eye of Herakles. The contrast between the two figures is of course also indicated in the and gestures Theseus sitting. moving representations of death and mourning in Greek art. 141 convey the surprised joy of the hero after his long suffering and the strength and determination of his deliverer Herakles. 144 The Greek and Amazon by 142 upward. THE DEEPDENE PAINTER. Other artists occasionally made attempts in the same direction. and the dejected old warrior bidding good-bye to his son. 148 Each figure is convincingly characterized: .
groups of a crocodile and a negro boy. The Sotades Painter's most famous picture is on the vase in the form of a knuckle bone in London 16 young girls dancing and floating through the air. He also decorated several other molded vases of various have attained the lightness of touch he here forms of a hound and of a ram. with grooved exteriors (one with a plastic cicada on the central boss). ing Eurydike. : In addition to the three vases decorated by the Sotades Painter. and the who had carpenter. a girl (in correct three-quarter view) standing on tiptoe and reaching up to pick apples from a tree. standing in the chest that is to be exposed on the sea. from Egypt. and cap.c. clothed in a tunic. 147 who decorated three vases signed by the potter Sotades. of which two are wandering in different direcis which . heads are particularly pleasing. perhaps symbolizing the Dance of the Clouds (fig- characterization of his figures as in his liking of unusual subjects 79)- Few artists displays. 15B five others bear the two phiasignature of the potter Sotades lai in London and Boston.i Danae. He is watching a herd of cows. and an unexplained subject. The three pictures on white-ground cups with merrythought handles in London 148 are among the most delicate in 149 Athenian vase painting. and the style is somewhat (c. sternation. Two tions of Eos pursuing Kephalos and of Menelaos threatening Helen. furry pelt.EARLY FREE STYLE i. 80). not so much in the holding up one hand in conother stamnoi in New York have representa- and shapes. her eyes wide with terror. little Perseus with one hand projectfrom the mantle as if in appeal. They and Glaurepresent Polyidos kos." 154 in the form of a cow's hoof has a scene cup in New York A earlier recalls the Sotades Painter in its individual treatment but by a follower of the Brygos Painter. 151 The lively satyrs and maenads on a kantharos in Goluchow and on a cup in the form of a ram's head in Leningrad 1B2 a sphinx. in Boston. and on a hydria is shown a woman at her toilet. sometimes interpreted as the Death of Opheltes. Danae 's mother. shoes. her fingers raised to her lips in horror. 480-470 B. the pictures on which "are later than in the other signed vases and not connected with them in style. to prepare the chest. and a vase in the form of a mounted Amazon. is sitting on a rock (fig. two fragments with no paintings preserved. the nurse holding her nose with two fingers to show her distress.A herdsman.). was another individualist. 146 THE SOTADES PAINTER.
irregular shaded lines represent the foli- age of the shrub. pleasant designs. with the pursued mature period. and on the vase itself the texture and color of the horn are rendered by brown striations. mottling the rough textures of the herdsman's pelt and of the conveys A coats of dog and hare. Cambridge. In the center is a tree. in the manner of Greek epigrams. for he signed two of his works Polygnotos egrapsen a skyphos in Baltimore 15T and one in Tubingen. 127). 97. Most of his red-figured pictures are on kylikes. A little to one side is a shrub. formerly in the Lewis Collection. Nolan amphorae. brown dots imitate the rough bark of the styl- ized tree. The "Archedike is inscription fair" is perhaps a reference to the well-known hetaira from Nau- ." 8 He was. like a slow pursuit. His pictures consist mostly of one or two figures. could have no better ex- We ample of the many different effects which the Greek vase painter achieved with his one black glaze. still another vase painter We looking back at the pursuer.112 tions. now also know his real name. example. they are rarely great works of art. worked both in redfigure and on white ground. The whole is a sensitive picture of rural life. THE LEWIS PAINTER 1BB had a liking for skyphoi. ros is a close follower of the Lewis on a skyphos in Vienna. concisely told. 162 He is named after his picture of Hyakinthos and Zephy180 THE SABOUROFF Berlin PAINTER. The paintings on thirty-five examples have been attributed to him and so far on no other shapes. under which a hare is crouching in a characteristic posture. and lekythoi. but form quiet. 181 the artist of a nuptial vase in from the Sabouroff Collection. either quietly confronting each other or in some deliberate action. The rendering of the eye with two upper lid and with a line curving strongly upward for the eyelashes occurs often on the more careful works of his lines for the named Polygnotos (see pp. Thinned glaze is ingeniously used. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES At the other end a wolflike dog is emerging from a cave. holding up a mirror. transparent wash suggests the smooth surfaces of cave and rock. down which hangs a tendril of ivy. THE ZEPHYROS PAINTER 169 Painter. He is rounding up the herd. His name is derived from a skyphos in 186 Corpus Christi College. therefore. while he looks down at her admiringly. The group of a woman and a youth on a lekythos in New York 188 is a typical She is sitting on a chair.
One. which presently became New York has a scene now THE PAINTER OF MUNICH g^e^. 119). has a scene of two mourners standing by a tomb ornamented with sashes 169 a subject which was soon to become popular (see p. third. Three interesting pictures are in New York. squat lekythos in A general. The fact that the spear is in her left hand shows. also in matt outlines. and is therefore not a Greek. Charon in his yellow boat. black. her quiver and bow are strapped to her side. The scenes on the latter. and carries a spear and a shield red-figured. or sitting by the grave making music. Men and women are seen mourning at tombs. In contrast. drawn in matt lines.EARLY FREE STYLE kratis. as has been thought. drawn in glaze outlines. 106 is particularly moving. . on a white lekythos in the Schoen Collection. that the figure cannot have attacked. beating her head in grief. the other Amazon (if it is one) wears a Greek short chiton and a Corinthian helmet. one lying on the ground. 170 It has been suggested that instead of Achilles and Penthesileia. and red are exceptionally well preserved. 113 "the theme of song throughout Greece. ready to ferry a youth across the river 168 the youth. wrapped in a mantle. the subject represents two Amazons. wounded or asleep (her eyes are closed). it is argued. trousers. costume of tiara. tunic. 81) escorted by Hermes to the river bank. depicts ing the bier (see fig. has been Styx (see fig. or bringing sashes and ointments as offerings. jacket. often relate to death. with arms outstretched. indicating vases were now often made to serve as tomb offerings that such A was one of the first to use this new technique. In all three pictures the colored washes yellow. represents the lying-in-state of the dead. Sa). her ax is on the ground. in addition to depicting life in the home. on lekythoi. Most of the white-ground scenes by the Sabouroff Painter are drawn in matt outlines. The solemnity of the figures suggests that this is not an everyday incident but belongs to another sphere." 164 In the whiteground technique the Sabouroff Painter produced several masthe superb Hera on a kylix in Munich 16S and many terpieces lovely figures (see p. 152). and shoes. however. attributed to with a large eye as a device. Her gesture. The woman kneeling by a tomb. the other com170a The Amazon on the ground wears the Oriental ing to her. He . suggests surprise or sympathy. with mourners surround167 Another.
181 worked in both red-figure and on white ground. and the mourners a woman and a boy have offerings in their hands. THE TYMBOS PAINTER 17fl decorated mostly small white lekythoi intended as offerings at tombs. and an oil bottle (aryballos) are suspended from the right-hand platform. in New York. Several minor painters of this period specialized in the decoration of small lekythoi and alabastra. 180 who decorated a small pelike in Carlsruhe. trills ists. each with a RUHE PAINTER. they help us to realize the many-sided activity in the potters' studios at this time. perr haps Ikaros. who has taken sanctuary at the 171 statue of Athena. and white washes in exceptionally good preservation. 175 The youth holds a spear and a helmet and his pensive. some on white ground. 83) found in the Athenian Kerameikos. at a tomb is in New York. The shafts are bound with numerous fillets. The only other work by the painter of this picture is on a white lekythos found arVouni in Cyprus. THE CARLS- lekythoi. THE IKAROS PAINTER.ii4 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES ETHIOP PAINTER is represented in New York by a dramatic painting: Kassandra. 177 is one of the most pleasing. a strigil. so he is probably intended for the dead soldier who was buried in the grave by which he stands. chiefly A good example with a woman greeting a youth have been attributed to him. A white lekythos in New York 172 by THE VOUNI PAINTER has the usual scene of mourners at a tomb. THE AISCHINES PAINTER. The stele like those bright colors give the vase a striking appearance. typical examples. 178 are in New York. The style is related to that of the Pistoxenos Painter (see p. and the ruthless Ajax about to drag her away. Almost two hundred vases. woman in an animated pose."* was also a decorator of white lekythoi. 173 hence his name. 1 ** painted chiefly lekythoi. The scene is drawn in glaze outlines on a yellowish-white ground with red. detached attitude contrasts with the animation of the woman. Behind the stelai is the funeral mound. so one at least of the graves must have been that of an athlete. 182 named after a representation of a winged figure. 99). 176 who used the kalos name Aischines on an alabastron in Boston. but instead of one grave THE two are represented mounted on high platforms (fig. with one or two Two figures. Though these modest painters produced no great works of art. black. The so-called INSCRIPTION PAINTER. Jumping weights. Their works are like little art- supplementing the full chords of the more important .
detracts from the decorative value of the vase paintings. foot. back. face. contours suggesting the volume of the shapes enclosed. and the Telesterion of Eleusis all date from this time. but when threeprofile heads were still quarter views were chosen for a chest. Shading is suggested by occasional washes in thinned glaze alongside the anatomical markings (see p. 128). experimental period being over. The Parthenon. ABOUT of the free style is 450-420 B. with.C. the latter is often rendered by two lines instead of one. In the field of painting the great masters of the preceding all influ- epoch ential. Polygnotos and Mikon were still active and In this period of great activity in the major arts of sculpture and painting it was natural that the most prominent artists should no longer work in potteries. which marks the height of power of the Athenian state. Profile views or full-front views with favored by most artists. Even so their work reflects the spirit of the time.IV. They are no longer composites of separate formulas but are realized as a whole. The rendering of the eye also becomes more natural. though probably a gain for the large panel paintings of the time. there was now less striving for difficult postures. And so vase painters now tend to be mere decorators. And the figures themselves drawn with a new ease and freedom. the Propylaia. The iris itself is no longer round but elongated. The or for the whole figure they were drawn with comparative ease. The vast resources available through the transference of the Delian Treasury to Athens (454) and the Thirty Years' Peace signed between Athens and Peloponnese (445) enabled Perikles to undertake important building operations. generally touching only the upper lid. Something of the grandeur of the Parthenon sculptures appears in the simple compositions of standing and seated figures are which now come into favor. THE period concurrent with the adminis- tration of Perikles (461-429). hand. FREE STYLE. and a curve . for it seems out of place in a design on a pot. This plasticity. In profile view it is now more or less triangular in shape with the iris hid- ing the inner corner (see fig. 33).
steps of stelai. From 430 B. Only occasionally do we find an attempt at representing a receding even there.).C. Thus a convincing rendering was attained by pure line drawing without any modeling or shading.). was applied to stage scenery in the preceding period and which occupied the minds of philosophers like Anaxagoras and Demokritos. 2 For instance. toward the end of the period.ii6 is ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES for the eyelashes. for instance. suggesting the drawn in flowing lines.). in the chest the Danae Painter * (about 450-440 on a hydria in Boston by The white-ground technique popular in the preceding period . however. The color scheme remains the same as before. on an oinochoe of about 425 in New York a doorway and tiled roof are shown receding into the background (see p. 90 f . thinned washes are occasionally used for shadows to indicate the depth of folds. the lines do not converge. stelai. Relief contour is often dispensed with. Linear perspective. added In the full-front view the outer as well as the inner corner of the eye is now sometimes open. As in a b c d FIGURE 33 e f the preceding period. Washes in thinned glaze to suggest shadows and volume become more frequent than before. as. B. 140). such attempts are more frequent. In the first two decades of the period under consideration rectangular objects like furniture. and the iris is usually placed in the center (see fig. but are drawn parallel to one another. which.C. 33 f. but red as an accessory color (generally on an undercoating of white) and. as we saw (pp. gilding on applied clay become increasingly frequent. 135). The hair has lost its former compactness and often appears as a loose mass with wavy contours at forehead and temples and fluffy curls at the sides. altars are still regularly rendered only in the front plane (see p. are The garments tion. side view. only slowly penetrated into the consciousness of the vase painters. which vary in direcround forms of the body underneath.
except on white the youth lekythoi (see p.C. may be an adaptation from figures on the south side of the frieze. tiply of style. on an oinochoe in Baltimore.). Thus on a pelike in Berlin.. B. Over eighty vase painters have been assigned to the free period. 8 That sculptures were copied on vases during this period and later is definitely shown by the representations. on vases seem to have been copied from his horse. 152). of the Tyrannicides on a fragment in Boston * found in the burial plot of Dexileos (see pp. but is now restricted more and more to the lekythoi used as offerings to the dead. The subjects accordingly deal mostly with death (but see p. 121). presently in dull paint only. and others decorated chiefly cups and the smaller vases with delicately drawn scenes. which furnished such convenient evidence for dating the earlier vases. for instance. the Kodros Painter. The garments are covered as before with solid washes.) and of Myron's Athena on an oinochoe in Berlin. the folds mul- and the garments gain in transparency. Some decorated chiefly pots. They too have a great future in the work of the Meidias Painter and his followers. The latter's broad style greatly influenced the art of the succeeding period. period. especially-in the draperies.FREE STYLE 117 continued alongside red-figure. T Kalos names. The works of the Achilles Painter and his group are related to the frieze (442-438 B. but the forms gra lually become more flowing in and sturdy. and Polygnotos and his circle. 141 f. . the white ground serving for the flesh. The figures are drawn in outline either in glaze or dull paint. A comparison between the vase paintings of this period and the Parthenon sculptures (447-432) reveals many similarities is A little later.). The types of vases used are less crisp much the same as in the preceding outline. 8 strikingly mounting resembles a group on the west side of the Parthenon frieze. red and black are the favorite colors. derings of the pediments (438-432 reflecting the renIn a few instances scenes specific figures. become less common. The most prominent pot painters are the Achilles Painter and his followers. in the works of the Eretria Painter.C. Applied white is discontinued. sometimes a flesh color is added over the white. * and the two youths with a bull. others chiefly cups. The Eretria Painter.
Even in these more ambitious compositions. The vases formerly assigned to the so-called Meletos Painter belong to this period. 9 is HIS THE ACHILLES PAINTER. it is the beauty of the attitudes rather than the interest of the action that appeals. at least Beazley now thinks vases." named after his stately amphora with Achilles and of his time. perhaps more than in that of any other vase painter. and a third with Athena and a woman 18 have likewise been drawn identified as early products by the Achilles Painter. It is worthy of note that the Achilles Painter if this vase is indeed by him attempted such realistic renderings in his youth. things of everyday including white-ground lekythoi and black10 that we can form a good estiamphorae mate of his style. however. The old soldier's face is in a remarkably realistic manner. Most of his large important paintings be- long to this period the Achilles and Briseis on the amphora in . Occasionally he decorated large vases. In his early formative years he learned much from the Berlin Painter. find in his work. the strongly curving eyebrow. So much of the work of the Achilles Painter has been preserved consist of life. As the Achilles Painter matured his style became surprisingly uniform. in fact the mantled figures on the reverses of his vases serve almost as a trademark of his work. Especially in his slighter works the same poses and motives occur again and again with but few variations. Most of his pictures are on Nolan amphorae We one of the leading artists and lekythoi and one or two figures doing the obvious but with a quiet poise which gives them distinction. and he drew his forms in a somewhat summary manner. The hooked nose. the wrinkles on forehead and cheek and around the eyes differentiate him from the current type. on over 180 figured Panathenaic that this artist of the bell and the early Achilles Painter are identical. whereas in his extant later work he adhered to the generalized types. Two Nolan amphorae in New York with Eos and Titho12 nos. the serene spirit of the contemporary Periklean sculpture.ii8 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES (i) THE ACHILLES PAINTER AND FOLLOWERS Briseis in the Vatican. One most important examples of the "Meletos period" is a krater in New York 1X with an old warrior and a bearded man engaged in lively conversation.
The colors are exceptionally well preserved: yellow for the tunic of . heavy tunic. and spear while she sits motionless looking into space. others the Sabouroff Painter (see have here another certain instance of two artists p. The locality is identified as Mount Helikon and the women as Muses by the inscription Helikon on the rock. pictures several stand out by their excellence. The stillness of the scene is conveyed by the quiet postures of the women absorbed in the music. while a companion stands listening. instead of being A vases. the lying-in-state usual are on such funeral associate bat. the Dionysiac scene on a pointed amphora also in Paris. 112). 1 has sevloutrophoros-amphora in Philadelphia eral rare features. attractive in its simplicity. 1B and the Theseus and Amazons on a calyx krater " 1T in Ferrara. 100). collaborating in the same workshop (see p. in the earlier works a "second" white superimposed on the white ground for certain details was used. represents a comPainter. shield. Euphorbos and Oedipus on an 14 amphora in Paris. 23 A woman sits on a rock and plays the kithara (see fig. 20 many white this Besides his red-figured work the Achilles Painter decorated 21 He was indeed the leading painter in lekythoi. First the drawn in diluted glaze outlines. for instance the woman on a pelike in the British Museum 19 and the warrior on a lekythos in the Louvre. The poignancy of the parting is the greater for being merely suggested.FREE STYLE 119 the Vatican above-mentioned. stool with ornais handing A mented cushion is by their side. In a famous one in Athens 22 a youth is departing for battle and bidding farewell to his wife. later it was abandoned. The principal decoration. and though on the same vase this picture is by the Achilles We by an A from her wine jug and it to a warrior for a libation before his departure. Another masTiterpiece in this technique is in the Schoen Collection in the scenes are cino. later in reddish or black matt outlines. The development observable in his products is that current at the time. Among the Achilles Painter's many whiteground. He holds his shield and spear and wears a "Thracian" helmet and a short. Both figures have close parallels on other vases by the Achilles Painter. The scene on a squat lekythos in New York 18 is a typical minor woman has filled a phiale work. he is holding helmet. technique and was probably responsible for its great vogue during the second half of the fifth century. 89).
and the handle worked in a separate piece. the maid holds an alabastron ready for use. a kerchief hangs on the wall. The vivid colors. an oinochoe. one carries a basket from which hang three fillets. a kerchief hangs on the wall. The anatomical markings on the arm form an almost constant scheme a brown curving line for the biceps.120 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the seated figure. A youth is sitting on a cushioned stool and is holding out a round fruit to a woman who reaches for it. On one lekythos 24 a mistress and maid stand facing each other. A fourth. On another 2B a woman and a youth are about to clasp hands. part of the shoulder. red lines on the tunic of the standing figure. not have been actually used but must have been made as a tomb offering. two straight brown lines on the forearm. therefore. The two vases are closely related and resemble two others in Toronto 2e and Broomhall. ver- milion for her mantle with black lines for the folds. one black and two brown lines on the inside of the elbow. with two almost straight lines for the lids and with the iris both lids (except in his elaborate vases when the touching as consistent as the Berlin Painter's. The youth's flesh is painted a light brown. All these scenes are drawn in diluted glaze outlines. a brown curving line near the point of the elbow. and a kerchief hang on the wall. vermilion for her kerchief. 2T All four were probably made at the same time. the mistress is tying her girdle beneath the pouch of her tunic." Several attractive white-ground scenes by this artist are in New York. Achilles Painter's renderings of individual forms 81 are He draws the eye. The vase is inscribed Axiopeithes kalos Alkimacho "Axiopeithes the son of Alkimachos is } fair. probably used for perfumes. neck. The . wine-red for her mantle. play their part in the harmony of the design. 29 with a badly preserved picture of a youth and a woman at a tomb. reddish brown on the kithara. on the wall hang a mirror and two kerchiefs. with a vermilion line near the hem. and a short black line separating the open hand from the arm. On a third lekythos in New York 28 two women are preparing to take offerings to a tomb. it could. The eye is rendered in great detail). A fifth ex80 ample in New York shows the new technique with matt outlines. has the mouth. a mirror. the forehead-nose line is slightly convex to the face. for instance. the other holds up a vase with a cover. consciously interrelated. and the nostril has two short lines.
a ers at his woman making music and the few paintings of mourntombs have no kalos names inscribed. son of Aresandros. the frontal ankle so on. especially on his earlier ones Meletos. Diphilos. son of Melanopos. If these white lekythoi were used as tomb offerings one would suppose that the names belonged to the youths to whose graves they were brought. but this can hardly be. There were other painters of this period who specialized in the decoration of white lekythoi for instance. son of Aischylides. the frontal knee by several short straight and curving lines. for though several with the name Diphilos were found at Eretria. Hygiainon. Lichas. We may in- deed surmise that the chief purpose of the white lekythos in the Achilles Painter's day was for daily use as it had been earlier but that when the perishableness of the white slip (see p. as well as others. THE BOSANQUET PAINTER.FREE STYLE profile 131 rendered by two straight lines for the patella and a curving line for the vastus internus. Gela. in other instances the provenances of vases with the same kalos names differ. the son of Dromokleides. Alkimedes. Evidently most of white lekythoi were not made to serve as grave offerings but. like his red-figured ones. Axiopeithes. The Achilles Painter must have lived in the transition period when both uses were still current. It would seem odd to praise the beauty of other youths on a vase made for one who had just died. Alkaios. were found in Athens and in Kerateia. and Suessula. one short is knee and straight. And Kalos names occasionally appear on the Achilles Painter's redfigured vases. THE PAINTER OF MUNICH . 75) and of the tempera colors showed that it was unsuited for everyday utensils its use was restricted to that of tomb offering. by two short vertical lines. The vases inscribed Hygiainon kalos. Kleinias. THE THANATOS PAINTER. one long and curving. As a matter of fact. for instance. and the Troad. simply as oil-containers. a mother with her child. Epeleios. the son of Pedieus (perhaps the same Pedieus who was fair sixty years or so earlier). those with the name Axiopeithes in Greece. those with Dromippos in Eretria. Some of these names reappear on the Achilles Painter's white lekythoi. Athens. Pistoxenos. most of the scenes on the Achilles Painter's white lekythoi are not related to death but are from daily life a mistress and her maid. several with their fathers' names: Dromippos.
The serenity of the Pheidian period is conveyed in resent the departed. his toy cart bidding another lekythos decoare bringing offerings to a Two scenes by the ST on the steps are Bosanquet Painter show mourners at tombs. is painted in the artist's quiet. On a lekythos in 4B Bowdoin a girl is being taught to dance by her mistress. The Amymone resembles the "Iris" of the Parthenon pediment. with whom he has much in common.122 2 335. 91). In another scene. Another pursuit 42 scene of departure. a basket. one is putting on his high boots. A small 44 has a rare subject. are Nolan amphorae and lekythoi chiefly on the smaller vases but occasionally he decorated successfully the larger fields of kraters and stamnoi. 43 with a woman handing a youth his helmet. reposeful manner. 88 has two figures at a tomb a young girl with offerings and a woman who may rep- An unusual feature is the stool on top of the perhaps symbolizing a seated statue. the other holds up a himation. appears on a neck amphora in New York. on a lekythos in New York. for a child who stands A by the river bank with good-bye to his sorrowing mother. vases and wreaths brought as offerings. One. the majority relate to death. neatly rolled up. and gesticulates energetically.82 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Though pictures from daily life occasionally occur on these vases. often in charmingly spontaneous poses. An- A . 84 by the same painter. but into the Periklean serenity of his master he introduced a more lively spirit. On rated by this painter 8fl two women tomb a sash. The group of Poseidon pursuing Amymone on a New York 41 calls to mind Periklean sculptures. comlekythos in bining in the same way a feeling of motion with a statuesque quality (see of a youth and a woman fig. THE PHIALE PAINTER 38 is named after one of his most attractive works the libation bowl in Boston 89 with a "visit to a school of music. aristocratic demeanor of these figures. by the Thanatos Painter. Several examples are in New York. His winsome figures. the quiet. a mask is on the floor. vividly rendered: two pelike in Boston chorus men are dressing up as women. a maid is bringing a basket of offerings to her mistress. Among the latter the stamnos in Goluchow 40 with maenads and the infant satyr is one of the most successful. and an aryballos. stele shaft. charming picture in matt outlines by the Painter of Munich 2335 repre85 He is waiting to act as ferryman sents Charon with his boat." He must have been a pupil of the Achilles Painter.
standing stiffly by Persephone's side. that she is the dead woman sitting by her tomb. 48 The kalos name Euaion is inscribed on a hydria with Thamyris in the Vatican. Hermes. Demeter es when she saw Persephone "rushed forth as does a maenad down some thick-wooded mountain". gz).FREE STYLE 123 other dancing lesson is on a hydria in London. in full-front view." which is our chief source for the myth. Several beautiful pictures by him are on a white ground. The picture on another lekythos in Munich 49 is equally re- markable. Here too the figures have something of the grandeur of the Parthenon pediments. 52 Persephone is rising out of an opening in the ground. Hermes site on a rock by a tomb. waiting. She has died and is getting ready to go on her last journey. scepter in hand. her hand raised in a gesture of surprise. PAINTER so also belongs to the circle of the Only fourteen paintings have been definitely attributed to him on both large and small pots mostly slight works. Though she is engaged in an everyday action something unearthly in her appearance suggests that she no longer belongs to this world. while Demeter awaits her daughter. 51 His masterpiece is the Return of Persephone. her guide. According to the Homeric "Hymn to Demeter. escorted by Hermes. wrapped in her mantle and lost in thought.* 7 The Phiale Painter's work was not confined to red-figure. Her stillness and the reverent approach of her living friend are beautifully rendered. like the two women on an alabastron in New York. on a bell krater in New York (see fig. The lines are in matt reddish color. stands by her side. adds to the unearthly feeling. The attitude of Hermes. another woman is bringing a sash as an offering. Oppoapproaching. Hekate lights the path with two torches. is sitting him a woman is THE PERSEPHONE Achilles Painter. holding his herald's staff. fastening her wreath as she goes. The artist has been able to convey the solemnity of the moment the exaltation of Persephone as she returns to earth and again sees her mother. The detachment of the seated woman shows that she is of a different world. On a 48 a woman is seen lekythos in Munich sitting by a tomb on a rock. and the awe and expectancy of her companions. on the New York vase she calmly awaits the return of her . The picture indeed suggests the miracle which the story symbolizes the return of life to earth with the coming of spring. the washes red and yellow.
small pelikai. characteristic attitudes. 59 with a handsome scale pattern on the handle: Three Amazons are going into battle. is present at the actual return instead of later. therefore. that in none of the other extant represen54 tations of Persephone's Return is a chariot shown. It is noteworthy. Painter rather than that of the Berlin Painter. favored figures in quiet but who worked in the tradition of the Villa Giulia THE MANNHEIM PAINTER " artists. Such variations in the translation of a story into a work of art are of common. Instead of giving a snapshot of a particular mo- ment the Greek artists represented the chief participants in combined in a harmonious design. The second holds her horse by the reins and turns full face to the spectator. followed by his dwarf servant. The figures . His ten extant works are all on jugs. Persephone and Hermes are on foot. The last advances with crescent shield and two spears. one leg is drawn in profile. however. 88). now lost. THE DWARF PAINTER 55 was another follower of the Achilles Painter. In two other particulars the account of the hymn. He is named after his picture on a pelike in Boston 56 a youth going out for a walk. different from that given in the Homeric hymn. poses. like the Achilles Painter. Perhaps. the vase painters followed a version. Their names are inscribed Penthesileia.124 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the artist has departed from daughter. The name is derived from his oinochoe in Mannheim 68 with Amazons. The erect. her bow and quiver by her side. (2) THE MANNHEIM PAINTER AND OTHERS is a member of another group of who. aristocratic gait of the youth is well contrasted with the humble attitude of the dwarf. who holds a large dog by the collar. One of his best and liveliest is on an oinochoe in New York. and hydriai.Antiopeia. The numerous works attributed to him are on Nolan amphorae. two spears in her hand. not "in the golden chariot with the deathless horses" which and Hekate course "Aidoneus the Ruler of Many" had got ready for their journey. the other in full front with the tip of the foot turned up. her quiver and bow hanging by a cord from her shoulder (see fig. The first rushes forward with shield and battle-ax. lole.
Vatican. with a fine sense for composition and movement. but he probably also painted the charming scene on a bell krater in New York * a woman sitting on a cushioned chair and playing the lyre." named after his Danae and Perseus on a hydria in Boston. Another scene perhaps by the Danae Painter and comparable to the New York one is on a bell krater in Vienna. The rendering of the musician is interesting. The later ones lay stress on the power of Persia. 90). 65 with Apollo and two Muses. wearing the typical Thracian cap. the other the lyre. The subject is Orpheus among the Thracians. the fillet is in front view and so is the upper part of the body. THE DANAE PAINTER. Apparently the archaic tradition of piecing together various aspects of the body persisted with some artists for a considerable time. on a rock and playing Or- the lyre. listening One of the listeners has put both hands on her com(see fig. 93) .FREE STYLE 125 are beautifully drawn in a somewhat formal style. boots. 88 may likewise be placed in this group. with eyes in two profile views. while two young women stand before her. tiaras. the legs are in profile. 80 is on a jug in the of Persia (inscribed basileus). Those painted about 480 B. The head is drawn in three-quarter view. and another woman are represented in what seems to have been the Greek notion of Persian dress. and has been listening and now turns round gaily decorated mantle pheus is A sifting toward a Thracian woman. and their hands meet in an affectionate gesture. panion's shoulders. They form an attractive group with a personal note unusual in Greek vase painting. Still another musical scene by an artist of this group THE PAINTER OF LONIMDN E 497 eo is on a bell krater in New York 67 (see fig. She has just arrived as indicated . engrossed in his music. with One of the artist's most interesting pictures The king long-sleeved jackets and paring to pour a drink. 61 A number of pictures of Persians occur The queen is apparently pre- on Attic vases. Only eleven vases have so far been attributed to him with certainty. which was of course felt in Greece for a long time in spite of Persia's repulse from the shores of Greece.C. Their faraway expressions suggest that they are listening to the music. one playing the flute. or so in the period immediately following the Persian wars generally represent Greeks fighting Persians. Thracian. the Persian queen (inscribed basilis).
for their styles are occasionally close. 81 is a pleasing work by him. may be an early work by the Kleio Painter. The and for the hair of silenos p. A THE MENELAOS PAINTER. They are in a polychrome technique on a yellowishwhite ground. who decorated four white lekythoi. The famous pictures of three Muses and of Hermes bringing the infant Hermes to a silenos. Among them is a well-preserved bell krater in New York 71 w'th a procession of ecstatic maenads playing the lyre and the double flute. The absorption of Orpheus in his music and his remoteness from the listeners are finely suggested. 70 was perhaps an asDanae Painter. 72 also a member of this general group. on a bell krater in Cassel. cups. Only a few vases have so far been definitely attributed to him. 69 called after his picture of Menelaos and Helen on sociate of the a bell krater in the Louvre. singing. on a bell krater in New York. A white lekythos in New York. and torches. statuesque figures and their quiet bearing impart a solemn note to the scenes. The regal attitude and quiet bearing of Harmonia as offerings to of the second figure . Twenty-three works have been attributed to him. among them a woman playing the lyre. 78 attributed to the Painter of Athens 1943. It is even possible that all three artists were the same person. The two Thracians symbolize respectively the crowd o Thracian men moved by Orpheus' music and the horde of women who tore him to pieces in their jealousy.i 26 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES by her momentary pose and has brought a curved knife to wreak vengeance on the great singer. carrying thyrsoi. on a 77 calyx krater in the Vatican. has a sepulchral scene a woman who has brought a wreath and an alabastron full of The "second" white used for the flesh of women is a retention of an older practice (see perfume a grave. of the bell krater in London 68 has a Thracians in the front plane. THE CASSEL PAINTER 7> continues the style of the Kleio Painter. but they are ranged along one line in the front plane. 114). is called after the name of a Muse on a bell krater in Berlin. 78 and THE PAINTER OF ATHENS 1943. only minute traces are preserved on the other side of the tomb. Spatial depth is indicated by the placing of Orpheus in the mid-distance. similarly composed scene of three figures. 80 Kadmos and the dragon. THE KLEIO style closely PAINTER. 78 His resembles that of two other painters THE EUPOLIS PAINTER/* called after the name he gave a satyr boy on a bell krater in Vienna.
97. the mural painter Polygnotos of Thasos (see p. fleshier. kraters. was imbued with the idealism of his time and was able to express it in the nobility of his types( His figures and those of his associates are less austere than the Achilles Painter's. more suggestive of the third dimensiQnjHis tradition is that of the Niobid Painter. who we now know. like the Achilles Painter. 90 of his Achilles and Penthesileia. it is "by a Polygnotan. According to Beazley. and amphorae. 112). not the Polygnotos we are now discussing). His signature (Polygnotos egrapseri) is 8B with a centaupreserved on four vases a stamnos in Brussels 86 romachy. and a neck ampelike in Syracuse 8S phora in Moscow with Achilles in retirement. If the inscription is rightly restored we should here have a fourth vase painter with this name. It was evidently a common one in fifth-century Attica. mentioned above. and from two other vase painters the Lewis Painter and the Nausikaa Painter. a stamnos in London with Herakles and a centaur.FREE STYLE 127 are reminiscent of the seated goddesses of the Parthenon gables. rounder. Two other painters belonging to this group are represented by characteristic examples in New York THE POLYDEKTES PAINTER in a quietly composed scene of a young horseman leav82 and THE RICHMOND PAINTER in a ing home (on a bell krater) picture of a king with a woman pouring a libation (on a Nolan amphora).. a 8T with an Amazonomachy. Most of the sixty-four paintings which have been attributed to him are on large vases stamnoi. but not by Polygnotos himself" (i. were both named Polygnotos (see pp.e. the time. with the renderings of the same subject by the Berlin Painter A . This Polygnotos must be distinguished from his more famous namesake. The comparison signed ones. An unpublished calyx krater in Munich 89 with a Dionysiac scene has a fragmentary inscription Po[lygnotos] \e\g\rapseri\. 83 They represent the output of the average artists of (3) POLYGNOTOS AND 84 HIS CIRCLE POLYGNOTOS is of vase painters who the most important representative of a group flourished side by side with the Achilles Painter and his associates. Polygnotos. are among his best. 89). on an amphora in London.
. named New Polypeithes. etc. 71). his mother Kalliope. torches. as so often in this period. tamer than in the earlier paintings. It is characteristic of this idealizing period that Medusa is no longer the terrifying monster that she was in the archaic period (see p. The Departure of Neoptolemos on a neck amphora in New York 9B is comparable in quality to the London pelike. The musical scene on a bell krater in New York 92 is of only average quality. for we can now really speak of a "front" and a "back" of a vase. Buschor 8<s interprets the often recurring figures of such men and women. for instance. striking the strings with a plektron. His style is related to that of Polygnotos." . 96) and with a king. He is called by the name he gave to a 9* departing warrior on a pelike in the British Museum. his friend. One of the most important unsigned works by Polygnotos is a pelike in York B1 with Perseus in the act of cutting off the head of the sleeping Medusa (see fig. A man is playing the kithara. for they are all listening intently a bearded sitting in a chair with a pensive expression. The vase is inscribed Nikomas kalos.i 28 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES and by the Penthesileia Painter (see p. the same roundness and fleshiness. but a beautiful woman. his preference was for the larger vases. A raising his young warrior named Neoptolemos is bidding farewell to his father. he has carried his audience with him. as "street scenes. and his figures have the same heroic quality. holds helmet and shield. Antimachos. 69) tive. The washes of thinned glaze in the folds and in the grooves of the anatomical markings are characteristic of the Polygnotan group. but his drawing is more rendered in a three-quarter view. THE LYKAON PAINTER 88 is one of the most distinguished artists of the Polygnotan group. a youth leaning on a stick and man hand in appreciation. The arc at the ankle in the frontal foot successfully suggests a farther plane. 97) is instrucPolygnotos' design is weaker and the effect o the whole (see p. is ready to pour the libation. Antiochos. 75. In contrast to this carefully executed picture. Penthesileia's face. is ably correctly foreshortened. but it shows well Polygnotos' serene spirit. with the farther eye and even the mouth naturalistic. in the company of two women. vases. To judge by his comparatively few extant works. fig. holding sticks. and a man standing quietly behind the player. that on the other side of the vase is hastily drawn. who is seated on a chair covered with a deerskin.
close their eyes. The death of Aktaion on a bell krater in Boston. Several kalos names appear on vases decorated by the Lykaon The London pelike is inscribed Euaion kalos. with one leg placed on a rock. 128): Orpheus is seated on a rock. is correctly foreshortened. is interesting for comparison with the earlier rendering of this subject by the Pan Painter (see p. when suddenly Elpenor rises from the ground. escorted by Hermes. Odysseus' awe as he looks steadfastly at the unearthly figure is well suggested. Zeus and Artemis as quiet." in a central group. Thracians listen. dignified onlookers on either side. but naturalistically it is more advanced. while the Thracians by his sweet strains. 95). 125. Odysseus." though a comparatively minor work. more elaborate than the representations on the New York kraters (see pp. while four Painter. We have made the acquaintance of these names elsewhere (see pp. They bend forward. playing the lyre and singing. THE ORPHEUS PAINTER. IO an artist on the outskirts of the Polygnotan group. The latter confined himself to the two chief participants of the story and represented them in a spirited action. Spatial depth is successfully suggested. It is perhaps the finest musical scene of its period. 95). 94.FREE STYLE Two 129 other masterpieces by the Lykaon Painter must be mentioned the idyllic scene of Dionysos with satyrs and maenads bell krater at Goluchow. The Lykaon Painter composed his figures more formally Aktaion and Lysa. Instead of a two-dimensional decoration like that by the Pan Painter the scene has become a three-dimensional representation. the personification of "Madness. 97 and a on a picture on a pelike in Boston. no. is named after his well-known picture of 101 Orpheus on a column krater in Berlin. the Goluchow krater Alkimachos kalos and Axiopeithes kalos. 121). The general effect of the picture is much tamer than in the earlier version. 98 The subject of the latter is Odysseus on the reeded banks of Hades conversing with the shade of the unburied Elpenor (see figs. He is looking up inspired. Zeus. It is an extraordinary picture of emotion conveyed chiefly by posture are completely entranced . or stand apart. sway to and fro. 107. Aktaion's head and left leg are drawn convincingly in three-quarter view. has sacrificed the rams according to instructions and has sat down on a rock.
others are definitely outside it. THE NAPLES PAINTER. 107 who painted the 108 and the wellwedding of Peleus on a calyx krater at Ferrara known picture of Mousaios."" to whom attributed. 10 * THE HEKTOR PAINTER/ 08 who decorated a neck amphora in the Vatican 106 with Hektor leaving home. vivacious design. 119 picture of the is Lower World. Bologna. on a calyx krater by THE NEKYIA PAINTER. formerly in the collection of the Lady Rosamund Christie. We eighty works by THE PAINTER OF THE LOUVRE CENTAUROMACHY. Terpsichore. fits into a stand. and Melousa on a neck 109 and THE COGHILL PAINTER. now in the Gulbenkian Collection. a of wrestlers. A more conventional scene by the Orpheus Painter 102 It consists of male and female is on a hydria in New York. figures composed in four groups. and the foot (4) OTHER PAINTERS OF POTS Of the other painters of pots belonging to this period some approximate the Polygnotan group. 114 the majority on column kraters. two runners with tising jumping weights. 107). rated a calyx krater formerly in the Coghill Collection.ijo ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES and gesture. THE PELEUS PAINTER. calyx krater by him in New York 11B is decorated with spirited scenes of athletes praca discus thrower. and elsewhere with centauromachies. decorated column forty-eight vases have been kraters in Naples. 111 volute krater in New York 112 with a spirited Dionysiac scene is perhaps also by the Coghill Painter (see fig. The shape is unusual: the body is ribbed. and an Eros giving a pair of shoes with pointed toes to a woman. who is named after . which was made separately. The artist has here caught the wild exu- A berance of Dionysiac life and has made of it a delicate. Several other prominent painters belong in the Polygnotan IOS who decorated several largish group THE CHRISTIE PAINTER. His output also includes nuptial lebetes and know loutrophoroi with the scenes of women. including a bell krater with a komos. and a with a pair round his A youth strigil looped wrist. A remarkable in New York. IID who decoamphora in London. vases. among them are a graceful woman spinning with distaff and spindle.
the scene continues with Elpenor. Below the frieze on the New York vase are two panels. At the two sides are other figures. which was described in detail by Pausanias. 121 with the story of Tydeus decorated a bell krater in New York a few fragments are preserved we (see fig. 131 scene occupies the entire upper frieze: Herakles. Theseus and Perithous. also designed in two tiers. one with Zeus throwing thunderbolt at a giant. the evident newcomer. about. Tydeus is seated on a rock.FREE STYLE this vase. formed part of the famous picture of the Nekyia by Polygnotos of Thasos in the Lesche at Delphi. and Palamedes. but nameless souls wandering tinction. 119 with a Nike erecting a trophy. Palamedes brooding over his wrong. chiefly now pelikai. At his feet is the head of leg. The feeling of mystery which pervades the scene. All the persons depicted on the vase. leana wound in his ing his head on one hand. he is suffering from him by Melanippos. to whom no other works have so far been attributed but who may be called THE ATHANASIA PAINTER. inflicted on . for on the base of the column is a dedication (perhaps Tisias his anethekeri). Though only can distinguish several figures. Only one other vase has been 117 attributed to the Nekyia Painter a calyx krater in Vienna. as if the participants were indeed ghosts in another world passing noiselessly to and fro. and Persephone in her chamber. in Boston. Elpenor and Ajax. has gone to the Lower World to fetch Kerberos and finds Perithous and Theseus condemned to punish- The ment for their daring attempt to carry off Persephone. Hermes detached. but the rendering on the New York vase differs so greatly from the Delphian that the two must be based on different traditions. Each figure is nicely characterized Herakles. An oinochoe in the Louvre 12 has a picture of Athena confronting a column surmounted by a child. The latter is evidently intended for a statue. heroes of dissafe in welcoming the visitor. Among them is one from the Deepdene Collection. three famous heroes who died tragic deaths. Ajax. with Hermes as escort. Persephone her chamber. is extraordinary. Between the two figures is the inscription Sophanes An able vase painter. evidently not heroes. the other with the punishment of Tityos by Apollo and Artemis. 100). kalos. THE TROPHY PAINTER 118 decorated several smaller pots. except Herakles. proceeding slowly. quiet. lonely figures.
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the dead Melanippos. for she too is struck with horror. stemless cups. "Immortality. Athena grasps Athanasia by the wrist to pull her away. Each figure is nicely characterized. It is characteristic of Greek art that the gruesome part of the legend the sucking of Melanippos' brain by Tydeus. (5) THE ERETRIA PAINTER AND OTHER PAINTERS OF CUPS AND SMALL VASES Concurrent with the artists who decorated chiefly large pots were others who favored kylikes and the smaller pots. inscribed Athanasia. which disgusted Athena and picted. sent him by Amphiaraos. Two stemless cups in New York 128 have symposia on the interior. Persephone Painter in New York by (see p." She has been brought by Athena to heal Tydeus and make him immortal. He derives his name from a calyx krater he decorated which was formerly in the Marlay Collection and 127 is now in The rider on it resembles two other Cambridge. as well as other vases. and Odysseus slaying the suitors on a skyphos in Berlin. but at the sight before her she raises a hand in surprise. THE ERE- . Telemachos. 128 and all spirited horsemen on a column krater in New York. His most attractive 125 a satyr holding a pictures are on a skyphos in Berlin parasol over an aristocratic young woman who is out walking. 12* He is a somewhat tame follower of the Lewis Painter (see p. and a satyr pushing a swing on which a young girl is sitting with legs outstretched. and Odysseus. a minor artist who decorated kylikes. Approaching him is a young woman. three recall the Parthenon frieze. 123). vivid THE PENELOPE PAINTER 122 vases A calyx krater in Berlin 1SO has a scene of the rising Persephone amid wildly capering Pans a very different conception of the story from the solemn representation on the krater the style. 112) and like him painted practically only skyphoi. lost Tydeus his immortality is not actually de- is the artist of two well-known which have often been reproduced for their subjects: Pe128 nelope. in the same sketchy. and skyphoi. This remarkable picture is the only extant Greek painting of the terrible end of Melanippos. 128 Fifty-nine vases have been assigned to THE MARLAY PAINTER. on a skyphos in Chiusi.
but the finest are on kantharos in Paris. rated by him with pictures of the departures of Achilles and of Patroklos. holding his kantharos with both hands to prevent its contents from spilling. Dionysos is leaning forward. the Nereids mak18S the ing preparations for a wedding. oinochoai. Dionysos and his satyrs and maenads on a squat lekythos in 18 and a mistress and maid on an amphoriskos in OxBerlin. etc. pyxides. Many and her friends on ford. His gentle faces and beautifully drawn hands impart an almost exaggerated air of refinement to his figures whether of gods.FREE STYLE 133 TRIA PAINTER 131 is one of the ablest of these. All have ivy wreaths. kestis A of these are masterpieces. on a pyxis in London. 133 decolekythoi. and on a krater by the Kleophrades Painter (see p. for it is a festive occasion. 139 is On (see a squat lekythos 102). It is interesting to compare this scene with earlier versions of the story on the Francpis vase. The procession consists of a satyr playing the double and a satyr boy leading a donkey on which Dionysos and Hephaistos are seated. An oinochoe 188 is decorated with the familiar subject of the return of Hephaistos to flute. The Eretria Painter is distinguished especially for his exquisite line. Hephaistos is gesticulating with one hand and in the other holds the implements of his craft. since it was Dionysos' wine that succeeded in bringing Hephaistos back to Olympos. The strength and exuberance of the archaic period are gone and a quiet playful charm has taken their place. About half of the seventy-six works attributed to him are on kylikes. 101). 67. or women. In spite of the economy of line the action is convincingly rendered. or satyrs." is on a squat lekythos in fig. note 20). A remarkable picture. the Althe onos from Eretria. a dainty scene of a woman dressing She is in the act of taking her tunic off a chair and slipping it over her head. Olympos. which "somewhat recalls the Eretria Painter. on the krater by Lydos. He was by nature a miniaturist and apparently at his best in small pictures. 187 Several fine pieces are in New York. The inscription 1" [Kal\lias kalos appears on a fragment of a kylix in Leipzig. . the tongs and hammer. is signed by the potter Epigenes. for instance. He is so called because the onos in Athens 132 with his of the bride Alkestis picture was found at Eretria (see fig. The delicacy of the curving strokes in his clinging drapery and curling hair has been equaled by few.
which is fragmentary. Achilles. He is mourning the death of his best friend. we know that he occasionally worked in polychrome on white ground. The outlines of the figures are drawn throughout in diluted glaze lines. Patroklos is lying on a bier. with a father putting his little boy in the swing while two bigger boys watch. 142 Both belong to the painter's late years. and her Nereid sisters. 139a It represents m Patroklos a tionless with still figure with closed eyes. and parts of the headdresses (now in the dull groups on a hilly ground. Another battle scene by the Eretria Painter. covered with a cloth. They are riding across the sea on dolphins. The scene continues with the approach of Thetis. on an oinochoe in Athens. bringing the gifts with which Achilles is to revenge the death of his friend. 148). killed by Hektor and despoiled of his armor. 98). his famous bow and arrows by his side (fig. Achilles' mother (see fig. both hands folded on his lap. Achilles sits beside him. and Nereids. represented a chariot scene. The motion of the sea is suggested by the wavy outlines of the dolphins. 1 * 3 recalls a similar scene of this subject by the Meidias Painter in New York (see p. Among the countless representations of death and mourning few are so poignant as this one New York. all delicately and lovingly drawn. the names of Theseus and some of the Amazons are inscribed. Achilles sitting mo- buff of applied clay). The celebration of the Anthesteria. bracelets. The preparaat different levels of . We must supply in our imagination the colors with which the mantles of the Nereids were painted and the gilding which made resplendent the armor. 103). for a tall squat lekythos in Kansas 14 has a scene of women and a baby in that technique. abandoned on the island of Lemnos. The upper red-figured zone. is on a squat lekythos in Boston.ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the wounded Philoktetes. composed in seven head bowed. with figures and appurtenances strikingly similar to those in the New York one. necklaces. AnCity other lekythos of the same shape in New York has three zones of decoration the middle one on white ground. the lower one has a battle of Greeks and Amazons. sitting on a rock under a tree. Several jugs decorated by the Eretria Painter have unusual subjects. Though no white lekythoi of the usual type by the Eretria Painter are extant. the upper and lower ones red-figured containing about thirty figures. The white-ground picture represents Patroklos. bringing the armor made by Hephaistos.
confronting A cup from Spina at Ferrara 1SO PAINTER/" named after a cup with Kodros in another distinguished artist of this group. His thirty-two extant works consist entirely of kylikes. Every detail is drawn with exquisite care. the other wears a mantle and three-cornered hat and is also girded with a sword. 153 His refined drawing can be appreciated in the fragment of a kylix in New York 15* with the upper parts of two youths and two phialae in the hand of a third person. floor. "* on still another " 5 is an uncertain subject.FREE STYLE 135 tion for a feast of Dionysos is represented on another oinochoe in Athens. drawn in a finished style reflecting the Pheidian idealism. but he also painted mythological subjects the birth of Erichthonios. his mantle is hung over his arm. there was evidently a widespread demand for them. On the other side of the door is a woman with a lighted lamp. called after the name he gave to a Muse on kylikes in New York 14T and in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 152 THE KODROS is are evidently departing. The youths Bologna. and a libation is to be poured on their behalf." 8 He must have worked in the same studio as the Eretria Painter. A represented coming home late after the festival and is pounding on the door with the butt end of his lighted torch. festival of the Anthesteria in during the is honor of Dionysos. His favorite subjects are athletes and heroes performing deeds of prowess. She has been roused by the noise and must let in her drunken husband. Vases decorated by the Eretria Painter have been found not only in Greece and Italy but as far afield as Southern Russia and Spain. and tiled roof are shown as . THE KALLIOPE PAINTER 146 is. Sixty-one paintings have been attributed to him. on the outside by the Eretria Painter. is inscribed Alkimachos kalos. In the rendering of the house we see an early attempt at linear perspective. They consist mostly of youths each other and holding objects. used appears on a jug in New York. An man interesting picture not yet attributed to a specific artist 166 It is of the chous shape. Xenon kalos. is inscribed this painter in London. on two cups in Berlin. and King Aigeus standing before Themis at Delphi. one holds a spear and has his sword hanging from his shoulder. An attractive cup by 155 decorated with athletes. for a cup in Freiburg " 8 was decorated on the inside by the Kalliope Painter. and girls in statuesque poses. The door.
a round fruit in each hand. a pensive. 105). Their names are inscribed Bentho. but instead of riding the sea on dolphins. they are at home. Glauke. and Psamathe. PAINTER 159 is named from his scene on a chous Boston 160 of two maenads and a satyr (fig. Sikinnos. and the paraphernalia on wall and ground make a subtly related composition in which each line and spot of color plays its part. great delicacy. work assigned to this painter is a. 135) in THE KRAIPALE liquid to help Hangover to recover. If we compare this scene with the riotous Dutch representations of drunken women we shall realize the restraint and serenity with which the artists of the Pheidian period depicted their scenes. doing the things of everyday life dressing. THE PAINTER OF LONDON Di4 lsr an oinochoe with Herakles and Athena also decorated a pyxis in New York. on small hydriai and pelikai.. and together the poses. Each figure has the grace and simplicity of a Tanagra statuette. and so on. Akteie (see fig. putting away their clothes. So they are Nereids.small pelike in London 161 with torch racers and athletes. playing with a pet bird. Her friends approach only other The . Thymedia(?). with a jug in his hand. also decorated several large nuptial vases and loutrophoroi with wedding scenes. "Hangover. is bringing a bowl of steaming (see p. 162 so called from his pictures of women washing.and holds out her cup for more wine.136 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES the background. One of the maenads. the accessories. 183 The bride is seated on a chair playing the harp. One of the best is in New York. The quiet theme thereby assumes an extraordinary anima- tion. Her thoughts are of love and as she looks up she sees a little Eros flying toward her. not ordinary Athenian ladies. but the satyr. regardless of subject. charming figure. Galene. 168 Both pictures are in polychrome on white ground and are drawn with is particularly attractive. meanwhile the other maenad. The scene on the pyxis It represents six women in the interior of a house (indicated by an Ionic column). Kymodoke. hesitates. Her expression is one of wonder and reverence. but the necessity o slanting or receding into making the parallel receding lines converge toward a common vanishing point has not been understood (see p. THE WASHING PAINTER. 116). Kraipale is merely sitting quietly on a rock. 104)." has been drinking too much. called Kraipale.
decorated small vases. A similar scene The bride is fillets for the festive occathree-cornered harp. THE DISNEY PAINTER. A typical work in New York handing a wreath to the other. including one which belonged to Mr.C. The Eros offering a hare on a kantharos in the Louvre 169 is one of his best works. occurs much less frequently on Attic vases than the lyre or the kithara. formerly in the Disney Collection. water for the bridal bath) hung with sion. one Painter. a jug is near 171 are two women. but it was apparently in favor in the late fifth and the fourth cen- bring chests. 178 amphora in Copenhagen. on another nuptial lebes in New York. Another charming picture by this painter. and a loutrophoros (with is sitting The tury B. represents a woman seated on a rock with Eros tying her elaborately strapped sandals and two youths holding spears on either side. His scenes generally consist of two figures confronting each other. Kliigmann in Rome. one is holding it by the ring handle and adjusting the lid. from the Shuvalov Collection in Leningrad. one has brought a by. THE KLUGMANN PAINTER painted 177 a number of red-figured and white-ground lekythoi. on a hydria in New 166 York. A good ex- . playing the harp. 164 on a stool. On an oinochoe 17 two boys are standing before an incense burner (fig. Two typical examples are in New York. resembles somewhat the Shuvalov 176 shows two women. THE PAINTER OF THE EDINBURGH OiNOCHOE. returned it. The subject may be Helen with her brothers the Dioskouroi. On a small hydria small chest to the other.FREE STYLE with round wicker baskets and a chest filled 137 with finery for the wedding. shooting Penelope's suitors. hair and unmartial look suggest that he is Odysseus. 188 decorated phora THE SHUVALOV many small vases in a miniature style. Of from his wanderings. Among 1T * his untidy them is an archer on an oinochoe in New York. Her friends a round wicker basket. or Helen with Paris and Aeneas about to take her fateful journey. who is about to take something out of to a t>oy a wool basket is on the floor. 175 to whom several small jugs with women have been attributed. the many other minor painters of this period we can men172 named after a small tion only a few. 187 named after his Apollo on an amPAINTER. 106). mostly with athletes and youths. 165 the Greek trigonon.
and Leda and the egg. signed Xenotimos epoiesen.i 38 in ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES New York sling. with two interesting scenes Perithous in Hades. ample . THE XENOTIMOS PAINTER 179 decorated a stemless cup in Bos180 ton. 178 has an Amazon throwing a stone with a drawn in glaze outlines with added white for the flesh.
and of mixed instead of pure colors. all contemporary with the Peloponnesian War. who was said to have * "opened the gates of art which Zeuxis entered. Zeuxis of Herakleia.C.G of the late fifth-century style B. understand the innovations in composition and spatial representation which appear in this and the succeeding periods we must recall an interesting tradition about the contemporary painter Apollodoros (about 430-400 B. 91) tive into mural and panel paintings for such rectangular objects as furniture and architecture. gradually the plague. ABOUT historical 420-390 B. "mimicked" by color and by the "use of shadows" and foreshort- We ening. how "mixed" colors such as mauve appear side by side with the old primary colors (on the late white lekythoi). Apparently he carried on the work of Agatharchos who was credited with having started linear perspective in scene painting a gen- and and introduced this perspeceration or two earlier (see p. final defeat at Aigospotamoi power and empire laboriously built up during more than a century crumbled. Not a scrap of their works has survived.V.C." and to have been the first to To cifically his 5 give to his figures "the appearance of reality. and we must visualize their style through the vase paintings and from the many references to them in ancient literature. In the major art of panel painting the outstanding names are 1 2 Apollodoros of Athens." Speinnovations seem to have been the use of shadows 6 7 perspective. the and its immediate after- The long-drawn-out to hostilities. and Parrhasios of 8 Ephesos. LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE.) is background THE Peloponnesian War (431-404 math. and Athens became once more a small city-state with limited commercial opportunities though she remained for some time the intellectual center her downfall and The great edifice of of Greece.). how linear perspective makes its appearance in rectangular objects . From contemporary vase paintings we may obtain some idea can see there how form is of these epoch-making changes. Sicilian expedition (415-413). the disastrous sapped the strength of Athens and led in 405.
and mediaeval art utilized but did not carry further the inventions of fifth-century Greece. however. . are drawn no longer always in front view but occasionally with re8 ceding sides. to realize that the linear perspective Greek vases is only a partial one. illuminating portions of it and leaving others in shadow. which from about 430 B. Yet." Plato. furniture. sitions are often not as part of a unified whole. Though the compomore complex than before. 101. spatial quality Naturally the new "realism" met with criticism from con10 temporary "conservatives. This partial perspective obtained throughout antiquity. And not until still later were rules formulated for the two-point. as the light strikes this lustrous. how with receding ceilings of which presently shrines are depicted the beams slope downward. who lived at the 9 time of Apollodoros and Zeuxis. To him "perspective" was a kind of trick that took advantage of the weakness of our senses. it imparts a certain and this applies to all red-figured ware. disliked the innovations because they created illusions that were deceptive and made things appear larger or smaller than they really were and than they could be shown to be by actual measurements. important.140 such ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES as shrines. HelRoman. several vanishing points were used. Each object is still viewed separately. with varying points of sight. 11 Instead of viewing the whole scene from one point of sight and adopting one vanishing point toward which all receding parallel lines conIt is on these late verge. 102) but some made smaller than others to indicate that they are in a farther plane. 135). no new knowledge of perspective is introduced. for instance.C. The space of the picture was not yet realized as a unity. altars. those on the left side toward the right. lenistic. angular perspective which is in common use to-day. curving surface. and how figures are for that had occasionally not only placed at different heights been done before (see pp. those on the right side toward the left. and with top or bottom showing (see p. It was not until the Renaissance of the fifteenth century that perspective as we understand it with one single vanishing point for the entire picture was de12 veloped and used. In fact the graceful figured compositions current at this time might almost be conceived as three-dimensional pictures were it not for the uniform black surface which they are made to decorate.
and made to stand out in relief. made before firing. among whom the dead usually appear. are found also on the reliefs of the Nike balustrade (dated about 410).). 152 f. and the "document" reliefs ls of the last two decades of the century. vases of the style we are discussing have been found in the graves which were transferred to Rheneia from Delos durls ing the purification of that island in 425. The subjects are mostly taken from domestic life as if the artist had tried to find an escape from the turbulence around him in the peaceful occupations of the home. playing with their children are the principal themes. Women dressing. (2) Several of the fragments of vases found in the burial plot .LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE The figures 141 vase paintings of the late fifth century continue the line of development begun in the preceding period. often seated on the steps (see pp. Light incisions on the glaze. the frieze of the Erechtheion (409-406). some parts are occasionally rendered in applied clay. that the development of that style is posterior (1) No to that date. The rendering of the eye is as before. The vases of this period present marked similarities to the sculpture of the late fifth century. as many red-figure. therefore. Of the gods only Dionysos with his satyrs and maenads and Aphrodite and her retinue remain popular. Besides these connections with sculpture the following data have helped to determine the chronology of the vases of this 1* period. As before. 152). being courted. but the line for the lower lid is often very short. the drawing more refined. are often used for the indication of the ground or other details. the garments richer. The in dull paint with a rich variety of as four or five colors sometimes being employed on one vase (see p. adorning themselves. White-ground vases continue alongside of scenes are drawn throughout washes. Notes of white and yellow are now increasingly added to the sober color scheme of red and black. but the stately become more effeminate. The subjects consist almost entirely of mourners at the tomb. which are characteristic of Meidian vases. gilded. The thin.It is reasonable to suppose. clinging draperies with multitudinous folds following the contours of bodies and limbs. The hair is now generally indicated by separate strands on a reserved background instead of as a solid mass.
derived from the Polygnotan group. more luxurious note. They are mostly on the smaller vases the squat lekythos. 21 of Messene were building ). which deal chiefly with the life of women. (see p. there is a reference to a Pronomos in the Ek- 18 and the klesiazousai of Aristophanes (early fourth century). It is sponsored by the Kleophon Painter.C. loose draperies with well-defined folds. This shows that the vase paintings in that style. the elaborate coiffures. So if the assumpfor a considerable time (he is said to and his music was played while the walls the date of the Naples vase tion regarding Pronomos is correct should be posterior to that war. and clinging draperies. the Dinos Painter.ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES of Dexileos. Though time and Dexileos himself was not ently used for a considerable 17 in a public sepulcher. which used to be assigned to the early fourth century. They chose chiefly Dionysiac subjects and favored the larger vases. are derived from the renderings of the Eretria Painter. at the end of the . and a developed spatial sense." it is not likely that a Theban enemy was honored on an Attic vase during the Pelopormesian War. that is. fleshy forms. the lekanis as well as the hydria. can also have been produced in the concluding years of the fifth. but nevertheless gives an approximate time within two or three decades (3) On a volute named for the period of the style. 20 Though the fame of this flute player lasted name have taught Alkibiades. the date 394 actually buried there. and their followers. in the Tomb of the Lacedaemonians. 19 It is possible also occurs in an inscription of 3 84-3 83. can distinguish three chief styles in this period. Lastly. that in all three cases the allusion is to the famous Theban musician Pronomos. 151). particularly the different forms of kraters. (4) A fragment of a vase in the general style of the Suessula Painter has recently been found in the Athenian Kerameikos. who fell at Corinth in 394. who fell in 403 B. and the more frequent use of accessory colors add a softer. 120) is Pronomos. One. Their pictures. the pyxis. swirling draperies. is sponsored by the Meidias Painter and his followers. pretty postures. are in the style of the 16 this burial plot was apparperiod we are discussing. often richly patterned. Another style of delicately 2S We curved lines. the end of the fifth or the early part of the fourth century. krater in Naples a flute player (see fig. but the rich. shows a broad treatment round.
The Talos Painter. 151). kraters. in which the red and black color scheme. on a pelike formerly in the collection of Lord Melchett. 28 and the clasps the hand of a woman (see fig. He belongs to the transition period between the Free and the Late Fifth-Century style. Side by side. now in the British Museum. is retained. however. The Departure stamnos in Munich 27 is painted in a somberer mood. THE DINOS PAINTER. chiefly on the the stamnoi. pelikai. more plastic. The same subject recurs on several vases by him. His figures and especially his heads retain much of the grandeur and serenity of the preceding age. AND OTHERS. 29 with father stands sorrowfully by. LATE FOLLOWERS OF POLYGNOTOS THE KLEOPHON PAINTER 2 * is the outstanding artist of the late Polygnotan group. a . 30 named after one of his chief works. and the Suessula Painter are the prominent exponents of this style. and the copious additions of white. artists who painted the florid vases (i) THE KLEOPHON PAINTER. often with yellow details. A lekythos in New York Eos pursuing Kephalos is a typical minor work. for instance. a simpler style persists. THE DINOS PAINTER. with these florid paintings on large vases. His name is derived from one of his best works the scene of banqueters on a stamnos in Leningrad 2S with the kalos names Megakles and Kleophon. a highly ornate style is developed in which the uneven thickness of the lines. and amphorae. We may note where a youth ing the characteristic rendering of the eye with the strongly curvlids and the dreamy expression. with only slight touches of accessory colors. the Pronomos Painter. in the tradition of the Achilles Painter. It is found particularly on the smaller vases by minor artists. 108). Fifty-two works have been attributed to him.LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE 143 century. and there is a new fluidity in the lines of bodies and draperies. but are fleshier. but is also some- times adopted by the very (seep. the dark stripes and checkers in the patterns of the garments. lend a picturesque but overladen appearance. His larger vases Return of Hephaistos on a pelike in Munich * 6 shows well the of a Warrior on a quiet amplitude of his style.
but doors setting the execution is not careful. The momentary. with egrapsen. the draperies looser (note The Dinos hooked lines). logna. on a pelike in is now attributed to the manner of the Chrysis Painter. rounder and fleshier. The scene on the New York hydria women in an out-ofis skillfully composed in a number of planes. in winged sandals. A little Nike hovers above the chariot hold- . represents a vases of the directly to the ornate new movement which leads end of the century. His style is similar to that of the Dinos Painter. which is relarge volute krater in New York. is preserved on a 40 His broad style. the many short. is holding one of the horses by the head. Hermes (under the left handle). and there is more feeling for depth. with great cups with wine. On a fragswaying pose marks a new departure his delicate The stand- ment 86 is the upper part of a reof a bell krater in New York drawn in a three-quarter view. for it is evidently he who will mount the chariot. cupies the body of the vase.144 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 81 with Dionysos reclining. is drawn in Greek art. Seven hydriai and two bell kraters have so far been assigned to him. alongside stands Athena. The chief motive is a four-horse 89 A chariot. dently part of a symposion (see fig. the Dionysiac a calyx remarkable scene with Prometheus as fire-lighter on 85 84 with a of a dinos in Palermo krater in Oxford. eviclining youth. symposion well illustrates a krater. holds the reins and the goad and turns round toward her brother Apollo. in fact. Painter's style. A fragment boy drawing. continued the style dinos in Berlin tradition is waning and of the Kleophon Painter. York. Artemis. ready to fill the guests' ing with jug and colander by freedom. He is in gala array and stretches out both hands to take a kithara which his mother Leto is handing to him. beautifully 1 1 1). can be well studied on continuous scene of gods and goddesses ochis signed work. lated to that of the Polygnotan group. THE CHRYSIS PAINTER 8T is called after the name he gave to 88 one of the women on a hydria in New York. Among all on to him the thirty-odd works which have been attributed in Boare the imposing Atalante on a calyx krater vases large 83 and the 82 festival on a stamnos in Naples. and the lines are rather coarse. 88a attractive picture of Dionysos dining. but more schematic. The Pheidian The forms have become still is replaced by a new restlessness. less refined. An New The signature of PoooN. identified by her quiver and bow.
. and in the quiet. stately Hermes. not certain. and a boy leaning on a goal pillar in a palaestra. Finally three magnificent figures Dionysos with thyrsos and kantharos. for they have walking sticks. bow. to match that of his consort. extending his hand to a bearded man. Perhaps a dithyramb. for we have no reliable evidence that plays were acted at the Panathenaia. LATE and Zeus with a scepter are inscribed. Two are engaging in a boxing bout. also in New York. ddoi Panaihenaia. sparring with open hands. From this august scene of Mount Olympos we turn to the lively one of an Athenian gymnasium on the neck of the Comely figures of young boys are busily exercising under the supervision of trainers (see fig. Behind Leto are Poseidon with his trident and Herakles with lion's skin. Two simple compositions appear on a skyphos in New York 4B a bearded man in three-quarter back view between two boys. Hardly a satyric drama. What kind of performance is going on is vase. Sixteen other works have been attributed to Polion. 112). Here too we have the contrast between the stately on the body of the vase the return of Hephaistos. The names these regal figures is still potent especially in the imposing figure of Hera. 41 with an interesting scene a wreathed flute player and three bearded satyrs playing the kithara and singing (their mouths are open). That these are not ordinary satyrs we learn from. The men are scenes not trainers. they are spending their time at the palaestra watching the athletes as described by Plato in the Charmides. the regular costume of musicians.FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE 145 ing a leafy spray. among them a bell krater. foldless chiton. her hand raised in salutation. thin. in the Apollo. Noteworthy are the jumping. Each wears a shaggy 42 garment of white fleece (/xaXAwTot xwfiws ) while the flutist has a long-sleeved. and come quiver. the inscription above them.C. and th delicate drawing of the faces. indicating that they are singers at the festival of the Panathenaia. and Thamyris with the Muses and the less august but livelier torch race on the neck of the vase. for Lysias mentions a performance of one at the Lesser Panathenaia in 409-408 B.* 8 volute krater from Spina at Ferrara A 44 is comparable to the New York one. but the effect of the whole is The Pheidian idealism in rather empty. and preparing to throw a discus. club. flowing lines of the drapery. the others are running. Hera holding the royal scepter. the often high crowns of the heads.
Several scenes illustrate the story of Apollo and Marsyas. initiate the art of the fourth London century in which a gentle loveliness replaces the early sturdiness. A kantharos in New York B0 with a molded body in the form of two heads has libation scenes for departing warriors (see fig. but of inferior caliber. sen. but in a softer. Twentyone other works have been attributed to him. He too decorated chiefly kraters. with the weight resting on one leg and the figure appearing to lean slightly backward. clinging draperies are the counterparts in vase painting of the reliefs on the Nike Balustrade. is one of the last great figures in Athenian vase painting. pointed amphora in New York 51 has two delicately painted pictures Apollo with two Muses. He carried on the tradition of the Eretria Painter.* decorated with satyrs. mostly on the smaller vases. (2) THE MEIDIAS PAINTER AND HIS SCHOOL THE MEIDIAS PAINTER. and the characteristic attitudes. THE KADMOS PAINTER.146 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES kalos is inscribed on a fragment of a calyx 6 krater in Chicago. A small. and Adrastos in his chariot. and his favorite subjects are Dionysiac scenes. painted chiefly kraters in a style resembling that of the Chrysis Painter. We may note the delicate heads. small mouths with short upper lip. *7 AISON is another artist of whom a signed woTk. has survived The name Nikon delicately and ably drawn. like the late fifth-century sculptures. The figures have a dainty grace which makes them appealing. No other attributions have been made to this painter. They." is related to the Kadmos Painter." called after the name he gave to a winged boy on a bell krater in Providence. more luxurious form. is one of his best works. 1 10). THE POTHOS PAINTER. ful three-quarter views of We may note particularly the success- Theseus and the Minotaur. pointed noses without nostril line. the staccato lines for the bunched draperies. 82 who decorated a hydria in Berlin 53 with the story of Kadmos." who decorated the famous hydria in ST signed Meidias epoiesen. The Meidias Painter had many followers and it is sometimes . with egrapa kylix in Madrid 48 with exploits of Theseus. on a 49 squat lekythos in Naples. The spirited fight of Theseus and Amazons. His graceful figures with rich.
presence of the Muses The scene on the other side of the vase represents Herakles We with his wife Deianeira and two women of unknown identity. One might think we had here a picture of Thamyris and the Muses. In the center is a youth in a richly decorated costume playing the kithara. then. tation of Mousaios with wife and child making music in the and of Aphrodite and her retinue. The figures are among the tallest . the name of the singer New York scene is also given. Trees. The curving surfaces of shoulder and handle zone are utilized for the upper picture which is composed in several planes. we shall realize how far Greek artists have traveled in a short century on the road toward naturalism. Beazley attributes to him fourteen certain works addition to the London hydria. some with musical instruments harp. with the two chariots at the top. a represenis Aphrodite (see fig. The inscribed names of the other figures the radiant one sitting with Eros. If we compare the two-wheeled chariot and the four galloping horses in three-quarter view with the earlier twodimensional renderings.LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE difficult to distinguish their 147 work from careless products of the in master. The decoration is in two tiers above. for the scene is similar to 9 where the singer is identified that on a squat lekythos in Ruvo 88 as Thamyris by an inscription. hillocks. 114). the standing ones being over 2 1 cm. Here too the decoration is composed in several planes. high. who according to some sources came from Thrace hence his barbarian costume. Herakles in the garden of the Hesperides. However. the seated and fleeing figures below. They are not so careas those on the "front" side. identify them as Muses. It is an amazingly bold and successful design. The latter is one of his masterpieces. the Rape of the Leukippids. one holds a tame bird to which a child is stretching out its hand. known by the Meidias Painter. below. and it is not Thamyris but Mousaios. both in execution and composition. The painting of Mousaios on a pelike in New York is another excellent work by the Meidias Painter. and flowers indicate an outdoor setting. All around him are female figures. The black fully drawn. however. except in the who have here. Moreover the child and the woman with the bird are also named Eumolpos and Deiope. and lyre. suggestive of depth. tambourine. the son and wife of Mousaios. and the group of Kastor seizing Eriphyle as a connecting link.
leaving the where the glaze had a double thickness (see contour stripes London hydria and the New York pelike. large feet in threequarter view with cushioned toes. lekanides. The favorite subjects are Aphrodite. transparent. 29) ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES background has mostly disappeared. Most of the other paintings vases by this artist are on the smaller the squat lekythoi. that vase paintings in the manner of . to stand out prominently. slender hands with tapering fingers. swirling draperies rendered by multitudinous curving lines which model the forms of the body. At the top is the in- The picture by the Meidias New York 61 scription Ganyme(des) kalos. The le- inscriptions Epicharis kale kanis in Naples. And throughout we find the same masterly quality of line so thin and equable and drawn with such swing and freedom that it is almost incredible that it was traced in glaze. 115). a swing and a chair with folded garments are introduced. and the shape of the vase connects the scene definitely with the Choes. Eros. As in the picture of the same subject on a jug by the Eretria Painter (see p. is noteworthy. 62 and Myrrhiniske kale occur on a is. lower legs drawn crossing each other. sometimes holding objects without properly grasping them. Instead of a laundry scene it represents women perfuming clothes in preparation for the feast of the Choes (the second day of the Anthesteria). and women. 134). "Meidian" pictures. and the squat lekythos in Ruvo with are closely related in style to the Thamyris above mentioned Two Painter on an oinochoe (chous) in has recently received a new interpretation. and pyxides. also a boy watching the proceedings. of which the big toe is sometimes disproportionately large. flowers in superimposed clay. That a swing was used in connection with the Anthesteria seems certain from our literary sources. soft. There are many obvious similarities between the figures in all five works: heads in three-quarter view looking upward and downward. These five paintings must be about contemporary and they represent the high-water mark of the Meidjas Painter's work.148 glaze of the p. curving lines incised lightly in the glaze to indicate the hilly ground and the trailing plants. 60 in Florence with Phaon and hydriai from Populonia with Adonis (see fig. The sensitive rendering of the hands. frequently held half open.
frequent at this late period. a pyxis Aphrodite and her attendants: Persuasion. His style is very close to that of the Meidias Painter. pyxides. that Aristophanes was the Meidias Painter in an early phase. and lekanides. occur mostly on squat lekythoi. Two one in Berlin * 9 with a gigantomachy. Aristophanes' is also excellent. and an acorn lekythos in 78 Berlin. Good Repute. were evidently connected with the celebration of the Choes festival by children. oinochoai. and a processional basket. the Pelops and Hippodameia on a neck amphora in Arezzo (see fig. Health. iig). though in lively poses. and Aristophanes egrapsen occurs on a 71 fragment of a bell krater with a male figure in Agrigento. Freedom from Toil. but also some of his more prominent contemporaries. the other in Boskylikes ton 70 with a centauromachy are inscribed: Erginos epoiesen. and Paidia. "Toy" jugs. but they have not the master's delicate touch. with a picture of Adonis. Several ex- amples are in New York a squat lekythos 8S with Chrysippos. The painter ARISTOPHANES 68 signed several of his works. Certainly the figure of Pelops on the Arezzo amphora guiding his galloping horses and turning round in a three-quarter view is the work of a great artist. Aristophanes egraphe. 6511 Several well-known paintings which were attributed to the Meidias Painter by many authorities have now been detached from him by Beazley. make the impression of statues in arrested motion. T* have several letters Fragments of two lekanides in Athens MIKION and by a belonging to signatures by a potter named . and his figures. and a "toy" oinochoe ing revelers. a replica of the signed one there.LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE 149 the Meidias Painter but not by him. Luck. 88 and the Judgment 87 of Paris on a hydria in Carlsruhe. The graceful figures and attractive compositions are directly derived from the Meidias Painter's creations. but his compositions have not the swing and ease of the Meidias Painter's. He considers them close to the master but not by him. But in spite of an obvious line similarity there is also a marked difference. for instance. Apparently the Meidias Painter influenced not only minor painters. The drawing is less able and the lines are coarser. Two other paintings have been attributed to him a kylix in Bos72 ton. 8* with a scene of Pompe. "Play" (the names are 85 with children playing at beinscribed). and some authorities have even thought that the two were identical. that is.
made it.) high. 142). A The artist 82 who decorated scene is it has been called THE PRONOMOS PAINTER from the name he gave (see p. painter of this late period. have been attributed a stand. which has often been reproduced. The to a flute player on this vase of great interest and shows the in- fluence of the theater on the painting of the period. white with yellow markings is profusely used. volute krater in Naples 81 with a representation of a satyr play is another famous vase. the son of Hermokles. the three-quarter view has become the prevailing one. Dionysos.150 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES named EUEMPOROS. and two other figures. Talos Painter. (3) PAINTER. . fragmentary. perhaps of a nuptial lebes. THE PRONOMOS AND THE SUESSULA PAINTER 7S A volute krater in Ruvo Talos has supplied the with the death of the bronze giant name TALOS PAINTER 79 to an outstanding artist of the end of the century. in New York (see fig. THE torch racers name is NIKIAS PAINTER'S on a bell krater in London derived from the picture of 76 signed "Nikias. 109). The shape of the krater has also become more complex and the divisions of mouth and foot have multiplied. and lolaos. The bearded head Only three other works. for it is an imposing piece and well exemplifies the ornateness which becomes a dominant characteristic of Attic pottery at this time. The figures are about ten inches (25 cm. Herakles. and. above all. who decorated chiefly large vases. The scene is crowded with figures which are not only placed in different planes but are drawn one behind the other. The vase is one of the best known of antiquity. of the deme of Anaphlystos." He is an artist in the Meidian tradition. 7T is a sacrificial scene on a bell krater in New York typical A work. If the restoration know another name of 76 decorator perhaps of the a vase we should inscriptions is correct. One can make out Athena. and so stands out unduly from his surroundings. all is to the One 80 is a close counterpart of the Poseidon on the Ruvo krater. figures in the distance are sometimes made smaller than those in the foreground. THE TALOS PAINTER. Their noble bearing and exceptional size show that the picture was an imposing work. in fact the whole figure of the dying Talos is painted white.
He holds his horse by the rein and grasps two spears. the poet. The style is in the tradition of the Dinos Painter. The copious additions of white and yellow. four of which have been found at Suessula in Campania and three of which are now in New York. 87 in the tomb He must (4) PAINTERS OF CUPS AND SMALL VASES in the late fifth painters were naturally active number of them Many minor century alongside the more important ones. A . the profusely ornamented garments. kraters compare these scenes with those on the large by the Niobid Painter and his school (see pp. and handles of the vase. the uneven thickness of the lines. and so are the paintings on three other vases attributed to this artist. though many course belong to the early fourth. on the other his mother. 100 ff. is sitting on a couch with Ariadne. lived in the concluding therefore have^ of his works may of years of the fifth century. and his young companion in arms.). which fifty years ago were boldly but unsuccessfully attempted. 142). Violent foreshortenings and three-quarter front and back views. lip. On one side are his old father. The most ambitious and largest is that from Melos in the Louvre 8 * with a gigantomachy. and the flutist Pronomos fig. SUESSULA PAINTER 83 decorated six neck amphorae with twisted handles.C. Similar combats on a smaller 85 painted on two amphorae in New York (see fig. The third amphora in New has a scene of a soldier leaving-home. (see The many figures arranged on different levels. the richly ornamented garments. The Dionysiac scene on the back of the vase is somewhat less ornate. the decorated neck. twelve dancers of a Satyric chorus. with phiale and jug. of the Lacedaemonians who fell in 403 B. fragment of a bell krater with a youth his was found in the Athenian Kerain a style now 86 A approximating meikos (see p. It is instructive to are York convincingly rendered. combine to give an overladen effect. a lyrist. surrounded by three tragic actors. 122).LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE 151 the sponsor of Greek drama. and the restless composition arranged in several levels are all scale are THE in line with the style of the period. leaning on a stick. We have an important piece of evidence for the dating of the Suessula Painter's work. ready to pour the libation. 120).
The lines are now always drawn in matt red or black and a large palette is often used for the colored washes blue. in Copenhagen GAURION (with epoie). THE STRAGGLY 88 PAINTER. playing with a ball. Two pyx89 and London. on the latter an arm with a sheathed sword. in attitude and gescialized in this colors A row ture. charley has given them various acteristics. On the lid of the former is painted a calyx krater.iKo \J ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES have recently been segregated and their works classified. The decoration generally consists of one or two figures a woman seated or standing. As Sir John Beazley into the tomb and the dead are often represented by their graves with one or two mourners But the attitudes and expressions are no On put it. "something of that angry sunset has passed work" of these artists. pyxides. but it is now confined to sepulchral lekythoi. an animal or a monster. ides. The painters of the late fifth-century lekythoi often showed the sorof parting more directly. 90 are signed by their potter. almost rebellious expressions. They decorated mostly the smaller vases cups. Beaznames after their chief works. and different shades of red. and thus created gentle and deeply moving pictures. dancing. longer detached. The sometimes large size of the vases and of the figures give them a monumental quality. green. a youth leaving home. change in the representations is noticeable. As before. The artists o the preceding period suggested the pathos of death subtly. and especially the squat lekythoi popular at this time. mauve. instead of resignation actual grief is suggested in the restless poses and the sad. (5) WHITE-GROUND VASES the white-ground technique was used con- In this period also. the head of Hermes or of a woman. currently with red-figure. yellow. purple. provenances. and the artists who decorated them seem to have spe- one field. THE WORST PAINTER. locations: THE PAINTER OF LONDON 106. THE MOURET PAINTER (both cup painters). THE MINA PAINTER. several good examples in New York we see a youth or a 91 . It was the time when the Peloponnesian War was drawing to a close and Athens' long struggle ended in defeat. the scenes generally consist of figures at a sitting or standing bringing offerings. oinochoai.
ng). giving a good idea of the origi- woman seated on the steps of the tomb. The pictures are painted by the prominent artists of the time. R nal colorful effect. 95 A fifth. 92 another is by a member of GROUP 93 a third is by THE TRIGLYPH PAINTER. attended by mourners. One is in the manner of THE WOMAN PAINTER (see fig. ny)." a (see figs. fourth is not yet attributed (see fig. . In some of these pictures the washes are fairly well preserved. 118. has a spirited battle scene with a foot soldier attacking a horseman presumably the action in which the youth who is commemorated was killed. n6). 96 by THE REED PAINTER.LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE 153 or by their associates.
By the second quarter of paion) the fourth century the ceramic trade between Athens and Italy which had flourished for almost two hundred years came virtuIn its stead Athens acquired an extensive market ally to a stop. in the Cyrenaica. is politically it League and the beginning of the Mace- donian domination.C. and though the same type of x (for instance at Alexpottery has also come to light elsewhere andria. 139 f . Interest in perspective was keen. and we find rectangular objects and build- . as South Italy rose in power. blending colors. and Paestan vases took the place of these Athenian stragglers. the style is after the chief finding place. in ously impaired the commerce a few years she was able to regain to some extent her Western markets at least so we may surmise from the early fourth-cenhave been found in considerable numbers tury Attic vases which in Italy. generally referred to as "Kerch. Lucanian. whose works have all whose names we know from the statements of anwere Eupompos and Pausias of Sikyon and Aris2 teides of Thebes. The vase paintings can reflect it only to a limited extent. the local Apulian. in the cities of the Greek colonists of southern Russia. but cient writers Apelles well illustrate this trompe I'oeil ideal. for it must have largely depended on modeling by light and shade and on the use of many gradating. Nevertheless.VI." The period assigned to that of the Arcadian about 370 to 320 B. Quantities of Athenian pottery have been found at Kerch (Pantikaand Olbia near the Black Sea. In fact. Gradually. many of the artists who were active at the end of the fifth century of course worked also in the early fourth. THE FOURTH CENTURY War and its THE Peloponnesian disastrous ending had seri- of Athens. Pliny's well-known anecdotes of the painted grapes by Zeuxis and of the horse by The chief panel painters of the time perished. During the first quarter of the fourth century the vase paintings continue and develop the styles of the preceding period. They utilized and expanded the innovations of the preceding age 8 in the direction of naturalism (see pp. then Nikias of Athens and the great Apelles. Campanian. and of course in Greece). however.).
as well as Herakles. very thin lines to indicate the actual structure of the folds and the plastic shapes of the body. Instead of delicate curves and effective contours there are many short. whose influence was evidently potent even in vase painting. so frequent in the early days and popular also in the late fifth century. but cult scenes are now also favored and mythological scenes are common. Skopas. 162). 157). longer always drawn all in the front 158).C. Occasionally some of the figures were rendered in applied clay and made to stand out in relief (see p. are especially popular.) and that dated in the archonship of Molon (362-361). A plainer style flourished side by side. The renderings of hair and eye are the same as in the foregoing period. Inscriptions. The hair is drawn in separate wavy strands on a reserved background. with that of Korkyra (375 B. Dionysos and his retinue. In general the easy poses and soft draperies of the paintings of the first quarter of the fourth century can be compared with the akroteria and pediments from Epidauros and the "document" reliefs of that time. . and gold leaf. As in the preceding period other colors chiefly white. Vases in this dual technique are the forerunners of the vases with the decoration entirely in relief. Thinned glaze was still used.THE FOURTH CENTURY ings 155 drawn with receding sides (see p. occasionally blue and green were added to enrich the red-and-black scheme. the lines become thinner and weaker. The white-ground lekythoi continued for a decade or so into the fourth century and then stopped. chair legs are no florid and a plane. Gradually. not so much for anatomical markings on a reserved ground. and Lysippos. a figure on an oinochoe in New York recalls the Knidian Aphrodite and the figures on a hydria from Alexandria Lysippian statues (see dated "document" reliefs of the p. pink. It represents the last phase of Athenian vase painting. 161). The subjects continue to be taken largely from the life of women. For instance. which finally ousted the painted ware (see p. Comparisons with fourth century are especially useful. for instance. and by about 370 the so-called Kerch style is evolved. the eye with the lower eyelid very short the linear equivalent of shallow carving. now occur 4 only rarely. 5 The period of the Kerch vases is that of Praxiteles. however. especially for parts of the hair and for lines on the white.
show many points of similarity with the Kerch vases. active during the reign of Evagoras I of Salamis (411-374/3). The calyx krater has a vogue in the late Kerch period. fact that a plate of the Kerch style was found at suggests that it was painted previous to the destruction of that city in 348.i 56 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES We are several important landmarks for the chronology of have noted the evidence obtained from fourth-century vases. figures on the Panathenaic vases of about 370310. The Olynthos ll (4) Kerch vases have been found in graves with coins of Philip II of Macedon. (1) And there are other clues: relations fl The commercial between Athens and Cyprus. There the vase fragments found in the burial plot of Dexileos. the oinochoe. 12 Thereby we obtain ap- proximate dates for the burials. in the tombs at Marion in Cyprus many Athenian vases have come to light. from the krater with a flutist named Pronomos.es are the hydria. also common are the lekane. more elongated than before. (see p. (3) 10 bringing out the structure of folds and bodies. 9 In spite of archaizing tendencies the contemporary fashion was evidently followed. and the squat lekythos. 142). of Alexander. as well as with coins of Pantikapaion assigned to the second half of the fourth century. (2) The Panathenaic amphorae datable (by the names of the archons which are inscribed on them) in the first third of the fourth century 8 show Athena clothed in a garment richly decorated in the manner of the ornate style. 13 which was (5) Kerch vases have come to light at Alexandria. and of Lysimachos (the last dated soon after 305). all in the late Meidian and ornate styles. with a tendency to ogee curves. and the bell krater. and from the fragment found in the Tomb of the Lacedaemonians who fell in 403 B. stopped with the end of his rule. The favorites among the larger vas. The kylix proper dies out at the begin- . the pelike. the skyphos. on the other hand. They are drawn in a similar way with the same kind of short The lines. The shapes of the fourth-century vases are slenderer. 7 From this we may infer that the sub-Meidian and ornate styles continued during the whole of the first quarter of the fourth century and that the Kerch vases are subsequent to that time. founded in 331.C. and they represent the concluding phase of the style. none in the succeeding Kerch one.
1 * at 157 about the same (i) (a) FIRST THIRD OF THE CENTURT STYLE: THE ORNATE NEW YORK CENTAUROMAGHY AND OTHER POT PAINTERS The chief exponent of the ornate style among the is 15 THE PAINTER OF THE THE PAINTER OF THE NEW YORK CENafter a scene on a fragmentary volute TAUROMACHY. that on the body partly so. in Leningrad so far attributed to this painter. Most of the Meleager Painter's scenes are Dionysiac and are composed in several tiers on large vases. Forty-seven works have been attributed to him. 19 are the only other works cups. 2 * each with the signature Xenophantos epoiesen Athen[aios\. The subject occurs. for instance. and the stemless cup time. 10 His style is a continuation and amplification of that of the Dinos Painter. including several with Atalante and Meleager." Both were found in South Russia and were evidently made by an Athenian in that region. especially during his early years before his work deteriorated.THE FOURTH CENTURY ning of that period. He decorated the two famous squat lekythoi in Leningrad. made it. on its other side. on one of his chief works. on the shoulder Nikai driving chariots. "Xenophantos. and a gigantomachy. The Theseus and Lapiths on the New York fragment and the Herakles on a fragment of a of the fourth century pot painters named volute krater in Leningrad 1T still retain something of the fifthcentury grandeur. Among the other pot painters of the early fourth century be- . but the restless composition and the many superimposed colors point to a different epoch. The scene on the shoulder is entirely in relief. 21 and again on a calyx krater in Wiirzburg. THE MELEAGER PAINTER 20 is related to the Painter of the New York Centauromachy. 22 The Vienna krater has. krater in New York. Two fragmentary 18 and Bryn Mawr. an Oriental king being entertained by dancers. THE XENOPHANTOS PAINTER 28 also belongs to this group. The representations are the same in both on the body Persians hunta centauromachy. a volute krater in Vienna. ing. the Athenian.
nor do the farther columns diminish in size. THE BLACK-THYRSOS PAINTER. One of the most pleasing is THE ERBACH PAINTER. 26 The artist has represented not only the front view of the building but a receding side view. who introduced black thyrsoi into his Dionysiac scenes. but the parallel receding lines do not meet at one vanishing point and the various parts are viewed not from one point of sight. On a hydria in Berlin 83 is a picture of . and THE OINOMAOS PAINTER. but from several. The result is somewhat confusing. All his paintings are on kraters and deal with Dionysiac subjects. 20 The partial perspective in use at this time can be well seen in the picture of Dionysos sitting in front of his temple on a fragment in Jena. The of his contemporaries. THE PAINTER 29 one of the chief cup painters of the works have been attributed majority are fragments found 31 in a potter's workshop in Athens and now in hence his Jena name. AND OTHERS Side by side with the ornate pot painters there were others a plainer style. One of his loveliest products is the fragment with Eros sitting on the lap of Aphrodite and playing the 32 The delicate rendering of the face of Aphrodite foreharp. His scenes are drawn in a delicate.158 longing to ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES this group we may mention THE PAINTER OF THE OXFORD GRYPOMACHY. Among the other artists in this class are who adopted THE PAINTER OF LONDON F OF LONDON F i. Seventy-two to him. (b) PAINTER. the Apotheosis of Herakles. who decorated a bell krater in Naples with Pelops and Oinomaos. THE PLAINER STYLE: THE ERBACH THE JENA PAINTER. ornate effects of some is THE JENA PAINTER 80 early fourth century. all except two on cups. one of them at Erbach." to whom eight vases have been attributed. broad manner with thin. 28 who painted several scenes of 64. THE RETORTED PAINTER (so called "because the eyes of his reverse figures are often turned in instead of out oculi retorti"}. and part of the ceiling beneath the gabled roof. shadows the Kerch style. without the overladen. flowing lines. and his close associate.
" have a brown. either (2) THE KERCH STYLE. when his divine origin was challenged.THE FOURTH CENTURY Paris 159 and of Helen holding a mirror and sitting on the edge of 155. are attributed to "THE BROWN-EGG PAINTER. The delicate. or the youth is not Theseus but Pelops. Another noteworthy scene by an artist belonging to this group on a hydria in New York. the figure of Okeanos.C. others painted chiefly jugs. 89 Poseidon. not a black. As he would hardly be riding at the bottom of the we have here a different version of the legend. 202. 36 few other jugs. His meeting with Amphitrite is represented on the famous cup in the Louvre (see p. The seaweed (or spray?) beneath the horse's body indicates that the encounter takes place by or in the sea. His presence here marks the locality as the shores of the river Okeanos. and Hesperid. But on the New York vase Poseidon is on a sea horse. serpent. broad style of the drawing places the picture in the group of the Jena Painter. is introduced. hydria in London with Europa and -the bull. In addition to the usual tree. extends his hand in welcome to a youth (see fig. a pelike in London * 2 with Artemis and a deer. and A . all from While some painters A A Spina. an open chest filled with her belongings. large number of oinochoai with fat athletes. who. ABOUT 370-320 B. horned and leaning on a stick. One is might think that the youth was Theseus. Herakles. egg pattern below. standing on the beach and ask40 ing Poseidon for help in his race with Oinomaos. THE Q PAINTER S4 and THE PAINTERS OF VIENNA 35 1 16 belong in this group. AND specialized in the decoration of cups. mounted on a sea horse and grasping his trident. 37 for they An unattributed pelike of this period in New York 38 has an interesting subject Herakles in die garden of the Hesperides. 77) and that with Poseidon on several other vases. descended to the bottom of the sea to prove it. Ocean is rarely represented in Greek art. 121). cursorily painted. have been put together as the works of THE FAT BOY GROUP. sea. They resemble in a general way 41 the work of the Jena Painter. The early Kerch vases are of course the direct outgrowth of those of the preceding period.
By the middle of the fourth. century the Kerch style had reached its acme and many of its masterpieces may be assigned to this period. effectively composed on the lid of the bowl. The tree with the golden apples and the serpent occupy the center of the scene. Herakles stands at one side. A lekane in Leningrad 4T is a famous piece and has often been described. 124). White with yellow markings is used for the serpent and for the flesh parts of two Hesperids and Nike.C. The combination of Pan. a youth presumably lolaos. On the ground is an omphalos covered with fillets and mounted on a low platform. placed on different levels. green. leaning against a tympanon and listening to Herakles. red. A hydria in New York 44 with is Herakles and the Hesperides exceptionally well preserved (see fig. the Bacchic tympanon. the sketchy lines. the addition of washes in diluted glaze to suggest shadows. a satyr. and a satyr. adorning surrounded by their household . We may look at a few examples. are two Hesperids. busily washing. a Pan with club and leopard's skin. The compositions are relatively simple and the lines still retain something of the early flow. and later. Women are represented engaged in various activities. The crowded compositions. themselves. blue. at the other is a Hesperid. all in threequarter views. But in the fourth century the ascendancy of Dionysos is so general that his companions and attributes are introduced into many scenes not strictly Dionysiac. The subject seems to be the preparation for a wedding. but we obtain at the same time a pleasant glimpse into a fourthcentury Attic home. and the omphalos in the garden of the Hesperides would be surprising on a fifth-century vase. The other figures. He is represented seated on the omphalos on a Kerch hydria in Lyons. datable about 370 B. where he was worshiped during the three winter months. and the often profuse accessory colors white. The omphalos is of course explained by Dionysos' connection with Delphi. pink. resting on his club.i6o ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES a hydria in New York 43 with Poseidon and Amymone are typical examples. We see women and making cakes. and gold lend to these vases a rich and sometimes restless aspect. in a crowded composition. 45 and he welcomes Apollo upon the latter's return in the spring on a late fifth*8 century krater in Leningrad by the Kadmos Painter.
and seems more like a vase decoration. The graceful pose of Pompe recalls the Knidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles. Dionysos. "Procession. pet animals a dog and two birds. who is sitthe ground is a procesting on a chair holding his thyrsos. held here woman. a cage. somewhat fragmentary. etc. In the center is a woman. The seated Dionysos is ably drawn in three-quarter view. and a processional On basket shows that the occasion is is a Dionysiac festival. all four legs of the chair are indicated. for instance. which was celeAthenian women with lamentations for the dead brated It is . 123). Several have been identified as representations of the Adonia. beautifully executed (see fig. she has a wreath in her hands and is turning toward Dionysos. however. a miniature painting than pink. a 161 and a herm. as well as wash basin. of Themis advising Zeus to start the Trojan war. as well as parts of the farther sides of the back and of the seat. Beside it Eros is tying his sandal. The scene drawn with very fine lines and with copious additions of white. * a skyphos in New York 9 of about the same period we on the lap of a seated again see a processional basket." by an inscription. The tying of a sandal with one foot raised is a familiar motive in statuettes of the fourth century. and gold. that the belief in these ancient myths of daily life. gilded. On the other side of the with a satyr and Eros. vases. may be seen on pots. a basket. Interest centered in the activities Cult scenes are in special favor on Kerch vases. identified as Pompe. One of the ceremonies was the bringing of such "gardens" to the roofs of houses.THE FOURTH CENTURY objects: chests. by Adonis and with the planting of "gardens" in pots or potsherds. of Apollo and Marsyas. and this seems to be represented in the scenes with women standing on ladders and with plants sprouting in 51 One such scene. the was clear. . of Oidipous and tations. It too is rendered in applied clay and gilded. carefully drawn with very fine lines (see On fi S' 125 ^ There are represenMythological scenes occur occasionally. As a satyr is present. The presence of Pompe. the subject is evidently also the preparation for a vase are two women Dionysiac festival. ^ sphinx. an incense burner. sional basket in applied clay. waning. one in 4S An oinochoe in New York has a scene of particular interest.
B2a on a hydria in New York. It is drawn in a broad. (3) VASES WITH RELIEFS In the later fourth century vases with reliefs had a short vogue in Attica. successfully accomplished. BT and even in the fifth and the early fourth century we find occasional 68 examples side by side with the painted ware. pink. 62 Traces of gilding. but from only one. and the whole has become a unified design. combat but the artist has learned the task he had set himself. The decorative quality is weaker. sketchy manner. shows the same interest in violent movement. practically all in of movement is imparted by the three-quarter views. as is usual at this time. well preserved. for instance the "Maussolos" of Halikarnassos. It had been popular in the early archaic period in Various localities. Leningrad 54 feeling for volume appears in a scene on a with the bringing of wedding gifts to the The figures are. a sense The curving surswirling draperies and the momentary poses. on a pelike in New York. An Amazon is represented on a rearing horse in a three-quarter view. The several parts are no longer viewed from different points of sight. 85a with colors of Greeks and Amazons. face of the vase accentuates this quality. about 150 years or so earlier (see p. The fragment of a hydria in Leningrad e3 with a seated Zeus recalls contemporary sculpture. riding out of the picture toward us. and woman burning incense on an altar is depicted green remain. Its increased . suggesting the volume of the figure. with many short lines. The same marked lebes in bride. If A we translate such ize the power and accomplishment pictures into large representations we may realof Greek painting at the time of the great Apelles. like her sister. however. The picture on a pelike in Leningrad " is perhaps one of the latest examples of the Kerch style. We have here the complete abandonment of the early Greek silhouette a squat lekythos in A style. red. Now. especially in Crete. and resembles a modern drawing more than a Greek vase painting. 56 Relief decoration on vases was nothing new in Greek ceramics. the foreshortening of horse and rider is 103). Boeotia. and Laconia.i6s ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES New York.
The figures were applied in red clay in barbotine or applique" technique against the black-glaze background and given the same divers shades as the contempo- rary terra-cotta statuettes. was found 69 at Cumae and is now in Leningrad. is in Istanbul. assisted by a young. The goddess is represented sitting on a rock with a dove perched on her shoulder. Comparatively few have survived quantity and were tree. vase paintings became three-dimensional representations. in barbotine technique. in relief. Gilding was popular. The presence of the queen is and suggests that the potter is here folparticularly interesting lowing the version of the story perhaps derived from Euripides' Telephos in which Telephos took Orestes on Klytaimestra's 6S small oinochoe has an attractive scene of Aphrodite advice. become the general rule and an essen- tially plastic style had been developed. The next step was to adopt this technique first for whole figures. It is a pretty scene in the intimate.THE FOURTH CENTURY 163 use in Attica in the late fourth century may be regarded as a logical development. the other sitting by a tree (one Aphrodite. These Attic relief vases were apparently not produced in short-lived. who is about to fly 64 toward her. 62 A and her retinue. Klytaimestra extends both arms to the frightened child. . he grasps the child Orestes and threatens to kill him with his dagger. with a group of Eleusinian deities on the shoulder. Considerable of the white engobe which traces of the original colors remain covered the whole relief. 60 Two Lampsakos 61 is a scene interesting examples are in New York. moreover. then for the whole decoration. shaggy Pan. By the early fourth century such foreshortenings had. When once the old two-dimensional dec- oration was given up and foreshortenings were used to suggest depth on a flat surface. Some of these relief vases are charming creations. increasingly. that is. as we have seen. Another. The Eros is eviTwo older brothers appear behind dently a baby learning to fly. of the gilding on the figures and the and of the blue on the rocky ground. one flying at ease of his wings is in relief. playful vein of the late fourth century. minor objects were rendered in applied clay. she is extending one arm to a little Eros. a hydria from with the Calydonian boar hunt. One of the most important. On a lekythos in applique" relief of Telephos who has taken refuge on an altar when discovered by the Greeks. the other is painted on the background to suggest the turn of his body).
ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES
most of them belong
to the late fourth and perhaps the early They mark the end of the painted ware. Redrun its course. It had been produced in Attica configure had tinuously for two centuries, had enlisted at times great talent, and had been exported far and wide. A change was due. Henceforth the Hellenistic relief ware, inspired by and sometimes dicame into vogue and continued rectly derived from metal ware, its popularity throughout the ancient world until the end of the Roman Empire. 05 The black glaze, however, which had played so prominent a role in black-figured and red-figured paintings was not abandoned. Plain black-glaze vases chiefly drinking continued in use in cups, plates, saucers, bowls, and pitchers 66 We have eviAttica through the third and second centuries. dence that black-figured Panathenaic amphorae were produced 67 after the fourth century B.C. Black glaze was employed for bands and inside linings on the plain partly glazed household ware, which naturally continued after the demise of red-figure. 68 Above all, the black glaze, even though in a rather deteriorated form, was used on the very relief vases of Hellenistic and Roman times which took the place of the painted ware.
Fig, 34; cf. p. 46
Fig. 35; cf.
Fl S- 37, cf
39, 40; cf
Painter p. 50. Hischylos
Fig 43; c. p 53 Euphronios
60 I bo .
cf. p. 47. cf p 72 Myson Fig 50. Berlin Painter Fig 49. Kleophrades Painter p 69. cf. Geras Painter . 72.Fig. C f. p 67 Fig 48.
52. cf. 51. cf. p. 73 Gallatin Painter Fig.Fig. cf. p 73 Dutuit Painter . p 73 Dutuit Painter Fig 53.
75 Bowclom Painter . 56. cf.Fig 54. cf p. p 74 Providence Painter Fig 55. cf p 74 Tithonos Painter Fig.
p 77 Panaitios Painter . 59. 58. cf p 86.57 cf P 78.Pannitios Painter Fig. Thonaldsen group cf Fig.
61. cf p. 80 Brygos Painter Fig. 60. cf. 87. p. Briseis Painter .Fig. 80 Brygos Painter Fig 62. cf pp. 79.
cf. Makron Fig. p. 64. 82. cf p 84 Douris Fig 65.84. cf. 63. Douris . p.Fig.
Pan Painter . 66. 68.Fig. cf p 9. cf p. 95. 67. cf p 95- Pan Painter Fig. Pan Painter Fig.".
c. 98 Penttiesileia Painter . 69. c. 70. p. p 98 Penthesileia Painter Tig.Fig.
cf. 98. 72. 98 Penthesileia Painter . p. Diosphos Fig. 73. 71. cf.Fig. Painter p. 100. Wedding Painter Fig. p. cf.
cf.Fig. 102. Painter of the p. 74. Woolly Silens .
cf p 109 Oionokles Painter Fig 77. cf p 106 Methyse Painter . cf. p 108. Heimonax Fig 78.75. c f. p 101 Niobid Painter Fig 76.
79.Fig. cf p 111 Follower of the Brygos Painter . cf p 111 Sotades Painter Fig 80.
p 114 Vouni Painter .Fig 81. cf p 113. 82. cf p 113 Sabouroff Painter Fig 83. cf. Sabouroff Painter Fig.
p. Villa Giulia Painter Fig 85. cf. 107 Euaichme Painter Fig. p.Fig 84. 107. p 104. cf. Euaicm Painter . cf p 106 Akestorides Painter Fig 87. cf. 86.
Pig. 89. 125 Danae Painter Fig. c. 122 Phiale Painter . cf. p. Mannheim Painter Fig. 119 Achilles Pamtei Fig. 124. 90. 88. 91. cf p. p. cf p.
Persephone Painter Fig 93. cf p 125 Painter of London E 497 . p 123.Fig 92. cf.
Figs. p. p. 128 Polygnotos . 94. cf. 96. Lykaon Painter Fig.cf. 129. 95.
99. 105. p. cf. cf. Athanasia Painter . p 134 Fig. 97. p. cf. 100.Fig. 87 Fig 98. p 131. cf. Foundry Painter Chicago Painter Fig.
Ct.102. C f Painter of p 13 6 London D 14 . 133 Eretna 104. p.
Fig 105. p. cf p 130. Shuvalov Painter Fig. cf. 106. 136. cf p 137. By or near Coghill Painter . 107. Kraipale Painter Fig.
cf. cf.Fig 108. Manner p 150. cf p. p 144. p 145 Polion . 111. 143. Dinos Painter Fig. cf. cf. Fig 109. of Kleophon Painter Talos Painter Fig. 112. 146 Aison Fig. no. p.
. 115. cf p 149. 113. 148. Near the Meidias Paintei Fig 1 14. Meidias Painter p. cf. cf.Fig. p 147 Meidias Painter Fig.
119. cf p. 118. cf p 153 Painter Figs.Fig. 116. p 153 Group R . cf. 153 Manner of Woman Fig 117.
Suessula Painter . cf. p. p.Fig 120. cf p 151 Pronomos Painter Fig 121. 151 Fig. 122. 159 cf.
cf. cf. 161 . 161 Fig 124. p. cf p. p. 160 Fig 125.Fig 123.
Attische Feste. Meisterhans. cf. argues against the assumption that such names designate aliens. .). On 5. 978 ff. Die Religion der Griechen (Bilderatlas zur Religionsgeschichte. von Mercklin. Leipzig. AJA. 1925. Beazley. Greek Painting (ad ed. Greek Popular Religion. the skyphos with Triptolemos by Makron and the kylix with Chrysippos by the Brygos Painter were found with vases of about 460 B. pp. but surely it is not the high or low esteem in which the painter is held. these cf. however. Repertoire For mythological and religious subjects cf. Beazley. pp. the case. Potter. 13-14). London. Real-Encyclop&die and Roschcr's Lcxtkon. 8. The best general compilations of subjects on Walters.. The recently discovered small wooden panels from near Sikyon [Orlandos. XLIX (1945). 2. E. it may be. For athletics cf. cols. J. New York. Grammatik.NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. note s." fact that > dedications by potters cf. p. 194 f. For fragments of late archaic Greek murals found at Gordion. VIII. my pamphlet. P. Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals (Handbook and Antiquities).. R.C. Pauly-Wissowa. no. pp. father and daughter's husband. 1905. my Craft. 134] early as the third quarter of the sixth century. but peak of possessions. passim. Treasured. Beazley's comment A]A. Greek Athletics. but the 4. Kretschmer. 7. 1516). Treasured as wonders. 19). On their own has been thought to indicate that they were citizens (Leonard. cf. quoting Pettier. LX (1956). in Pauly-Wissowa. no. for me tics had a right to mention their father's but this is not necessarily and fourth-century gravestones (Wilamowitz. 1940. 1910. 1899-1900. XXXIX show that panel painting was successfully practised in Greece as (1935). In general Dugas underestimates the power of assimilation of a great cultural en- vironment" (M. 1934.. Oxford. XXXIX (1955).. and A]A. 335 ff. and Athletics of the Ancient of Archaeology World. col.). "But the Skythes who signs t 2<rt!0i)t (Beazley. 5. 255 ff. Hieron. 73 ff. 883. New York. Jacobsthal Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters. 1932. by more than one owner father and son. N. p. Dugas. II. Phrygia. In a tomb at Capua two superb vases dating from about 490-480 B. 897. but of art pure and simple: not *&vxt> v although there are touches of gold on the Brygos cup. RM. Berlin.. iga8. 105 f. S. 1930. 75. Melanges Glott. Attic vases are still those in 9. Nilsson. Blegen. in Beailey. not of minor art or industrial art (in the shoddy jargon of today or yesterday). and in the index of S. Reinach.C. AJA. The fact that some ceramic artists (for instance Hieron and Euthymides) add their father's name to 6. For a concise account of this evolution from two-dimensional to threedimensional representation cf. XXXVIII (1983-24). Oxford. History of Ancient Pottery. pp. 3. London. Milne reminds me.. 1942. AA. Aristoteles name and did so on fifthund Athen. 6 M&ai iieoii^atv. On this subject cf.* p. Milne). Gardiner. Paris. 87 ff Aristophanes' reference in EccL 994-996 to "the man who paints lekythoi for the dead" has often been interpreted as a derogatory allusion to the whole craft. Vasemnschriften. KO/>V^& Kreivwv. E. i) may well have been a Scythian (cf. Deubner. des vases peints. 158: "The cup and the skyphos must have been treasured for many years before they were placed in the grave. Rumpf. he paints vases for the dead that is the point here. 5. 174 f. si ff.. I. s-v. Alexander. no. . Young. As Miss Marjorie J.
1934. II (1933). Hambidge. 1911. xii. Thompson. Hesperia. 1236. 1905. III (1934). Supplement II (1939). Princeton. so aptly as to ancient art. Beazley. Bieber. Hesperia. Baltimore. many are based on Hambidge. dating from Geometric to Roman times. 15. cf. New York. Keller. 14.. 18. 493 ff. xiv. 1877-1919. Richter. 64 (applied not. 16. M. Ancient Furniture. Kleon tried to muzzle Aristophanes (cf. with very little change in fabric. Innsbruck. 597 ff.i66 turn. Paris.C. AJA. For attire cf. nos. Young. and 513. The following books and articles will be found especially useful in a study By Lindsley locally. cit. und Pflanzenbilder auf Miinzen und Gemmen. Diagoras... Etruscan and Roman. XLIH (1939). 20. Ennead. D. Dictionnaire..g. Etruscans and Romans. Sechan. Keller. 1889). p. For a comprehensive treatment of the subject of ornaments on Greek vases the reader is referred to Jacobsthal. however. to say nothing of Plato's program for literature in the Republic" (M. Etudes sur la tragtdie grecque. Griechische Kleidung. New Haven. by a law meant to curb savage attacks on public figures (cf. Ransom. Hall. London. Rhythmic Form in Art. 1939. Oxford. also 12. Daremberg and Saglio. e. Cf." The same applies to the corse "household" pottery either semi-glazed and thrown or plain and built which was found in great quantity in the Agora. 6. The Horse in Greek Art. 1914). Bern Bumpliz. Animals in Greek Sculpture. Caskey. 103. s." F. K6rte. I think. 11. Leipzig. 57 ff.). Berlin ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES and Leipzig. op. see the excellent analysis by Bloesch. 1928. Berlin. 1943. Berlin. fig. A. Greek. op. Formen attischer Schalen von Exekias bis zum Ende des strengen Stils. e. Berlin and Leipzig. Giessen. The freedom of Comedy was limited in 439-437 B. 1930. For animals cf. 11. pp. J. from the Protogeometric to the Late Roman period. p. and Caskey.).. 122. for the Greek tragedians surely treated "the dramas within the spirit"). animals are frequent Imhoof-Blumer and Leipzig. Geometry of Greek Vases. passim. Erbacher. K6rte in Pauly-Wissowa. Tier- Richter. about 414-412 (cf. Ornamente griechischer Vasen.). and Die antihe Tierwelt. I. but 13. 102. Die Haartracht des Mannes in archaisch-griechischer Zeit (Diss. Markman. 1887. Protagoras. kylichnis as the Attic term for toilet box rather than was made . 1940. I. cit. with little variation in form or technique. Couches and Beds of the Greeks. Milne. and Entwicklungsgeschichte der griechischen Tracht. cf. cf. 247 ff. Burr. is found in abundance in Attica throughout antiquity. 199: "Household ware. Dynamic Symmetry. 1922. Paris. 1926. 1932. Studies in Ancient Furniture. however. Cf. The Genteel Tradition at Bay.. 550-450 B.g. 10. reminds me that "the small black vases repeat a good deal. Wiirzburg. Hesperia. Of course in sculpture and on coins and gems representations of separate (cf. Richter and Milne. 1909-13. XI. its presence in great quantity over so long a period indicates that it 19.. Bieber. 21) and the trials of Anaxagoras. IV (1935). On the development of the kylix from ca. For furniture cf. Thiere des classischen Alterturns. i. 11. p. "In literature. si. 1920. Griechisches Schuhwerk (Diss. remember Phrynichos's experience with his Sack of Miletos (He41 For theatrical subjects ff. 1911). 1x33. A. col. the Greek Vase. 1926. 105 and Richter and Hall. Cf. Plotinus. 1920. Hesperia. Morin-Jean's Le dessin des animaux en Grece. 1927. For pyxis cf. 22 ff. 17.v. Bremer. Milne). We may rodotos VI. 469. there to ancient literature.C. 1235. Komddie. Paris. contains attractive but often inaccurate drawings. Richter. there were occasional attempts at public control. Something similar was attempted col. Korte. Chicago. Talcott. Boston. nos. S.. H. 11. R. 77-79. J. Die Denkmaler zum Theaterwesen im Alterand The History of the Greek and Roman Theater. col.
II. 593-602. col. 2. On Love-Names. Frankel. pi. 12. 9. Oxford. 70 ff. XLVI (1942). Annali. 7860. 139. read irappepaxev. no. 11. 137) is Beazley 's suggestion. XVI (1935). XLV (1941). 28. Vaseninschriften. 413. 8 ff. "If the Doric dialect had been correctly reproduced by the vase painter we should have had irap/3e/3a>ce. no. s. As has been noted. 1910 (a revision of Kirchner's Prosopographia Attica is in preparation by B. 5 and p. 22. cols. The latter is the Laconian form (see Bechtel... but see now Caskey and Beazley. 3. . aso. FR. irapapefiaKev (which I too seem to see on Albizzati's plate). Gr. and Nachtrage zur Prosopographia Attica. dell' Inst. 1900.. CIG. no. 1611-1648. 361367. W. if.. Personennamen. Robinson and Fluck. Albizzati. Inscriptions on Vases. See especially Charm. Helsingfors.X. Vaseninschriften. LXV. p. Bild und Lied. also D. Apparently he has not only added the Attic v ephelkystikon but has also given the prepositional (as already pointed out by Kretschmer). 2646. Kretschmer. Beazley. 30. 345-353. Bechtel. pp. tell whether the vase painter by irXeov meant prefix in its Attic form.* p. M. Bechtel. 23. Meritt). Lieblmgsinschriften. note 44. Tick. i. Plato 1937. 69 24. We cannot ir\tov. Prosopographia attica. about 17 kale names are known. 25. This is an attractive and reasonable explanation. Gerhard. the kylix by Douris in Munich. 84. Kirchner. 2 vols. 61. gd ed. 11. pi. On likely by Milne). Mus. LIV (1950). pi. 88. XXTV.. XXXI (1927). p. 475-488.. revised by Benseler. AA. 17. G6t- "Some and Die historischen Personennamen des Griechischen. Kretschmer. Waldhauer. p. loc. 1884. Die griechischen Personennamen. Milne. pi. Names of minor divinities are particularly frequent among hetairai. Worterbuch der griechischen Eigennamcn. Dialekte. Waldhauer. Namenwesen. also Xenophon Symp. 304-314. pp. Since he does use the Doric o instead ir\eov he meant ir\4ov rather than the Attic irXdwv" that it seems 26. XXXIII (1929). On kalos names 31. 91. 564 ff. Personennamen^ pp. 918-947. XXXIX (1935). Vaseninschriften. 29. 219 ff. 1942. Robert. C. IV. as was noted by Hartwig and FurtwSngler: oft dtvanai 4>uvj) \ly' detS^uev tiffirep dtjSwv K. no...).." AJA. Halle. I. 1894. p. Berlin. 153 ff. op. For the exceptions to this rule cf. AVP. 1894.. no. 33.. Frauennamen. cols. no. J.' of <f>uvi] JC. M. elKtiv rather than elSos (Kretschmer. for more nearly complete lists cf. Meisterhans. Hartwig. 71 ff. 91. 2. Satyr. passim. Albizzati and Kretschmer. pp. E Fraenkel in Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Encyclopddie. 80. 22. 17.r. revised by Eduard Schwyzer. Richter and Hall. 308). cit. D. gd ed. Die griechischen Vaseninschriften. Braunschweig.. Beilagen i. 258.. and Attic Red-figure Vase-Painters. 105. J. Gottingen. Klein. 56 and Beazley. Beazley. Robert. no. we should emend the Theognis text from the inscription and read: pp. About 170 kalos names and A Study of the Greek cf. 2 vols. II (1830). a psykter by Oltos.und Bakchennamcn auf Vasenbildern. Outer sloh.T. On On oil SiivafJ. Bechtel. Halle. tingen. 1927. See our p. 1917. 8. by Sundwall. Vaseninschriften. the same pelike. Fick and Bechtel. since the presence of the flute player shows the man is singing. 1912. a Panathenaic amphora. Charm. 230. p. The line is probably the beginning of the drinking song preserved in Theognis 939-943. open e in irapapepaicev. Berlin. ad ed. Beazley.NOTES: INTRODUCTION 167 of Greek inscriptions on vases: Pape. Die attischen Frauennamen. 1901-3. On a pelike in the Vatican. KTetschmer. 27. cf. (M. 81 ff. AJA. no. Grammatik der attischen Inschriften. 1902. On a pelike by Euphronios in Leningrad.\. II (1842 ed. irMuv or of the Attic long. 32. II (1834-38). note i. figs. p. i. Gr. II.. cit. pp. Man. 310-322.v. For graffiti and dipinti cf. Greg. M. 154 A.
the other turned. 52-54. On a prize graffito in a western alphabet and a west Greek dialect on the foot of an Attic black-figured kylix of about 530 B. IV. and Anakles and Nikosthenes (cf. Wilamowitz. p..168 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 34. 179 ff. Milne in Richter and Hall. XLV (1941). "Merkantile Inschriften auf attischen Vasen. 44. pp." Miinchener archdologtsche Studien. cit. M. 25 ff. 31. 51. the nominative for the workman. and Hoppin. note i. See Richter and Hall. Hackl. Kretschmer. 1941. Richter and Hall. 141-157. unusual. (1931).C. or painted marks. Mnemosyne.. pp. 39. 349 f. 1943. Langlotz (Zeitbestimmung. 88 . fashioned the vase. 55. ff. 136). e.. J. op. see.. 188 ff. 79 ff. Cf. JHS. Beazley. is. that is. pp. 38. cit. we should expect one to sign with egrapsen." On the other hand. and we have the expression wtXij Kdya66s current in Greek literature for "a gen- combination of the word irals with Ka\6s had boys in mind. Perhaps one person threw. As the letters are all separate capital letters and usually painted in a thick pigment that does not allow much individuality. Amyx. I. Potter.. Untersuchungen. op.g. and Glaukytes. 151 ff. Larfeld.. XLIX (1945). p. 43 ff. Beazley. but since this is a Latin formula. Talcott. p. cit. University of California Publications in Classical Archaeology. and Beazley. 5-106. and "two obols and hands off" (Beazley. The dipinti. cf. 346 ff. 8. Hesperia. no. 123. curious. Such exceptions are of course possible. 45. op. 303 ff. 1940. Cf. Zur Technik der attischen Gefasskeramik.. 36 ff. J. 40. 391 ff. the frequent would seem to indicate that the vase painters as a rule 35. As Beazley points out. indicating that v wat aspirated when followed by a in the Attic dialect. Archikles of it. J. Milne. 43. Griechische Epigraphik. For the graffiti on vases in the Metropolitan Museum cf. the "style" of the handwriting is usually difficult to determine.. Hackl. 538 ff. not the Attic one. to say the least. II. 47. ABV. that is. (1941). See on this subject the illuminating book by Bloesch. 42. and especially the recording tleman. 221 ff. 1909. op. however. Hackl. 48. 37. Beazley. Beazley called my attention to this fact. p. The form used for signatures on Arretine ware is the genitive for the owner of the establishment. ("Should not rpo be read as irp6(x<>() rather than as the preposition vp6. 38 ff. Hussong. "Some Inscriptions on Vases. and XXVIII (1926-87). pp.. 186 ff. On those found in recent years in the Athenian Agora cf. collaboration in the "making" of a vase seems p. pp. 597 f. 26).. LI cit. "Some Inscriptions on Vases. pp. 104-106. as elsewhere. 41. 259.). the other with epoiesen. But such division of labor in so simple a shape. JHS.* 1914.. The inscription 8uo/3eXoKeu/K0t7r on a blackfigured amphora has been translated "two obols and you have me" (D. Amyx. it cannot be used as an argument either way. XLV 50." AJA. 49. For men attischer Schalen. pp. AJA. 36. Milne). M. are mostly confined to black-figured vases.. On the graffito on a red-figured hydria in Utrecht cf. Jongkees. Larfeld. I doubt whether firing a kiln full of vases would have been described as "making" any one of them. and ov also as a vase name whether 8wt or some unknown term?" M. Cf." AJA. 46. 55. Homer. 598. V (1936). Usually written tvpa<f>ffev on vases. p. finished it. cit. pp. t pp. nos. and Beazley. Beazley. Potter. XXXI (1937).) pointed out that occasionally older men figure as favorites and are called kalps.. pp. See the excellent recent discussion by Amyx. If one person had designed or decorated it and the other fashioned it. BSA f XVIII (1911-12). Hoppin. pp. I. each of these processes necessarily carried out on different days is part and parcel of the making of the vase and requires a special skill. LII (1932). 38-132. c\t. op. 194 f. Tod. op. pp. pp.
103. i. Potter. Epigraphik. For the old Attic alphabet An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. XXII (1953).. XLIV ff. H M 57. XXXVII (1879). Thus cit. Kretschmer. Craft. Milne and D. Kretschmer. ibid. M.. e.. and the lekythos from Athens described by Korte. Accademta dealer's order. 132. 139. 346 ff. On most of the imwith mine. discuss the process of cf. the two chapters in Binm. i ff. 253. fig. fig. Lattes. Hesperia. Larfeld. For a detailed discussion of sources cf." History of Technology. 118. Hcs- pena. Richter and Hall. 140). pp. Richter and Hall. See MM and AJA. . cit. no. 2i 5 ff. Bulletin. On this whole question cf.. Fiesel.g. cmorie della R. See Richter and Hall. Line. 289 ff. 63. nos. 5. 56. AJA. cit.g.. Minto. XLHI (1939). e. J. have also been addidiscussed with great insight by Beazley.. but cf. Gr. 378. Richter and Hall. Lei Classes.NOTES: INTRODUCTION 53. Napoli. Vaseninschriften. pi. 435 * 55. and Hall. and inscriptions see Roberts. The representations of potters at work. 3. Kretschmer. 1931. p. Koehler. 259 ff. VIII (1934). (1913). Cloche. Kretschmer. Richter. 60. Cf. Minto describes the inscription as having under the glaze. le trafic. rj H for (see Richter and Hall. II. pp. p. pp. pp. I am greatly indebted to Miss Maude Robinson for constant help during my researches and for a revision of my text. p. account by Jongkees. XIX. 157. De Gids. Grammatik. 67. on an Attic red-figured vase. 77 ff. firing my tests in a small vision. 6) with a man working revolve. Cf. NS. von Bothmer.* Schrifttafel. Richter. Ztg. 430. 71 f. 78. Heidelberg. I. in his review of Kouroi in Classical pp. no. igas: The Nature and . also the general throwing throughout the ages including the Greek period. Meisterhans. 64 ff. op. By Milne. pp. p. 10. 157). Milne. on vases and plaques. 84-86. no.. the lekythos by Xenophantos in Leningrad (see p.. I. Cf. girone (Libertini.. is an Athenian calyx krater from CaltaMon.. ^t i and 359 ff. 384-385. which we find on Attic vases and in other 65. 103. and my chapter on "Ceramics. on the glaze. no. He is probably centering hand how true it is running by letting the vase spin against his testing by eye and As in my previous writings on technique. 64. agreement I have discussed in the footnotes of Richter and in my review of his thesis in AJA. 68. pp. 104 66. Rieth and Groschopf in Die Entwicklung der Topferscheibe (Leipzig. Vaseninschriften. in the usual way. 8ff. op. Studi etruschi. Richter and Hall. The vase (without handles or foot) while a boy makes the wheel his left hand on his thigh suggests that he is bracing himself man's pose with the vase. 169 V (1936). op. the few points of disportant points Dr. kiln under her superI was able to work in her studio. 5 ff. 103. Zur Technik der attischen Gefasskeramtk (Diss. 70. 1928). the information obtained from these various 69. J.. LIX (1945). 32. the Eretria Painter uses both * AM. pi. 73 ff.. Talcott. 58. X (1934). 54. XXVIII . 107 (1943). 59. on an incomplete les metiers. Hackl. 62. note i. XXXVI (1932). also Beazley's remarks Weekly. For an Etruscan graffito which may be a 53. cf . xxxv ff.. When I examined it in 1935 it seemed to me been painted painted. See M. 1939). The most important tion to the list given in my Craft. (1940). Milne in Richter di Archeologia. and Hussong.. to keep the position of his right hand constant. pp. Cf. 96.. 224. no. Arch. Hussong's findings agreed and Hall. The Potter's Craft. XXVI (1931). xxxv ff. X and (1885). 61.
. XXXIII (1929). e. p. 12 ff.. IX (1940). also Farmsworth in Shear. cit. p. which is nonmagnetic and unstable. Mon. Cf. to the desired profiles. Beazley. 13. 82. 199. To this question Mr. the krater 08.. 99 ff. 1942. 13 (where further references are cited). cols. Hussong. figs. op. pp. Binns. Binns. 34. 101 ff. 6. op. being magnetic and stable. AJA. 77-79. He therefore conceived the process of firing to have been as follows: "As soon as the kiln attained a visible red color. nos. 81.. cit.g..170 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Properties of Clay." Hence the reducing fire not only produced the black but also made the glaze insoluble. pp. 356 ff.. pi. pp. 436. Craft. p.. He maintained that in the change from ferric to ferrous oxide there takes place a considerable lowering of the point of fusion.. Richter. figs.. was preferable to ferrous oxide (FeO).21 in the Metropolitan Museum. and "The Preparation of the Clay. 19. Cf.. op. XXIII (1942). Cf.. 73. while ferric oxide remains aloof and is simply surrounded by the glassy substance. IV (1935). 84 f. XI pi. Richter. 74 ff. Richter and Milne. Oberlies and (1953). For brief summaries cf. 5128. op." pp. XXXIII (1929). XIX (1943)." pp. Hussong. 7 ff. cit. 37-42. 833. I-II. if the glaze turned black in a reducing fire. Cf. i ff. but see now XXX Binson. AJA. LXII 88 One may ask. Richter. pi. pp. Craftf pp.g. 513. my note 85. pp. Langlotz. Richter. e. 72. 78.g. p. or at about 600 C a type of fuel which would produce a dense smoke was used This was continued until the finishing temperature of about 950 was reached.. 16 f . fig. Lane. Arch Am.g. i?^- XXXVI (1956). Supplement II (1939). 75. 79. 10 ff. Richter.. W&rzburg. 91. Forschungen und Fortschritte. Richter. 83.. Berichte der deutschen keramischen Gesellschaft. For the different manipulations involved cf.. S. 265. 87. 170. Cf. i ff. where references to the older literature were given. cit. Craft t pp. Craft.. Young. 25. 14. 18. (1958). XXVIII (1922). Hussong. 19. cf. 892 ff. 587 ff. 77. Greek Pottery. The cooling was then . Cf. e. Kdppen. her. 58). cit. cols. Rieth and Groschopf. pp. R... fig.. Microscopic and X-ray examinations have substantiated Schumann's discoveries. Binns. op. 17. Hesperia. 18) thinks. 64 ff. 39-36. 76. Binns.. Line. gave the following answer. Hussong. e. note i. and Farnsworth. 71. deutsch. as Hussong (op. cf. XLV (1941). Weickert. . 57. pp. For a possible representation of a three-legged compass on the hydria with a scene of potters at work. which affords a greater area of support for raising or forming the clay than the different grips of the fingers. 203.258. Gesellschaft. p.. The join is visible underneath the clay ridge where the latter has scaled off (Richter and Hall. "for ferrous oxide contributes to the production of glass. (1919). pp. 102. For fashioning the outside the ancient Greeks perhaps employed a rib (as do their modern descendants). Hesperia. Richter... p. Cf. AJA. Craft. p. cit. 60 f. Craft. Richter.. AJA. Craft. and 84. Libertini. pp. It is not necessary or practicable to have the shapes of the tools correspond cit.. 99 ff. why did the clay fire red? For it too contains red ferric oxide and so is convertible into black by reduction as we know from the black bucchero ware. Hesperta. op. 437. 18. op. pp. Schumann thought that black magnetic oxide of iron (Fe 3 O 4). fig. 74.. Ber. 408 ff.. pp 4ff. i. 135. 118. cit. Munchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst. nos.. Buschor. 80. Talcott. Ibid. cit. I. Antiquaries Journal. op. 86 In Binns and Fraser. no..
80. Dr. my Graft. p 39. "Accidental and Intentional Red Glaze.. Arch. Hartwig. 164. but this would necessitate making sketches and the materials perhaps used for them cf. black glaze has to be heated to above 950 C. XV (1948). Cf eg. 165 ff. col. Richter. pi. Red Glaze.. pp. Potter. Richter and Hall. at which point the air was freely admitted but still with slow cooling.NOTES: INTRODUCTION 171 allowed to proceed very slowly and with a smoky atmosphere down to about 850. p. 16 and 98. Beazone.. D 6. 89 Richter. The become glassy in the fusion. Talcott and Vanderpool.. The best known are the Euphronios and Exekias kylikes in Munich. (reporting findings made by mann and him by letter). and in History of Technology. pp. Am. Craft. however. Craft. nos. 70 f. loc." Het Netherlands Kunsthistonsch Jaarboek. of black magnetic oxide of iron instead of ferrous oxide. the fact that there are so few specimens in this techand that the red glaze on these pieces is apt to peel as it would if applied nique to fired clay seemed to bear out its possibility. cit. pi. 1942. XXIII Schu- (1942). 101 Potter. Arch. 102. 423. also Weickert. no. and Farnsworth. cit.. 54). Cf." It contains important observations also on the black glaze. cf. Cf. pp. 2044 and 2620. Richter. however. and the Sotades cup in London. preparatory pp 38 f.. A]A. On 96 97. before it changes its color. loc. 55 ff. 143 and "Red-and-Black Glaze. p 51. 1942. They indicate that the three stages in the known from early times. The two in a letter to me. also the interesting remarks by Weickert. Cf. See Hussong's excellent illustrations of relief lines enlarged from 6 times (op ctt. and then it becomes not red but chestnut brown. The is now in the collection vase. ff . 90. cols. The fact that the glaze has been rendered practically insoluble would be a satisfactory explanation of this. Cf. II. 98. Richter. sent 523 ff. pp. 523 On ferrous oxide and black magnetic oxide of iron. Schumann gave a similar explanation. formerly in the possession of Dr.. fig 13). ley. p. 51. Giovanni Torni of Milan.. Craft. 99. 41 f. The body. speaking. 127 ff. cf. Reichhold suggested that the design was first made on a surface which had a similar curvature as the vase for which it was intended (in FR. 93 Weickert. non-Greek wares." This theory is supported by the fact that whereas it is easy to convert the terra-cotta which turned gray or blackish in the funeral pyre (see p. XL VI (1956). which black glaze on geometric and Mycenaean vases converted into red in an oxidizing fire. for the examples found in the Agora. shows the 94 Graphically demonstrated by Binns in op.. Though the firings were tentatively suggested by Schumann method seems cumbrous. of Sig Ing. 2852. . 16. in an article entitled "Fifth Century Intentional 91. II. also two vases instead of Hussong. note i. in its porous condition. op. which had also been blackened was. firing of Attic vases were 95 Cf. Richter and Hall. Am. (1899). Jb . nos. Beazto is ley. able to reabsorb the necessary oxygen and to recover its red color. 526 ff.. 35) back into red simply by retiring it under oxidizing conditions up to a temperature of 800" C. . II. cit." BSA. Schumann. 92.. in note 87. Scaretti of Rome. 100. 1954. LXII (1958). the black iron oxide was locked in and glaze having could not change. Hespena. on similar phenomena in early. cit. 199. XIV note 21. see now Bmson. Gesellschaft. Benchte der deutschen keramischen cols.
115. 11 118.. 103. two fires were in vogue between about 550 and 400 is. Hesperia. Beazley. where the band on the inside of the neck is red. 71. and the covered bowl ace. iss. 1943. Richter and Hall. no. 33) accepted Reichhold's theory that Athenian vases were put in the kiln in a horizontal position on circular supports and that the "Lagenringe" the round red. fig. cit. the kylix no.. Beazley.. Crosby. I answered in AJA. or black and red. Craft. e. p. There are a few instances of day applied over the black Dragendorff.But "the temperature in the Greek firing was never high enough to make the day flexible" (Binns). pp. noa. . i. cf. Am. p. XXXIII 112. 74. no. p. 111. 113. here. 106. Hussong's arguments for two fires. Tonks. 114. I. 3.. JHS. Term. p. stst. too. 89. 101. for at that early period faulty perspective led to many curious renderings. etc. Richter. 10. but are very common also in Athenian red-figure. fig. 421. (1929). The kiln can be packed much more The representation of the inside of and what possible advantage could there be placed apt to offset this risk? p. 41. ff. AJA. Ibid. Beazley. as he claims. Richter. Reichhold in FR. . e. fig. p. which has a red ring on the interior. Richter. u. p. Richter. 156. pp. 72. 37. 22... pp. p.. 60. Hussong (op. . Craft...g. Beazley.g. See Richter 108. Binns and Fraser. XXXVI (1932). 45. 78. AJA. Craft. Tech. col.. economically with the vases standing upright. p. I think. Craft. which is red on the inside. XXVIII (1908). the rest black. "typische Brandfehler des ersten Brandes. for instances cf Richter and Hall. 120... p. 117. exceedingly unlikely. e. 332. p. The differences he postulates (op. For analyses of these accessory colors see 80 Blumner. p. 35. a kiln on a Corinthian pinax (Richter. Ibid. Richter. 107. Cf. 119. pp. at. AWL. pp. X. Jb. Les Vases grecs a reliefs. nos. and the Glasurplatzrisse ("rifts or crow's-feet in the glaze"). and ABS. Potter. p. 104. the pelike no. 525. spots found on the sides of Athenian vases are due to this practice. 58) thinks that these dents could have occurred in the second firing.. 71 f. Craft. 46 ff. 35. fig. to the early wares. 117 ff. His theory that. 7. But vases so would be to made experiments with day obtained from one of the potteries outside warp in the fire. Cf. Weickert. though a single fire is general at other times. 35.g. Courby. Craft. We may mention as a few examples the kylix Richter and Hall. It is to this stacking rather than to a join that I should now attribute such marks as those figured in my Craft. XII (1908). 84 ff. cit. I Athens a mixed variety.. 14) between the incised lines on Corinthian and on Attic wares are not borne out by extensive comparisons. pis. Arch.. loc. Hussong. What looks like a brush 105. cf.. XLHI glaze (cf. 7- Tonks. composed of red earth from Chalandri and white earth from Koukouvaones (Richter. ixi. op. 40). nos. cit. it must have been added before the firing. iSS109.* II. Craft. 58. 76 ff. Hussong (op. 8343. . 126. For red on white on fillets.." are not mostly confined. of which the lower outer part is brownish. p. 137. and Hall. 79. 116. p. XI). ff. 67. XXIV (1955). no. 317 case is here represented as suspended on the wall. 66. 80) cannot be taken as serious evidence. fig. 100.. presumably where the foot of another vase rested on it. 3.172 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES f. Potter. For a case in which day was added to to note a vase which was already too dry and which the clay therefore did not adhere properly see Richter and Hall. fig. 72 f. cit. 19.
S. 16. Mylonas. op. Craft. Ibid." But would not the clay have turned into terra cotta during the firing? 133. p. also the Italo-Corinthian oinochoe 25. 1*4. Richter. p. See. p. Potter. 64 ff.NOTES: INTRODUCTION 123. a. no. 28. (1988). 128. Trierer Zeitschrift. Die Ausgrabungen der Akropolis. GR GR 139. no. U. 149. nos.. the red-figured Athenian lekythos could hardly be a potter's kiln. See Richter and Hall. fig. Mylonas. 140. 1930. Craft.. nos. parts pp. 141. pp. 33. 136. a circular form could be traced outside and a lesser one within." 131. from Hesiod. (neolithic). and the i. notes references there cited. 146.^ p. the circles touching. 138. e. JHS.. probably because they were of clay and have been washed away. 80. no. pp. XLVIII tury). Quoted . Tech. Worcester Pottery. Cavvadias and Kawerau. Ibid. 10. 6: "No ovens have been found on the site [of a pottery factory in Corinth]. 145. no.. is not enclosed. Cf. 37. u. and the references there X and Hall. pp. Ibid. AJA. 88.106 and the Attic 604 in the Metropolitan Museum.78. too. a. i. "The etruschi. 134. cit. op. 17 f. p.g. 10. 5 ff.g. 32. 9.. 4. cit. I. e. W. from which point extended a narrow flue 15 feet long. pi. pp. some never published this theory. 130.. fig. nos." Studi 142. See.. Ibid... 38. 144. nos. 17. nos.. 25. Ibid. 68. Richter 143. 71. Ibid. so that from the mouth of this flue to the opposite side of the outer circle was a distance of thirty feet. which was quite honey-combed from having had osiers.. I. p. also Richter. CV: Providence. 186 (Helladic). AM. Hussong. op. bad crack on a Corinthian aryballos in Hussong. 701. R. Ibid. cf.. 120. 103. 173 76 ff... for it i. but he discussed it with me and I have on the subject written in 1931. or similar wood burnt in the layers. and the picture of an oven in Macedonia in The National Geographic Magazine. 148. Newhall. Rhomaios.. Beazley. 23 ff. IDE (19*8). 530. 118.. XXXV (1931). op. 12 ff ff. See the illustration of a Dec. pp. Olynthus. Hussong.. 21. 93. Cf. Works and Days. 177 (not later than the third cencol. 147. no.. Cf. f. The oven on illustrated by Luce. pi. red-figured vase 137. Ibid.. Loeschcke. 126. 147. 16.. 127.. (1936). 59 ff. and recently at Corinth and Eretria.. pp. 27. note 94. Cf. and the burning of which had destroyed the wood. cit. 107. Ibid. p. XXXIII (1908). Term*? II. 132 In this connection cf. op. Richter. 120. Bltimner. 80. 135. 66. 35. 75 (pre-Kimonian). pp. 186: "Excavations exposed what are believed to be the remains of a Roman pottery kiln. I owe to him also the references to (see note 131) and to the account by his father of a Roman kiln found in England (see note 130). Bums. no. Rhet. 26. The smaller circle was raised about three feet and covered with a layer of baked day. these had evidently been traced for the purpose of binding the clay in its wet state. Richter and Hall. Woodward. cited. On reduction Technique of Bucchero Ware. Ibid. 68 125. i. Z. cit. cit. letters He The National Geographic Magazine 129. 17. 13. nos. fig. especially Mylonas.
p. fig. Kouroi. 8. Cf. venas protulit. in Kirchner. 5. Hence his late dating of the sculptures of Temple C of Selinus. Beazley. I want to 20. pi. my 19-30 <tr. Beazley. by Euthymides). 3* 1 ff-I "Terracotta Plaques from Early Attic series. The translation given above is that of Jex-Blake and Sellers. ff. recent articles on "Polychromy in Greek Sculpture. 9. Pfuhl. op. 131 f. however. pp. vase. cannot be referred to in the kalos inscriptions with that name. nos.. Zeitbestimmung. Cf. the stemma CV.. Cf. and the Hischylos Painter. pp. the Goluchow Painter. 6. cit. N. 19. 12.174 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES I. early artists occasionally used the glaze full strength for most or all anatomical markings (e. Archaic Attic Gravestones. Naturally there are exceptions. p. a. VIII. 42). See Kirchner. and the references there cited. 15. fig. between the simplified renderings of stacked folds observable 7. 5. Stesagoras. pp. Tombs. painted. I (1942).. (*944). Pol. 154 f. p. as had been claimed. 8.. The steady development of this stylized rendering in Greek sculpture shows that the scheme must have been invented by Greek artists. cit. xxix): 15 18. II. the brother of Miltiades. 10. 358. Herakles Mainomenos. ABS. 56 (probably derived from Xenokrates. XXXV. fig. Overbeck. I have discussed this question more fully in my forthcoming Archaic Greek Art. note 42. Zeitbestimmung. 87 f. I have discussed this question at length in an article on "Greeks in Persia. Hoppin. 21. no. 5. pi. 14.g. with slight changes. e. the clavicles and ankles were sometimes drawn in diluted glaze (e. 13. respicientes suspicientesve vel despicientes. Articulis membra distinxit. Richter. 60 f. Recueil Milliet. pp. Marchant).g. 64 ff.. et varie formare voltus. He did not distinguish.) and others.. has been pointed out by Langlotz (op. 4. as some had thought. 28 ff. cf. 3. for instance.. 80 ff. hoc est obliquas imagines." AJA. not taken by them from the Persians." AJA. I. as Wilamowitz (Aristoteles und Athen. Langlotz. Herodotos' famous story (V. for instance ff. I. cf. Richter. There is occasionally an earlier example of this. 375 ff. A. 58 and Beazley. V. Milne. Sellers. Imagines inscriptionum Atticanim. pi. pp. f. (1946). praeterque in vestibus rugas et sinus invenit (reading "vestibus" with Traube).) has shown. Ill. 24 f. new XLVIII 17. 11. 1944. p. 280 ff. the Hegesiboulos Painter.H.) of the Ionic chiton came to supersede the peplos in Athens is an aetiological legend. Beazley. Cf. Prosopographia Attica. as we saw. Richter and Hall. Langlotz (op..g. 10. EARLY STYLE on the Francois i. 335 (Epiktctos). how occasionally on vases and sculptures of the third quarter of the sixth century and the more complicated ones current in the late sixth century. Schriftqttellen." MM Bulletin. pis. also Euripides. Pfuhl. cit. 24 Beazley. 9. no. pp. 351. and. L ff.. also their note on catagrapha ( foreshortening?). In this reexamination of the evidence supplied by kalos names acknowledge specially the help given me by Marjorie J. Stesagoras died before the cups with that name could have been That Langlotz. xxviii. 16. 10. pp. 69. Reinach. 10. Jex-Blake and Hie catagrapha invenit.. pp. 17-38 passim) was the first properly to utilize this observation for the dating of sixth-century sculpture and vases. pp.. . 55. 62 f.
30. i. 29. Aristotle Ath. no. ff. 23. Meritt. 42. In the excavations of the Athenian Agora the base of a statue was found with a dedicatory inscription by "Leagros. i. MM. p. Mus } II. 948. p. 12. 102. 24.C. 924. Cat. I. no. V. p. Handbook. p. IV. ff. Herodotos IX. cit. 69. Beazley. 313. 27. (Wilamowitz. pi.. fig. e. The. I. Beazley. i. p.. son of Glaukon. 155 ff. Ostraka with his name have been found in the Athenian Agora scribed as JiyepAv 25. 22. 2. pp. Masterpieces. 57. 27. 38. no. 10. Hesperia. I. (Pease). fig. XXII.74) and Langlotz (op. (Boulter). for the tQijpela was an institution created in the second half of the fourth century B.. 316. and as he was the first then still person in his family to take part in a very young man. iTriropxor KaXoj vat. pp. 75. pis. 257 36. 359.* p. 294. The black-figured vases now attributed to the Andokides Painter used to be listed as works by the Lysippides Painter (Beazley. Akropolis.NOTES: EARLY STYLE 22. p. p. cf. Haspels. 333 (Vanderpool). 934. 747).. Beazley. Pol. 93 f . cf. CV. 262. V 650. pi. Casson. 31. 100. especially Hesperia. of the Acrop. In Syracuse. .. no. AV. FR.g. Hoppin. no.. 464. pp. 2159. where Leagros. 314. VIII (1939). Aristoteles und Athen. Hoppin. 1037. 38-41). cf. 141. fig. ii4f. Ibid. p. cit. i ff. Wilamowitz. Bf. p. 54 ff. loc. 2. Zeitbestimmung. 32. p. Androtion. Furthermore Themistokles was archon in 493. no. Hoppin. fig. 26. Seltman. Beazley. 42. I. Hesperia. Hoppin. 10. 301. Beazley. Swindler. when the office was still elective. 3. 24. politics it is unlikely that he was 34. 484. frag. On such well-groups. 306 ff. and Langlotz. 2. continued in use until about 500 B. 476 ff. Beazley. kylix E 18 in the British 27. pi. fig. II. CV. pi. and Richter and Milne. Pfuhl. no.. Pottier. 40. figs. p. no. pis. Gr. Neugebauer. II. Beazley. 3. 2. pi. tit. Graef and Langlotz. II. however. also Lykourgos. yes". Langlotz. "Hipparchos fig. VA. is handsome. 80. Pfuhl. Against Leokrates. 373. Marconi Bovio.. 33. I. 140. is shown by representations of them on vases.. 266. 69. Beazley. 123. 36. Katterfeld (Metopen. 3. Gr. Pfuhl. Beazley. 4. Beazley. V. 40. He was the first man to be ostracized (Kleisthenes is said to have introduced ostracism to get rid of him). Hipparchos. Pfuhl. I. figs. 2. Hesperia. 35a. no. Buschor. Pfuhl. p. 11. 33. 99 538. 41 f.) makes out a good case for the bon vivant tyrant.C. 44. Pfuhl. 930. 41. (Talcott). 28. no. Beazley. p. But this is a late (second century A. 26. 37. cf. then middle-aged. G Beazley. 2. VI (1937). 263.. 39. 41. Graef ff. ..). Lekythoi. For an alabastron in New York with the inscription. 133. op. no. Beazley. FR. 9 b. ABS. seems too old to come into conthough Langlotz (op. p. 39. pi. Beazley.D. i. 117. Museum. 4 (Hipparchos is there also desideration. VI. 925. 43. Seltman. p.. 175 p. 4^9 ff. Thucydides I. 35. 25. AV.) and unreliable source. cf. Hoppin. pp. no. figs. the son of Glaukon". p. pp. VI. and the term avvtyijpot is an anachronism. 23. is called criW07)j3oj and ^XiKici-njj of Themistokles. AP. 109. 2. 166. Broneer. 265 IV (1935). Epist.) use as additional evidence the eighth letter of Themistokles (Hercher. F 203. no. cit. Aristotle. ABS. 3. Fiihrer. and vpotrrAr-ns of the tyrants' friends). 5. the son of Peisistratos (514). 29. Raubitschek. 59 ff. pp. pi. Beazley. 48 ff. That little-master cups. XV. Akropohs. V (1936). 934. 25. pi. 189 ff.
G 75. 5. p.146. Smith.. Beazley. no. no. 203. 3. 62. no. British Museum B 589. 53... 63. 3. 53. 2. 66. 9. E 437. no. (1941). Beazley. p. 51. Berlin. Beazley. 4. 46. pi. pis. pi. 6. 10. VA.. pp. 327. Pfuhl. 8. i. CV. 8. 98 b. 309. 249. 60. pis. p. II. Buschor. Pol. u. no. 179. p. p. p. p. pis. Richter. nos. 50. 70. 948. 13. 279. Smith. i. 68. pi. 948. p. pp. no. 155. V. 2. p. 925. p. fig.: Hoppin. Museum Journal. fig. 47. 2603. pi'. 18. now in that of Mr. 51. no. AJA. p. 48. Greek Painting? p. 84. 591. p. Beazley. 25. 3. 12. Hoppin. VA. Pfuhl. Graef and Langlotz. Buschor. pi. 57. 9. 34. I. Villa Giulia. II. Richter. W. Faina 64. AP. no. p. nos. 31. Pyth. fig. R C 6848. 8. 35. 2. 15. no. figs. a. AJA. 7 ff. 2302. p. 11008. pis. 67. 4. Beazley. 34 ff. 86. no. Gr. Beazley. Beazley. 6. 11. Pfuhl. p. p. 55. Beazley. Akropolis. 30). 401. Richter and Hall. 17. V. 547 ff. Swindler. Beazley. 21). Beazley. 8. 553. VA. 553. I. a. Smith. Pellegrini. 58. 34: Pfuhl. XXXVIH (1934). II. pp. 301. p. Beazley. . Menon Painter. 6. 36. Cf. Greek Painting? p. 266. pp. 8. 151. 8. GV. 31 ff. 2. no.. 362. 645 *' Beazley. 34. fig. 153.810.1. II. 48. 3. XXXVIH (1934). p. Hoppin. Beazley. IX. E 258. p.18. Hoppin. fig 318.176 45. 48. Hoppin. 81. 173. 10. 8. no. 14. i. i. p. a. p. 69. Gr. 49. V (1914). 73. 2. p. 361. and Hall. Acr. 9. FR. I. pi. p. 61. 398 f. 6. XXXVIH (1934). pp. E 24. Richter. Formerly in the collection of Monsieur Jameson in Paris (Chabouillet. no. p. Richter 64. H. 4. 8. Beazley. Menon U 57. 11. p. 9. 9. 4. 55. fig. 77. figs. 38. 2.u. p. Beazley. 9. II. fig. 62. no. fi & Beazley. Beazley. 242. 52. 79. Buschor. Beazley. I. AJA. p. S3. p. II.. 11. 2. II. no. AJA. 2587. Smith. Beazley. Hoppin. Beazley. 251. 397. Kappeli in Meggen. 59. Richter. Beazley. Seltman. fig- XXXVIII (1934). Menon Painter. Beazley. no. Beazley. 317 and 264. 50. 5. Beazley. pi. fig. fig. 50. no. no. Richter and Hall. 179. 949. Beazley. 403. Beazley. AB V. Richter. Beazley. pi. 2099. 322. 8. no. Beazley. Hoppin.. no. Beazley. pi. 26-29. Le Cabinet Fould. Switzerland (Beazley. pi. Beazley. i. no. pp. Menon Painter. 26. VA. AV. pis. 12. Beazley. i. II. and XLIII (1939). fi no. 78. 56. 61. 7. 949. 359. Pfuhl. p. Hoppin. Richter. 35. 294. no. 9. i. 74. Beazley. p.1Q : Beazley. 13. R. pi. Beazley. 8. AJA. 8.. II. p. XLV nos. V. 590. 76. 5. p. 8. 293. Beazley. Richter and Hall.fi g. II. 80. 4. no. VPU. 3. g. 2264. 56.146. a. von Lucken. Hoppin. Masterpieces. XXXVIII (1934). no. 51. 44 ff. Painter. p. P no. Melida. 54. p. Hoppin. 65.2. 123-125 (tr. V. fig. 5399. p. AJA. 449. 35. 55. Dohan. Smith. 1395. p. Gr. Czartoryski. Richter. 47. 54 8 - g- J Beazley. no. 9. no. 14. Beazley. Hoppin. Hoppin. 72. 154. 15. 360. Sandys). 24. 38. fig. Menon Painter. no. Pfuhl. Richter. p.. Pfuhl. 587 ff. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES F 204. AJA. 71. Richter. i. 7. XXXVIII (1934). no.pl.
74. no. 8556. s. Athens 15008. nos. 4> Beazley. Beazley. n. p. 46. II. 8). pp. II. no. A IV (1935). 89. JHS. V. i. 950. FR. Kraiker. ss6g. 61. pp. "a slight work by Epiktetos in his 85. 885. I. i.. no. BSR. 106. 115. Acr. Robinson. 49. 417. no. Pfuhl.. 104. 81. AP. p. Beazley. p. 88. no. 105. Beazley. 50. Plot. Man. 18. pi.3*8. Acr. The New York box by him (8o. 7. Akropolis. II. Buschor. Villa Giulia 80760. i. p. no. p.8*147. 61 We may compare the warrior on a cup in Naples. figs. . FR. 93. 335. p. Beazley. pi. 340-341. p. ff. Hoppin. Hoppin.. 84 ff. I r 306. Rizzo. . nos. 156. AM. op. 6. 45. 54. 33. fig. squatting satyr no. so. 07. 90 116. pp. pis q *-/. Beazley. no. Richter and Hall. Hoppin. 109. H. Man. 44. pis. 339. p. pi. 87. 101. Demangel. 179. II. Sittengeschichte Gnechenlands.. 68 ff. Hoppin. . 77. pi. Beazley. LXII 0958). Rizzo. 3. H. 57.81. pis. 391. Beazley. Beazley.88. 8s. 50. 3 a b . 317. Graef ff. Bf. London B 668. 9. 10. Gr. pi. 75 f. 117. 166. pp. 113. 166. 90. 96. fig. Bf. 38. 4. E (1930). Potter. Akropolis. 100. Pease. 8 A A XXVI P 488. 47 no. 950. 35. 70. p. 114. pi. 54. Hoppin. 1. 4. II. Kraiker. i. 4. p. I. 3*7. i. 355. fig. I. Plot. 106. p. Beazley. 48. Beazley. no. no. p. 07. pis. in. p. Masterpieces. 301. us.. pi. 87. s. Masterpieces. 3. Beazley. Beazley. no. 1 K> II. (1930). no. pi. Hoppin. Beazley. Seltman. bf. 107.. Akropolis. later CV. p. 90. 86 ff. 5. pfuhl. Beazley. Beazley. I. fig. 139-140. 49. no. 334. 8*79. 103. 87. so. A V. 306. 36. pi. Hoppin. 9 f. D. Beazley. 8588. no i .886. 314. Beazley. 87. 10. (1933). p. pp. 13. i.88647. and pp.5. 68. von Bothmer.. no. Beazley. 8557. 09. 3. pp. 15. Beazley. and II. M. p. p. Beazley. Beazley. 6s. 95. Beazley. Fuhrer. fig. Hoppin. no. nos. Beazley. 4041. nos. 118. phase" (Beazley.8. Masterpieces. 90. LV and Beilaije ^ Pease CV and the 90. 92. XI (1989). 58. II. C 487. Beazley. VA.! is. 47. 76. LIH (1933). fig. Beazley.. 950.. II.. Beazley. 8586. 53 f. Pfuhl. bf. Pfuhl.. pp. I.. 86. Beazley. 74. a.^79.. no. Pfuhl. 950. no.. Beazley. 19. 41. II. 324. 86 ff. Robinson. 68 f. p. is. 54. s. 61. pis. is handsome" (Richter and Hall. Hoppin. pi. 31. AJA.145. Afon. 85. p. Graef and Langlotz. 55. Kraiker. Hoppin. 330 Pfuhl fi 3*4-3*9. CV. 840 f. Pfuhl. Beazley. 99. 950. Beazley. FR. no.163. Swindler. 69 f. i. p. no. LV pi. 9. no. pi. 59 94. pi. 73 ff. * Gallatin Coll.50. pp. CV. Beazley. Pfuhl. 8. 7? ff Hoppin. 167 Beazley. 49. 950. Langlotz. 69. Licht. 5. fig. 9.. 88. Richter and Hall. p. 179. s8. J34. Bf. 57. D. Hesperia. no. and Beilage-54. pp.NOTES: EARLY STYLE p. no. fig. no. no . no. II. 83. Beazley. Richter and Hall.168. cit. los. fig. Piot. 98. M. 97. Graef and Langlotz. no. XX (1913). Hoppin. Pease. 465. i8a. II. p. 57. no. Pfuhl. 418-413. 9. s. G 3. p. Hoppin. Gallatin Coll. 6s. Beazley. p. Beazley. 1. II. pi. p. fig. D. p. 106. XX (1913). 10. AM. pi. p. figs.s 53 has a ) inscription "Lysikles Beazley. Hoppin. 77. 6.. 3. fig. 4). 351.. 411. Beazley. 315. FR. no. 8. Richter and Hall. III. 3. pi. Beazley. Masterpieces. 91. 181. 9. 60.. 4 . Hoppin. pi. VIIL s. no. no. no. p.. 30. 179. 6. Neugebauer. FR. III. 178' 950. . Louvre C 1941. Potter ff. pi.139. s. 6. 273. . 50. Acr. 41. Beazley. 108. p. Acr. 93. 6.
no. p. 135. 2. pp.. pi. pi. FR. Sc. Pfuhl. 81. fig. I. 173. no. fig. figs. no. Cf. pi. pi. 391. AV. i. 88.178 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES de cdramique grecque en f. 60 ff. F. 98 ff. 1465. 644. Euth. Beazley. . 15 ff. pi. G XLV fragments joined). Masterpieces. 405. p. fig. 70. Beazley. 369. p. pi. 123. 122. 24 ff. I. p. Gr. FR. 131. Hoppin. Gr. II.. pi. pp. pp. V. 62. new series. ga. 137. Y. Beazley. figs. 367. 166 ff. 19. pp. Hoppin. Ibid. of the archaic 141. Seltman. figs.. pi. Hoppin. Euth. and Langlotz. p. 365. 392-393! Swindler. I. Potter. 133. Hoppin. Beazley. 160. 6. 79 f. fig. Several 125. Levi. Pfuhl. pi. Ibid. 38. G 148... Hesperia. characteristic 124. pi. III (1944-45). 147. 379. 18.. and 68. nos. Buschor.. no. Ibid. 25. 2620.. 119. V. I. Masterpieces. 138. 433. pi. CF. Collections i. p.." 134. fig. Robert. 438. I. 139. Masterpieces. 127. Graef no. 395. Gr. s. Ibid. 103. 266. Beazley. col. Acr. new Seltman. Sc. examples are in New York. V. AP. 26. Beazley. Euthymides. II. F. 31 and S 1317. 26. 391. 1. Euth. i ff. no. FR. 145. no. pp. fig. 7 (Chicago). AV. Masterpieces. 19. FR. Hoppin. V.v. FR. Hoppin. 181. fig.. Italic. pi. pi. 14. 24. Bearley.. 3. Beazley. Pfuhl. Beazley. 71 ff. Beazley. 47. VI. Ibid. Beazley. The name of a sculptor Pollias occurs in Attic inscriptions was (ZG. p. 7. 117. 934. p. V. no. 77 950. Hoppin. i. pp. 107 ff. Buschor. Pfuhl. CV. B c 10. 3. pp. p. 2307. fig. fig. 16. 132. Euth. P 4683 and P 4744. V (1936). 4. 25. p. 2309. 14. I. 16. 16. p. fig. pi. Buschor. no. /3. Richter. 149. fig. MM 136. 25. no. Hoppin. pi. 17. Philippart. p. Ptot. no. Hoppin.. 504. I. Inv. Hoppin. 26. p. Beazley. pi 8 (Athens). 394. 2308. Bea7ley.. 176 Hoppin. period Euthymides' father (cf.. p. 949Euth. 169. 15-18. 290. pi. no. Hoppin. XI. Beazley. Mon. 158. 9 and 23. Bulletin. Pfuhl. Seltman. F. a.. pp. 4 and 5. p. p. i. Akropolis. Hoppin. 26. Pfuhl. 5. 1. AV. 142. Beazley. pp. 7. 143. 3 and 5... F. no. 1512). pi. Beazley. 17. 951. 34. Ibid. fig. g. fig. Pfuhl. p. 364. Pfuhl. 18. Beazley. Buschor. 130. pis. I.. 146. fig. Seltman. Beazley. 15. 164. 8. D. 159.. AV.. B 2. 950. 39. 185-189. Beazley. 951. Seltman. pp. It has been plausibly conjectured that he and Makron. 71. 20. Euth. Faina 62. 16.. 121. 128. pp. 63. fig. p 18.. 25. 150. Beazley. 4-6. Talcott. 21 ff. HI. under "Love Names. Swindler. figs. 15. Pfuhl. Richter. 63. Gr. 41-42. 949. 7. pis. 24. 40. 126. 163. 15.. Beazley. 93. Pauly-Wissowa. Buschor. 33 and I. (with (1951). I. F. Art Bulletin. 314. Johnson. F. 505). 34. 12. Potter.. p. FR. XXI (1939). no. G AP. Hoppin. AV. I. 12. no. Ibid.. Buschor. Beazley. no. 17. 120. 140.. Gr. 4. 24. figs. no. 245. 431.. 436. p. Pfuhl. Pol. II. no. Beazley. 70. V. V. p. Gr. 25. 950118. 948. Villard. 368. 144. Pfuhl. 95 ff. Hoppin. p. p. 166. 105.. p. figs. fig. 3. Beazley. figs.. Hoppin. Hoppin. 61. 951. pis.. Beazley. pi. I. 10. Beazley. Pettier. 951. Pfuhl. fig. 366. 435... 397. so. 129. Beazley. vases by Douris Single consonants are still written for double occasionally even on Beazley. pi. ngff.
II. 121. Potter. 423. von 163. p. Euth. Beazley. II. LVII (1943). P. 6. pp. Die Bildnisse der antiken Dichter Redncr f. p. Pfuhl. pi. E f. i. fig. Hoppin. 315. Schefold.2 59- FR P1 -. continues the lower line of the jaw far past the line of. 48. 2.3 pi. 92. 20. 151. 948. no. Masterpieces. 167. Hoppin. Pfuhl. 30. Pfuhl.. 159. 15. Richter 172. 388. no. Hoppin. FR. no. 5. no. 418. Kretschmer. FR. 161. 3-31. cf. 32. Sc. Beazley. p. p. (1893). 1943. Torlonia Gallery. p. II. i. Stais. Euth. see my Sc. 3. p. II. 93. pis. fig. Hoppin. p. 63. op. 2. i. p. 370. 30. parison. Hoppin. pp. 167. fig. - 32. AV. 156. F. pi. II. Buschor.NOTES: RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 150. pi. Beazley. Pfuhl. Richter and Hall. . 357. 51. Beazley. 165. FR. pi. Pettier... 9. i. 463. XXII Mus. cit. Hoppin. 11. no. 333. p. 26. pi. 4. Zeitbestimmung. 153. XVIII cit. 7. Swindfigs. p. 38-40. pis. in his outline heads. Beazley. 2423. 3. 269: "Sakonides. pi. pi. 67. Langlotz. 18. II. Buschor. fig. 100 ff. Pfuhl. 17. 30 and Milne. the neck.. fig. 360 Pfuhl. pp. Pfuhl. 22. 30. pi. 21. Euth. 11. pp. Potter.. 28 166. 171. pi. 4. p. Oest. pi. G 45. p. 82. fig. 4. 419. 11. useful for comthe Tyrannicides. 20. and for illustrations of der bayerischen figs. Bothmer. Hoppin. fig. II. 170. f. 169. 21. Beazley. II. hist. Beazley. pp. V. 381. 72. 33. ibid. Hoppin. 42. Hespena. 13. Gr. 2. no. 160. Beazley. 123. Beazley. A figs. Hoppin. 22. AP. no. 556. Beazley. 21. 87. Beazley. 20. p. 565-574.. Hespena. fig." 2. 28. no. no. (1953). JHS. Beazley. p. pi. F.. p. Beazley.. V. 385. 949. Beazley. 23. FR. the Hermogenes painter a short distance only. 179 II. p. Talcott. Beazley. 168. 160. and Hoppin. Fuhrer. II. For an enlarged view of the coin. Langlotz. 21.. Beazley. p. Occasionally the jaw line was continued past the neck line much earlier. 14. p. 173. F. Euth. XLIX (1929). Beazley. 162. Griechische Vaseninschriften. For the inscription cf. 82. 1. phil. I. 114. no. p. 2315. 157. 355. 3. Beazley.. Abteilung (1940). 20 f. und Denker. p. 167. 102. pp. II.. no. 13. i..195. Buschor. no. 27. AVP. FR. 6843. Hoppin. 91. Beazley. 81. Hoppin. FR.88. Pfuhl.. fig. fig. 2421. p. II. no. op. RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 1. pi. 164. p. 382* Beazley. Beazley. 158. 172. Beazley. 27. 21. Neugebauer. "Die Tyrannen-Morder.2 fig. 154. 384. 26967. 426. no. Hoppin. III. no. Graef and Langlotz. 123. 347. Langlotz. 218. no. Hoppin. figs. 2. fig. in the other heads the jawline stops at the neck-line. p. 152. 162. Agora P 5157. 2278. fig. 159.2. Akropolis. 27 f. Heft 5. 50 Beazley. 2. II. pp. II. Richter and Milne. 5. 30." Sitzungsberichte Akademie der Wissenschaften. 28. Caskey and Beazley. Seltman. FR. Pfuhl. II. Beazley. 161. 85. 949. ler. 363. E 438. no. 310. 11. RC fig. 465. Beazley. fig. 31. 27. Milne and D. Hoppin. 30. 717. 155. Acr. 66. AM. Hoppin. and Classical Weekly. p. fig. Gr. II. FR. Beazley. 43. Masterpieces. 417. 71. 19. f. p. V (1936).
Beazley. Pfuhl. no. I. CV. pis. i?o. 125. pp. 14. 13. 126. Beailey. p. no. 2. fig.<?. Akropolb. XXXVIII (1954). pi. 13. 8. 139. 16. yj. 175. Beazley. 30. Wtlrzburg. 3-4. 4 l6ff 98 ft. Beazley. CV. 1*3.. 91. p. 7: Beazley. 536. G?. AJA. Masterpieces. 123.15. . however informed me (in I. p. 57a. fig..2344.. pis. before his style was formed (cf. 6.8 and pi. pi. 159. i 7 ! laBSLMai^Cr. p. Beazley. Beazley. 15. (1936). no. Ep. 33*? OigUoli. Swindler. 15). 25. oT^SeVo.. .. Beazley. no. 264. no. Walters. iso ff. 13. Beazley. or perhaps 112 ff. JHS. 19. fig. 7-8. no. Cf. pi. 53j 2i6o''FR?pl. C 4196. p. p. 371. 5. l6 : Richter. 131. FR. 10. AJA. Beazley. Iilhrer. V. as Beazley. XL (1936). fig. Pfuhl. Potter. den Tex. AJA. 15. pi. . Beazley. 3. HI. p. Seltman. II. 13. 59. once read as signatures by Epiktetos: Epi . no. no. I. Beazley. i. FR. Buschor. 101-103. a6. 507. pi. 39: 7. Wilhelm /and reexamined by Athens in 1935) that these letters had recently been have not had the and other epigraphists and were considered to be meaningless. 66. Graef and Langlotz. Beazley. ley. Berl. PW. Beazley. % 30. pi. no. Beazley. p. 3775 Langlotz. 13. pi. and no. p. 128. fig. s8. 121. 1-12. 699. Dr. 6. pi. Beazley.170. is. 7. 8.4. CV. fig. Beazley. 21 a. pis. Kl. ABV 13. 44. Med. XXX (1910). 316. Kl. The fainf and fragmentary inscriptions . with chariot. 31. 137. iooff. PiBeazley. 58. p. fig. 103. FR p. 6 and pi. pis. period" (Beazley. 120. II. FR. Pfuhl. Dinsmoor. Blinkenberg and Johsmsen. 5 a. !5. Gr. Pfuhl. pi. pis. 45. 8. no. Hoppin. 5. ao. pj. Beazley. 149. 380. Beazley. Beazley. egr ph the scenes were attributed to the early Epiktetos (Schneider. 133: Beazley. Swindler. AP. 43: Seltman. 38 MI. 56. AV. p. 303: on a neck amphora in Vienna were 10. Med. i. 2422. I. 378-373: ia". pi. fig. 123. Richter. nos. etc.. Kl. 128. 952other fragments. . .. Neugebauer. loc. pi. 84). 25. 4<>416. pi. 123. * 9 . KL. 58. pi. 2-3. nos. p.. 507. 12. Pfuhl. (I The decoration-a boxer and a opportunity to examine the inscriptions myself.. 475. von LUcken. 27. 378. Beazley. Beadcy. KL. P. . pi. 379. p. 123. . i.'7 = discussion of inscription. Pfuhl. Kl. no. note 7 and Cab. no. 10. Pettier.) Painter. Richter. *-?> Beazley. 255. . pi.233. pi. 125. 6. 14. fig. pp. Kl. fig. 83. no. 195: Beazai. 26040. pis. GF. no. and .. AJA. pi. AP. pis. figs. S3 o5. 15. no. no. Kl. 2. 299. 121. a2.. . no. p. 44. pp. pi. no. p. Pfuhl.. no. and Hall. . 9'> Richter and Hall. 11. V. 92. 14. is 9 1). 19: Richter XL A XL R 08. p. 45. 42. 24. Beazley. 8-is. Beazley.258.. nos. 125. iso. p. 376. (1936). 535.41 Hoppin. 59. '. ty. figs. A]A. Hoppin. % MuM. 1-5. von Lttcken.71 with pankration.180 5 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES - Zeitbtstimmung. Louvre G 57. CV. pi. a. 125. See no. E 270. at.. 112 f. 9. riff. pi. in his earliest a strigil-is "in the manner of the Kleophrades youth with a very early work by the artist himself. p. 24. _ "*" ng5. 375: Beazley. (1936). 18. pi. Richter.. 330. pis. 32. pi. 334 f. XL T aus Ocsterreich. fragment from the Agora P 7241. I. 5. Richter. 121. " 23. 9. 34: Beazley. 9. Beazley. pi. no. 1-2. no. AV. pis. 29. Beazley^p. Cab. figs. ArchSoIogisch-epigraphischc Mltteilungen Dr. no. Kl. 13. pi. Beazley. pi. 122. Pfuhl.. Langlotz. II. *8. p.58. no. 3.. 109. . no. p. Kl.
174. pi. p. 27. 173. p. Way). Louvre 234. 29. Richter and Hall. 181. no. pis. p. 169 57. M. 8. 3982. 140. Beazley.. 167. A]A. 171. Beazley. nos. 54. 167. 41. 15. Beazley. 25. I. pp. 25-27. 17. 65. 20. 39. 177. 277. pp. p. 170. 132. no. 147. Robinson. 178.17. Potter. 6q. 954no. Beazley. 44. pi. 58. S. Beazley. fig. Beazley. 22.7. no. no.139. p. pis. no. 48. pp. V. Beazley. On the black-figured ' . Richter 27. pp. 52.139. A. 191. 14. 175.. 172. Beazley. no. p. p. 26. p.99. pi. and AB V. no. 395. 954.244 no. no. Beazley.171. pi. 21. 171. 18. 169. and Hall. 56. no. 192 ff. 20.286. CV. 40. Beazley. 175* Richter and Hall.. pis. Beazley. Richter and Hall. 75. Richter and Hall. 72. no. 37.. 153 ff. Richter 49. i. 147. 25. 578. 19. G 58. 135: Beazley. XVIII (1911-12). Amyx. 9. XIII.. 17. 22.. of the style o the Eucharides Painter cf. 3. Acr. D. 37. no. Beazley. 12. and Hall. p. 1-2. 179. Berl. Beazley.' Vaser.88. Pfuhl.13. no. 44^Beazley. Pl ' 3 7 4 Se no. Pease.78. 43. Blinkenberg and Johansen. p. 954181. p.. Beazley. and II.69. (tr. no. XXVIII (1908).286. pi. 51. no. JHS. March CV. 3293.163. D. Levi. p. pis. Richter and Hall. no. 174 ff. - D. no. Gr. 198. 16. 56. JHS. von Bothmer. 67 For a list of diskoi with owls 166. p. Graef 56. 133. no. 48. 3. 55. XIX (1912-13). 102. Inv. no. p. Beazley. CV. 71. f. Gallatin Coll. BSA. 5. p. p. Beazley. 59. 61. VA. Berl. 68. 65. 141. no. p. 07. 154.1021. Beazley. 953 * no. 1957. p. 07. 132. P. pp. Panathenaics by the Eucharides Painter cf. XLVII ABV 47 E no. and Hall. no. 7: Blinkenberg pis. 25. 140. 41. 2. 177 ff. Beazley. 24. Buschor. . Beazley. 12. no. On the Nikoxenos Painter cf. 458. Beazley.210. p.229. 6. Beazley. 49. JHS. 113 and II.162. Beazley.212.. 243 ff. 56. pis. no.73. p. 63. 32. 15. 66. 13* ff . pi. 71. MM Bull. 197.. 22. Beazley. ley. 36. Beazley. no. p. Beazley. 135. CV. II. no. Beazley. Beazley. no 62. cf. XIX (1912-13). no. cf. 21. 22. 169. 952. Beazley. p. Beazley. 46. 35. 46. p. 142. On black-figured Panathenaic phorae by the Berlin Painter > PP(1943). p. i. * and p. 228 ff. 157. no. 42.. Beazley. U^V'Giglioli. no. pp. Beazley. p. p. 142. 129. 163. no. 60. Pease.286. 172. pi. CV. E (1945). 170. p. Richter and Hall. 45. Akropolis. Greek Painting. 19. CV. Beazley.NOTES: RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 33. 14. pp. 190 f . Gallatin Coll. 226-231 50. p. 56. 26. 169. no. 169. Richter 70. pis. 131. For a detailed analysis BSA. 24. 155. pis.. Richter and Langlotz. 7. p. 9. 21. fig. - XLIX G - " 58 ff GR XXXVI Beazley. 995 Beazley. no. p. pi..38. 06. Beazley. XLVIII (1943). and 11. AJA. p. no. Berl. (1916). 24.. Beazley. 162. 181 am- 952. fig. 07. 16. 165. XLII (1922). 135. 23. Beazley. 67.. 64. 806. 953. p. beside* 53. 2311. II. 169. pi.1 7 6 41. VA. 8. 335 Beazley. CV.1. pi. AJA. 29-31. 10. FR. no.88. Beazley. p. pp. Blinkenberg and Johansen. Beazley. 493. Beazley. pi. pis.32. I and Johansen. 163 185 ff. p. Beazley. Beazley. p. 31.* 38. p. 138. 51. 134. pis.162. *45 ff . Berl. 26. 25. Beaz39. 448'468. CV. Richter. Beazley. no.. 70 ff. 316.19. i2 5 '\SS**'%** in*. Beazley. 47. Cf. pi. 124. 147 ff. pp. d ?S. ff. no. no. 3*4. 47. p. Beazley. 5. pi. and Hall. pis. Beazley. nos..
15. 955.. no. no. Beazley in his Ait. Beazley. pis. p.171.160. The pyxis in Bowdoin with an archer. 77. fig. p. 2.005. 30. AWL. p. op. Hoppin. 41 89 Beazley. 6. cf. Caskey 80. XXXIII (1913). Pfuhl. no. f. 32. 175. no. pi. Richter and Hall. no. Pfuhl.162. p pi. 84. 132 ff. 129. 233. nos. pp. Beazley. no. 141 ff. 83. Bf.11. 5. p. p. no. pp. Bf. MM Bulletin. Haspels. 473. p. 98. Pease. Plaoutine. 85. p. fig. 81. nos. no. Beazley. XXV f. Ibid. Richter and Hall. 235. Beazley. 41.. 00. no. which the artist was originally named. 18. 06.162. 175. pi. 71. Beazley.. 398. Potter. 29. no. 435. 31. and Hall.1655.. 27. fig. 07. pp. 03 816. Pfuhl. p. 15. 91. 94. Haspels. 29. no. Buschor..70. 48.53. 85. Beazley. 95.. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES Ibid. 68. nos. V. 250 2. . 56. 102. no. Caskey and Beazley. Beazley. Beazley.) ff. cit. 79. 214. 10. Gallatin Coll. II. Coll.1021. pi..782. JHS. 203.29. 94 ff. Haspels. 20. 23. Haspels. i. p. fig. 18... Gallatin. 57. AVP.114. p. 34. 175. 955. no 28. op. March 1957. 31. no. Ibid.. cit. 28. Beazley. 06. 141 ff. Beazley. 175. 3. 113. 206. 106.. 10. Masterpieces.. 96. Beazley. pp. no. Beazley. 44. cit. 11. 13 227. pi. pi. op. 86. ff. 1-6. 10. p. 51.101. 39.i8s 76. 112 and 133 in Beazley's list. pi. Beazley. AP. 205. nos.122. no. i. no. 203. 29. 82. pi. "175. 105. Richter and Hall. 10. Haspels...18. 25. i. pis. von Rothmer.28667.. no. 4. Beazley. pi. 169. 1 cit. Petit Palais 315. 30. in his Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (pp. Beazley.1021. 41. no. Pease. p. pp 206 f. 104. p. Beazley. no. 431. CV.162. 33. 968.. no. 58. and 254 ff. no. 45.) placed the Providence Painter in the Ripe Archaic period. 206. 41. no. Richter and Hall. 228. 29. Beazley. pp. no 3. 43. p.2309. 100. no.. V. Haspels envisages the Athena Painter (see p. Haspels. 11. Beazley. Gallatin Coll. no. G VA. 107. 141. Beazley. Beazley. no. p. op. 8s. 4. 10. 13. CV. 432. i. Lekythoi. 5. Gallatin 3. Swindler. 203 f. 44. MM XX p. Beazley. p. p. 205. no. 19. (1930). i.. Richter. fig.6. 06. Athletics.49 and 17..27 Gallatin. p. no. Haspels. 2. 169. p. 163. pp. after Bowdoin Painter ff. 103. (See also my note 96. 18. Richter and Hall. p. 112. p. 8. p. 22. pi. no. p. 83. 41 ff. VA. 41. 35. 30. 79. 75) in a 97. Beazley. 10. MM Handbook. I. CV.1021.. op. is now attributed by Beazley to the Heraion Painter. p. 114. p. 92.178.16. CV. Richter 88. Beazley. p 206.6. CV. FR. pp. 955. Ibid. 43. pp. Beazley. no. 25. II. Caskey and Beazley. 225 Richter. 4. 75.1070. pp. cit. 431 ff. 14. 109. Beazley.90. 191. 212.. pis. Lekythoi. cit. i. 175. JHS. Beazley. 34. AVP. 87.. 78. 399. isoff. no. p. 13. CV. no. 249 104. 431 ff) he has put him in the Early Free period. 99. pis. Gr.2. no.. Pease. nos. (pp. 06. 94 ff. 15. Gallatin Coll. 9. Pease. Beazley.188. Haspels. Beazley.340. p. 23 ff. pp. no. i. Luce. fig. CV. 207.162. 435. 13. 25. no. and 232 ff. Haspels. 300. pi. 119. 34. (1925). 2. pp 209 f. I. Beazley. pis. Beazley. 108. 41.. pis. pp. CV. pL 26. 207. 163. fig 414. 36. p. tit. 960. 41 162.. Beazley. pis. Fairbanks. and 225 ff. 205 f.. 111. 470 ff. Beazley. 209 II.* p. op. 69. pi. MM Bull. p.117. pp. p. op. 90. AVP.87. VA. Bulletin. 106. 93. Alexander. 207. 434. and Beazley. 136 f. 2. 157 is the possibility that the late stage. ff. 101. Nos.179. XXXIII (1913).
no. V. 50. p. p. Caskey and Beazley. 560. 175. 25. 13. 389. 119. Beazley. 134. 251. no. 40. 175. FR..186. no. * 97. 124. Beazley. p. 42. 175. AV. 13. I. Hoppin.4. Akropolis. 2. A Nike holding an akrotenon appears also on coins of Kyzikos. 129. i. 246. 9. 53. MasterAP. Hylas. 136. 81. 27. 214. 37 G 152. 301 ff. 9. fig. FR. 118. 127. 121. 90. figs. 419-420.. 2. 117For other typical "late Brygan" pictures in New Yotk see Richter and Hall. Beazley. Wurzburg. Fuhrer. Richter and Hall. 54. no. i. p. 401. no. 183 E 44 FR. p. no. figs. p. 69. no. p. 120. 245.174. no. I. 393. Beazley. 245. p. Beazley. Ibid.. 38. pp. II. 144. Swindler. p. 117. 253. pieces. I. pi. Richter and Hall. Hoppin. no. Pfuhl. Acr. Pfuhl. Beazley. 42.. 175. pis. no. p. Richter and Hall. pi. 2645." Transactions of the International Numismatic Congress. i. Pfuhl. 479. cf. Ibid. no. Beazley. 256. Gr. p. 25. no. Symbol of Naval Victory. June 3O-July 6. Masterpieces. Langlotz. 254. AV. 409-4!!. 43. Beazley. Masterpieces. 26. fig. 255. 11. figs. fig. 28. 301. no.189 140. pis. which were probably struck in celebration of specific victories. 43. "The Aphlaston. p. XLIX (1929). Pfuhl. 49. 92 and JHS. 132. 57. I. 387. Beazley.231. 16. p. Hoppin. 141. n. Beazley. no. pi. Seltman. 255. Beazley. on p. II. II. 110. no. 99 ff. 137. 48. note 2. 161. 215. On R 26. p. Pfuhl. no. Beazley. 145. 133. 125. 250.36. G Graef and Langlotz. 135. Buschor. Beazley. pi. London. Knidos. 33. figs. fig. Buschor. fig. pis. p. no. fig. 180.. VA. p. V. figs. 47. no. no. figs. 128. no. Neugebauer. p. no. 46. Hoppin. 28. 255. I. nos. I. 116. Beazley. Hoppin. 160. fig. 31. z. 956. 435-436.. Beazley. 85. p. Hoppin. 39. 253. Beazley. 250. 395 (with restorations). V. 132. 156. 256. Seltman. 215. 424. 178. 177. 10.57.221. fig. no. Beazley. 139. pis. Pfuhl. Beazley. 301.. Beazley. Beazley. VA. 247. 27. 57. 1936.131. AVP] no. pi. II. 55.NOTES: RIPE ARCHAIC STYLE 115. they are also assigned to the Brygos Painter himself. no. pi. Att. no. As I pointed out in Richter and Hall. p. p.2. 254. 12. 2322. JHS. pi. Hoppin. p. FR. Wade-Gery. Richter and Hall.* p. 25. pi. 143. p. p. Pfuhl. . Richter and Hall. Richter and Hall. pis. p. Seltman. no. 09. D. 121. 41. 136. fig. 318. 145-149. 248. no. Richter and Hall. 53. Buschor. Pfuhl. pi. 50. 8. 25. 95. 6.5. 402. 38. E 65. 44. Pfuhl. 152. Gr. 173. 138. 479. 256. p. CV. Beazley. Richter and Hall. p. 245 ff. 60. pi. ao.. pp. II. Beazley. p. 23 ff. 216. Hoppin. I. 126. Robinson. Syracuse. In Beazley's new list in Attic Red-figure Vase-Painters. p. Pfuhl. 52. 75. 13. 176. 162. CV. 301. Pfuhl. 1. i. Beazley. Richter and Hall. no. pi. 155. Beazley. 239. 146. fig. 180. figs. and Beazley. 29. 47. 142.87. G 577. pis. V. FR. 400.43. AV. FR. VA. pi. Pfuhl. Beazley. pis. pp. no. Beazley. 311. LIII (1933). 183 f. 3y pis. p. no. Master- pieces. Beazley. etc. Hoppin. Oionos cf. see his remarks 137. no. pi. 41. 146. 245. 25. no 12 123. fig. 118. 44. I. 85. 131. no. 28 b. 214. Greek Painting. p. 43. p. Beazley. 95. no. pi. no. 433. p. M. 122. p. Brett. Caskey and Beazley. Beazley. 49. 130.189. 47. 958.12. AVP. 23.. 12 234. pis. Gr. 421-423. 428. 215. n. pis.43. 164. Nikai with akrotena cf. 40. For other possibilities Philoktetes. p. 314. pp.555 Beazley. Richter. 49. 215. 29. Beazley. p. no. no. 178. no.
I. 3. 304. no. 174. Oest. II. Though the subject a conversation scene is usual. 5. Hoppin. 156. ff. K. 227. 36. II. no. 49. Fiihrer. 37.9. Pfuhl. See Richter and Hall.174. no.. 242. AA. pp. pp.. 245. fig. 310. 1952. 53. 60. fig. Masterpieces. fig. no.1 and 08. 53. 187. 85. 843. 48. 227. 172. 232. Potter. Beazley. Richter and Hall. p. 55. 53. 1927-28. 456. 226 XLIX ff. Arch. 955. 182. 154.1152. 102. AVP. 84. no. CV. pi. fig. 167. 180. Beazley. pis. Beazley. p. fig. 50. 180. suppl. 102 153. fig.. i. 229. 2290 (and frgt. A]A. Pfuhl. 453. D. p. 160. 279 155. pi. 162. Mayence. Pfuhl. pp. Beazley. 168. 53. Potter. pis. I. 62. p. 62. pi.. Hoppin. 64. 74. 239. 6. note 957. 4-5. I. 161. 36. no. 307. 439. 158. Beazley. Beazley. 00343. 403. 57. and 66 f. (1945). II. 37. 230. Beazley. 12. Beazley. no. CV. p. no. p. 292. and no. Beazley. 101. p. 52. pis. 1928. GR 151.57. p. 241. p. 222. 179. Richter and Hall. The only example by the Triptolemos Painter in New York is the athlete on the fragmentary kylix 14. p. 59. Caskey and Beazley. no. 180. 152. 179. 101. Beazley. FR.246. 170 Beazley. Beazley. 451. 56. fig. Beazley. 105. Beazley. 12. Fuhrer.105. p. 51. 58. fig. 41. 54.. Pfuhl. II. A 718. 183. 148. 16. no. Hoppin. Beazley. plate. 571. 54. MM pp 100 f. nos. p. no. no. 144. 20. pis. no. 181. pi.174. FR. p. 72.. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES E 140. Mus. 181. FR. 27. 233. 118. 3. Pfuhl. 65. 61. Beazley. Pfuhl. 171. Faina. Pfuhl. no. 280. 16. Hoppin. 227. i. aoi. Walters. 181. 956. 230 180. 48.. both signed by Hieron. pis. 455. 20. 150. no. Buschor. 17. pi. 229. figs. Hoppin. 401. pp. 197. Painting.160. 39 ff. Herbig. pi. p. 28 a. 503 ff. p. no. 6.258. pi. 54. 465. Gr. p. Seltman. Beazley. no. pis. in Villa Giulia). 36. 50. 287. Neugebauer.. 289. Beazley. 470. 61-63. G 173. 162. Beazley. 14. 2286. Philippart.4. no. i. 2647 Buschor. no. i. 70. fig. FR. 279. 157. Hill. 48. pi. no. no. HI. 324. 209. p. pi. 175. 41. 63. Masterpieces. 177. p. II. pp. I. p. p. Hoppin. 438.105. 955. Hoppin. 61. Bull. pi. Greek no. Collections de ceramique grecque en Italic. Richter and Hall. Pfuhl. E 768.231. p. p. and Hall. Richter and Hall. fig. Hoppin. VA. 452. 51. 313. p. 217.71.338. Beazley. 259.. I. Delt. nos. no. 165. 304. 174. 968. Buschor. pp. no. ]b. pis. 64. p. 264. 33 ff. Hoppin. Beazley. Beazley. Gr. 00. a. Pfuhl. von Liicken. 100.11. Neugebauer. Beazley. 89. pi. pp. 314. i. p. G 115. 23. t XXXI (1916). 1120. 75. Beazley. Beazley. Masterpieces.184 147. Beazley. pp. 68 f. 105. no. figs. Herodotos 134 f. fig. pp. pis. Pfuhl. pis.. 1904. I.. Pfuhl. 239 ff. 437. Beazley. 60. 8. 56. Swindler. pi. 94. 293. no. no. 2. 233. Beazley. fig. Hoppin. no. Richter Harald Hofmann. pis 181. p. Richter. Beazley. 2. AV. 210. AA. p. IH. Beazley. no. 55. 6. Pettier. p.54 Richter and Hall. 306. 149. GV. 219 ff. pp. CV. the execution 3 is extraordinarily fine. col. col. and II. (1919). Pfuhl. Richter 178. 955 f. 15375. figs. no. no. 56. 12. 8. figs. Richter and Hall. Pfuhl. 219. 59. 161. 280. 06. no. 164.42..7. V. 285. . 61. 184. 152. p. G R 575. 301. pi. and Hall. Masterpieces. Beazley. no. 42. no. p. pis. 288. 3. 163. pis. 53. 266 f. 57. 35.. Beazley. 176. 292. Hoppin. AP. Beazley. FR. 466. V. 159. fig. 169. JHS. Papaspyridi and Kyparissis. II. Richter and Hall. p. ff. 166. 297 f. Pfuhl. 112. Beazley. G XXXIX I. I.. Beazley. 8325. 83. Beazley. Beazley. 180. 404. II. no.
Beazley. chorus. pis. Gr. Beazley. Cf. p. p. 188. p. p. 192. architect. the 197. 367 and pp. 300. 233. Museum Journal. 21. 957.2. 53.19. pis. no. the reading incertae imagines proposed by Grander (Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects. pi. 1930-31. Buschor. i. VII. pi. 381 ff. uti de incerta re certae imagines aedificiorum in scaenarum picturis redderent speciem et. no. Beazley. 10-12: Beazley. 42. 90. The translation is based on that o Professor M. few changes. 2. p. 957. which must be taken in conjunction with it. rests on too not unlike the symbol for m" slight a foundation to carry conviction ("a flourish found in beon the e in re which led Mr. pis.. 5. Beazley. pp.6. Gallatin. According to a recent interpretation men by are the public performance. no. 185. 264. 300. Ex eo moniti Democritus et Anaxagoras de eadem re scripserunt. 191. pp. II..8. cf. p. De diam scaenam H 4. no. no. 200. no. 274. 957. no. 11: Agatharchus Athenis Aeschylo docente tragoefecit et de ea commentarium reliquit.. . 274 ff. 41. Gerhard. Beazley. fig. 185 G R 567. pp. should be interpreted as "a visual impression difficult to grasp mentally". Z. no. p. 10.162. 190. 33 ff. no.. 264. 6. 1875. p. Certo loco centro is. 199. Beazley. XLV (1941). 5. my article on Perspective in Serial in onore di Bartolomeo Nogara. quemadmodum oporteat ad atiem oculorum extentionem certo loco centro constitute lineas ratione natural! radiorumque respondere. Beazley. S02. 41. 2. 2296. FR. pp. XXXVIII. Beazley.g. von Lucken. M. 956. while ingenious. 135. i. 55. GV." De incerta re. of vol. Dohan. Oct. 51. ho. 263. no. no.NOTES: EARLY FREE STYLE 183. 179. (1932). CV. 47. p. Pease.. 271. p. 53 11. 1937. s. 264. 529 ff. Zeus. A. Beazley. e. no. pi. 20. 5. FR. Neugebauer. Beazley. quae in directis planisque frontibus sint figurata. Hartwig.. no.. 1954. I. Schriftquellen. 193. i. i. V. B. pp.. 186. Morgan (1926).. 573. p. 07. EARLY FREE STYLE Overbeck. 189. 414 (restored). 2. Pfuhl. being trained for some A]A. E 76. CV. 1. 2640. praef.4. pis. alia prominentia esse videantur (ed Rose. pis. 86. pp. members of a young MM 201. CAB.. Beazley. no. 1900. pL 49. 47. 299. 2294. M. 59. Beazley. 267. 46. p. Trinkschalen. ig8a. 31. 6. 187.. cf. pi. A. 198. 86 ff. pis.74. Cook. Ibid. III. pi. probably a tragic chorus.1. Reinach. pp. Beazley. J. Beazley. 194. 195. pi. 956 f . 924.162. 62 f. xix f. XXm GR 1075. i. H. I imagine. 299. 132. 41. 184. Bull. FR. 266 ff. II. 271 1. 27. 2. Fuhrer. 196. 45.156. Beazley. 3. p. GaUatin ColL. 1899). 263 ff. alia abscendentia. "the station point. 8.518. 48. with a 3. Milne suggests. fig. no. III. no. Professor Bieber. I of his edition of Vitruvius in the Loeb Series). p. Recueil Milliet. Gr. 267. For a discussion of the whole passage and of Vitruvius I. Richter and Hall. Beazley. Granger to suggest "that the scribe of fore him and read it as m"). 266. Philippart. pp. i. Beazley. 180.
no. Beazley. XXXH (1912).. JHS. no. 64. Beazley.162. no. fig. 20. 75. 9. Richter and Hall. 72. 138. FR.27. 363.. 75.55. 514. pis. Bovio Marconi. pp. 21. Beazley. Panm. pp. 28. 21. 29. Buschor. Panm. VII. 170. Walters. 56. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES s. 361. no. Beazley. 373.I.185. Vasi greci inediti dei Musei di Palermo e Agrigento. Richter Beazley. no. 30.33 ff38. no. no. 45. 2. 371. II. nos. Beazley. Hoppin. 1939. Beazley. no. 34. Richter and Hall. no. Gabrici. pp. 5. Diepolder. FR. no. Gallatin.152. no. 376. Pfuhl. n. Richter and Hall. 3. 376. i. 178. 172. 113. II. fig. 476. Beazley. 2417. FR. 16. 18. Beazley. 17. p. 55. 06. 177. Richter and Hall. no. 23. no. 69. no. 199. 783. 173. p. 3. no. FR. 384. p. 2322. pi. 959. Richter and Hall. fig. Beazley. 1-2.69. 23. no. 9. p. FR. 67. 84. 66. no. 385. CV. 10. 582 ff. pi. p. V. 2. 11.28.. no. 22. Beazley. p. CV. 13. pi. 4. pi. 72. 26. Beazley. Beazley.. CV. 41. E 284. i. no. lGz > Kirchner in Pauly-Wissowa. pi. no. 102. 23.. fig. Beazley. no. p. and Hall. Pfuhl. pis. no 76. p. 31 a. 959. 71.1021. Beazley. 7. 3027. 384. of Musicology hejd at 15. fig. pp. I. 19.60. 959. 77.162.j pi.17. 385. on these Beazley. pi. 9. i. figs. 25. the remarks on the Greek kithara by Gombosi "New Light on Ancient Greek Music. 72. p. Beazley. Berl . Panm. no. 10. Kirchner. Panm.. Beazley. Beazley. no. CV. 68. pp. 63. 3-4. Beazley. no. 61. 159. Pfuhl. E 171. AV. no. Glaukon. p. 373. 69. 67. 307. . i. p. AV. Beazley..162. AP. 69. 13. 1. fig. pis. Beazley. p. 8. 25. 23.184. Craft. pis. 370 fE. Nos. p. fig. Jb. 10. FR. pis. Seltman. 2. 22. pi. pi. 6. 17. New York. 71. CV. 771. 14. 778 (2554). 28. Beazley. 61. pi. Beazley. no. pi.. no. no. Pease. but the subject is not certain. p. 4. 33. On the hydria in the Louvre 50 (Pettier. and Hall. 367. no. Walters. 12. Panm. 36. 475. II (1887). Gallatin Coll. 371. p. 959. pi. p. 41. 1-3.245. 21. 57. 364. 18. pi. Beazley. note 18. Richter and Hall. p. p. no. 386. p.. 3. Sept. 361. pi. 962. 34. Cf. See p. Beazley. 27. 11.. 94} the "Egyptians" are depicted as Greeks. 115. 2. no.. Beazley. CV. 4. 16. col. 2. CV. 367. fig. 41. i. no. pi.144. i. no. Swindler. p. VA.. 13-15. no.86. 39. Pfuhl. Beazley. 170. pi. GR V Beazley. fig. Beazley. no. 70. 364. no. 9.j Beazley. i.. Panm. p. 41. 32. Richter. Panm. pi. pis. no. no. 363. 582. AP. Beazley. Buschor. 377.v. Beazley. 377 ff. 11. Beazley. Panm. 27. 365. 585. 48. 65. 18. P. 24. 1402. 2. Panm. pp. Gr. Beazley. p. Pfuhl. 17. 31. no. no. 20. 76. p. pp. 16. p. 7-10. fig. 9. Prosopographia Attica. 384 ff. 11-16." a paper read at the International Congress 12. Beazley. p. 71. 74. pis. Cf. Beazley. 15. Beazley. 34 and 59 in Beazley 's list. no. 363 ff. Beazley. in 169. no. Richter and Hall. 366. 3. 203. pi. 373 ff.. Cf. p. 501. pi. 2688. 34. 24 a. no. pi. 8. 39. 378. Beazley. Masterpieces.1021. 61. fig. 1-4. Beazley. Beazley. 70.. Beazley. Beazley. V. pi. Potter. pis. p. Beazley. 40. 31. 25. 69. 11 ff . Studniczka. 32. II. Gallatin. no. Gr. no. Panm. 2. pis. 06.72. no. no. 361 ff. 33. 380. 23 160. 73. pis. 370. 381. 9683. 20. pis.. 362. 41. 968. 32. no. pi. p. pi. Seltman. pis. G 35. 131. Richter 37.i86 7. p. no.. 2. Lamb. 31. pi. Swindler.
286. pis. Rumpf. The is Beazley's. pi. AV. W. fig. Bull. Greek Painting. figs. pis. Pfuhl. 589. pi. March 1957. P. Richter. Masterpieces. 416.167. pi. Masterpieces. 170. Richter. pis. 57. 53. 25. Diepolder.. 3. pis. V. 127. Beazley. FR. 960. and Langlotz. fig.. pp. 72. CV. 4 in Beazley's list. 74.. fig. fig. 119. Beazley. 26. 39. no. R 48. MM 69.11. no. 78. 116. G 47. no. Die rotfiguren attischen Vasen. i. FR. Richter and Hall. no. II. 3. no. D 2. 575. p. AJA. Z. 401 ff. Seltman. 589. 14. pis. 07. 427. Richter and Hall. CV. 22. 341. 33. fig. no. Arndt in fig. no Swindler. 597. 763-765. 2. AP. no. M. Br. 41. 169. 962.. 181. pi. Pfuhl. no. 181. 31.. p. is6.98. Pfuhl. 183. 178.8. Gallatin. 506. 69.162. Diepolder. 381. 100.. 56. 45 28. 18. 178. Bulletin. p. 43. 16. Diepolder. polder. Gr. 56. i75 !7768a 56. Beazley. 373. Buschor. Beazley. pp. Beazley.139 29. Pease. 2-5. 43. and Hall. Beazley. p. 6. fig. r. 587. Gallatin Coll. Buschor. Hoppin. 42. 589 ff. no. von Bothmer. pi.60. 206 ff. 30 a. 108. Beazley. Richter. 44. fig. pi. 575. Pfuhl. pi. 606. Die55. 591.86. no 10. 06. 79.NOTES: EARLY FREE STYLE 42. 507. p. Acr. 2V.. Masterpieces. 81. fig. 196. Beazley. Swindler. and Hall. 418 Webster. 1954. 2. AP. p. Beazley. i. Beazley. Seltman. Beazley. 66 and 67. Beazley. Pfuhl. P. G MM (1942-1943). 67. AP. P. 4. fig. 4. 251. fig. 27 ff. Richter. pis. 78. 65. 492. fig. no. pp. 588. AV. 197. 35. 99. 575. Pfuhl. pi. no. Beazley. Seltman. 17. pis. 98. a. Beazley. XLI (1937). 584.9. Gr. 101). 07. no. fig. 73. p. Diepolder. 70. 35: Richter 07 286 84. 77. I Br. Graef 54. p. pis. Swindler. u. 59. Pfuhl.* p. pp. N. no. 178.1143.. 114. 99. 76. G R 579. Gk. 18. pi. 143. Akropolis. Painting p. 98. Hoppin. p. 06. 597. I. 962. p. no. fig. II. no. no. 427 ff. V. 52. interpretation of the scene as the Birth of Aphrodite and Hall. of Eros and a youth is accepted by many (cf. pis. Richter and Hall. Smith in A]A. 349. pp. AP. Beazley. P. no. 17. i. illustrations cf. pis.66. pi. no. 5. p. 13. 07. pi.36. 7. 20. no. Beazley. 58. especially Lowy. 75. 583. figs. 65. Beazley. no. Kraiker.. 182. 105. 64. no. For 66. p. P. Richter Greek Painting? 68. On collaboration of vase painters in general ff. XLIV no. Richter and Hall. p. p. Webster. Buschor. and Gr. Swindler. 588. fig.286. no. 2689. i. P. 286. V. Beazley. 471. 342. 181. 959 * . Buschor.. Poly412 ff. p. 77.63. new series.. no. 423. 71. pp. 16. P. pis. The alternative suggested by H. Pfuhl. 36. Pfuhl. p. Beazley.162. FR. Beazley. pi. Pfuhl. Richter. 51. 244. 279. 46. pis. Richter. 170. s. 326. 429. pis. 502. Diepi. Nos. Richter Hall. 72. 19. Potter. p. 175. fig. 97. no. 12. i. Pfuhl. 61. Beazley. 419. 182. 97. Der Pistoxenos Maler. 422. FR. 320. II. pis. 13. 78. 215. no. 98. Swindler. 76. i. 11. H. no. fig. p. pi.. cf. pi. Richter and Hall. Gr. no. f. 5. Beazley. 576. I. 574 ff. Greek Painting? p. 325. 187 polder.. 21. R. AV. 163. no. 319. nos. fig. pis. no. Diepolder. 63. Richter and Hall. 581 pp. Beazley. V. p. pi. 498. i. 80. 50 Beazley. Hoppin. Diepolder. 07. no. FR. no. p.167. 171. 19-20. pp. Ibid. 118. 165. Masterpieces. p.1079.. AP. Beazley. Richter and Hall. p.286. no. pis. Beazley. 49. Richter 60. 55. 588. 35L 352> 363: no. 427. Beazley. 29. 25. 117. Pfuhl. pis.17144 and 51. 79. Masterpieces. 439. D. 3. 576. 62. 2. (1940). no. 2. 41. figs. figs.1021. 112. p. pis.286.79. no. 50. 77. p.
407.. 102. i. fig. nos. Beazley. no. Beazley. 110. no. 409. i. Piot.41 and ff. AWL. 106. 492. pis. 538. Hoppin. Richter and Hall. LXXII (1912). pp. III. 542. 104. 115. no.. p. 3. 437 114. II. 101. 80. no. no. 524.1021. CV. Beazley. 92. Richter and Hall. 89. no. AVP. Beazley.190... 01 8097. pi. pi. 317 ff. Pfuhl. ff. 116. 3. 105. 117. 101.10. 98. no. Johnson. Pfuhl. I. p. no. p. pis. p. I.1021. 442. 90. 109. CV.15. 401. 171.162. i. pi. FR. 321. no.1021. 99. Beazley. AJA.. 149 ff. no. pis. For a detailed analysis of this painter's style cf. Jb. IV.. no.1101. 17. i. p. 87. Swindler.19. 17. 2. and Milne.176. Beazley. 109. 15. 402. Caskey. bottom. no. fig. p. 06. 06. 95. 89. 13. 401. 2. V. f. pi. p. pis. no.162. 17. 2 and Beilage to p. Pettier. 107. 131.177. 15. 41. Richter 83. 06. and Hall. Richter . 82.77. no. 175. 407. 525. 95. 107. 523 91. and Hall. pi. no. 909. Beazley.134 Pease. pis.139. 98. nos. 50. 25. p. Beazley. Beazley. Beazley. VA. 410.. 33. H. 526 ff. A Beazley.1021. 401. no. and Hall. 181. pi. p. p. 10. Beazley. pp. 173: Beazley. W. 113. Beazley. Giglioli. 26. f. no.. II. 410 86. no. Smith. fig. (1927-28). Beazley. University of California. Gallatin. I. 158. p. 408. p. i. 105. pi 52. no. 84.. Beazley. Pettier. 542. Mon. 531. p.. 321. p. 106. . 437. p. 85. Beazley. Beazley. p. no. 41 162. 16. i. 83. Beazley. . 4 a. ff. pi. p. 2413. p. FR.. pis. pp. no. no. 538. no. 41 162. 77 2497. 2. 2. 9. 960. p. Beazley. 16. 153. CV. pp. 106. 525 96. pis. 85.192. 105. R. 402. pp. Berliner Winckelmannsprogramm. Gr. XIII (1906). 282 f. 100. 286. Beazley. Richter no. pis. 14. XXVII (1912).21. 318.72. Beazley. no. 15. si. 31. Fairbanks. RM. Beazley. XXVII (1912). 181. 2. Beazley. p. p. 449. Beazley. Beazley. 47. CV. 26. no. 102. p. Beazley. i. 521. 22. pp. fig. 169. 41. pi. pp. no. 141. E 79. pi. 41. Beazley. Richter and Hall. CV. 137. 17.. 961. no. 34. 51. Caskey and Beazley. no. 103. 171.85. pp. 491 ff-5 Beazley.162. pi. no. 09. Beazley. Beazley. Beazley. 101. 1708. 06. 75. 4. Beazley.96. 244. Beazley. Beazley. 2. Frickenhaus. pis. no. 537. i. p. i. 93. no. Beazley. Gallatin Coll. 291 ff. p. Hoppin. i. 76. 960. Gallatin Coll. 5. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES FR. 3. 5 and pi. pp. pi. 112. p. p. CV. 526. Beazley. 28. no. 447. 107. pis. 18. p. f. 107. AJA. no. pp. 208. 521 ff. 27.134. Richter and Hall. 206 f. XLIX no. Catalogue of Sculpture. 172. Beazley. no. 16. no. no. E 66. 552. CV. P. Richter and Hall. 402. 103. 542 ff. 17. 81. 104. 524. Beazley. 439. 77. 06. p.1021. Fragments the Villa Giuka and Florence belong to this cup. 550. 95 28 Hoppin. Richter and Hall.60. Beazley. no i.i88 74. 441 f . nos. in 102. Pease. XXVIII (1924). pp. 22.221. Beazley. 524. pis. F. 181. Beazley. Gallatin. pi. p. 17. II. p. 524 no. RM. Beazley. 18. 47. 78. 100. 550 108. 111. 109. pis. no. 407 ff.230.5. p. i. pp. Heydemann. Richter 97. 538 XXIX C 2183. 958. 95. Beazley. Beazley. 07. no. Gallatin. 13 (shape). 960. 2. 49. Beazley.23. p. 32. 41. 98932.931. 06. pp. no. G 94.286. 88.230. (1945). XVII (1902). BSA.
i. Beazley. 7. 84. 131. 443. no. Brussels oinochoai. p. CV. p. 358. 25. Beazley. Swindler. 142. p.16. Seltman. von Bothmer. 336. p. 1170. Masterpieces. s. Pease. AV. LIII (1928). Beazley. p. Beazley.162. 15. Gallatin Coll. pp. Czartoryski Coll. 130. 327. ff. Beazley. 2. no. fig. Richter and Hall.10. Beazley. 32 a. Beazley. VA.. pi. 72) and of a third has recently been Bulletin. 143. pis. pis. no. p. CV. no. D 5. 35 . no.. 91. 329.162. Nos. I. 351. fig. 57. 352. 129. 41. A J O ' 288. figs. Hoppin. i. 95. pis. pis. p. p. pi. 8. 88. 152. pi. CV. AVP. 26. p. 125. Richter and Milne. Beazley. 6. II. Zschietzschmann. no. Peredolski. 94. Walters. Beazley. 93. no. 18. 11. 85. Gallatin Coll. 135. pp. nos. nos. 137. Beazley. . XXXVI . pp. 82. CV. 41. 592. 328. 14. .44. fig. 82. no. 122. no. 139. pi.162. 335 AP. II. 170. Inv. no. ilq . 326 ff. 35 ff. p. 41. 329. and Hall. 07. found in the Athenian Agora.17. 119. 90. p. no. 169. Richter and Milne.162 56. no. Beazley. p. and 41. 450 ff. 26. 90. Swindler.1021. see p. 136. 43<>. D. i. 958.80. Richter and Hall. no. no.115. 151.. c. 133. fig. Beazley. no. CV. Pfuhl.162. p. 32. 347. pi. AM. AP. p. Beazley. 6 ff -> 95 8 140. Beazley. pi. pis. i. 137. CV. pis. 150. 346 134. Beazley. 125. G AP.155. 450.151. 27. no. Richter and Hall. Beazley.74. 8. p. Beazley. 173. AV. 128. 127. 336. Caskey and Beazley. . V.162. no. 4. p. The Hope MM 147 148. no. s. Richter and Hall. Formerly attributed to the Painter of the 138. 2. pis. figs. 54. 189 pp 328 ff.7. 146. pi. 353. no. 2. pp. 35. 7-13 in Beazley's Bulas. 568. FR. Richter and Hall. Beazley. . no. 83. 121 GR 1x4. CV.70. 06. 173. Richter and Hall.. 2. pis. nos. 136.286. no. 120. 54. 126.1021. 9 Seltman. Licht. Gallatin. 4. pp. 96. 132. no. Beazley. 15. 80. CV.11. 6. pi. 283. no.33. 330 ff. March 1957. FR. p 326. pis. 86. 07. 87. Two MM are in the Vtfta Giuba other such magnified knuckle bones (astragalot) in New York ( Museum (decorated by the Syriskos Painter. 322. 346. Richter and Hall. pi. nos.. Pol. pi. 13. 83. no. 145.NOTES: EARLY FREE STYLE 118. 06. 141. Pfuhl. 95. II. pi. Buschor. 84. 12. p. Gallatin. no. Beazley. 429. Beazley. AM. p. Beazley. 446. 568. Beazley. 41 162. 173. A fragment : On the spelling of this name cf. Gallatin.1 Bull.). p. i. 3* b.7. 18.20. i. Beazley. 92. soi. Gallatin. p. 41. XXXIX (1935). no. Hall. p. 351. 13. 123. figs! 82-84.286. Vases. 443 ff. Beazley. II. Beazley. 336.2303712. 170. 88. 29. 2.. 161. 8.131.286. 4. Pease. no. 93. Sittengeschichte. 13. Beilagen 16-17. LIII (1928). Gallatin. 122 f. pis. 81.74.60. Hoppin. Beazley. pi. 41. 45* . V. p. 34. pis. 30035. Beazley. 104... no. no. 24. p. no. Beazley. 5*8. 483E 804. AJA. Ibid. i?5nos. Beazley. Gr.131. Fairbanks. pp. 45L . 07. 87. . 960. list. fig. pi. 91.. 432: Beazley. Beazley. pp. and 170. 177. Swindler. Richter and ff. Richter 169. p. 10. 958. pi. 330. as. pp. 16. pp. 356. no. . 326. A WL. 526. Beazley. 29. no. ^ CV. 527. 22. Beazley. 144 Tillyard.. 46.
II. no. 10. 494 ff. 23 a. Beazley. Smith. no. II. March 1957. nos. Beazley. Beazley. 167. I. 6 S-. no. XLIII 154. no. perhaps sea onions. Athenaios XIII. 41. von Bothmer. 14.97. AJA. p.286. 24. 30 2. Beazley. 4. p. 181. 163. pp. XLIV (1940). pi. 14. Nos. pi 38. no. Dogs are used for rounding up cattle as well be accepted. 56) that (1939). CV. Beazley. pis. 161. no. 155. He points out that white lines indicate that the Amazon is lying on a rbck Bull. 158. 186. pi.. 156. 104. and 68 in Beazley's list are in New York. 3.102. 135. 58. no. L. 1-4.11. 2685. 56 and 165. pi. 179. clearly intended for the two little protuberances of the fetlock above a cow's hoof with grooves for hair. II.17. 580. XL L 159.1021. away the wolf Aelianus. Pfuhl. 175.. CV. I am for the two objects are in relief. 62. 65. p. Beazley. L. 36) cannot. D. Beazley.40. 106. Beazley. 183. Herodotos II. 496. Beazley. 160. i. AWL. 519. 960. M. p 178. no.. 32 a.igo ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES f. AWL. 153. 596 common Attic name. p. 9. 27. 14. Beazley. Richter. 42. p. 168. 182. 561. 171. p. pi. Smith. pis. no. p. Gallatin.. Nos. 33 c-d. 453. 499. 17 f. 93. p.. Pfuhl. 47. 95. 176. Swedish Cyprus Expedition. 28. Smith. FR. 3. no. 41. 86. 38. no. 225 ft. pi.8122. . Beazley. 457 Bulletin. frighten afraid. M. 1-2. 107. Robinson. 508. pis.. 231.88. pi. 500. Beazley. Beazley. 41. 166. 962. p. 06 1021. Fairbanks. Beazley. JHS. 90. 26. nos.. JHS. p. L. p. De natura ammalium. 580. Petit Palais. 519. (1923). 558. p 222. 92 in Beazley's list are in New York.132 Fairbanks. no. i. 482. AJA. i7oa. 503 ff. Beazley. 561. Beazley. 17. 26. 33 a. 68. 27. 517. 25. Aus der Karlsruher Vasensammlung. no. D. 180. p. 184. p.37. 5617141. 221. 175. 556. 961. pi. III. 15. 5. 15. 2. figs. The new attribu- tion is by Beazley (in a letter). 6. 21. 142. 55. no. fig. no. p 560. 1 i. pp. E and Freeman. Beazley. pi. D. Watzinger. no. 35-54 and 06. 170. XXXIII (1938). Beazley. MM 172. 56.1. 175. no. to MM (cf. 482 f. L. 35.. pp. Smith. 516 ff. 07. 103. p. pp. Beazley.. pp. 193. Beazley.11. p. 23 b. 13. p.5. XLVII (1927). pi.Gjerstadt. 162. Griechische Vasen in Tubingen. pi. p. pp. 467 f. Beazley. pis. and are as sheep. 968. 169. Beazley.2. 34 a. pp. 01. no. pp.126.78. 508 ff.60. pis. pis. 561. Bicknell. Moreover the long legs of the animal near the cave suggest a dog rather than a wolf. no. Sabouroff Collection. Smith. Robinson 517. MM Bull. L. 202. Beazley. 961. 3. 566. p (1936). pp. Beazley. However. 2. part and parcel of the shape. I. XVIII AJA. pi. Beazley. XLI (1921). 2. 539. Beazley. p. 95. Beazley. Cf D. Richter and Hall. 556 ff. 2402. no 111. p. pp.11. Archedike is a fairly 165. fig. figs. no. pi. 2. f. !78. 191. Beazley.4. Buschor. 11. } pi. 157. Richter. 7 and 9. 164. 39.162. 73- v 174. p. von Bothmer. Furtwangler. Smith. Welter. 80 d. Grab. figs. 517. 968. Amazons in Greek Art.Plaoutine's ingenious suggestion (CV. i. Beazley. AWL. no. the two objects right and left of the hare are plants. fig. 563. Masterpieces.. Richter and Hall. 40. no. 177.
ai. 35. p. p.2 fig. AWL. Beazley.1. 10. T 1052. 377. S? 197-199. Smith. 644. no. XXXIV (1914). pi. Berliner Winckelmannsprogramm. AWL. 57. 19 and p. no. 634. 666. no. AWL. pi. 8 a. 634. Beazley. AP. no. The date is later than 430. FR. i. Fairbanks.189. no. no. Richter and Hall. 36. Pfuhl. 4. IX). AJA. JHS. no. 24. 644. 640. no. and so the theory advanced by Riezler (Der Parthenon und die Vasenmalerei. Pfuhl. pp. p. fig. 169. 137. 07. Swindler. 118.258. A. Beazley. fig. Pfuhl. p. XLVII (1943). 290. G 444. 15. 304. II. fig- Cab. pp. 22. Gr. no. no. 8. 17. Beazley. 169. instances cited pi. fig. (for the whole subject of copies on vases from the Parthenon sculptures see the references cited in his notes 9. Riezler.e.81. Man. 154. VA. 163-165 17.i = a. AWL. pp. AP. 121. Beazley. FR. Richter and Hall. 86. no. Beazley. 135. 748. 2. Beazley. pi. 217. Zahn in FR. 11. XXXVEH (1934). (1903). Swindler. no. fig. pis. and 25.2. Beazley. Beazley. before 438. pi. 41. WAL. nos. Hahland. Richter. 264. 18) and Pfuhl. 16. 2. Beazley. i. 636. 357. pi. 642. p. 08. 114. 18.189. may belong to "the late -school of the Berlin Painter. 167.. III. fig. 176. 120. 1174 iso. p. 637. Swindler. Beazley. fig. 34 Beazley. Med. fig. fig. III. Museum Journal. p. Beazley. 176. 1x8 1. XXXIII (1932). Beazley. 47. Eine Sammlung griechischer Kleinkunst. 94. 639. 3. 644. pi. 35. fit. Beazley. 74. FR. 35-37. and Hall. 574. Cab. 190. 65. 318. 648. Buschor. 635. 9? Beazley. Richter and Hall. I. 12. pis. p. pis. AP. pi. no.. 120. 56. Riezler. no. Beazley. 2418. Richter and Hall.. 587. p. X by Buschor in FR. 640 ff. 13 ff. 303. pi. Pfuhl. 153. fig. I and II. 12. no. 543. Swindler. 2. AJA. AWL..258. fig. 5. i. that the vase was made before the frieze was erected.NOTES: FREE STYLE IV. Masterpieces. No. no. 637. Seltman. pis. 163. no. XXXTV (1914).. Beazley. Beazley. XXXII (1873). 523. 26. Beazley. p. 80. to. M. III. fig. 176. p. no. fig. M<5d.236. no. 14. i. M. 8. 333.13. ]h. 8. No. FR. fig. 293. Beazley. pp. 08. 78. Richter. no. 6. Fairbanks.8. 10. Robinson and Harcum. 4. p. 25. 372. M<wte -pieces. AV. H. 166. 191 FREE STYLE 1. p. 2357. Beazley. p. pi. fig. 171. 119. 118. Beazley. Richter 25. no. II. Beazley. XII (1897). 12. pi.18. fig. V. p. 171. and CV. fig. no.. Beazley. 23.230. 6 a. 6. 38. Fairbanks. according to Beazley. 42. 92. II. 448 f. no. p.. 69. Ancient Furniture. . p. no. 4 ff. 121. 521. fig. 77. Pfuhl. Oest. 643. 3. does not hold. i. AP. 19. 10 c. 155. FR.17. 115. 9. 113. p. Sculptures of the Parthenon. 637. 577. Cf. 94 a. Buschor.236. III. p. Sc. 1818. pi. Beazley. 3 2.286. 2.1. JHS. 188. 823. pis. 635. 13. pis.. 338. Pfuhl. pi. Sc. Beazley. FR. 130* Lullies. pi. Hirschfeld. Grab. no. 20. p. 634 ff. p. Robinson. E 385. 167. pi. 113. no. No. WAL. 7. Pfuhl. 136. III. no. 114. pi. 45 ff. no. 114. Aurigemma S. 2 . fig. 33o. 49. 115. II. D. Piot. 119. no. fig. 634. Richter and Hall. 165. 496. Catalogue. Swindler." It certainly shows the close connection between the Berlin and the Achilles Painters. III. p. Hartwig. AP.
pis. p. 35. 124. 102. no. I. 17. 116. fig. 56. D. I. 9. 4 ff. 2. XI AWL. p. Beazley. For a representation of a Greek fighting a Persian. 2. Richter and Hall. p. pi. pi. 653. pi. p.. Beazley. Beazley. 62.189. p. 48. 98. Buschor. Pfuhl. 176. pi. Richter and Hall. 37. Beazley. p.igs ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES AWL. (1916). 645. 08. Cg 61. GR pi. 156. pis. no. p. 658. 168.38. i. 651. 782. 41. 2. 15. 14. 55. CV. II. 661 f. 14. Beazley. 29. no. pis. i ff. 185. 66. 54. VI. 178. no. 83. VA. no. 23. 655. p. 49. 657. 80. 38. II. HT. Hoffmann. 94. 152. 10. Beazley. no. pp. Beazley. HI.. in. 08. pi. AWL. cf. no. 651 51. 27. XLVHI 7. i. 34.10. Beazley. p. Caskey and Beazley. Beazley. 62.23. no. JHS. 657. pi.883. 53.258. Beazley. Walters. Richter. f. 14. 18. 653 39. 55.16. i. 58. krater in Berlin. 658. pp. ff.. Richter and Hall. no. 807 33. 644. p. no. pp. 55. 125. Beazley. 135. 4: Beazley.229. 115. 149. 178. Buschor. AWL. Hartwig. 41. VA. pi. 536. 103. i. Beazley. VI. 7. 661. note 12..35. p.1021. Beazley. AWL. p. no. 61. 644. no. 20. p. p.57. Beazley. 9. 57.C. For a detailed analysis of the Achilles Painter's style cf. 36. Pfuhl. p. 31. p. 23. ALP. 108. Darstellung der Perser. no. (1928). 122. 32. 42. 6. p. 287. 123. V. no. XII (1897). 181. 168. 08. p. Pease. 207 ff. Richter and Hall. Beazley. no.27. CV. Richter and Hall. Richter and Hall. 666 f.. no. and the 963. 108. Beazley. 653. Beazley.. Gow. 28. 784. no. fig. 176. RM. 571. e. no. 128. 963. dated about 480-470 B. pi. Bulas. 09. 60. no. 656. pp. Fairbanks. 43. 39. 656. Czartoryski. 3275. 556. E H 498. FR. Smith. p. MM Beazley. no. 82. 171. 176. p. 5. Beazley. p.. 30.165. Beazley. no. 102. p. Beazley.258. 296. Beazley. pi. m. CV. ALP. March 1957. 117. 45. Beazley.44. 35. MM Bulletin. p. Beazley. Beazley. III. fig. Beazley. 658. 40. I. i. 8. 2.3 8 5 * (tr- i.. 19. ff. p. pis. RM. Fairbanks. no.. 47. p. I. 5.258. XXXIV (1914). 46. 07. the column krater in Bologna.39. 169. Fairbanks. 29. m. fig. AVP. 167. Richter. von Mercklin. Beazley.142. 122. p. no. Fairbanks. Laurinsich. p. AVP. JHS. no. fig. no.23.. 106 ff. Beazley. p. 40. Evelyn White). pis. 48.. Richter. 9. IV. 52. 55. pis. XXXVIII-XXXIX (1923-24). no. 176. no. Pol. Seyrig. no. CV. Gallatin Coll. no. 650 56. 177. pis. figs. 25. ff.g. pp.. AWL. i ff.230. Richter and Hall. Cf. Beazley. no. Beazley. Grab. 124. pi. 123. pi. 42. Pfuhl. 12. fig. no. Richter and Hall. 38. Oxford. Syria. Richter and Hall. von Bothmer. p. p. 06. in New York. 809. 116. Gow. pp. no. 176. Pfuhl. no. Pfuhl. Schoppa.1171. VA.28642. n. 59. 59. he. no. no. 783. pi. XVIII (1937).17144. 71. no. 101. p. Buschor ALP. i. Menon Painter. pi. Caskey and Beazley. no. fig. V.. 108. 661. pi.221. fig. 28. 608. 39. fig. Masterpieces. no.11. pi. 2797. 135. FR. 661. XX (1925). 80. p. no. i. 123. 645. 63. 81. 656. p. 5. pp. Beazley. no. fig. no. pi. pi. 06. CV.160. 140.97-37 1 - MM Bulletin. pi. Beazley. 29. II. Beazley. . Beazley. 108. pp. 178. pi. no.160. 23. AWL. pi. pis. 13. p. Beazley. p. p. IV (1909). pp. Bull. 50. fig. fig. 44. cit. no. Beazley. no. 2798. Cf. Bieber. 17 f. Buschor. fig. 808. Beazley. 1. 511. FR. Pfuhl. no. 56. pp. Beazley. 53. 656. 4. MM Bulletin.162. 26.
p. GV. Beazley.97. 132. ib. Miss Milne. Beazley. A no. pis. 2. fig. Beazley. 379. AVP. AM. 690 ff. p. Seltman. and Hall. i.. no. p. 193. no. 95. von Lucken. M.v. Beazley. 129.792. Gr. 125. Beazley. 667. 78. pp. 73. 33. Beazley. Beazley. 79. 666. pp. Inv. 114. 32. no. p. in. pi. no. p. pi. no. Jb.79 Caskey. pis. 96. AVP. n. ]b. p. Plot. no. III.30. p. 201 f Pi. Beazley. Hoppin.80. 27. pi. 94. Jacobsthal. pp. no. 88. 21. 3 r. CV. 697. no. Beazley. VA.. 132. 554 91. Bulas. 65. von Lticken. Beazley.88. Caskey and Beazley. 666. 4-6. 176. no. 73. 55. Beazley. 21.*<*>'> Bulletin. ctt. 963. 34. Richter and Hall. p. no. pi. 680. Beazley. 85. 22. FR. 666. Beazley. p. Beazley. 76. fig. JHS. 126. I0 7.5. 674 f. 3. pis. 103. (1903). 71. 130. 2. T 82. 133. p. 3.162. Studies. 308. J. Beazley. G 424. 2.160. 41. i no. fig. Libertini. O (1933). Beazley. AA. 171. p. Catterall in Pauly-Wissowa.. Beazley. 677. II. pi.11. Beazley. Beilagen 3-4 at p. Beazley.. FR. 665. and Hall. GV. no. p. no. Walters. III. pi. Richter 72. 2. 671. CV. 674. pi.884. 131. 171. 24. 680. LX-LXI Hampe. no. no. CV. 23. pp. 698. i. II. 35 b. 171. Swindler. AV. p. 679. Diitschke. 677. 26. 64. 1772.. no. 690. A V. 25. 361. LIV '9?. 2385. IV (1945-46). i. AP. 665. pis. p. no. 66. Pettier. pi. no. 1927. 89. Beazley. p. no. pis.187. E 280.1021. 22. Pol. 75. Blawatski. 23507. 174. 24. i. 169. MM V 69. Gallatin Coll.11. XXXIII (1918). 43. loc. 116. XXVII (1912). 668. 169. 75. 2401. E 497. fig. p. 87. i. III. Beazley. 671. Beazley. fig. Die Melischen Reliefs. Beazley. 898. 381. no. Beazley.139. new series. fig. 193 I. Milne.. Beazley. 379. pi. Beazley. pis.155. 83. 677 ff. no. p. Richter and Hall. Beazley.10 7 bls Puhl fi &' W> Beazley P> Beazley. 674. Beazley. 667.NOTES: FREE STYLE 63. p. 90. 678. 84.45. (1938). 113. V. 06. p. II. no. 130. no. no. no. p. 97. no. Mayence. Hartwig. 177. 58. Seltman. 173. X GV. 131. Klein. 171. 2. 2. 25. col. pi. Pfuhl. 144. no. 133. 92. 16.116. 671. 70. 375. 520. p. 49. 981. no. pp. i. pis. 173. 18. no. 74. 435. && 99. : ' 1 6 100. Beazley. XIX MM rays round Perseus' head. 4. discusses the significance of the 126 ff. 111.7-16. 24. p. 671 ft. 17. Beazley. no. s. Caskey. 302. AP. 7.. 68. 77. Caskey and Beazley. 03. pis. P XXXVIII (1934). 78. Walters. Beazley.1. i. ff- XXVII 11 -). Hoppin. no. 703 ff. 668. 36 b. i. CV. 668. 00. 668. nos.. Richter E no. 110. Jacobsthal. Bollettino d'arte. no. Mon. (above). Richter and Hall. Beazley. 06:10*1. 131. pi. 690. 67. no. p. p. 06. p 679. II. VA. Beazley. no.73. no. pi. CV. 5. Swindler. 8. Richter and Hall. no. 378. p. 355. 47. Richter and Hall. Buschor. CV.113. no. 670 . 8. pis. 3. pi. 86. 134. . Richter and Hall. 43. no. 2. 129. p. 19. Beazley. 667. no. Perseus. no. II. pis. Beazley.346. Pease. 80. von Lucken. 31. p. Beazley. p. no. 148. 7. 129. V. Hoppin. p. AJA. pp. pi. 128. pi. 2. p. p. p. Beazley. in. 668 ff. 93. FR. 207. 690. 112. 81. (1934-36). Beazley. pp. i (below). (1935-36).
24. 726. Gallatin. pis. AP. 118. Beazley. pp. 14. 98 pi. 185. and Painting.' S5 Inv. pis. 138. Richter 17! Beazley. no. 26. 1S7. GV. Richter Studies. RM. fig. 3: Beazley. no. 709 ff. FR. pis. 717. pi. Pfuhl. /&. no. Beazley. Beazley. and Hall. von Lticken.. 189. Gerhard. no. 131. II. CV. 127. no. 11. 58. 3172. pi. W no. 718. i. no. 136.12. 726. 60. pp. pp. Beazley. 128. 8J Beazley. 101. 766. 721. i4. p. pp. 56?! Swindler. V (1934-36). Beazley. 717. p. 686 108. pi. no. Richter and Hall. 126. pi. 133. p. . 33. fig. cols. 17. Beazley. 686. 684. 37. fig. 727. 139. fig. 100. 23. 1026. Fuhrer. 223-227 and 221 . Beazley. pi. . p. cit. pi. 561. Richter and Hall. 24. Neugebauer. pi. XI (1896). 684 f. 8.162. GV. 193. P. 299. Pfuhl. III. (1954-36). Beazley. Beazley. 137. p. Richter 12*. and Hall. no. 365.14. Beazley. 116. 851. p. 07. 113. pi. 110. no. 06. p. nos. figs. 7<>4. no. ff. T Now in T E 617. Beazley. Cab. 4. fig. no. 40. 687. 101. no. Beazley. 560. Beazley. 8588.65. 688. nos. 774. AA. no. 1897.21. 27. 9. 211. Swindler. Beazley. GV. 3275. Buschor. 9. pi. Beazley. Med. fig. 13. 18. 133. 139. p. Jacobsthal. pi. 766 no. 17: Pfuhl. Beazley. 105. 2. 18. 128. no. 12. i. 104. Beazley. Griechische und no. pi. 108. fig. Beazley. von Lucken. p. 112. 5 no. Auserlesene Vasenbilder. 703. fig. FR. 19. pis. I. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES von Lucken. no. m.FR. 16.229. 80.. 10*. GV. Sculpture no. 704 1 14. Eph. p. pis. Studnkzka.25. 1689.97. 7<>. 341 FR. 41. p.137. 544. '93 = V pp. and Hall. pp. 721. 7. 133. Lamb. 31. 140. 41. Gr. p. 131.194 fig.. Beazley.187. CV. 729. /&. 721 f. pi. fig. i. i. no. pi. 115. no. 3589. us. the possession of the Trustees of the Christie 105. fig. The Hope Vases. 7. op. pis. i. Pfuhl. fig. 5591 P*"*". no. pi. and 99. no. 20 ff. Beazley. p. estate. fig. 109. 2. 688. 114.57. pp. pis. 711. II. 555: Walters. no. 226. Hauser. 2.. middle.. FR. 6gs ff. 17. AP. AP. fig. 369^ Neugebauer. 138. Beazley. 692. i2. no. no. p. 145. no. 117. Pfuhl. Swindler. 109. 72. 195-JQ9. pis. 12. ff. Beazley. pis. 125 Jacobsthal. 768. pp. 4. no. in.173. Beazley. i. no. 724. i. Beazley 138. 138. pi. Beazley. Studies. Inv. 141. pi. 106. 718 f. Beazley. no.1021. i. Pfohl. 9. 964. p. 688. pi. sicilische Vasenbilder. 25. i4 fig.. p.XXXI (1916). pp. 111. Neugebauer. Masterpieces. p. Beazley. 340. p.. p. pis. von Lticken. 57. (1897). p. XII no. 1935. 134.286. 52. Hoppin. 136.162. 554: PJahl. i. fig. Tillyard. Richter and Hall. 1831. 134. MM V ff.15. F. p. Beazley. pp. 719. Fuhrer. Swindler. pi. i. 123. 129. L 63. Aurigemma SJL i. Benndorf. no. GV. no. no. 963. 17: Beazley. 591 FR. ijo. Masterpieces. Greek T 135.. Fuhrer. middle pp. 134. no. AP. 64. 171. 371. 8471. 10. fig. Tillyard. Pfuhl. p. no. 121. 2. no. Tillyard.. "i 1^08. 5. MM no.230. p. 1-3. p. 135-18?. 766. 135. 12. Friedlander. pis. Beazley. II. The Hope Vases. and Ashmole. 104. Beazley. 102.258. 138. Hartwig. Beazley. i. no. 2. p.141. pp. 724 ff. p. f. 766. Beazley. 2.
143. 725. 155. 138. Beazley. 738. 141. 141.24. i??: Beazley. 666. 140. 5. Beazley.286. Peredolski. Enc. and name Caskey and Beazley. 5. Richter On the Greek harp see Herbig. no. 855. p. 964. p. 2. 139. p. 193. nos. p. Beilage 30. above. no. 724. 1934. Beazley. CV. 2538). 144. p. 19: Beazley. Beazley. 160. Nos.192.11. 150. with 164. Richter. 2538. XXXIV (1939). p. pis. fig 195 no. 95. 19 a. 2537.2 p. of second Maenad. IV. Beazley. 739. March 1957. 135. 19-**. Panofka. Beazley. 158. 764. Beazley. no. 737II.229. 743. pp. 756. pis. pp. no. p.and Hall. i. 753 168.13. p. no. no.12. VA. y llo.171. 07. (1927). M. i (no. fig. Illustrated in part A]A. Befczley.258. U X n i56. P 273. p. 2. 138. 733. 724. AWL. 56. no. 7. U. XLIV (1940).48. pi. no.. p. Beazley. right. and Hall. 8. Beazley. 134. p. 145. 157. 537). 146.6. g I In Ny . 151.86. 65. no. Beazley. 733. Richter no. no. 2. Karouzou. and Hall. pi.162. no. 17?: Beazley. no. pis. Richter. 149. Richter and Hall. p. no.. 742.. no. 7. dell'Inst. p. L (1946). Gallatin. 134. p. no. S. no. no bis.8 Richter and Hall. 740. CA Ssber N . no. discussion of subject 162. 156. o. 150. 2. 7 3*. 153. 30 and suppl. pis. no. Beazley. p. pis. pi. o. ley. 14?. 12. 16. pi.. Hartwig. ?SS'i?Stobki. 231 . 59. a 7 8 From the Collections of the Ny Carhberg 2783. phot. 4. pi. no. 41. 742 ffno. 163.NOTES: FREE STYLE 137 Beazley. 08. AVP. 9. 737. 1587. 143. 563. p. no. p. 139. p. 140.11. 143. Beazley. 221. 179. ff - 964- no. 143. 142. pi. 140. 148.2. no. 154. fig. Beazley. 53. D. 30 b. i3ga. 165. 5. 8. Richter. no. 725. 4. fig.. 733. pi. Richter and Hall. s.64. no. VA. 145. 43. 166. Beazley.22 FR. (1946). 174: Beazley. Beazley. no. Pourt. Beazley. no. i. p. 10. Beazley. 16. pi. 142. p. 8. 176. pi. CV. 161. 79. Beazley. 142. XLII no. 738. no. no. 7S B.19. no.73. pi. 112. 19. Beaz617. Aurigemma S> p. 08 258. 148. 39 (no. 19.35. 180. L fig. 144. 47171. 725. no. pis. 31. above ==S. 6. pi. 149. p. Beazley. Beazley. 17*. no. 40. 15. E 389. no. 16. 754. Beazley. oeTo^w/Ri'chter and Hall. 120. Beazley. CV. AM.58. pi. Beazley. 40. 152. LIV (1929)' l64no. no. 17?! Beazley. AVP. 739. E 94. . 964- RM.. Beazley. pp. 733 ff. pp. 176. i. II (1938). no.. Gr. 30 von Bothmer. (1874-78). -4/4.. 38. Caskey and Richter. i. 146. no. 170. p. ng. Neugebauer. pis. *<>. ^352 BeJley! p. 174. 150. Beazley.* p. p. Pfuhl.24. Pfuhl. 3. II.97. 738. 27. p. no. 740. p. p. Glyptothek. p.. Richter and Hall. and Hall. *LM Bulletin. no. Bull. 566. i S Richter and Hall. Fuhrer. L'Antiquitd Classique. A]A.46. 147. p. pi. Beazley. FR. pis. p. 145: Beazley.89. Ill. !? ITS'. 8. Beazley. p. 150. i. 8 i. 754. MM AWL. p. 37. Bruhn. fig. BCH. 11. and Greek Painting? p. 725. p. no. 11. Beazley. 725. 167. 725. Greek Painting. 144. pi. 31. 7. 24.11. p. i.192. pis. AthL. 745ff. 428 ff. 174! Beazley. Richter Gardiner. 122. 725. 755. Mayence. 11. i. pis. 739 152. 150. Beazley. 145. 146. 3-5. T no. 177. Man. 24. Richter and Hall. p. 734. right. p. pi.
pi. A. .H. Laws. p. 258 ff. Bulle. Hahland. V. XXV 393 (Diss.. Cf. 473 ff. 6 ff. pis. no. Eph. IX (1940). Attische Grabreliefs. Republic. 1932). For iccent lists of these see Diepolder. ivi<pdveia roO xp^M ttTO * dvrlnoptpos. p. Robinson. Brockhaus* edition of De sculptura by Pomponius Gauricus. cit. "Shadow: shading. 19 ff. Parmenides. pp. Mel. 1937 (looth anniversary volume).. Ath. Pfuhl. pp.g. 8. Hesperia. T^IP oCra \&yovffiv. Ibid.. Riegl. Speier. 12 ff. AP. E. XCIV (1934). 1895. e. 752. 18 ff. Ancient. 1901. (1911). Schone. 227 ff. "The Rationalization of Sight. 32-58. XXXV. 180. 381 ff. p...... For a general account of Plato's views on art cf. XII (1929).. 24. 10. Hahland. Schweitzer. pp. Wiener Genesis. 90 ff. dvOpdnruv rpwroj 7. 752. 11 b. Ibid. Reinach. " bolische Form. op. Recueil Milliet. 3. 174!... Rhomaios. that is. Griineisen. 34. pp. pi. (1920). Beazley. Plutarch De glor. pi... the figures on the calyx krater in Athens (Hahland. M. pp. RM. pp. 58 ff. 162. 220 ff. 6. pi. e. pp. 225. .. Jb. 78-80 .g. 3. 1953. no. 48. XXVII (1912). XXVII (1912). (1904). "Zur Erfindung der verschiedenen Distanzkonstruktionen in der malerischen Perspektive.. Ivins. 15. pp. 310 . 188 ff. 160. "Perspective. 201. See Hahland. mimicking form color... 26. Leipzig... espedally Wickhoff. II.vo\\6S<apos fwypd^oj ffm)voypa<j>lar <TKiaypd(j>os dvrl roti ffKi)voypd<pos. 16 a. 18. 148.ig6 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES AP. III (1905).. Spatromische Kunstindustrie. fl. For a recent analysis of the development of perspective in the Renaissance a much debated subject see A. scene painter. Binneboessel. 18.. 14.575 Delbriick. Richter and Hall. 1938. 598. note 70. pis. Re'sum&. Reinach. 165. primus spedes exprimere instituit. 2. XIX 7 ff. 165. Hoppin. 1896. M." in Repertonum fur Bonn. Berliner Winckelmannsprogramm. 12. Hesychius.. d'arch. 18. 163 ff." 5. One of the latest found is by the Shuvalov Painter. Leipzig.' Bibliothek Warburg: Vortrage. N." Metropolitan Museum Papers. A painter Apollodoros through was called shadow painter. Greek Painting 2. p. 477. 8.. Beitrage zur Linienperspektive ory/xi0oj. 523. 179. 277 ff. M. 61: Ab hoc (Apollodoro) artis fores apertas Zeuxis Heradeotes intravit. M. Buschor in FR. Cf. that is. fig. ^KiayptHplav IX^yero Si ra Kal 'A. Bulle. S/cid- 60: <riciaffa. note 10.. Platon et I'art de son temps. dated about 390 B. Swindler. "Die Perspektive als 'sym- XXXI XIV Kunstwissenschaft. figs. e. (South Italian). pp. Pliny NM. Bulletin Museum Fine Arts. (1910). p. Swindler. 13. Vom Sinn der Perspektive. 99 539. 1936.. Cf. Dinsmoor. 346 a: 'AroXXtowpoj 6 ifcvpuv <p6opav Kal dir6xP ufflv ffft&s. 4. pp. Richter. pp. and Greek Painting*. Richter. Actes du congres international d'histoire de I'art. Deltion.. 602. cf. 11. P. Panofsky... 1. op. p. Bieber. 9. 6.. p. 6. 282. XXXV. XLH On RM. 6. LXVII (1932). 1924-25. 1899). cit. Hauser. and the statuettes of Muses on the hydria.. 16. Beazley. LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE Overbade. Wieleitner. pp. 9.. Shadow painting a name for scene painting. (South Italian). 663. 64. fig. Schriftquellen. There is an extensive literature on perspective in ancient art. Schuhl. also Panofsky. 4). this subject see especially Hahland. 249 ff.C. Jb. fig. pp. M. Urkundenreliefs (Diss. 1937. p. Mediaeval and Renaissance" in Scritti in onore di Bartolomeo Nogara.g. 1845. H. HT. 16.
Bieber. V. Richter and Hall. no. 787. 800. 965.. = no. no. 800. p. 797. Pfuhl. p.19244. no. 102. 790.89. 197 Brueckner. fig. 29. Douris in Athenaios IV. 155. 27. no. 357. V. 41. fig. 11. p. 799. 16. p. 12 a. Gr. Buschor. JHS XLIX } (1929).. Conze. 242. 243. FR. Hahland. Gr. pis. 06. A 19. 151.io. 45. 17. figs. Beazley. he might have been beardless at the time the vase was painted and acquired a beard by the time of the Ekklesiazousai. 19 pi. 254. p. 794 f no. p. F. Beazley. no. loc cit. 154. 19. 156. Bieber. 795. 6.97. 20. II. ff. 3. 1292). 102: riiv beard of Pronomos. middle S. XLIII Hahland. no.185. P. V. I.} figs. Masterpieces. 797 f. 22. Beazley. Hoppin. cf. fig. 790. Swindler. 157. RC l 239. 9 6 515. Beazley." II. no. 153. 244. 27. M. 38a.. Greek Painting? p. fig. 791. 16. M. 154. 784. 130.. Beazley. Gr. 20. fig. pis. 789. Beazley. 184 d. 332. 181. fig. pi. Beazley. Beazley. 968. 6. Richter. figs. Beazley. p. 31. 35. 18. 35. That the musician on the Naples vase has no beard whereas Aristophanes' Pronomos was bearded can easily be explained by the license which vase painters took in such matters (Hahland.. p. Beazley. p. no. V. 29. 79 8 ff - 48. fig. fig. Beazley. 558. FR.122. Beazley. FR. 790. 5.983. 11. p. Aison. Beazley. and Hall. 797. Besides. 06. 46. 209-211 XL 44. n 5o '2. 784. 49. AJA. Johnson. no.66. Richter and Hall. p. Richter and Hall. 26. 5-6. p. Dionysios of and Hall. 48. no. Beazley. (1939). 37. 767. in Thebes continuing for several generations in which the name Pronomos appears more than once (cf. Richter XLII (1938). pp. 207 middle and pp. 47. 7. 2402.72. Hahland. 73. Dugas. 8 b. 30. Beazley. Plan. no. Swindler. 196. Richter and Hall. 27. p. 27. no. 9. Pfuhl. Beazley. 11265. Richter and Hall. Beazley. 3*?. 618 fig. no. p. 252. 155. Beazley. however. 785. 152.38. that there was apparently a musical family 23. Beazley. 247-249: Beazley. IG. 153. p. . 2361. 28. GR 593.i22 9. 146 b. 171. Messerschmidt. no.25. p. HT. fig- 345: Dugas. Beazley. 38. no. AJA. Beazley. 7. 300. 33.i p. 51. Hahland. 178. p.139. Beazley. Beazley. 774. Buschor. 32. 36. 36. p. Beazley. 345. pis. 157. pis.2 p. 156. 8. AP. pis. pp. 25. 297. as Beazley suggests. Aison. . Beazley. On this whole subject S. 42. fig. 24. 62. III.7. pi. 2. pis. . 968. p. Hpav6fiov ir<ay<av' ^mv. 26. 790. no. pp. Cf. 228. 49. Pfuhl. VII (1932). 37. pi. 25. Pfuhl. p. "wearing scholiast adds that this is the flute player. 173. 2415. Pausanias IV. 797* no. 6. no. M. RM. Beazley. 22. fig. Swindler. 1937. p. 172.78. 9. flute player was the son of an Oiniades (Anth. 2. pi. Pfuhl. pi. Halikarnassos VII. note 9). As the father of a flute player named [Oijniades (IG. 797. 582. p. no. i. AP. T 127. Pausanias must remember. Cf. 158. 798. 576. 34. no.. Die attischen Grabrcthe liefs. 107. Aurigemma. 1234). 151. 17. 4. 39. 24. Masterpieces. p. U. fig. 5.. p. p. Beazley. Pfuhl. no. no. p.1021 174. Buschor. Beazley.8. 40.NOTES: LATE FIFTH-CENTURY STYLE 17. We 784 ff. no. M. 2419. Richter and Hall. 2. II. fig. FR. pi. p. VA. 21. p. 28). and pp. Der Friedhof am Eridanos. 7. 794. 789 ff. no.1021. 2. notes s-8. 12. 171. . Buschor. Richter 43. The Theban IX. no. 810. AP. Gr.
Beazley. 259. fig. 82. Seltman. Hoppin. pp. no. pp. Stg. Beazley. I. 831 fig. 21. 75. 801. fig. 59. no. 83. 88. Beazley. 46. Beazley. Masterpieces. II. no.11. Pfuhl. 37.11. 117.. p. ph. pi. II. 842. AP. no. Neugebauer. pi.11. Richter 68. Beazley. FR.15. Jatta. p. fig. 840. 832. 3. 8. FR. Beazley. MM . no. 44. pi. Tillyard. I. Beazley. p. 9. 3.229. 376. S. Beazley. Atti Soc. 4. 79. FR. 838. 12. Buschor. 87. 177. FR. op. Beazley. fig. p. 1243. fig. no. I. II. pp. 194. 159. 161. no. 3. 66. 5. 100. 586. pi. Beazley. no. Swindler. no. 197. 122 ff. CV. pis. op.. nos. 2. E 224. Walters. Hoppin. Th. cit. 85. Beazley. 09. V.22140. 91.. 30. 852. 67. i. no.. Line. Cf. Beazley. p. 2. 78. and Greek Painting? cit. pi. 169. no. 38. p. Beaz- RM. no. 831. pp. Beazley. Ducati. pi. no. pis. 177. 69.345. 159. and Hall. op. Smith. pp. 178. V. Beazley. fig. 67. 832. 251. p. Seltman. 62. Beazley. p. 831. 342. San Francisco. fig. p. 165. 2706. Bieber. p. 127. 74. Pfuhl. CV. FR.344. 13. i. 575. no. new series. 58. HT. 587. AP. 44. Jatta 1501. i. Beazley. pis.. p. p. 45.1021 196. AA. Gr.. Pfuhl. 845 f.7-16. p. p. Pfubl. p. fig. 109. 56. CV. pp. Akropolis. 841 ff. 54. 81947. FR. no. Fuhrer. II. 852. 4 b. pis. 847. 64. Pfuhl. 834. 91. 595. p. Fiihrer. p. 255. 47 f. Beazley.6. 682. 23. fig 234. pi. pis. Pfuhl. XXII (1913). 66. 33. fig. p. Nicole. no. 593. 832.46. 4. p. pis. fig. L (1946). fig. and Hall. pp. 37. p. pi. 2. cit. 96. Richter and Hall. 966. III (1944-45). 1460. Beazley. 176. a.. 1937. 3. no. AV. 653. Buschor. 847 ff. 72. Pfuhl.12. 852. 793. p. 76. 17. 842. no. no. pi. pi. p. 594 and Pnyx 349. 2531.2. 161. CV. 7. no. pis. 2. A 73. no. 845. 81948. 42. 842. AJA. Beazley. Gallatin. 965. cit. Hoppin. 805. Luce. 00. 60. 35. 159. Levi.. 94. 57. i. 97. Nicole. 346. pi. Graef and Langlotz. Bieber. 11. 92. fig. 160. 7.1. 86. pis. Beazley. Nicole. p. V. . no. 9. 250. AJA. Beazley. 9.. 841. p. Bull. 849. 6. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES ff. Marconi. Richter and Hall. pp. 60-65. CV. Gebauer and Johannes. Beazley. 9.23. fig. Beazley. Hahland. Pfuhl. 39. fig. II.. 574. Swindler. p. 846. 12. nos. no.13. Richter. Nicole. Beazley. no. HI (1888). V. Man. 311. 70. pis. 00. 108. pi.. Beazley. p. FR. 837. III.. Beazley. Pfuhl. FR. pi. i. p.2633. FR. 129. AP. Hoppin. figs. V. 10 1. 258. nos. 847. 3. Swindler. p.. AP. nos. 77. XLIV (1939). no. 2. 52... 833. p. D. fig. i. Gr. 801 55. Jatta 1538. 61. nos. fig. 14 and 34.. 81. 6. 41. op. 1931. p. nos. ff. no. 179-181. R. fig. 41. 219. 583. Swindler. 164. Beazley. op. 832. 344. 73. Buschor. MasterGr. p. Beazley. 162. Af and Studien. 859 ff . 4. Meid. Magna Grecia. no. Gr. ley. 4. 71. pieces. 158.324.1624. V. no. Nicole. i. i ff. 50. Beazley. 25. 594. Richter 65. 257. Beazley. 852. 5. no. pp. Pfuhl. 2. Buschor. if. 80. 140. fig. 854 ff. 98. pi. 852 f. i. AP.213. 842. no. 965. 52. 23. pp. Beazley. Richter and Hall. 849. cit.. Neugebauer. Gabrici. fig. Bcazley.ig8 53. Acr. II. Midiaj The Hope Vases. 245. cit. pi. op. Beazley. i. i. 3240.. p. 65. 2.. pp. G 63. fig.. no. 06. Beazley. 468. 168 ff Beazley. 128. Beazley. Nicole. pp. 17. 86. pi. Karouzou. pi. Buschor. 84. Richter. p. no. Swindler. Ducati. Pfuhl. Gr. 6. no. i. 803 965. 584.
966. Cf.. 70. p. Smets. Schefold. 27. 4. Sambon. fig.. (1049). 06. s6. and Hall. and Johansen. p. 250 3. WUrzburg. Beazley. a. 6 ff. Hoppin. p. 343. A. E 770. II. 62 ff. 162." L'Antiquitt> classique. p.162. 90. 871. 95. no /*. M. no. 2. 154-156Recueil Milliet. M. JHS. pi. pi. p. 125. Aftiftfe d'Alexandric: La Necropoh di M. pi. p. op. nos. HI.fi* * For this evidence cf. 243. Brauchitsch. i. 334 if. 854. Smets. 6-7. and Schefold. 94. 53. 25. C 1869. no.. p. U. 06. Richter 109. Beazley. pp. FR. A]A. Schefold.11. 163. Beazley. 28. U. f. Hahland. 12. Langlotz. XXXIII (19*9). no. pp.8).. Beazley.. p. 8. and especially Schefold. 186. Beazley. Buschor. referStudien zu den attischen Utkundenreliefs. 268 ff. Beazley. pp.. Ducati.. ff. 41. 2. LIX (i 9S9). KV and 17. Fairbanks. 522. especially Hahland. Swindler. 870. Reliefs. Beazley. 199 89. "Croupes chronologiques 4. Overbeck. 93. p. no. mannsprogramm. 18. pp. AWL. 16 a. 874 ff. 07. "Das GrSberfeld von Marion auf Cypern. 11. U..844-48). pp. no. 3.38645. II. 9. XLVHI (1888). and the 5. pp. Cat. 117. 19. a. i. U. pp. Inv. XXXV. 1.. Hahland. pi. 4. XX Beazlev.12. p. R 19. no.NOTES: THE FOURTH CENTURY Bf. p. 870.162. CV. 11. D. 874. ALP. nos. nos. V 13. Canessa. no. AWL. 24. XLVII. p. 265 65. ALP. no. 288. Ducati. (1916). . Cf Beazley... *. 17 a. no. i.. pi. 6 On this subject cf. AWL. 96. XLIH (19. Binneboessel. Robinson. SS^wTl^ i. 63 ft Saatbt pis. des amphores panathenaiques inscrites. (1936% 96 ff. III. ences there cited. f. 17 33 A. Hoppin.1021. p. 8. PL 43: Curtius. pp. 1932. no. 22-24. 34-36. 467. pp. 161 Brauchitsch. 28. Beazley. M. pp. Hoppin. 820. M. . Coll. Schefold. 191: Beazley. p. 92. 870. 7. 829. Saggid. op. p. VI. no. so. Blinkenberg no.135. and passim. p. Gallatin. NJI. 2. 187. II. Herrmann. no. (. 97 ff. no. i. p. at. 105. AJA. 854. Beazley. Hahland. 870. pi. FR. Beazley. Swindler. AP. Neu-att. Fairbanks. P. p. XLVIH. cit. Cf. P. Buschor. 2. 876 26. Beazlcy. .1169. Meid. Preisamphoren. pi. . Beazley. p bo. ^/^. Hahland. 51 ff. XLVH 10. 8. 41. 870. p.66. no. Beazley. Schriftquellen. pi. 455 ff. 953. pi. pp. U. 28. THE FOURTH CENTURY ff. 828. 3. Buschor. 91. Reinach.. CV. pi. M.. ALP. 173. Mauser. 23. Midia. *> 35." Berliner Winckel7. 161. p. 95. p. 14. p. 330 ft. Ibid. 25. p. 475: Beazley.
52a. cols. pp. 888 37. Metzger. 1234. Richter. 163. no.. M. pp. Richter and Hall. 16878.). pp. 880 ff. no. pp. 967. Hesperia.181.g. Telcphos. p. p. KV. Schefold. 804. Brendel. Schefold. act our p. MM Bull. 08. pis. 28. pi. St.184. Beazley. Cf. 21. op. V (1936). pL 3 b. 5^4 in (13-4 cm. s. Af. Cf. SchefolcT. 168. 46. Ibid. Schefold.75. 269.139. 25. cit. no. and V (1936).. 32. 35. 304 ff. I. 163.. For the Greek harp 33. KV.JSSga- XXXV ff . i 42. pi. KV. E E 45. 39. Beazley. p. Schefold. pi.. Schefold..258. 172. no. 47. Gabrici. no. Hahland.1021. 166. 3768. 146 ff.. notes 8-4. KV. 26. 78. Saggto. 10. s v. and Hall. 67. 58. 178. pp. no.. XII (1909).. 13. Richter and Hall. Ibid. Schefold..200 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 27. pis. s. KV. pi. du IV siecle.5. 48. 167. 65 cols. Cf. Jh. 170... 3-4.. c-cu. i b. Klytaim(n)estra. 696 ff. 288 f. Les Vases grecs 53.. p. St. Courby.26. cols. Repr. pp. 137. 883. 172. V. 44. Jena 390. Piot. ff. 886 f. Hesperia. aia. Cf... 28 57 9. 60. Schefold. Cf. 11. 59. 958 representations 63. Ht. 171. 164. Mon. KV. pp. pp. FR. 177. 68 Talcott. 342 ff.10 cf. e. Richter and Hall.190. 866. 191. 231. Schmidt. 06. lbid. p. U. pi. Schefold. Line. p. 891. 493 ff. Hofer in Roscher's Lexikon. pi. pi. Beazley. pis.7 cm. c. 170 ff. A.. 6.. 5. Materyah. pis. (13. For a list of Ht. pi. 66. Schmidt. 50. pis. so t. f pp. si. 40 ff. Richter and Hall. . 867. 429 ff. Schefold. 880. Pan. Thompson. Mon. Schefold. Ill (1944-45). p. 55. pis.. 92 ff.1021. Ibid.. no.. S. 11. 88. no. 123 56.1021. 42. pp. Schefold. 1-4. Ibid. no. fig. Ducati.97. 24. and s.162. ff. cit.. For Pan and Eros 1456 Werhicke in Roscher'f Lexikon. J.). pi. 30. 40. 3. 15 a.. figs. 24 a.. 173. 62. pp. op. Oest.. 38. 43*. 44. pi. Ibid. Untersuchungen.60. a. KV. pis. 68. 519 ff. 64. U. Buschor. 50 ff. Hahland. Cf. figs. no. 520 ff. col. 36 ff. in Hellenistic art III (1934). Hesperia.. Beazley. p. at. 117 ff. 57-28. VII. 14. 43. 167. 5% ff. 36. Hauser. 22. 20 (1916). 9.11. in. pp. Courby.. Ibid. IV (1935). 49. 19. 165. 54. no 169. 61. 868. 29. XLIX (1945). op. Ibid. 168.20. 885 f. Beazley. Orestes. 163.. 1791. Gr. if. cols. and Stona. II. 553. U. 166.v. pi. U. 41. pis. no. 06. Dow. 451 cf. pi.v. Richter 41. 90 ff. 52. 966. Ibid. A]A. (1913). pi. C R 1861. Inv. no. pi. 31. pi. I. 06. reliefs. KV. pis. Richter and Hall. 1807. 34. the lists of examples given by Courby.v. pp. ibid.195. no. Schefold. 38. 51. 547. KV. KV. pis. pis. XXII X (1903). f... 107 57. i. fig. Reinach. Schefold. 7. Schefold. Ibid. 173.
as. 65 Altamura Painter. 45. pointed. 135. potsherds from the. 166 n. l6 7 n s6 - Amphora. pits on the. 65. 5. Achilles 114. 10 Andokides (potter). 25. pupil of. 134 Achilles and Pcnthesileia. 57 Ajax. 36. 8. 32 Athenodotos (kalos). Aristotle. ss. 37-39. 6. follower of. 94 Amphora. 1*3. 1x9. 101 Alxenor stele. i*7 HS. 175 n. 116. ss. 9 Antenor. 106-107 Akropolis. 134. 146 and stylistic. isi Apelles. 2. 20 Agrigento Painter. 64 n. no Alkimedes (kalos). 1*9 Alabastron. no. 46. 45. 36. 51-5*. 90. 169 n. 33 Arethusa. 175 n. vases with graffiti. si Ambrosios Painter. 58 Analysis. 155 Anaxagoras. 190 n. Aristophanes. 156. 109 Akestorides Painter. 165 166 n. from. 114 Aischines Painter. circle of. 24 and 29 5. 73 Archons. 47. 16* Apollodoros. 19. 73. 175 nn. 43-44 Andokides Painter. 42 Anthesteria. 6. n. 148 Antias (kalos). 16. 15. 191 n !* !9* n . 77. IDS. 35. 81 Alphabet. 114 Aison. 105. 49. 13S Athanasia Painter. n. 50 Andokides (kalos). 85 Aristeides of Thebes. 96-97 Aigina. 43 64 no Androtion. Christine. group of. 139. 139 Agora. 114. 161 Adrastos. i8s n. 65. technical Adonia. 97. 152. 59-63. vi Alkaios (kalos). 65 Amphora. 113 Akestorides (kalos). 65. Alkimachos (kalos). 114 vase Astragalos. 175 n. 1*4. 55. 10. 44. 184. 91-921 Aeschylus. 46. ss. 41. fragmentary cylinder found in. i*7 Amphora. us. 140 Archedike. 36-42. 103-104. 197 n. inscribed base from the. 154. 141. 190 n. 57. See Knuckle-bone Athanasia. 85-86 on maidens from the. 6o-6a. son of Aischylides. Aischines (kalos). 154 Aristion stele. 164. 197 n. base o statue found in. 149 Aristophanes (painter). 37 and Patroklos. as. 117.GENERAL INDEX ACCIDENTS. 157. 166 n. 115-116. Nolan. Panathenaic. 46. 34 Animals. 91. 44. 66 Amazonomachy. iss Amymone Anakreon. 37 Antiphanes (kalos). 13. 48. 95. 64. 64 Amasis. 45 Aktaion. ii8-isi. 108 7. Antimenes Painter. 175 n. dedicatory offering* found the. 18. so. 65 Amphoriskos. death of. 133 - Achilles Painter. 139-141* 154details. 94. 96 Athenaios. 32. 164 Archinos (kalos). 66-67. n. Athenian. is. 53 Amphiaraos. 75. 155 Painter. votive plaque from the. 51 Alexander. 84 Amphora. 13. 69. 148. 6. 64 Aristagoras (kalos).3i. 164. 84 Aristarchos (kalos). 11. 131-131 Athena Painter. 43 Aristogeiton. sj 19. 68 56 19. Aryballos. 146 at. 124 113. 1*1 Alkmeon (kalos). 50. i6 4 . 66. bowl found in. Attic. 47. 11365. neck. 5. 101. 9-9*> 1 15-"6. 91 Anatomical Agatharchos of Samos. mounting charioteer from the. 34-35 Acheloos Painter. 43-44. 83 Antiphon Painter. 135 Alkimachos Painter. sculptures from temple Aigisthos Painter.
101. 34. 106. 191 n.. 64 Chelis (potter). 44 Chairestratos (kalos). 141. See pyxis Briseis Painter. 84 Chairias (kalos). 93. 102 Chronological Data. 6. see also: Agora. 95. 19. Poikile at. 18. 136. 152. 102 Bologna 417. three-sided relief. Brussels RSSO. residual. preparation of. 164. 109 Bieber. 53 Berlin Hydria. 89. associate of. 149. burial plot of. 116. 169 n. 105 Charioteer. 78-81. 127. 49. 28. 185 n. 118. no Brygos. J. 22-23. Painter of. 116. 33. 106 Bowdoin Painter. 170 n. 165 n. 63. Akropolis. 100 Bosanquet Painter. 45. 191 n. 16. Nike Balustrade. from the Akropolis. 124. 183 n. 68-70. 53 Chelis Painter. 22. 127. 130 Collaboration of two painters. Periklean. 64-65. 156 Chrysis Painter. 117. 57 Dikaios Painter. 182 n. manner of. coils of. 87. 186 n. 167 n. 172 n. 50 Binns. 161. libation. death of. 12. 22. 72-73 Cow's hoof. 57 . 92. *35 Colmar Painter. 158 Clinic Painter. 131 Delphi. from the Akropolis. 49. 129 BAKBOTINE TECHNIQUE. 91. 163 Base. from Athenian Agora. Painter of. Painter of. 53 Bowl. 64. 147. 31. no Bologna 279. 86. 93. Megarian and Pergamene. 9 Axiopeithes (kalos). inscribed. Painter CARLSRUHE PAINTER. 120. 182 nn. 96 and Black-Thyrsos Painter. 144. 88 nian Agora. Athenian. 33. 26 6. 5. 27. fragmentary. 197 "Bilingual" vases. - 78. 109 Berlin 2268. 120. 34. 128 Dikaios (kalos). 122 Box. Deiniades (potter). 121. 55 DANAE 126 PAINTER. Temple of Apollo. D. 100. Centauromachies. 42. 35! applied. 75~7 6 Bologna 228. 105-106 Choes. 78 Brygos Painter. "9. post-Periklean. 172 n. 10 Buildings. see also kylix Cylinder. 141. 3. 114 Black-figure. n. 148. 27. 43 Demokritos.Eye Painter. 43-45. 16. found in Athe- Bowdoin. 157 Cerberus Painter. 5. 87. 58. 66. 43. 42-43. 32. 100 legend. 47. 165 n. 22. 171 n. 130. Painter of. Margarete. 24 Cleveland Painter. 53 Chicago Painter. 33. 183 n. 156. gilded. 97. 111 Cups. Brown-Egg 37 Painter. 114 Stoa Cartellino Painter. 126-127 quarter in. 121. mounting.. 68. 94. 122 Boston. 175 3* Beazley. 83. 181 n. potters' ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES of. Theseion at. 109. 83 Cassel Painter. 22 Diagoras. 116 Dexileos. cup in form of. 89. 74-75. 3. 24. 24. 12. 141-142. 88 Buschor. 159 Danae Brussels Oinochoai. 26. 117. Lesche at. 97 171 n. 149 Christie Painter. pupils of. 53. 108. vi. 107. 86 Comparisons with painting and sculpture. 50. 23. 85.202 Athens. 25. 76. AtheErechtheion. 117. 52. 166 n. 146 Clay. 197 n 23 Berlin Painter. 125. 73. 64. 32. 155 Copenhagen Painter. sedimentary. 88. 56 Delphi. 100. in fashioning of vase. 94. circle of. 126 Athens 1945. 89.. 141-142. 108 Coghill Painter. 56 Chairis (kalos). 27-31 Deepdene Painter. 66. 57. 69. 187 n. 130 118. Painter of the. 15. 189 n. 156 Chronology. fired. Charles F. 166 n. 79 Building. 74. 155. E. 89. 77. Parthenon Athletics. 3. 163. 16. Painter of. nian. Painter of. 110-111 Decoration of the vase. Kerameikos.
42 Euaion (kalos). 57 Eucharides (kalos). 139. 10 see also under KleoEpiktetos II. 94 Eupolis Painter. 76. 61. 45. 5. father of. 74 Dionysiac scene. 17. 73 Diokles (kalos). 53 Epidromos Painter. 21.. 45. 154 Euripides. 177 n. 66. 121 Dipinti. 53. 99 . 99 Euphronios. companion of. 53. 171 n. 42. 148. 17. 77. 84 Diogenes Painter. 17. 16-17. third dimension. 93.GENERAL INDEX Dinos. 54 Epoiesen. 124 Euthymides. 18. frieze of. 197 n. 5. two di- mensional. 167 n. contrast in. 36. 81. 58 Gales Painter. 121 Eumaros. 106. 142. 102 Geras Painter. Diphilos (kalos). 152 Geneva Painter. 19. 94 Expression. 141 EARLY STYLE. 19. 4. 85 Ethiop Painter. 98 Douris (potter). 180 n. 155 Dokimasia Painter. 83-85. 51. akroteria and pediments. 15. Dinos Painter. 43. 51 Eumares. 48. Erechtheion. 49-50. 121 Epeleios Painter. 129 3. 44. 143-144. 52. 42 Diosphos Painter. 52. 174 n. 19. 178 n. 73 Dwarf Painter. 54. 90. 49 [Euxi]theos (potter). 30. 104. 19. 45. 101. Euaion Painter. 18. 3. 58. 151. 58 Gallatin Painter. 178 n. 60. 166 n. 5. 15. 95-96 Ganymedes (kalos). 6. 151. 56. spatial relations the. 50. 44. 17-18. 76-77. see also perspective. 89. 42 Euphronios (potter). Epilykos (kalos). 7 Dutuit Painter. 161 Dionysios of Halikarnassos. 132-135. 43 Ephesos drums. 53-55. 53 129. 155 Epidromos (kalos). 141 Glaukon (kalos). 129 Emotion. 159 Firing. 19. 19 Disney Painter. 64. 117. 31-34 Eleusis Painter. no names FAT BOY GROUP. 141. 197 n. 126 Eupompos of Sikyon. 167 n. father of Antenor. Painter of the. 107 107. 128. 54 Exekias. see also signatures of potters (with' epoiesen) and under potters' GALES (potter). 51 Euergides Painter. 72 names 158- Erbarh Painter. 36-58 Edinburgh Oinochoe. 157 Eretria Painter. 5. 87 Foundry Painter. 11 . 174 n. 137 "Document" reliefs. Diogenes (kalos). 36. 87 Francois vase. D. 71 Eucharides Painter. 113 Euaichme Painter. 144 203 1422. 61. 52 and 53 Euemporos. 3 Fraser. 71. 148 Epidauros. 21 Dromippos (kalos). 55-56. 66. and under artists' Euxitheos (potter). 174 n. 75 Erothemis (kalos). 107 Eualkides (kalos). 123. 88 Double disk. 28 Furniture. 133. 83 Douris. 106. 48. 121 Diphilos (kalos). 67 146. *5* Epeleios (kalos). A. 163. 56. 74. 45. 54. 171 n. 129. 137 Egrapsen. 4. 169 n. 181 nn. son of Melanopos. Elpenor. 6. 174 n. 5 65. 141 Douris of Samoa. 2. 38. 133 1 Epiktetos. 85. 73 Ganymede. 165 n. 77 Foreshortening. 55. figures on Epicharis (kale). 57. 148 Gaurion (potter). rendering of. 162. 85. see also signatures of painters (with egrapsen). 150 Euergides (potter). 67. son of Dromokleides. 163. 49. 56. 52 Epigenes (potter). 89. phrades Painter Forgery. 35.
10 Homeric heroes. 143 Kleophon Painter. 83 3. 113. attachment Harmodios. M. 57 IKAKOS PAINTER. 61 Hektor Painter. 175. 8. 81. 133. meaningless. 159' 160. in manner 10 . 151. 5. 32 Kalliope Painter. 19.. 24 Kleitias. 174 n." Household pottery. 184 n. 154. 107 Hegesiboulos (potter). 45. see also Leagros. group of. names given to. 146. the son of Pedieus. 96 Haspels. with n.204 ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 16. 55. 93: Glaukon. 64 26-27 Inscription Painter. 50-51. 50. technique of. 173 Hesychius. (potter). 84 Hippokrates. 52 Kleomales Painter. 18.. 49. Hermonax. 153. 111-112 Hermaios (potter). 22-24 Hippodamas (kalos). 120 Hypsis. 42. 19. 57. E. 89. 19 Handles. 126 Kleisthenes. ai. 50. 45. si. no Jena Painter. 155. Hydria. 158-159.. n. 83. 54 Painter. 19-21. 42 Kiss Painter.. 108-109 Heroes. 57 Kantharos. 22. 6. son of Peisistratos. 48. 149 Hesiod. 97 the Herakles and Busiris. 19 Haimon Painter. 166 n. 75 of. 142. 52. 83. 46. 166 n. 166 n. R. 142. 36. 139. 53 Hermaios Painter. 158. n - S1 i Herodotos. 6. 142. 184 n. 6 (potter). 124 143. 182 n. Hall. 186 Granger. 83 Kallias (kalos). 45. i?4 n. 164 n. 84. H. 36. 174 JAMESON. of. 74. in style of . 18. 47 Hipparchos. O. 120 66-68. 14 10. 22. 148. 123. 6 Historical background. 59. 109. stele in. 17. 52-53 Kleinias (kalos). 45. 174 n. 19. 36. in garden of the Hesperides. 27-29 Glaukon 12. 180 n. Lindsley F. 115. 58. 147. see also under individual names Kalpis. Athenian. 89. 154 Suessula Painter. Hylas. 50 Hischylos Painter. 169 n. strangling the serpents. 144 Kleophrmdes (potter). beauty of a. 133 Kallikles (kalos). Isthmodoros (kalos).. 81. 20. 109 Kadmos Kale names. 108. 13 Karystios (kalos). C. 166 n. 145. see oinochoe KACHRYLION Herdsman. return of. 151 Hilaron (kalos). 47 Kassandra. 121 Kleio Painter. son of Glaze. 45. 159-162 Kiln.. 84 Hermogenes Painter. 49. 44 Hipparchos (kalos). 97 Jason. 51 Kleon. 175 n. 46. 73 potters at work. 18 Hussong. 36 Kleomales (kalos). 185 n. 176 6 n. 121 Goluchow Painter. 109 Hilinos (potter). 170 Hygiainon (kalos). 4. 46. 175 n. vi. 19. 44. 114 Inscriptions. 196 n. 72 182 n. fragment of bell krater found in. 3 n - 6 Gombosi. 165 Kerameikos. 169 n. 33-34. 25. 69. signatures Harrow Painter. 133 Heraion Painter. 183 n. 156. 15-16. 48 Homeric "Hymn to Demeter. 19. kalos names. 114 Kerch Vases. 14-21. 113 Hieron 6. 101 HACKL. 74 Hischylos (potter). 114 Ilioupersis. 45 Hippokrates (kalos). 65. nn. 106. 190 n. 35 Kimon of Kleonai. 179 n. 3. Kleophrades Painter. 96-97. son of Leagros. 159 Jug. 156. 180 n. 19. see also kale names. 44$ death of. 53 Hermogenes (kalos). 47 Hippon (kalos). 130 Hephaistos. Kleophon (kalos). 45. 16? Kalliades (potter). 160 15. 135 Kalos names. 99. 53 F. 14 Graffiti. 18. 52 Hegesiboulos Painter. 156. 172 nn. 142. 63. 10. 114. black. 69.
184 n. 13. 96 Lewis Painter (Polygnotos). 149 Mikon. 11. 155 155 Krater. 117. 47. 175 nn. 2 Menelaos Painter. 12. 148. 65. 108 86 6. 83 17 LACHES (kalos). 54. 146-148. 99 Lysis. 65. 153 152 Lykos (kalos). 155 Leningrad Painter. 7 and 8. vi. 73 Korkyra. 85. Painter Ludovisi three-sided Lydos. 17. 122. Painter of. 19. Krater. 45. 85 MAGNONCOURT PAINTER. 162 Medon. 88. 175 n. J. 114. 76. Painter of. see also Glaukon. Miltiades. 128-129 Mouret Painter. handles of. Painter of. 21 Loutrophoros. 33. father of Hieron. 48. 16 Kodros Painter. 36. 3. 73. 155 Lysis (kalos). 152 Minto. 65. 24 Lyons kore. school of. 81-83. pupil of. Makron. 132 "Maussolos" of Halikarnassos. 373 London 106. and Lykos group. 121. 169 n. 77 n. 18. 167 n. 48. 45. 43 Lysippos.GENERAL INDEX Kliigmann Painter. 178 n. 133 relief. 45. 4j Menander. 3. 103-103 Leagros. 136 of. 64. 142.. 147 . 19. 55. 55. 132 (kalos). Painter of. Lysikles (kalos). 174 n. 93. 143 Megakles (potter)/ 99 Meidias Painter. 142. 152-153. see also Nuptial vase Lebes gamikos. 107 Louvre Centauromachy. 169 n. 65 Kritias. 49. so Krater. Marjorie 166 n. (kalos). 100. See Nuptial vase Lekanis. 45. 13. 126 (kalos). 156 Lekythos. 135 Kyathos. 13 KyKchnis. 13 Louvre CA 1694. 16. see also pyxis Kylix. 13. 1 5*> >5 6 !57> l6 4. Knidian Aphrodite. 121 Meletos Painter. 109 London 497. 113. 5. cost of. 127. 87 16. 19. 19. 137-138 Klytaimestra. 65. 156. 177 n. 45 Megakles (kalos). son of Leagros Leagros. 18. 11. no London 342. 45. 65. 93. 32 and 33 Leagros Lebes. 5. 152 London Di4. manner of. Mourners. 17. 174 n. 3. 15. 54 Mnesilla (kale). 45. 166 n.6 6 n > 165 n. 3. 141. 115 Milne. 94. 94. cup in form of. 46. 1455. Memnon Menon Menon cost of. 142. 19 Krater. Painter of. 62. 94. 43 Lysippides Painter. 108. 125. See Psiax Lichas (kalos). 108 Megakles. 76. 89. no Lapiths and centaurs. 107 Mannheim Painter. Mousaios. 46 64 Molding. 53. 12. 45. 126 Methyse Painter. 44 Mina Painter. 165 nn. 185 n. sepulchral. 27. See Achilles Painter Melitta (kale). 3 10. 152. 55 Meleager Painter. 161 Knuckle-bone vase. 43 7. Lysippides (kalos). son of Glaukon.. 85 Lykourgos. 148149. 6. 130 Miltiades (kalos). document relief Kraipale Painter. 45. 124-125 Marathon mound. 44. 11. 108. 175 n. 26 Molon. 157 Meletos (kalos). 163 Lysias. 155. 85 Lamb's head. 152. 131-132 Melas (kalos). Laches. 13. 11. 64 Marlay Painter. 17. so. 45. 16. 2. bell. 94. 93. 141. 175 n. 175 n. 134. Painter of. 121 Little-Master cup. 84 Painter. archonship of. 152white-ground. volute. 134. 155 Lykaon Painter. column. 112. 141. 92 Lysippian statues. calyx. 11 Krater.94. 139. 145 sor. 56 Melanippos. 56. 153. 117. 149. 156. of. 106 Mikion (potter). A. 136 London 100. 44.
109 Oionos. i. circle of. 130 Pehke. 44. 150 86 Nikomas (kalos). 85. 11. 6. 130 Nauklea (kale). marble stelai. 121 Peirithoos. Painter of. 7678. 117 Myrrhiniske (kale). 128 Nikon (kalos). 126. 134 ODYSSEUS AND ELPENOR. 94-96. 30 and 22 Pausias of Sikyon. wooden. 89. 165 under subjects Orpheus Painter. 115. see also amphora. 81. 86. 89. 85. 100. 129-130 Oxford Grypomachy. 156 Pelops. 104. 70 Nikoxenos Painter. 19. 36. 23 Peisistratids. Painter of. 7. 132. 131. 49. 127 PAIDIKLOS (potter). 17. 77. 122. 103. 84. 73. 53 Nikoxenos (kalos). 145. 137. 9. 109 Nikophile (kale). Nuptial vase. 197 n. 128. 93. 136. 59. 53. 56. 17. 159 Peithinos. 97. 94 n. 84. 50. 181 n. no Orestes. 42. school of. on Nekyia Painter. 158 NAMES. 159 Penelope Painter. of. 125-126. 89. 139 Parthenon sculptures. 8. 42. 183 n. i. statue from South Italy. Painter of.2o6 Munich Munich Munich Munich Munich ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES 2335. 5 Pasiades. 47 Niobid Painter. 86 Panaitios Painter. 147 Myron's Athena. 101 Peleus Painter. 156 Oinomaos. 100. (potter). Painter of. from near Sikyon. 5a. 22. 6. 16. See inscriptions Naples Painter. 56. 3. 191 n. 65. 29-31. 101. 90. 1 3Q> *54 Painters. 158 Oionokles (kalos). 101 in. 163 137. 53 Nikosthenes Painter. 93. 131 Painting. 197 nn. 159 Oinomaos Painter. i. 85. 59. Olynthos. see also Orpheus and the Thracians. 159. 53 *57 Nike Balustrade. on terracotta slabs. 49. 101. 50. 19 found on the Pausanias. 146 Nikias of Athens. See signatures Nearchos. 85 Onos. 139. 48-49. 123. panel. manner of. 45. 154 Pan Painter. 58. 127. 4. 83 Nausikaa Painter (Polygnotos). 120 Okeanos. 71. See Perithous Peisistratos. 107 2661. Painter of. 71 16. mural and panel. plate found Oltos. 44. 165 n. 18. 77. 103 at. 130. 36. 121-122 2363. 157-15 8 156. 115. dedicatory. 46 Oinochoe. 5. 129 Offerings. 2 New York Pamphaios Centauromachy. 52 Peleus. 128 New York. 10. 133 Orchard Painter. 36. 13. 130-131 Neoptolemos. 42. 125. 166 n. 167 n. 101. i. 65. 2 Paris Gigantomachy. 42. 117. 145 Panathenaic vases. 101. 5. 70-71. no. 97. 51 Painters. mural. 101 13. monumental. 156 107 Musical scenes. 107 2662. 36 Nekyia. Panathenaic Panels. 130. 4. Painter of. 129. Myson Myson. Panathenaia. 146 Nikon Painter. 150 112. 76. 129 Panaitios (kalos). 93. Painter (potter). 87-88 Parrhasios of Ephesos. 19. lebes gamikos. 113 2660. 154 Pedieus. 24 Olympia sculptures. 93. Onesimos. 59. 152. signatures' of. 109 Oionokles Painter. 81 Nikosthenes (potter). 45. 129-130 Mythological subjects. 14 Ornate Style of the Fourth Century. 54. 6 Oiniades. 151. 127. 148 Ornaments. Akropolis. 165 n. departure of. 136. 94. Painter of. 132 . 141. 51 Patroklos. 175 n. Nikias Painter.
156. 11. 16. 155. 172 n. 49. 132 Persephone Painter. 45. 94. death of. 123-124. 170 n. see also bowl. 142. 19. follower of. 54. 196 n. a. third dimension. 158 Rhodopis (kale). 121 Python (potter). 48. 92. 84 Pig Painter. 112-113. at work. 17. 183 n. 10 Psiax. Hellenistic. 196 nn. 56 Phintias. 91. 117 Poseidon. 120 Pindar. 149 Retorted Painter. 74. 156 Prosagoreuo. 139. dedications by. 178 n. 123-124. 18 two-dimensional. 164 Religious subjects. 144-146 Pollias. libation Phiale Painter. 117.. 83 Pyxis. 33. 159 Pothos Painter. Plaque. no Providence Painter. sculpture. 55 Philoktetes. Schumann. 11. 32 and 33. 166 n. 83 Priam. 10 Pliny. 53 73' l *> 163. 69. a. 169 n. group of. 35. 107 27. no. 73. 96 Pinax. 55. 145. 196 nn. 127 Relief Ware. 131 Robinson. 18. Maude. in- group of alabastra scribed. vi. see also kyk'chnis Q PAINTER. 51 Psykter. 6. 93. Theban Musician. 93. 159 71 Pistoxenos Painter. 6. 122-123 Philiades (kalos). 45 Pythaios (kalos). 169 n. 89. 5. 3. 120 Relief. 166 n. return of. 100 207 Periklean buildings. 118. 142. 167 nn. G. 99. see also under individual names Praxiteles. 93. 100. 97. 11 and 12. spatial relations Pheidiades (kalos). 53. 31 Relief vases. 15. 171 n. Corinthian. See Lewis Painter Polygnotos of Thasos. 5. K. 150-151. 52. 45. 127. 65 Perspective. details in. 50. 113-114 i Polyphrasmon 84 Sakomdes. school of. 141 Polydektes Painter. 81 and 23 Pronomos Painter. son of Aresandros. 170 n. 3. Santayana. 135. foreshortening. 143. 190 n. 57 Pheidjp'pos. 161 Praxiteles (kalos). 115. of. 140. 94. 10 Pro thesis. 170 Sculpture. 102-103 Persephone. 52 Plate. 70-71 22. 127 Lewis Painter. 119. 165 n. scenes from. 10. See Vases with reliefs Red ocher Reed Polion. 153 Reichhold. 49. 182 n. 97. Pompe Pordax ("Procession"). Theodor. 112. feast of. 6. 190 n. 4 Plutarch. 50 Phiale. 69 in SABOUROFF PAINTER. votive. 97 Pistoxenos (potter). cup in form of. 49 . Nausikaa Painter Polygnotos II. 46-48. 144. 146 Potteries.GENERAL INDEX Penthesileia Painter. 9. 87. 100. Athenian. 152. 48-49. 171 Pronomos. 128. objects in. see also subjects Polygnotos. 141 Pollias (sculptor). 9 46 Sappho Painter. 28-29 Painter.. 15. 109 3. 50 Pistoxenos (kalos). Greek. father of Euthymides. 143. see also Potters. 23. 56 Phrynichos.. 35. 17. in Record reliefs See "document" reliefs and 5 application. 51 Protagoras. 164 Plato. 154 Quintus Smyrnaeus. Proklos. 7 RAM'S HEAD. 127128. 90-91. manner (kalos). 73. 143. 166 n. 19. 140. 120 Philon (kalos). 75-76 Schoolboys. 122 Perithous. 116. 50. 83 Richmond Painter. N. 161 (kalos). 197 nn. 151. 178 n. 32. 6. *54 1 5%. 3. 6. 69. aa. 166 n. 42. 196 n. Phintias (potter). see also Replica. 165 n. 142. 97-99. 179 n. 132 Persian debris. 114 Plaoutine. 154. 172 n. 19. 134. copied on vases. 12.
139. 56 lations. perspective. 4. 57. 56. 178 n. 54. 157. 137. 19. 138 Turning. 147 8a. H5. 17. 63-64. Themistokles. 108. 174 n. See Kera- meikos. 73. third dimension. 109 Painter. 139. 150 TALOS PAINTER. 71. si. 85. 175 n. 101. see also analysis. 152 Street scenes. in Athens. 113. 6. 166 n. 156 Skythes. W. 165 n. 78-73. 129. 122 Tomb paintings. 2 Siphnian Treasury. 141. non-Attic. vi Sokrates. Athenian perspective. Telephos. 94. 163. 43 Stencils. 73 Triptolemos Painter (Douris).. 174 n. technical stylistic and egrapsen). 63. 153. 140. 16-19. 59 Triglyph Painter. 51. 66. 146. double. 78 Syracuse Painter. 129. 116. 149. 156 Syriskos (potter). 94 Stand. s. 17. in 19. 56. n. 46. 180 n. 50. 163. 32 Timagoras. 166 n. see also foreshortening. 89. den. 25-26 Two-dimensional designs. 84-25 Thucydides. 153 Triptolemos. in fashioning of vase. third dimension Subjects. 8 Theseus Painter. is?. 93-94. 3. 101 Third dimension. 114 Tyrannicides. 57 Sostratos (kalos). 57> 66. 155. 151. 7-9. Sotades Painter. aa. a. 37. 126. 107-108 Tex. 131-132 Tymbos 14* Syleus Painter. 189 n. 111. 122 9. 167 n. 77. see also foreshortening. 10 Thaliarchos Painter. 52. dimensional Spellings. 116117. 10. 158 Troilos Painter. 150 Shuvalov Painter. 56. see also fore shortening. 81. 57. 19. 49. 33 83. two- Tomb offerings. 51 Thamyris and the Muses. 163 Telephos Painter. 179 n. 90. 9 Suessula Painter. s. 15 66. 58. 55 Smith. 115. of painters (with Technique. 121. 165 n. 33 Theognis. 98. a Tyszkiewicz Painter. 45. 5. Etruscan. 65. 73 . 111-112. 180 Signatures. see also pyxis Tomb of Lacedaemonians. 55. 92-93. 76. 150 Statue bases. 33. 45. 159 see also names Simonides. 83. Toilet box. 36. 86. 117. 143. a i Straggly Painter. 16 Sophanes (kalos). 46. 100 Stacking. 30 Stesagoras. 57 Sosias Painter. 73 Syriskos Painter.s>o8 Selinus. 44. 113. 131 18. 139. 87. 5. J. 49 Sotades (potter). 17. spatial re- Smikythos (kalos). H. 73-74 Tleson (potter). 149. perspective. 74 Spatial Relations. 6 Splanchnopt Painter. 196 n. 85. 77. 47 Smikros. 25 Theseus. 53. Skopas. 108. of potters (with 1 epoiesen). 130. Smikrion (kalos). subjects 131. Temple C of. 43 Tithonos Painter. 43. 75 Thetis. 138. 148. 81. 129. 63. 10. 19. style of. R. 13. 127. white-ground. Theatrical subjects. 117. two-dimensional Thorvaldsen Group. spatial relations. 86 Throwing. 161 Shapes. 48. 49 5 ' 5* 53 54' 55. 73 Trophy Painter. 131 Sosias (potter). 184 n. 56-57 a. 18. 143. 116. Tydeus. 83. 9 Shading. 54. 150. 65. 68. 171 n. 175 n. na. 83-35. 10. 71. 38. ATTIC RED-FIGURED VASES metope from. 43 reliefs from. 97. 147. see also under individual Thanatos Painter. a. 155 Skyphos. Stamnos. 58. 17. 99. 10-14. 6. 56.
175 Wells. 174 n. 28. 140.. Painter Vienna 155. Painter Vienna 202. Wilhelm. 31. 19 60 Vouni Painter. 101-102 161-164 Vienna Painter. 136-137 Wedding Painter. vi dumped 24-286 in. 42. molded. fashioning of. Xenophantos (potter). 90. 133. 209 manner names of. 138 WASHING PAINTER. 152153. 153 Woolly Silens. 57 Vienna 116. white-ground. 169 Xenophon. 104-105. 134. 167 Xenotimos. Painter of Worst Painter. 106. 13 the. 109 Yale University Press. with relief*. 139. 36. 45 ZEPHYROS PAINTER. Xenon (kalos). 26. 3 1 14 Xenotimos Painter. 180 n. school of. 157. 93. Painter of the. 106 of. 185 n. 100 Well-groups. 158 XENOKRATES. vases YALE LEKYTHOS. Woman Painter. 10 of.GENERAL INDEX VASES. 5. A. 155. 55. 93. Painter of the. 41. 135 n. 14. Dipylon. 32. 159 Villa Giulia Painter. 284-27. 27. 157. 159 of. 75. 109 Yale Omochoe. Vitruvius. Painter 159 of. 19 Xenophantos Painter. 111. 6. 141. 154 . 124. us Wheel work. Zeuxis. ATHENIAN. plastic.
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