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Length Time Mass Temperature Electric Current Luminous Intensity Molecular Quantity

UNIT

meter (m) seconds (s) kilogram (kg) Kelvin (K) ampere (a) candela (cd) mole (mole)

SCALAR

Speed (v) Mass (m) Time (t) Work (w) Energy Distance (d) Power (P)

VECTOR

Displacement Velocity Torque Acceleration Force

AREA VELOCITY ACCELERAT ION Length x Length Length Time Length Time2 m2 m/s m/s2

Mass x Length Time2 Mass x Length2 Time2 Mass x Length2 Time3 Mass Length3

SPEED

d = vt v=d/t t = d /v

d v t

ACCELERATION a = vf - vi t

a=v t a = vf- vi t 2 - t1

vf = vi + a t

where: a - acceleration t - time

- Motion with constant acceleration equal to the acceleration due to gravity

where: y = length/height

where: m1m2 are the masses of the two bodies r = is the distance between the two bodies G = Universal Gravitational constant = 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2

2r Inverse of 2: Square of :

c.) If r is reduced to ?

Inverse of : 4 Square of 4: 16

= FG increases by 16 times

CONTACT FORCES

(a) NORMAL FORCE (N)

N = perpendicular force of the surface exerted on an object F = N + (-W) = 0 N = W if an object is in flat surface

where: - coefficient of friction N - Normal Force

(c) TENSION FORCE T = Weight No. of string LAW OF MOTION 1. Law of Inertia

- An object at rest will remain at rest and that in motion will move with constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced external force. NOTE: The mass of an object is the quantitative measure of n object's inertia.

2. Law of Acceleration a = F F = ma

m

a = w1+w2 m1+m2 Therefore: a = m2g - m1g m1+m2

- Product of force and its corresponding displacement

If F is parallel to d perpendicular to d

If F is

W = Fd cos ) d

W = (F

W = - Fd

always negative because it is against the movement of the object Example: 1.0 m 10 N f= 1.5 N What is the total work done on the block? WTotal = (FTotal) d = (10 N - 1.5 N) d = 8.5 N x 1 m W = 8.5 Nm or 8.5 J

POWER P = Fd t

P=W t

UNIT: J/s or Watt(W)

ENERGY

1) POTENTIAL ENERGY

a. ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY EPE = kx2

where: k - spring constant x - displacement from rest position

MOMENTUM

- Product of mass and velocity

p = mv

IMPULSE

- change in momentum

p = m (vf-vi) t t

COLLISION

1.) ELASTIC COLLISION Pi = m1v1i + m2v2i Pf = m1v1f + m2v2f 2.) INELASTIC COLLISION Pf = Pi (m1 + m2) (vf) = (m1 + m2) (vi)

FLUIDS

a. DENSITY

volume

=m v

b. SPECIFIC GRAVITY

c. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

where: h - column of fluid

MOTION a continuous change of position with respect to a specified reference object. SPEED - the time rate of change of motion RECTILINEAR MOTION - motion along a straight line VELOCITY is speed in a particular direction ACCELERATION is the time rate of change of velocity

The theory of mechanics is explained by Newton's three laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. FIRST LAW - A body at rest tends to remain at rest and a body in motion tends to remain in motion. This is also called INERTIA. SECOND LAW - A body at rest will

move or a body in motion will accelerate when a net force acts on it. THIRD LAW - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton's law of gravitation explains what explains what keeps the planets in motion. It states that every object attracts others with a force directly proportional to the products of their masses but inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The important characteristics of forces are the following: 1. A net force will change the state of motion of a body. 2. Forces can be exerted through

long distances. 3. Forces always occur in pairs, or couples. 4. In each couples, the two forces act in exactly opposite directions. 5. A couple cannot be balanced by a single third force but by another couple Clockwise torque equals counterclockwise torque. PROJECTILE MOTION involves bodies projected into the air, either horizontally or upward at an angle. That body is acted upon by gravity. When a net force, such as the centripetal force, acts at right angle to the direction in which a mass is moving, a uniform circular motion results. The equation for centripetal

force is

Fc = mv2 / r

CHECKPOINT: 2

WORK is the product of the net force and the distance through which a body moves in the direction of the net force. POWER is the time rate of doing work. It shows how fast work is done. ENERGY is related to work. It is the capacity to do work. As energy does work, it changes in form or position. POTENTIAL ENERGY is the energy an object possesses because of its position or state.

KINETIC ENERGY is the energy an object possesses by virtues of its motion. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY states that the total energy of a system cannot change unless work is done on the system KINETIC THEORY OF HEAT is based on the constant movement of molecules causing internal energy. Heat can be transferred. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS involves the conservation of energy. Each of form of energy can be transformed into another form, such as from light to heat, electricity into light, and so on. SECOND LAW OF

THERMODYNAMICS states that heat flows from hot to cold, not the other way around. ENTROPY is the "unavailability" of energy.

CHECKPOINT: 3

TEMPERATURE is the measurement of heat. SPECIFIC HEAT is the ratio of the thermal capacity of an object to the thermal capacity of water.

When objects become hot, they expand. The coefficient of linear expansion is the fractional increase

in length of a material per degree rise in temperature Heat lost equals heat gained.

PRESSURE is the force per unit area. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE is measured with a barometer. BOYLE'S LAW states that the volume occupied by the gas varies inversely with the applied force.

P1V1 = P2V2

CHARLES' LAW states that the volume of gas varies with its temperature (expressed in Kelvin).

V = T1 V2 T2

COMBINED GAS LAW

P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2

The fourth state of matter is called PLASMA CRYOGENICS is the science of deep freeze.

CHECKPOINT: 4

LIGHT is the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. White light is actually a combination of many colors the major ones being red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. These colors can be separated by means of a PRISM

The intensity of light is the amount coming from a source. The unit for luminous flux is LUMEN ILLUMINATION is the density of the luminous flux on the surface. It is inversely proportional to the distance from the source Light can be reflected. The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence

The focal length of a lens is determined by using this formula: 1 = (n-1) 1 + 1 f R1 R2 To locate images formed by a lens,

the formula is: 1 = 1 + 1 f do di For concave mirrors, the formula is: f=R 2 Another formula for locating an image with mirror is 1 + 1 = 1 p q f

CHECKPOINT: 5

Electrons flow along conductors, such as wires, and this flowing electricity is called CURRENT The pressure that forces the current to flow is the Electromotive (emf) or VOLTAGE (V or E), which is measured in VOLTS (v).

The resisting force that lessens the current is the RESISTANCE (R), which is measured in OHMS (). Since voltage is directly proportional to current which is affected by the resistance, the equation, OHM'S

LAW: E = IR

where: E - Voltage I - current R - resistance

An AC source, such as the electrical outlet on the walls propels electricity in one direction at one instance and then opposite direction the next instance. A DC source, such as a dry cell or a battery, moves the electricity only in one direction, that is, from the

negative terminal through the wire ending up in the positive terminal. In SERIES: RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... In PARALLEL: 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + ... RT R1 R2 R3 We can also find electric power, measured in watts (w) or kilowatts (kw) by multiplying the voltage with the current:

P = V x I WATT'S LAW

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