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Solid waste management practices, such as recycling, reuse, and composting, serve to reroute waste materials from landfills and incinerators. Recycling and reuse diverts items such as paper, cardboard, tires, glass, plastic, metals, and construction and demolition materials from ending up in the landfill. These materials are sorted, collected, and processed, and then manufactured, sold, and bought as new products. Composting techniques employ the natural decomposition process of organic waste, such as food scraps and yard trimmings, with the addition of microorganisms (mainly bacteria and fungi) to produce a humus-like substance. These efforts are part of an effective integrated solid waste management program (ISWMP) that can transform the Department of Defense (DoD) solid waste management system from its current reliance on landfills and incinerators for disposal of non-hazardous solid waste. The ISWMP incorporates source reduction, reuse, recycling, affirmative procurement, and other appropriate and complementary principles to minimize the quantity of solid waste generated and manage that which is generated in an economical and environmentally sound manner.

Compliance Benefit:

The combined efforts geared toward source reduction, reuse, recycling, and affirmative procurement help facilities to meet directives under Executive Order 13101 requiring executive agencies to incorporate waste prevention and recycling into their daily operations. The compliance benefits include: Conservation of natural resources by reducing the need for raw materials; Management of solid waste in a cost-effective and environmentally sound manner; Protection of human health and the environment by reducing reliance on landfills and incinerators for solid waste disposal; Promotion of source reduction, reuse, recycling, and affirmative procurement programs to the maximum extent possible.

The compliance benefits listed here are only meant to be used as general guidelines and are not meant to be strictly interpreted. Actual compliance benefits will vary depending on the factors involved, e.g., the amount of workload involved. Additional detailed compliance benefits associated with the various solid waste management techniques can be found on the specific technique data sheets also located in the P2 Library and listed below.

Materials Compatibility:

No materials compatibility issues were identified.

Safety and Health:

An integrated solid waste management program encompasses many different types of materials and several different technologies. Most of the processes, although straightforward in approach, require some amount of training. Some recycling and reuse technologies require specific training and/or certification such as in a chlorofluorocarbon-recycling application. Operators of power equipment need to be properly trained in operation and maintenance procedures. Any time a solid waste management collection point is established, certain safety factors

such as fire hazard potential, tripping hazards and spillage must be taken into consideration. Additionally, a solid waste management collection point is a prime breeding ground for rodents and mosquitoes. For any of the solid waste management operations, proper personal protection equipment should be worn that is appropriate for the task. Techniques may require the use of gloves, eye protection, hearing protection, coveralls and boots. Consult your local industrial health specialist, your local health and safety personnel, and the appropriate MSDS prior to implementing this technology.


Achieve local, regional, and state solid waste reduction/diversion goals. Saves landfill space. Saves energy. Reduces air and water pollution risks. Conserves natural resources. Reduces landfill disposal fees. Produces reusable products. Generates revenue from sale of reusable materials.


Machinery may require permits or permits to operate. Regulatory compliance may be an issue with regard to source emission standards and fugitive emissions. Recycle/reuse items may not be marketable. Segregation of materials is time consuming. May not be economically feasible to invest in large-scale program for lowno fee return. Some technologies require an initial capital investment for process purchases. Training for waste generators and handlers is required.

Economic Analysis:

Recycling/Reuse Cost elements compare the disposal of an item with the process, technology and end use of a recycling/reuse application. Specific economic analysis for various elements of an ISWMP can be found on the following data sheets also located in this P2 Library: Recycling of Scrap Tires Paper Recycling Plastic Recycling Appliance Recycling Wood Recycling Glass Recycling and Reuse Corrugated Cardboard Reduction and Recycling Aluminum Can Recycling Steel Can Recycling Construction and Demolition Debris Recycling Recycled Plastic Lumber Reuse and Recycling of Metal and Plastic Drums

Reuse and Recycling of Clothing and Household Items

Small-Scale Composting and Food Reuse Specific data sheets regarding large-scale and small-scale composting and food reuse operations can be found on the following data sheets also located in this P2 Library: Vermicomposting Windrow Composting Organic Material In-Vessel Composting Waste Separation Using Trommel Screens Food Waste Composting or Reuse Raw Material Mixing Using Compost Mixers Compostable Material Transportation Using Front-end Loaders Compost Turning and Aeration Using Windrow Turners Backyard and Small Scale Composting Aerated Static Pile Composting

Recycling/Reuse and Composting Equipment Specific data sheets regarding recycling/reuse and composting equipment can be found on the following data sheets also located in this P2 Library: Recycling Trailers Balers Aerosol Can Puncturing, Crushing, and Recycling Glass Pulverizers Metal Drum Crushers Concrete/Asphalt Crushers Paper Shredders Recycling Sorting Lines Waste Pulper Recycler Drum Washer/Recyclers Solid Waste Sorting Line Use of Collection Containers for Recycling Wood Tub Grinders