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The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as The Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. It was once known as the British Commonwealth of Nations or British Commonwealth, and some still call it by that name, either for historical reasons or to distinguish it from the other commonwealths around the world. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, recognized by each state, and as such is the symbol of the free association of the organization's members

map of commonweath countries(in blue) The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. Held every four years, it involves the elite athletes of the Commonwealth of Nations. Attendance at the Commonwealth Games is typically around 5,000 athletes. The first such event, then known as the British Empire Games, was held in 1930 in Hamilton, Ontario Canada. The name changed to British Empire and Commonwealth

Games in 1954, to British Commonwealth Games in 1970 and assumed the current name of the Commonwealth Games in 1978. As well as many Olympic sports, the Games also include some sports that are played mainly in Commonwealth countries, such as lawn bowls, rugby sevens and netball. There are currently 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and 71 teams participate in the Games. The four constituent countries of the United KingdomEngland, Scotland, Wales and Northern Irelandsend separate teams to the Commonwealth Games, and individual teams are also sent from the British Crown DependenciesGuernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Manand many of the British overseas territories. The Australian external territory of Norfolk Island also sends its own team, as do the Cook Islands and Niue, two non-sovereign states in free association with New Zealand.


A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by Reverend Astley Cooper in 1891 when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing the goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire". In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held in London to celebrate the coronation of King George V. As part of the festival an Inter-Empire Championships was held in which teams from Australia, Canada, South Africa and the United Kingdom competed in events such as boxing, wrestling, swimming and athletics. In 1928, Melville Marks (Bobby) Robinson of Canada was asked to organise the first British Empire Games. These were held in Hamilton, Ontario two years later. 2

No further development took place until 1928, when the Olympic Games were in progress in Amsterdam. The splendid feelings of friendliness between the Empire athletes at that Olympiad re-vitalised the idea for the revival of Empire meetings. The initiative of a Canadian, M M Robinson, led to the first official Commonwealth Games in 1930. Support was forthcoming from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, with the result that strong teams were sent to Canada. Teams also came from Australia, New Zealand, Bermuda, British Guiana, Newfoundland and South Africa. The events at this meeting comprised track and field athletics, swimming, rowing, boxing and wrestling, and lawn bowls. While no points were allotted, it was fitting that Great Britain filled the premier position. The success of the first Games at Hamilton in 1930 provided enough incentive to make them regular.When teams throughout the Empire were gathered together at the tenth Olympiad at Los Angeles in 1932, the formation of the British Empire Games Federation was further discussed and the Federation was subsequently constituted. In 1952 the Federation was retitled "British Empire and Commonwealth Games Federation". In Jamaica 1966 it became the "British Commonwealth Games Federation and in 1974 at Christchurch the title was again changed to the "Commonwealth Games Federation.


Antigua Barbuda

and Australia






Brunei Darussalam

Cameroon Canada + +


Dominica +

Fiji Islands














Mauritius + Mozambique



New Zealand



Papua Guinea

New St. Kitts and St. Lucia + Nevis

St. Vincent and the Seychelles + Grenadines

Sierra Leone


Solomon Islands

South Africa

Sri Lanka




Trinidad Tobago




United Kingdom

Vanuatu + Western Samoa Zambia


The title, IMPACT OF COMMONWEALTH GAMES ON DELHIS ECONOMY itself suggests that this study is an effort to understand and analyze the possible bearings that the commonwealth games to be held in Delhi in 2010, will have on Delhis economy. The Commonwealth Games are not just another sporting event. The preparations for hosting it will have major part to play for the future of the city and on the life of the citizens of Delhi as well. We have tried to analyze the possible benefits and the drawbacks that can arise due to these games. Along with this, we have also tried to give a birds eye view on the plans of preparations of Delhi with respect to the hosting of the games. .


Delhi is a vibrant dynamic masterpiece, one of the greenest capital cities in the world running the world's largest environmentally friendly public transport system. Sitting at the top of India both in its physical location and overall development Delhi is a masterpiece waiting to be explored. The timing is perfect for competition with the best possible weather and environmental conditions for the competitors with, on average, just one day of rain during the competition dates each year. Delhi is the capital of India, a country that blends an amazing history and a dynamic future creating an enchanting experience for all of its visitors. The largest democracy and second most populous nation on earth it offers a unique cultural mix blending ancient and noble cultures and modern, dynamic societies. Visitors are able to enjoy the highest levels of traditional hospitality that is amongst the best in the world as well as magical treasures such as the Taj Mahal, that is one of the seven wonders of the world. The 2010 Games in Delhi will allow the Commonwealth Games movement to set a course to continue its growth and development, ensuring that it remains relevant to modern society and audiences. Lying at the heart of the Commonwealth, this magnificent event will allow the hosting of the Commonwealth Games to extend further than its traditional boundaries, establishing a model that helps move the Games to the four corners of the Commonwealth. The fact that Delhi is a modern capital city of over 13 million people will give the Commonwealth Games the prominence and prestige they rightly deserve. Almost three-quarters of the total population of the Commonwealth lives in Asia, with over 50% of India's population being under the age of 25. The 2010 Games in Delhi will provide a fantastic opportunity to promote the Commonwealth Games to a New Generation of fans. India will also host the Commonwealth Youth Games, an event of great importance which will help foster an increase in youth participation in sport and physical fitness programmes and contribute to creating friendships across international borders.

The 2010 Games in Delhi will increase the status of the Commonwealth Games to Olympic standards, raising the level of assistance that competing nations receive such as free air travel and accommodation for athletes and accompanying officials. Delhi 2010 will bring the same fresh perspective to planning and organising the Games that has made it a world leader in the IT, science and research industries. Using the unique integrated approach where government and its departments work as one with the organising committee, we will work together with the CGF to enhance existing practices and establish a model that allows the hosting of the Games to be spread amongst more nations, while also ensuring that any future organisers are actively involved in the Delhi preparations The 2010 Games will be the catalyst for the development of the city of Delhi and its environs. New venues will be built, existing world-class venues will be further upgraded and a range of infrastructure projects which will benefit the population of Delhi and its surrounding areas will be initiated and completed including technology infrastructure, a comprehensive roads programme and a new metro system.A new Athletes' Village which will have plentiful space and is a showcase for sustainable living will be built; a Village which meets and surpasses all of the CGF requirements for athletes comforts, where athletes from ALL sports will mix together in the spirit of camaraderie for which India is renowned. India is a country whose economy is larger than all of the American and European Commonwealth members combined; a country with one of the highest stable economic growth rates in the world. The 2010 Games in Delhi provide a unique sponsorship opportunity for the Commonwealth Games movement with Asia - and particularly Southern Asia - booming economically and becoming the focus for investment by most major international companies. It is the strongest sponsorship and TV rights market in the world with many of the sponsors of major international events coming from the region. India is a country that is passionate about its sport and the Commonwealth Games. With these Games being the most important sports event ever staged in India they will be the sole sporting focus of the entire Indian nation from the media to sponsors and most importantly for the public from here onwards, uninterrupted by any other events. In addition the Delhi Games will be scheduled to avoid the busy international northern hemisphere summer sport schedule.There is no sporting event being held in India in 2010 that is more important than the Commonwealth Games. Because of this Delhi can guarantee continuity of staff and resources for the planning of all areas from now until the Games. Enjoying the full support of government at all levels, the cost of the Games will be fully underwritten and the essential services required to stage the Games such as transport and security will be delivered by our national specialists who will sit inside the Organising Committee.


The Indian tradition of warm hospitality, and treating Guests as Gods is as old as time itself. India extends a warm invitation to the Commonwealth world to visit Delhi. The second most populous nation in the world, India is at the heart of the Commonwealth. India, the world's largest democracy, blends an amazing history and a dynamic future for the enchanting experience for its visitors. With a history dating back 5,000 years, India today is at the forefront of the I.T> Sector and software development across the world. 55% of the total population of the Commonwealth lives in India. 54% of the total population of India today is below 235 years. The capital city, Delhi - with over 14 million citizens represents the cosmopolitan nature of the country. Delhi is the number one city of India. Located at the top of the country, it is home not only to the country's Parliament but also the President and the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhawan as well as the Prime Minister and the top luminaries of the national and regional governments. Delhi is also the antional hub for the country's top media houses with more than 10 English newspapers, and over 19 regional language papers being published every day. The country's top television stations are based in Delhi - including the Star Group, ESPN, Ten Sports, not to forget the national broadcaster - Doordarshan which reaches 80 % of the country's total population of over 1 billion. Delhi is one of the greenest capitals in the world. The city also runs the world's largest environmentally friendly public transport system. Delhi is putting into place a state-of-the-art metro Railway, that by 2010 will span over 110 kms with a capacity of over 2.5 million passenger trips at 2 minute intervals. The months of October and November are the idyllic months for Delhi with the weather ebing fair and only one day of rain during this time, on average every year. Delhi is an amazing gateway to a world of incredible tourism and fascinating adventure. The world's most photographed monument in the world - Taj Mahal is close by, as is the pink city, Jaipur. Delhi is a gourmet's dream come true. From the mouth watering kebabs to exotic cavair, spicy Mexican to the subtle French, Chinese to Lebanese and everything in between ... Delhi's buffet is unending.


As committed in the Delhi 2010 Bid Document, Delhi will offer all participating teams free and full travel grant. Team sizes for the grant will be calculated as the average of each CGA team size for the Manchester 2002 and Melbourne 2006 Games. This will ensure the widest possible participation by all member CGA's, not constrained by financial limitations, allowing them to field their best athletes. The full & free travel grant will cover all athletes and officials as per the ratio's outlined in the CGF constitution. Apart from free air-travel for all athletes and officials, Delhi offers each CGA 2 free air tickets as well.

Delhi will provide free lodging for all athletes and officials from all sports at the Games Village. In addition each CGA will be offered 2 free rooms in a luxury hotel. All the rooms will be provided in the name of the CGA to be utilized by them or their authorized representatives, and will be alloted for the full duration of the Games. Extra Officials, in excess of CGF norms, will also be accomodated at the Games Village at a nominal cost of US $ 50 per day. This would enable officials and athletes to be located together - further adding to the athletes' comfort levels.


The visit of the the Evaluation Commission of the 2010 Commonwealth Games once again illustrated first-hand proof of government commitment to India staging the Games at all levels. The government of India is fully supporting the bidding of the Games with its agreement to fully underwrite the whole budget including both operational and capital costs. The Indian government is passionate about bringing the Commonwealth to India for the first time, a country that comprises 55% of the Commonwealth's population.


The governments of India at all levels are passionate about bringing the Commonwealth to India for the first time, a country that comprises 55% of the Commonwealth's population. It has their full support up to and including agreeing to fully underwrite the whole Games budget including both operational and capital costs. 9

The government is willing to agree to and enter into the Host City Contract as provided by the CGF. The government has already given a guarantee to conduct the Games in accordance with the constitution, protocols, and regulations of the CGF. The government will underwrite any shortfall between revenue and expenditure of the Organizing Committee. The government has approved in principle to meet the cost of the construction of the indoor and outdoor stadium in the Yamuna Sports Complex, upgradation of existing infrastructure of the DDA and to set up the Games Village. The government also commits to provide all Government and Municipal services at cost. Delhi promises a big dhamal during the 2010 Commonwealth Games, to be held in the subcontinent for the very first time. Well! The biggest dhamal so far is the mind-boggling estimated cost of hosting the games. Analysts are expecting that the total cost for organising the games would be around $422 million and with the rising inflation the figure might touch around $600 million (nearly Rs 269 crores). Further, India has also promised to pay $100,000 to each of the 72 Commonwealth nations for training their athletes, at an aggregated cost of $7.2 million

In the bidding statement, the Government of India has agreed to sanction budget for covering both the operational and the capital costs to be incurred for hosting the games. It also promised to underwrite any shortfall between revenue and expenditure of the organising committee i.e. the Delhi Commonwealth Games 2010 Committee. The government has approved in principle to meet the cost of the construction of the indoor and outdoor stadium in the Yamuna Sports Complex, upgradation of existing infrastructure of the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) and to set up the Games Village. The government has so far sanctioned Rs 5,200 crores to the Delhi government for infrastructure development, improving sports facilities and for organising the Commonwealth Games The major infrastructure upgradation works that has been finalised so far includes the revamping of the Talkatora Indoor Stadium at an estimated cost of Rs 30.45 crore, which is expected to start in the coming fiscal and would be completed by 2008-09 The other projects envisaged for the coming year are building electricity substations; renovation of parks such as Nehru Park and Talkatora Garden; redevelopment of the cinema complex at Chanakyapuri; construction of Momo Market, a food plaza at an estimated cost of Rs 40.58 lakh; and a municipal waste processing complex. The Games Village would also have an Rs 15-crore hospital and a dedicated 1 MGD water-treatment plant. Renovation work has been commenced in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which would host the opening and closing ceremonies.


Even, the North Campus of the University of Delhi is getting a makeover, as its colleges would host some events like rugby and aquatics. The colleges would provide training facilities for badminton and shooting. The Games organising committee has identified the playgrounds at St Stephens, Hindu, Ramjas, SRCC and Daulat Ram for holding rugby. The Commonwealth Games is expected to alter the very character of the Dil walo ki Dilli. However, with so much work to be accomplished in such a little time, it is left to the competency of the Government to undertake the Herculean task.



List of Competition Venues Sport Aquatics Venue Dr. Shyama Prasad Complex is spread over 12.13 acres with the Mukherjee built-up area occupying 3.7 acres Swimming Pool 3 Pools of FINA Standards - Warm-up, Main Competition, Diving Pools All pools are temperature controlled with digital temperature display system Warm-Up pool : 50 m (L) X 12.5 m (W) X 2 m (depth); Lane for Handicapped athletes; Entry for physically challenged. Diving Pool: 25 m(L) X 25 m (W) X 5 m (Depth); Duaflex Diving Board. A lift for athletes to go up. underwater observation windows Jawaharlal Nehru One of the biggest stadia in the entire region Stadium Spread over 100 acres, including 23 acres green cover Has been the venue for several international sporting events 4 flood-lit towers providing 1,500 lux illumination - 1,200 lux of vertical illumination. Warm Up area: 4-lane 400 meter synthetic track. DDA Siri Fort Main Play Area: 4 Badminton Courts Sports Complex Warm-Up Area : 4 Badminton Courts other facilities: Equipment Area, Medical/Doping/Physiotherapy, Athletes Lounge, Commonwealth Family Area, Sponsor's Area, Parking for 500 vehicales Yamuna Sports Main Stadium will be divisible in 2 halves Complex (NEW) by a retractable sound-proof and fire-proof curtain. 2 Main Rings Electronic Displays Podium Yamuna Cycling Cycling Track as per international Velodrome Standards - with elevation and length as per






Indira Gandhi requiements. Sports Complex Mobile P.A> System Photo-finish camera Gymnastics Indira Gandhi Stadium can be divided into 2 equal halves Indoor Stadium by a retractable sound-proof, fire-proof synthetics wall Enables conduct of 2 sports competitions simultaneously Each half has the following: 6 change rooms, 4 V.I.P areas, Media Room, Medical Room Lighting for the Arena is provided with metal-halide lamps with the lighting of 1,600 lux-lumens Wooden playing arena 4680 sq mts Centrally air-conditioned Indoor Stadium Major Dhyan Synthetics Surface Chand National Electronic Scoreboard Hockey Stadium 100-seated air-conditioned Conference Room V.I.P. lounge Commonwealth Family Lounge Change Rooms Synthetics surface Electronic Scorebaord 100-seated air-conditioned Conference Room V.I.P. lounge Commonwealth family lounge

Hockey (Men)

Hockey (Women) Shivaji Stadium

Lawn Bowls

Jawaharlal Nehru Four Play areas Stadium (New) Spectators Gallery on one side Catering/Restaurant Area & Facilities Indira Gandhi Stadium can be divided into 2 equal halves Indoor Stadium by a retractable sound-proof, fire-proof synthetics wall Enables conduct of two sports competitions simultaneoulsy Each Half has the following: 6 change rooms, 4 V.I.P areas, Media Room, Medical Room Lighting for the Arena is provided with metal-halide lamps with the lighting of



1,600 lux-lumens Wooden playing arena 4680 sq mts Centrally air-conditioned Indoor Stadium Rugby 7's Shooting Yamuna Complex Sports Playing Area : 150 m X 70 m

Dr. Karni Singh 10 meters Range, 25 Meters range, 50 Shooting Range meters range, 3 Trap Ranges, 3 Skeet Ranges Scoring equipment imported from Speith of Germany and Sius Ascor of Switzerland Storage Room for storage of Arms and ammunition DDA Siri Fort Sports Complex Talkatora Stadium Siri Auditorium Yamuna Complex Indoor Fort Sports Main Stadium will be divisible in 2 halves by a retractable sound-proof and fire-proof curtain. 2 Main Rings Electronic Displays Podium

Squash Table Tennis Weightlifting Wrestling

The new state-of-the-art Games Village is being planned around maximising athlete comfort. The services and facilities will have a unique "athlete-comfort" orientation and approach. Exceeding CGF requirements, the Village will translate traditional Indian hospitality into standards of comfort & excellence never seen before by participating teams.

To be created at a cost of USD 40 million, the Games Village has been underwritten by the government ... There will be no cost to the Organizing Committee. A 47.3 hectare (118 acre) picturesque site has been selected on the banks of river Yamuna. Within its immediate vicinity are heritage monuments and historical landmarks. Combined with the dense green natural cover on the sides, it will be a relaxing and soothing


environment for the athletes and the officials. All the venues are within 25 minutes by road from the village and most of them are hardly 10-15 minutes away.




The Commonwealth Games, 2010 are costing the Indian taxpayers $423 million. Hence there must be some factors justifying cost of such an investment. The following benefits are bound to be derived and will go a long way in transforming Delhi into a modern megacity of the world.


Delhi is aiming to be a world-class city. And having a very strong sports infrastructure for it is extremely essential. Hosting an international event like the CWG provides the host city and the country to showcase its economic prosperity, its rich culture, its hospitality, its heritage. It becomes a matter of symbolism and pride as this is the biggest event that has been hosted in the Indian subcontinent till date. Successful hosting of such an event, boosts the image of a country greatly and launches it massively at the global level.

Delhi has a paucity of adequate social infrastructure for its residents. The CWG in this case act as a shot in the arm and give a big boost to the setting up of the social infrastructure in the city. The electricity demand is expected to touch 5000MW by 2010, while the current arrangement available with the city is only 3000MW. To provide 24*7 electricity to Delhites, a 1000MW plant will be constructed by 2010 and the city will also be purchasing electricity from the new power plants being constructed around Delhi in the neighbouring states. Similarly, current installed capacity for potable water is 675 million gallons a day (MGD). This is expected to touch 1000MGD by 2010. to augment this shortage, the Sonia Vihar power plant was completed in 2006 with a capacity of 140MGD. Plans to construct another water purifying plant are in the pipeline and the Delhi government is also trying to tie up with the neighbouring states to get the required water supply. Other projects include the beautification of the city, increase of the green cover, and all other basic amenities. The government is also planning to setup 185 dispensaries and 3 trauma centers. Hence the CWG games will act as a blessing in disguise for the Delhi residents and will help strengthen the social infrastructure of the city


To ferry the population of 1.4 crores, which is expected to touch 1.75 crores by 2010, a mass rapid transport system is required along with have good road connectivity. Projects in this regard include the Delhi Metro, Monorail, High capacity bus corridors, intra-city trains along with numerous new roads and flyovers. All these are expected to rid Delhi of the problem of traffic snarls and provide world class connectivity to its citizens. The following roads and flyovers are being specifically for the CWG 2010 i)Construction of Link Road connecting National Highway 24 to Lodhi Road. ii)Elevated West-East Corridor, which will connect Connaught Place to East Delhi. iii)Fly-over at Apsara Border. iv)Clover Leaves on UP Link Road v)Road over Bridge on G.T. Road near Shyamlal College. vi)Fly-over on Bahadurshah Zafar Marg vii)Road over Bridge on level crossing on Road No.68 Better quality public toilet facilities on all major roads, markets, public places will be provided by PWD, MCD & NDMC on BOT basis before Commonwealth Games, 2010

Delhi Metro routes to be completed by 2010 under the Phase-II * Delhi University-Jehangirpuri (6.88km) * Central Secretariat-Qutub (10.77km) * Indraprastha-Mayur Vihar via Yamuna depot and New Ashok Nagar (8.07km) * Yamuna depot-Anand Vihar (6.2km) * Shahdara-Dilshad Garden via Seemapuri (3.09km)



The CWG is expected to attract more than 100,000 people from across the world for this showcase event. Even after the 10 day period of the games, the city and the country is bound to get an added influx of tourism. The games will allow the country to highlight its rich culture, history, heritage and diversity. Delhi has the most number of monuments for a city, 1293 monuments to be precise. The Archaeological Survey of India has chalked out major plans to give a major facelift to these monuments. Similarly, there are 12 lakes in Delhi like the Sanjay Lake near the games village that either died out or had become sewers. Now the MCD and PWD are planning to revive these lakes and turn them into major tourist hubs complete with facilities for recreation. The Delhi Government is also planning to construct a bigger version of the Delhi Haat, to be titled Mini India. This complex, to be build over an area of 120 acres in North Delhi, would include many features like water sports, adventure sports and cable cars. It is aimed at providing a prismatic view of all the cultures and states of the country, says the Delhi Urban Development Minister A.K. Walia. In accordance with the Incredible India initiative of the government, tourism in the country is going to get a major boost earning foreign exchange and increasing the aggregate demand for Indian goods and also their export .


A very big reason owing to which, countries go all out to host these events is the boost it gives to the trade and industries. The games bring an opportunity for entrepreneurs to undertake new projects and ventures and deal with their counterparts abroad. It has been found that after each such major spectacle, the economy of the host region gets a big push. Be it real estate, infrastructure or trade, all the sectors of the economy benefit from it. It opens up new avenues of business and allows the host country and city to market itself as an attractive place to do business. China for instance, is spending $20 billion on the 2008 Beijing Olympics, but it is anticipated much greater economic benefits from the same. It will also lead to massive employment generation. According to Delhi CM Mrs. Sheila Dikshit, the games will generate 10,000 permanent jobs along with thousands of other temporary jobs.



It is quite disheartening to see that ours is a country of over 1 billion people, yet we have very few world-class athletes to boast off. At the Athens Olympics, one Rajyawardhan Rathore won a silver medal and was hailed as a national sporting hero. China and U.S.A. on the other hand won 100 plus gold medals each. These games are thus aimed at promoting a healthy and sporty lifestyle among the next generation. The government is spending big time on providing sports facilities at every nook and cranny of the city. Rs.1200 crore are being spent on the up gradation and construction of stadiums to be used during the games. These will be thrown open to the common public once the games are over. The games are expected to instill the sportsman spirit in our youth with the vision that one day, India too will produce world class athletes.





The airport and the railway stations of a country are the first impression that a person gets when he comes to a country. And sadly our airports and railway stations provide a very sorry picture of our country. But the government in the wake of the CWG, has woken up to this situation. It recently awarded the contract of the Delhi Airport modernization to the GMR-Fraport consortium. They will give the airport new terminals, parking bays, duty free shops, comfortable waiting rooms, clean toilets and all the other facilities that were earlier missing so that the airport becomes an epitome of Indias economic growth and prosperity. The airport will be equipped to handle 37 million passengers annually by 2010 so that there is no inconvenience to the passengers. The government has also formulated a plan to link the city through itra city trains on the lines of the one in Bombay. Work is in full progress to upgrade the New Delhi, Old Delhi, Nizammuddin railway stations and the construction of a new one at Anand Vihar in east Delhi. The plan is to make train journeys less treacherous for the passengers.

The Commonwealth Games is expected to do what no one has been able to do yet despite the efforts of many years and the flowing of hundreds of crores of rupees, down the drain, or the Yamuna in this case. But since the games village is coming up on the river bank, the government has decided to take up the efforts of cleaning the Yamuna and its beautification with renewed energy and vigour. There are plans to open commercial establishments, cultural areas and amusement parks along the river so that it retains its old charm and beauty. Apart from the aesthetic beauty, this makes good business sense as well. The economy of London and Paris and got a big boost when river Thames and the river Seine respectively, were revived when they too became as dirty as the Yamuna. They now add greatly to the trade and commerce of their cities. The Yamuna after its beautification is expected to do the same for Delhi.



There are always two sides of a coin. The Commonwealth Games are no exception to this fact. After having discussed the positive impacts at length, our study wont be complete unless we analyze the negative impacts as well.


An event like the CWG does not come cheap. The Delhi Government and the games organizing committee have together proposed a budget of around Rs.5000 crores of which the central government is to fund. However, the central government has ordered the concerned bodies to scale down the project to Rs.3600 crores. But even then, this is a huge amount. Although a major part of this amount is to be used for basic public utilities and infrastructure, still a huge amount of money is going to get wasted as a result of hosting these games. Ours is a developing country and as such, Delhi is grappling with a lot of problems, whose alleviation could have been possible with this amount that is being wasted due the games. Taking the example of 2004 Athens Olympics, the games have lead to a loss of many million of dollars that will be accounted for by writing it off over a period of 20 years.


Delhi already has a population of 1.3 crores. According to estimates, it is expected to rise to 1.75 crores by 2010. Huge amount of labour will be required to carry out the various projects comprising the games village, sports venues, public utilities and private real estate development. It can be observed from experience that the labour that comes to a big city, stays on in the city after the completion of the projects, adding to the population and the woes of the city. The lure of the city will attract many from all parts of the country to Delhi in search of their livelihood. Most of such people are not able to find stable jobs and turn to anti social activities in order to feed themselves.


India is a cricket crazy country. Even globally followed sports like tennis, football, auto racing, hockey, golf and basketball have few takers in India. The list of disciplines at the CWG includes sports like archery, fencing, weightlifting, rowing, shooting. These are quite dull events and draw a very small audience. It is being feared that the audience turnout is going to be very low at the games. The same thing occurred during the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi when tickets had to be sold at throw-away, rock-bottom prices and students were given free entry for a lot of events in order to have a decent audience turnout. The whole purpose of hosting the event is defeated if the audience doesnt turn up. If the viewers dont see the games and the ones who do, watch them on the television, then there is nothing to gain by hosting the events in that city. This lack of interest does not go down well with the players, sponsors and the organizers alike, degrading the image of the event and the country as well.

Delhi is full of beggars and slum dwellers. In order to project the city as a world class one, these beggars and slum dwellers will be displaced and uprooted from the streets. All the slums that will be close to the games village and the sporting venues will also be done away with in a hurry just before the games. But no concrete efforts have been taken up yet to rehabilitate them and to try and provide them with employment and shelter. In Australia for example, the beggars of Melbourne were shifted to other neighbouring cities where they were provided with employment and shelter. Unfortunately, we dont have a similar setup and to give the city a prosperous and modernistic look, these beggars will have to pay the most, it being forgotten that the poor and the needy are also humans after all. These unaesthetic eyesores of Delhi will be treated very poorly in order to host the event.


Despite the governments keen efforts to ensure that new hotels come up in the city by 2010, industry estimates predict a shortfall of nearly 30,000 hotel rooms in the city. According to a FICCI and Evalueserve study, the city will require 50,000 hotel rooms in the star and other hotel category in order to accommodate the people during the games. Abnormally high land prices, uncertainties in taxation policy, poor infrastructure as well as corruption and delays in official agencies were some of the factors that discourage investment by entrepreneurs in hotels. The planned investment yet is for only 10,000 rooms whereas additional 30,000 rooms are required. This does not go down too well for the image of the city if the tourists have to engage themselves in finding respectable accommodation for themselves rather than concentrating on the games


In all, 9 venues will be hosting all the events and disciplines of the games. However, this time around no new venues are being built from scratch. The venues that were constructed for the 1982 Asian Games and the other venues are being given a facelift. But we have a heritage of building such stadiums and failing to maintain them. The Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium for example, was the most modern stadium of its time when it was built. But it has been maintained so poorly over the years that it has been deemed unfit for any sporting activity to be conducted here. The various venues across the city now serve as venues for political rallies and rock concerts. One can argue that for a city to be called a world class one, it has to have an excellent sports infrastructure as well. However in wake of the sky rocketing land prices and the various other issues that the city is facing, it does not seem rational for Delhi to host these games. The land that is being used for these games can be better put to use by utilizing it for the public. So the Rs.700 crores being spent on the face lifting of the stadiums and the land being used for it, all seems to be a big waste. On one hand, lack of space has forced planners to allow for more and more high rises under the Master plan 2021 and on the other hand huge tracts of prime land is being wasted for no good.



A very major issue on which the quality and the future of the games hangs, is whether all the ambitious plans and projects will be completed on time for the games. Hardly 1200 days are left for the games and till now even the site of the games village has not been decided. Environmentalists and activists have raised concerns regarding the present proposed site near the Akshardham Temple as it is close to the temple and close to the banks of the Yamuna. They argue that this village will be an eyesore and a misfit at a place that has so rich a heritage and legacy. Secondly, the soft Yamuna riverbed according to architects and engineers, is not fit for such a massive construction. Also work hasnt started yet on face lifting or on the construction of the new facilities. There is no coordination among the number of committees being formed everyday who keep passing the buck among themselves. It will be a matter of great shame if the projects are not completed on time. Not only will it tarnish the reputation of the city and the country, but the whole exercise of hosting the event will also yield absolutely nothing. If one were to go by the present speed of work, it seems unlikely that the projects will be completed in time before the games that start in October 2010.




DELHI AIRPORT PWD DEADLINE: DEADLINE: MARCH 2008 MARCH 200 9 WORK: 28 new WORK: 24 new immigration and 22 flyovers. Linking check in counters. games village to stadiums and airport. TRANSPORT MCD DEADLINE: DEADLINE: DECEMBER 2009 DECEMBER 2009 WORK: Western WORK:


WORK: A 50 bed hospital in games village and upgrading the existing hospitals. SPORTS VENUES DEADLINE: JUNE 2009


multi WORK: Upgradation

eastern expressways, 7 corridors of high capacity bus system, better feeder services for Metro, 1100 low floor buses and radio taxis.

level parking lots, of stadiums improving important constructing roads and facilities. surroundings of railway stations.

and new



A big question mark looms over the ability of the organizers and the city to be able to provide a world class experience to all concerned. International sports events these days are not merely sports events, rather they are a gala event. We are already facing an excess demand for hotel rooms, plus there is excess shortage of volunteers for the games as well. The organizing committee is hoping to rope in 20,000 Englishspeaking volunteers during the games to help the participants and the tourists. Athens Olympics of 2004 and the Commonwealth Games 2006 of Melbourne are an example of the lavish and grand events they dished out. In India, we do have the vision, we do have the funds, we do have the plans, but over the years we have seen poor execution of all such plans, specially when it is in the hands of the government. Such events draw up millions in viewership and provide the hosts the opportunity to showcase their prosperity and culture. Unfortunately, the buck passing among the numerous committees involved may, instead provide a very poor image of the country and the city to the world and become a major cause of embarrassment.




By 2010, the number of vehicle in the city is expected to touch 70 lakhs. To solve this problem, 24 new flyovers, new roads and new means of mass rapid transportation are being planned. The CWG are also adding fuel to the fire. The games village has been planned at the sensitive trans Yamuna area close to the Vikas Marg, that already witnesses huge traffic snarls 24*7. The common man is expected to face a lot of problems and long traffic jams during its construction. Secondly, the stadiums for the games are spread all over the city. A lot of new roads are being planned to directly link the games village to these stadiums. However, in order to do this, huge flyovers and tunnels are being proposed. Many of these will come up very close to the various archeological monuments that Delhi has. These new roads will not only degrade the monuments aesthetically, diluting the rich culture and heritage of the city, but will also damage them physically. Emphasis is being laid on making the routes being used for the games to be traffic free. But this is being carried out at the cost of the rest of the routes as there are no plans to ease the congestion there and the traffic is going to be diverted to these routes, adding to the woes of the public.





Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. was registered in May 1995 under the Companies Act, 1956. It has equal equity participation of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. DMRC is a special purpose organisation vested with great autonomy and powers to execute this gigantic project involving many technical complexities, under a difficult urban environment and within a very limited time frame. The Master Plan for Delhi Metro has recommended that the Metro Network should be implemented in four phases. Phase-I of 65.10 kms has already been completed at a cost of Rs. 10,571 crores (US$ 2.1 Billion). Phase-II consists of 3.1 kms operational, 122 kms already under construction and 3 kms awaiting approval from the government. Phase-II is to be completed by 2010 and about 2.8 million commuters would use the Metro after its completion. In Phase-III about 112.17 kms are slated to be added while in Phase-IV another 108.50 kms would be added. The Delhi Metro network today consists of 68.20 operational kms with about 122 kms under construction in Phase-II. The trains run from 6 a.m. everyday till 11 p.m. in the night with 70 train sets of 4 coaches each carrying almost 0.80 million passengers daily with a peak frequency of 3.5 - 4 minutes at present. Punctuality on the Delhi Metro is measured with a least count of 60 seconds and on most days; Delhi Metro trains achieve 100% punctuality making it one of the most punctual Metros in the world. The Delhi Metro is making an operational profit today despite having one of the lowest fare levels in the world and has already started paying back its loan commitments on time. Construction for Phase-II of the Metro network in Delhi has to be completed by 2010 in only three and a half years, making it one of the fastest Metro constructions achieved worldwide.

Chairman Managing Director Total No. of Directors Nominees of Govt. of India Nominees of Govt. of NCTD No. of full-time functional directors : : : : : : Dr. M. Ramachandran Dr. E. Sreedharan 16 5 5 (Including MD) 6


No. of employees per route km.

45 (as per international standards)

The corporate office of the company is located at Metro Bhawan, Fire Brigade Lane, Barakhamba Road New Delhi- 110001, India.

Benefits of Delhi Metro

Delhi Metro is a social sector project whose benefits pervade over a wide section of the states economy. A rail-based system like the Metro has a high carrying capacity and is non-polluting. It uses about one-fifth energy per passenger-km compared to a road-based system. Moreover, it is fast, reliable, safe and comfortable for the commuters. Transport Situation of Delhi 1833 1,20,000 People 1936 6,00,000 People 1991 93,70,000 People 18,12,967 Vehicles 2015 209,00,000 People Vehicle population of Delhi higher than cumulative vehicle population of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai 5 Fatal accidents every day 3 Major road accident injuries every day Buses main source of road accidents Main source of pollution : vehicular 64% 70% of pollution contributed by two-wheelers

Sources: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects The 2001 Revision. Transport Department, Government of NCT of Delhi. In addition, it is estimated that reduction of vehicles due to the coming of Delhi Metro has prevented 28,800 tonnes of carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere every year. If the 9,876 trees that had to be cut for construction of Phase-I were left intact, they could have absorbed only about 220 tonnes of carbon dioxide every year. Thus, the Delhi Metro has prevented the emission of 130 times the carbon dioxide that these trees could have absorbed. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has generated substantial benefits in Phase-I by:


Siphoning off 39,592 vehicles from roads Reducing consumption of petrol, diesel and CNG by 57,800 tons Helping people save 66 minutes of travel time every day & leading to a resultant saving of Rs 725 crore Saving 476 lives from accidents Saving Rs 218.41 crores (US$ 53.27 Million) on maintenance of road vehicles Saving Rs 288 crores (US$ 70.33 Million) on Road Maintenance & traffic management Saving 28.63 tera joules of human energy consumption Being environment friendly: o 3,968 tons of poisonous gases like Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), Particulate Matter (PM) prevented from emission in Delhi

Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) matter found inside Metro is about 280 micrograms per cubic meter of air, which is lower than other modes of public transport. In buses, it was found to be more than 400 ug/m3, 350 ug/m3 in cars and 290 ug/m3 for pedestrians.

Expected Benefits of Phase-II

Removal of 610 buses from New Delhi will result in saving of Rs. 89 crores towards Capital and Operating cost. Savings due to reduction of private vehicles is expected to be Rs. 324 crores . Reduction in traffic congestion will result in saving of Rs. 503 crores in operating cost of vehicles. Reduction in number of accidents will save Rs. 151 crores in term of less damage to vehicles and medical and insurance expenses. Saving due to reduction in fuel consumption will be Rs. 366.92 crores. Lesser investment in road infrastructure will be required and lead to saving of Rs. 165 crores approximately. Economic Rate of Return of Phase-II: 23.63% All figures are approximations and subject to change.


METRO CITIZENS FORUM:The Metro Citizens Forum is an attempt by Delhi Metro to seek the cooperation of the masses in instilling better behavior, etiquettes and discipline among the Metro commuters. DMRC started the publicity campaign and distribution of forms for the Metro Citizens Forum on December 10, 2008. After scrutiny of the filled up forms, an orientation programme of the interested volunteers was held on January 5, 2009 and subsequently about 130 volunteers joined the forum formally on January 18, 2009 after a day long training programme. Presently, the number of volunteers has increased to over 230. Delhi Metro recently recorded its highest daily ridership of 9.5 lakhs. On an average, it is carrying about 8 lakh commuters everyday. In the wake of increasing ridership and the scheduled opening of many new corridors in the coming year, such cooperation from the commuters had become very important. So it is very necessary to promote this forum on a very large scale. For this purpose, I have made the questionnaire which consisting of multiple-choice questions. I have collected the data from the commuters and after that I have tabulated them and interpreted them and give the recommendation.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:The objective of this study is:

Find out the various means of promoting this programme in a very large scale at very low cost



Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem in a systematic manner. It may understand as a science of studying how the research is done significantly. The methodology may differ from problem to problem, yet the basic approach towards the research remains the same. The sequence or steps followed have been explained as under:


The universe is the commuters of Delhi Metro. I have selected 100 commuters.

Data collection: Collection of the data

There are two types of data.

Primary data Primary data is that data which is collected for the first time. These
data are basically observed and collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is primary data, which I have been collected with the help of questionnaire. I have prepared a questionnaire on the basis of the peoples consciousness, behavior and thinking

Secondary data Secondary data are those data which are primarily collected by the
other person for his own purpose and now we use these for our purpose secondly.


MACRO ANALYSIS (Inferences &Interpretation)
The detailed analyses of the results are explained below:

1) Are you aware of metro citizens forum?


The above bar-graph shows that out of 100 respondent 63% of total respondent dont know about metro citizens forum and only 37% of the total respondent know about metro citizens forum.

2) Are you its member?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondents interviewed only 27% is its member.


3) Do you expect any kind of acknowledgement for your work?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent 75% of total respondent expect some kind of acknowledgement for their volunteer service.

4) Do you listen to the announcements between the stations?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent 84% of the total respondent listen the announcements between the stations.


5) Do you think the place for keeping pamphlet and leaflets should be changed?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent 71% of respondent thinks that the place of keeping the pamphlet and leaflet should be change.

6) Do you think one to one marketing is the most suitable way of marketing?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent 91% of total respondent say that they think that one to one marketing is the most suitable way of marketing.


7) Have you noticed the ads of metro citizens forum on LCD at Rajiv chowk & Kashmere gate?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent only 14% of total respondent have noticed the ads of metro citizens forum on LCD at Rajiv Chowk & Kashmere Gate?

8) Do you think the time duration & frequency of showing these ads should be increased?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent 100% of the respondent feels that the time and frequency of showing these ads should be increase.


9) While traveling do you pay attention to ads displayed inside the metro?

The above bar-charts shows that out of 100 respondent 62% of respondent says that they pay attention to the ads displayed inside the metro, 23% of total respondent sometimes pay attention ,and 15% of the respondent never pay attention on ads displayed inside the metro.

10) Arrange in order of most effective way of conveying the information about metro?


The above bar-charts shows that out of 100 respondent 35% of respondent says that they pay attention to the ads displayed inside the metro, 21% of respondent pay attention on ads displayed on LCD screen at the station,15% of respondent pay attention on the announcement, and 29% of respondent think that pamphlet is the most effective way of conveying the information about metro?

11) Do you park your vehicle in the metro parking area?

The above bar-chart shows that out of 100 respondent 42% of respondent park their vehicle at metro parking area.

12) If yes, would you allow metro authority to put a small information sticker of metro citizens forum on your vehicle?


The above bar-chart shows that out of 42 respondents who park their car at metro parking area 83.3 % of respondent would allow metro authority to put a small information sticker of metro citizens forum on their vehicle.


ANNOUNCEMENTS BETWEEN THE STATIONS Information concerning the Metro like warning the commuters about pick pocketers, informing them about the next station is mostly played during the travel time between two stations. During this time, the Metro authorities can grab maximum attention of the commuters. Therefore advertisements about the citizens forum volunteers programme can be announced between two stations. This will prove to be beneficial both in terms of cost and mass appeal.

COLLABORATION WITH NSS OF VARIOUS COLLEGES Students involved in NSS of various colleges can be encouraged to come forward & act as volunteers. These primary volunteers can further motivate other people to join this programme. Students who take up the volunteer work can be awarded a certificate to acknowledge their efforts.

ADVERTISEMENTS INSIDE THE METRO TRAINS Advertisements can be displayed inside the Metro trains. The space for advertisement inside the Metro train is near the chart showing the various stations. This makes It unavoidable for the passengers not to notice those advertisements, therefore this form of campaign is high on mass appeal.



Plays can be arranged at the most visited Metro stations to create awareness about the volunteer programme. Such plays organized on the lines of street plays or nukkad natak are attractive & can help to gather huge crowds.

PAMPHLETS AND LEAFLETS Pamphlets & leaflets should not be kept at places where they are kept now. Rather, they should be kept at the platforms, where commuters wait for the Metro & have ample time to go through these pamphlets.

OTHER STRATEGIES Advertisement in Metro feeder buses. Small information stickers can be put on the vehicles, that park at the Metro parking areas and in autos standing outside the Metro stations. Advertisements (banner) at the cycle stand of Vishwavidyalaya Metro station.

CANOPY Canopies can be setup at some stations like 1. Patel chowk Metro station Interchange Metro station 2. Kashmere Gate-(2 lakh commuters daily) 3. Rajiv Chowk-(2.5 lakh commuters daily) 4. Vishwavidyalaya Metro station (more student passenger ) 5. Rajouri Garden Metro station

6. Karol bagh Metro station Each canopy should have pamphlets & volunteer forms. At least 2 primary volunteers should be near the canopy to distribute and collect the forms & pamphlets. 42

Other primary volunteers will go to people at the station directly and inform them about this programme.

SIGNIFICANCE This will help to clarify all the doubts of interested people relating to this programme then and there. Such mode of spreading of awareness about the Metro citizens forum is relatively fast and effective than any other mode of promotion.

ADVERTISEMENTS ON LCD SCREENS Advertisements for promoting this forum should be shown on LCD screens of various Metro stations to inform commuters about this programme. Time duration and frequency of showing these advertisements should be more so that passengers can completely understand the purpose of this programme

LIMITATION: The Metro Citizens Forum is a voluntary service and no remuneration will be paid to the volunteers. They will not be provided any additional facility. . Time constraint is unavoidable limitation of my study. Number of respondent are very less, so clear conclusion cant be drawn As no work has been done earlier in this regard so scarcity of secondary data is also there




DELHI. A city of delightful contradictions. A treasure full of surprises. A city rooted in history. An architectural collage of forts and palaces, flyovers and skyscrapers. A unique blend of tradition and modernity. What with OLD DELHI appearing as a perpetual carnival with bustling crowds and buzzing traffic and colorful bazaars. And New Delhi with its elegant boulevards and busy


thoroughfares becoming an international metropolis. A harmony of contrasts with a unique mark of distinction. Delhites insist that the city has only two seasons, good and bad. The winter is pure champagne and the thermometer can drop to 5 degrees centigrate. The summer is a furnace with the savage hot breath of the loo lashing you awake or asleep. But Delhi , under the soft archery of summer showers is something else again. Its is a strange and unique city, daringly Western and yet completely Eastern.

A number of tours are organised by both the Government and private tourist agencies. However, the real excitement lies in discovering things for youreself. So, if you are the adventurous kind, go ahead, take this book and with a spirit to match explore and enjoy this fasinating city of Delhi.

A NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY Delhi (Hindi: , Punjabi: ) is a metropolis in India. The name Delhi also refers to the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), which is a special union territory jointly administered by the Central government, NCT's elected government and three municipal corporations. New Delhi, an urban area within the metropolis of Delhi, is the seat of the Government of India. A METROPOLITAN CITY covering following satellite towns

Delhi's metropolitan area, known as the National Capital Region (NCR) encompasses the entire NCT as well as the neighbouring satellite towns of Faridabad and Gurgaon in Haryana, and Noida and Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh making it the 5th most populous megalopolis in the world with a total population of 19.5 million people. A capital of SEVEN EMPIRES

Delhi has the most vibrant history of any of the more prominent cities or towns of India. It has been the "capital of seven empires" in Indian history and as per the Archaeological Survey of India, has over 60,000 recognized monuments built over several millennia. The 46

first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 3000 BC. It was called Indraprastha. Archaeological evidence suggests that Indraprastha once stood where Purana Quila is today. A village called Indarpat existed in Delhi until the beginning of the 19th century. History behind the name DELHI

The name Delhi may originate from the Persian word Dahleez(English: threshold, or frontier) or from the name of a Mauryan king, Raja Dhillu. Another etymology is that the name Delhi comes from the original name of the city, Dhillika. The people of Delhi are known as Delhi-ites. The latter is a historical and cultural term describing people of the old city and the associated diaspora. There are, for example, communities (often living in neighbourhoods dominated and named after them) of Dilliwaalay in major Pakistani cities who still identify their clan with neighbourhoods in the Old City of Delhi. The Persianized surname Dahelvi is also related to residents of Delhi. A COSMOPOLITAN CITY

Delhi is a very cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and political system, and now expanding economic base.From an international perspective, there are more than 160 embassies present and an ever increasing expatriate population.


Delhi derives its historic importance from its position in Northern India, occupying a location between the Aravalli Hills to the southwest and the Yamuna river on whose western banks it stands. This enabled it to dominate the old trade routes from northwest India to the plains of the Ganges. As a result, it has always been an important cultural and intellectual centre. Booming ECONOMY

With a steadily increasing quality of life, a booming economy and consumer market and by virtue of the fact that it is the nation's capital, cultural and intellectual life in Delhi are burgeoning as well. Delhi also has a high standard in education. It is the home of many major educational institutions in India. Delhi also boasts of a great number of quality schools. Delhi is also home to a number of think tanks, museums, art galleries, parks and theatres.


Delhi has seen the rise and fall of many empires which have left behind a plethora of monuments that attest to the grandeur and glory of bygone ages. Traditionally, Delhi is said to be the site of the magnificent and opulent Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. A village called Indarpat existed in Delhi until the beginning of the 19th century. The ancient historic village was obliterated to make place for construction of New Delhi by the British.

16th century to Present

The India Gate commemorates more than 90,000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives during the Afghan Wars and World War1. In the mid-sixteenth century there was an interruption in the Mughal rule of India as Sher Shah Suri defeated Babur's son Humayun and forced him to flee to Afghanistan and Persia. Sher Shah Suri built the sixth city as well as the old fort known as Purana Qila. After his early death, Humayun was able to recover the empire with Persian help as Suri's son was not as able as his father. The third and the greatest Mughal emperor, Akbar, moved the capital of his empire to Agra resulting in a decline in the fortunes of Delhi. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (1628-1658) built the city that sometimes bears his name (Shahjahanabad), the seventh city of Delhi that is more commonly known as the old city or old Delhi. This city contains a number of significant architectural features, including the Red Fort (Lal Qila) and the Jama Masjid. The old city served as the capital of the later Mughal empire from 1638 onwards, when Shah Jahan transferred the capital back from Agra. Aurangzeb (1658-1707) crowned himself as the emperor in Delhi in 1658 at the Shalinar garden ('Aizzabad-Bagh); a second coronation took place in 1659. Delhi passed to British control in 1857 after the First War of Indian Independence; the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, was pensioned to Rangoon, and the remaining Mughal territories were annexed as a province of the British India. In 1857, shortly after the first war of independence, Britain declared Calcutta as the capital of British India. However, in 1911 the capital of British India was again moved to Delhi from Calcutta. Parts of the Old City were pulled down to create New Delhi, a monumental new quarter of the city designed by the British architect Edwin Lutyens to house the government buildings. After India achieved independence in 1947, New Delhi was officially declared as the seat of the Government of India.

Delhi Cuisine

Delhi cuisine has something for every moodgo wild! From age - old eateries in the by lanes of the Walled City to glitzy, specialty restaurants in five - star hotels, Delhi is a moveable feast. It offers a choice of Indian and international cuisines in different ambiences to suit varied budgets. For gourmets, Delhi is synonymous with Mughlai and Frontier cuisines. The best of Mughlai cuisine can be enjoyed at Karim, (both in Jama Masjid and Nizamuddin) where recipes, dating from the times of the Mughals have been the closely - guarded secret of generation of chefs. Delhi Ka Aangan (Hyatt Regency), Darbar (Ashoka Hotel) and Corbetts (Claridges) are among the many options available in the expensive range, while Gulati Restaurant (Pandara Market), Angeethi (Asiad Village) and Degchi (Regal Building) are among those catering to more modest budgets. The finest Frontier cuisine is available at the Bukhara (Maurya Sheraton), Frontier (Ashoka Hotel) and Baluchi (The Hilton). At the other end of the scale are many popular road side eateries around Jama Masjid and Nzamuddin where kababs, rotis and biryani are order of the day. Every five - star hotel in the city has a Chinese restaurant, while most markets in South Delhi have a medium budget Chinese restaurants. The popularity of this cuisine can be gauged by the immumerable Chinese food outlets of the "meals- on - wheels" and kiosk variety. The growing sophistication Delhite's palate is discernable in the increasing number of speaciality restaurants- EIArab (Regal Building), Dum Pukht or the process of slow cooking developed in Awadh (Maurya Sheraton), Kashmiri food at Chor Bizarre (Hotel Broadway), Thai food at Baan Thai (The Oberoi) and Sukothai (Hauz Khas Village), Japenese food at Tokyo (Ashoka Hotel) and Osaka (Hauz Khas Village), Tibetan food at eateries near Chanakya Theatre, and Mexican food at Rodeo (ConnaughtPlace). Another indication is the frequency and popularity of food festivals organised by Hotels. South Indians food is another favorite, the vegetarian variety of which is best in enjoyed at Sagar (Defence Colony), Sagar Ratna (Lodhi Hotel) and Dasaprakash (Hotel Ambassador). Coconut Grove (Ashok Yatri Niwas) offers excellent non- vegeterian cuisine from South India. The best of continental cuisine can be eaten at five - star hotels, for instance La Rochelle (The Oberoi), The Orient Express (Taj Palace) and Captains Cabin (Taj Man Singh), though numerous multi - cuisine restaurants also offers continental food. Keeping pace with the changing face of the city are the growing number of fast food outlets which serve all manner of cuisines. A delightful outlet offering a range of Indian cuisines are the food stalls ar Dilli Haat, here, the cuisine of different states is made available at very moderate rates. Set in the mindset of a spacious crafts bazaar these cafes are a very pleasant place to enjoyfood.


For the more intrepid, eateries such as those at Paranthe wali gali, or chaat at Bengali Market and Sunder Nagar, bhelpuri at Greater Kailash and sweetmeats from Annapoorna and Ghantewala can be part of the gastronomical tour of Delhi. Delhi is also synonymous with the omnipresent tandoori chicken and tandoori roti, which, when freshly had from the tandoor, makes a delicious meal. This is often available at roadside dhabas at a moderate cost.

CULTURE Delhi Art & Craft

Delhi prides itself in its rich crafts tradition that sturckroot during the reign of Emperor Shahjahan. Specificstreets derived their names and character from differentcrafts and occupations. Their inheritors, painstakingly, and often against all odds, carried on the secret code of these special knowledge systems, with their fingers, their eyes, mind and soul. Today what we see as meticulously beautiful in craft, design and conception is a real testimony to this inheritance. Despite modernity and its aggressive onslaught, despite urban sharks and middlemen, many traditional crafts have survived and have evolved new parameters of aesthetic and commercial value.

Delhi is on the major Air Routes of the Northern hemisphere and a large number of International Air Carriers include the city in their schedules.Within India, Delhi is at the hub of the operations of the major domestic carriers by rail.Delhi is connected to all parts of the country by express trains including some of the fastest operating in India. By road, transport, corporation of states like Haryana,Punjab,HimachalPradesh,Chandigarh,Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,Rajasthan etc. connect Delhi throgh an extensive network roots and services to all major centres in the region.

For both domestic and international connections, the city is served by Indira


Gandhi International Airport (IGI). The airport is situated in the southwestern corner of the city. The airport operates two terminals: 1 and 2. Terminal 1 is the domestic terminal, while terminal 2 is the international terminal. The international terminal has all modern facilities like Duty-Free Shopping, money exchange service and various other recreational facilities. Besides the IGI Airport, two other airports are located within Delhi: The Palam Airport and the Safdarjung Airport. The Palam Airport was the first civilian airport in Delhi. However, it is now used by the Indian Air Force.

Railway connectivity
Delhi has a large and efficient railway network. The Indian Railways plays a crucial role in connecting Delhi with the rest of India. The railway system also helps connect major parts of the city and its suburbs. The major railway stations connected through the trains are Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, New Delhi, Okhla, Pragati Maidan, Shahdara, Shakur Basti and Tilak Bridge.One of the major local trains is the one that operates between Palwal station and Shakur Basti station. Names of Railway stations are1. 2. 3. 4. Old Delhi Railway Station New Delhi Railway Station Hazrat Nizammudin Sarai Rohilla

As Delhi's population continues to increase at an exponential rate, the city's transportation authority is struggling to reduce traffic congestion problems. Delhi's state government initiated a massive traffic decongestion plan on the late 1990s investing billions of dollars in the city's road transport system. Today, there are more flyovers and highways in Delhi than in all other Indian metropolitan cities combined. The city's transportation system is regarded as the best in India. The Government's modest efforts have also helped reduce pollution level in the city. Road connectivity is mostly reliant on private vehicles. Delhi has the highest ratio of vehicles per capita in India. Government-Owned Delhi Transport Corporation buses, and private buses, including chartered buses, White-line buses and Yellow-line buses also play a crucial role on connecting Delhi.



metro (mass rapid-transit system) built and managed by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation is also under operation. There are three lines currently in operation. Line 1 runs east-west for 22kms on an elevated track between Rithala and Shahdara. Line 2 runs north-south for 11kms in an underground tunnel between Vishwa Vidyalaya and the Central Secretariat. Line 3, which opened on December 31, 2005 is 22.8 km long on elevated tracks and underground tunnel. The line runs between Indraprastha, Barakhamba Road and Dwarka.

Delhi has one of India's largest Bus transport systems. Most of the Buses which ply across Delhi are operated by State-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) and other private operators such as the BlueLine Transport Corporation. It is mandatory for all private bus operators to acquire permit from Delhi's State Transport Authority.
The fares in buses are based on the colour of the stripe on the bus. Regular DTC buses which are yellow in colour and have bus numbers in white plates. These buses have fares of denomination 2,5,7 and 10 rupees. Similar private buses are either yellow or blue in colour. Buses with Green stripe have yellow number plates and have GL printed ahead of the number. These buses charge a flat rate of 10 rupees. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly CNG buses. While not particularly high-tech, the DTC's natural gas-burning buses nevertheless pollute much less than the poorly designed and even more poorly maintained diesel-burning buses operated by most other State Road Transit Commissions (RTCs) in India. The buses are also much easier on the lungs of other road users as there is no cloud of carbon particles in the face of the unfortunate motorcyclist who sidles up next to a bus at an intersection. Directly, and indirectly, the gas-burning buses have also reduced, to some degree, the downward trend in Delhi's air quality and related illnesses. 52

Auto-rickshaws, also known as Auto, are one of the most popular means of public transportation. The auto rickshaws (sometimes shortened to Auto) form a very important mean of public transportation in Delhi as they charge a lower fare compared to Taxis. Hiring an Auto in Delhi is very tricky as not many auto-drivers accept the standard meter charges. The typical method is to negotiate and haggle for an agreeable rate. It is also typical for the rate to be almost doubled after 11 p.m. at night. With the introduction of electronic meters, the tamperability of meters has been reduced, and a stronger jurisdiction for a sanctioning body has forced more autorickshaws to comply with the meter-based charging scheme.

Though easily available, Taxis do not form an integral part of the public transportation system in Delhi. Most of the Taxis are operated by Delhi Transport Corporation, Indian Tourism Ministry and various private operators. The tourism ministry grants private companies permits to operate Taxis in the city. These Taxis, locally known as Tourist Taxis, provide better service than the Taxis run by the DTC. However, these Taxis are not metered unlike the DTC run Taxis and usually charge a higher fare. In order to hire a Taxi, one either has to go to the Taxi stand or telephone the Taxi service provider; they are not usually flagged from the street.

A centuries old city, Delhi breathes history. Walk through Delhis monuments and you are travelling through a maze of time where hundreds of stories are told and retold. There are staggering 1346 monuments sites in Delhi with two World Heritage Sites the Qutab Minar and Humayun Tomb. OLD DELHI Time Travel Without Effort REDFORT The Red Fort or the Qila-E-Maulla, the fort of the 53

Exalted Dignity, was the royal palace of the emperor Shahjahan.As soon as you enter the palace complex, would-be-guides leap forth to offer their services, to introduce you to the sheer architectural extravagance, as seen in the Diwan-I-Am, Diwan-I-Khas, Sawan and Bhadon pavilion,etc. GURUDWARA SIS GANJ

Built at a site where (Head) lay after he Aurangzeb on 11th in the centre of 1/2km. west of Red JAMA MASJID

Guru Tegh Bahadurs Sis was beheaded by the order of Nov. 1675 A.D. At present it is Chandni Chowk square, about Fort.

One of the biggest mosques in India near Red Fort. It is closed for non muslims every Friday for two hours during mid day prayers. It is one of the few mosques where women can enter. Bare feet and suitable attire which can be hired at the northern gate is a must. The courtyard has a capacity of 25,000 people. A magnificient architectural gift, by emperor Shah Jahan completed in 1658, has three gateways, four angle towers and two minerates. The greatest merit of Jama Masjid is that no matter, when, at what point of the day and from which direction you look at it, its grandeur never fails to overwhelm you. INDIA GATE Further east from the secretarial Building lies the All India War Memorial Arch, now known as the India Gate. The 42m high free standing arch was designed by Lutyens and built in 1931. India Gate was raised in the memory of 90,000 Indian soldiers killed during the World War-I. One the arch itself are inscribed the names of the 13,516 British and Indian Officers, who died in the North-West Frontier and the third Afghan war. Nowadays, it has also become a memorial to the unknown soldier and is a popular evening spot.


JANTAR MANTAR (Yantra- Instrument, Mantra- Formula) Only a short stroll from Connaught Place, the Jantar Mantar is a strange collection of Salmon-coloured structures that comprise one of Maharaja Jai Singh observations. Commissioned by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur, this ancient observatory was built in 1724 and is dominated by a huge sundial , the Samrat Yantra. Just south is Jai Prakash an instrument designed by Jai Singh South again are two circular buildings which together form Ram Yantra. Ohers include the Mistra Yantra are built in order to determine the shortest and longest days of the year i.e. 21 Dec. & 21 June. Tourist guides take great delight in calculating the exacte time with the help of the sun dial. GURUDWARA BANGLA SAHIB Around 1/2 km. from Connaught Place. The palace Haveli dedicated by Mirza Raja Jai Singh, where the eight guru of the Sikhs Guru Hari Krishan Dev stayed as a royal guest in 1664, became the place of worship of sikhs and is known as Bangla Sahib. It is said that the water of the tank, inside this temple, which was sanctified and distributed by Guru Hari Krishan Dev cured people suffering from small pox and cholera, is still distributed to the people seeking faith healing. A museum on sikh history is also within this Complex. GURUDWARA RAKAB GANJ Near Parliament House, built in 1732 by Lakkhi Banjara, the man who performed the last rites of the martyred Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadurji. The style is characteristic of Sikh Gurudwaras . With typical arrogance, EDWIN LUTYENS team could only describe the building as a Sikh shrine impossible to remove. LAXMI NARAIN TEMPLE Also known as Birla Mandir, is one of Delhis major temples and a major tourist attraction.Built by the industrialist G.D. Birla in 1938, this beautiful temple is located in the west of Connaught Place. The temple is dedicated to Laxmi (the goddess of prosperity) and Narayana (the preserver). The temple was inaugrated by Mahatma Gandhi on condition that people of all castes be allowed to enter the temple.


SAFDARJUNG TOMB Situated near Safdarjung Airport, km. from Lodhi Tomb. Built in 1753-54, as the mausoleum of Safdarjung, by the Nawab of Oudh. This beautifully designed complex is surrounded by lush green parks. It has several smaller pavillions like,Palace in Woods, Pearl Palace & Kings Favourite.

LODI TOMB Surrounded by a beautiful designed gardens, is situated at Lodi Road. Sikandar Lodis tomb was built by his grandson,Ibrahim Lodi, in 1517. This was the beginning of the tomb within a garden concept. The two other structures with the garden, the Bara Gumbad and the Sheesh Gumbad, are situated within a stones throw of each other.

PURANA QUILA & PRAGATI MAIDAN A Mosaic of Old and New In the year1538, Emperor Humanyun son of first Mughal, Babur, laid the foundation of a city named Dinpanah. The inner citadel of this city is today known as Purana Quila. The ruins of this fort are located on a small hill which once stood on the bank of the river Yamuna. Legend is that the fort marked the site of Indraprastha, the magnificent capital of the Mahabharata heros, the Pandavas.The present construction was carried out by Sher Shah Suri in the sixteenth century. Recent excavations at Old Fort yielded painted Grey Ware Pottery, which is dated to c. 1000 BC .Inside the fort is Qila Kuhna Masjid, built by Sher Shah in 1541. It is certainly one of the finest architectural statements of the time. At the foot of the hill is the lake where Delhi


Tourism has arrangements for boating. Besides the fort, there is National Zoological Park officially known as Delhi Zoo and National Science Museum in that area. Pragati Maidan This sprawling Pragati Maidan on Mathura road draws the largest crowds during the seasonal trade fairs, both national and international, consumer expos etc. The complex boasts of the variety of restaurants sprawling and beautiful parks, shopping centres, cinemas and theatres. There are several permanent exhibitions as Defence pavilion, Atomic Energy pavilion, Rajasthan pavilion, etc. within the complex. Then & Now , Here & There NIZAM-UD-DIN SHRINE One of the Delhis major attractions. Its the tomb of the famous Sufi saint Hazrat Nizam-ud-Din Auliya. Inside the premises of the shrine is a tank which is surrounded by many other historically significant tombs. The shrine also has the tomb of Amir Khusrau and the grave of princess Jahanara, the daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan. Twice during the year i.e. on the death anniversaries of Hazrat Nizamud-din Auliya and Amir khusrau a fare is held here the area comes to life with pilgrims congregating from all over India. HUMAYUN TOMB(World Heritage Site) Located near the crossing of Mathura road and Lodi road, this, magnificient garden tomb is the first substancial example of Mughal architecture in India. It was built in 1565 A.D., nine years after the death of Humayun, by his senior widow Bega Begam. Inside the walled enclosure the most notable feature are the garden squares (chaharbagh) with pathways, water channels, centrally located well proportional mausoleum topped by double dome. There are several graves of mughal rulers located inside the walled enclosure and from here in 1857 A.D. Lieutenant Hudson had captured the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II. THE BAHAI TEMPLE


Completed in 1986, the Bahai temple is set amidst pools and gardens, and adherents of any faith are free to visit the temple and pray or meditate silently according to their own religion. The structure is in lotus shape so it often called the lotus temple. The view of the temple is very spectacular just before dusk when the temple is flood lit.

QUITUB MINAR A Magnificient structure in the southern part of the capital, built by a Muslim king, Qutub-ud-Din Aibak in 1199 A.D. The Minar is 72.5 mtrs. High and has its base as a mosque. In front of the imposing structure is a 72.5 mtrs. Long solid iron rod which bears an inscription in the Brahami script (the oldest known Indian script) according to which the pillar was set up in the honour of Lord Vishnu, in the reign of Chandragupta Maurya (380 AD to 413 AD). At one time the pillar had a Garuda(the vulture on which the Vishnu rode) on its crown, which was removed by subsequent rulers. The Englishtranslation to this insvription is seen close by. ISKCON Temple Completed in 1998, this is a complex of temples. Built on a hilly place this temple is dedicated to the Lord Krishna and was built by the Hare-Rama HareKrishna cult followers. This complex is elegantly build and is one of the largest temple complexes in India. Currently the main attraction of the temple are the Robort who enact and preach the Gita.

CHHATARPUR MANDIR A complex of temples called Chattarpur mandir is located beyond the Qutab Minar in Mehrauli. Dedicated to Goddess Durga. Build in South Indian style the temple complex is spread over a large area with beautiful lawns and gardens. Though devotees visit these temples through the year, during the navratras devotees come from near and far. During the festivals there are special bus services to these temples.


AHIMSA STHAL Just behind Quitub, on top of a small hill is the large statue of Mahavir, which was put up in the 1980s. Area around has been carefully landscaped and made into a park. The spot is called Ahimsa Sthal or area of peace. THE GREAT MEMORIALS Some of Delhi's museums tell the story of the architects of modern, independent India, whose memorials are set in spacious gardens along the Yamuna river front- Mahatma Gandhi's at Rajghat, Jawaharlal Nehru's at Shanti Van, Indira Gandhi's at Shakti Sthal, Lal Bahadur Shastri's at Vijay Ghat and Rajiv Gandhi's at Vir Bhumi. A steady stream of visitors pay homage to the leaders at these memorials, which are all beautifully landscaped. RAJGHAT 4-km away from Janpath to the northeast of Feroze Shah Kotla near Delhi Gate at Ring Road on the bank of Yamuna is situated Rajghat. Jawaharlal Nehru Road also ends opposite Rajghat. On 31st January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi's last rites were performed overhere. The memorial stone of Gandhi is square in shape made of black stone. His last word- 'Hey Ram' is inscribed on it. Ordinary people, VIPs, foreign tourists all come at Rajghat to pay their homage to the Father of the Nation. On every Friday (the day of his death) a prayer is held. Except Monday, a regular feature of projecting Gandhi philosophy in picture, sculpture and photos from 10.00am to 5.00pm is performedatRajghat. VIJAYGHAT This is the tomb of India's second Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri. After the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Shastriji went to Tashkant in Russia on a peace mission and died of a heart attack. In 1966 his last rites were performed over here.

SHAKTISTHAL This memorial is situated between Rajghat and Shanti Van, commemorating the death of Indira Gandhi on 31st October 1984 and her last rites were performed over here on 3rd November 1984. The tomb on her funeral spot is made of grey-red monolithicstone.


VEERBHUMI It is founded in the memoriam of Rajiv Gandhi. He was assassinated at Perumbatoor,40km away from Chennai at 10.00pm on 21st May 1991. His last rites were performed on 24th May over here. KISHANGHAT It was built in memoriam of 5th Prime Minister Charan Singh at a distance of Rajghat on the bank of Yamuna. The last rites of this leader were performed on 31st May 1987. Opposite Rajghat on Ring Road on the banks of Yamuna, Babu Jag Jivan Ram was cremated. A sculpture has been built there founded in memorium. All five sculptures are built side by side and tourists may pay their visit over here. At its close, there is a park full of trees planted by world VIPs visiting India as state guest in different times since independence. It's a pleasant site for evening walks. SHANTIVAN To the north of Rajghat is Shanti Van. India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's last rites were performed over here on 27th May 1964. A tombstone has been erected on his funeral place. Next to Nehru's memorial lies the tomb of his grandson Sanjay Gandhi, who died in a plane crash in 1980. SHOPPING IN DELHI Delhi has long been the most important trading centre in Northern India. For visitors to Delhi, shopping is high on the list of "things to do". Tourists find a wide choice of itemssuch as carpets, silks, jewellery, leather and silver ware, handicrafts and handprinted cotton - that are synonymus with India. Each item is available in a range of prices, depending on the quality and the outlet. A good idea , however , would be to take a stroll down the Baba Khark Singh Marg, where one State Emporium after another jostle shoulders with each other. From Kerelas brass lamps, Rajasthans mirrorswork to Kashmirs carpets the choice is unending and making a decision probably is the toughest thing for you.And oh yes, one simply must not forget to buy those beautiful tinkling glass bangles,or get your hands painted in the traditional way by the MEHANDI WALI sitting under the shade of the banyan tree. Another absolute treat for the shopper is the government- run Cottage Industries Emporium which offers under a single roof, a wide and unique collection of Indian articfacts from different corners of the country. A truly contrasting but equally enriching experience is the underground Palika Shopping Complex and Janpath. Here the hawkers entice you to their goods by shouting to the tunes of the latest Hindi filmi music. Ethnic wear, little trinkets, Kolhapuri chappals, wicker baskets, brassware, Rajasthani paintingshandicrafts galore! It is imposible that you will return empty handed from there. 60

Therefore, we can say the main shopping centres are Connaught Place, Palika Bazars, Karol Bagh, Chandni Chowk and State Emporia. CHANDNI CHOWK There are countless bazars in Delhi. But for sheer ambience, few can compare with the ancient bazars around Jama Masjid and Chandni Chowk each a world in itself. It has rows of small shops selling readymade garments, local cosmetics, embroidered caps. There are also many dhabas , makeshift stalls where you can get a piping hot meal of meat curry and rotis for just a few rupees or Biryani. Behind Jama Masjid is cotton market selling quilts, pillows and mattresses. Beyond it is the busy cycle market which has the best range of bicycles and tricycles as well as accessories. The street is Dariba Kalan Road, litterally Street of the Incomparable Pearl. Since the time of Shah Jahan, the street has been home to Delhis gold, silver and jewellery market, although a number of shops now sell costume jewellery. The jewellery here is sold by weight rather than by piece-it seems no value is placed on the craft of the jewellery themselves. Where Dariba Kalan makes a slight bend to the left, at shop no.1658,take the narrow street to the right, Kinari Bazar. From all over the city , Delhi-wallahs come to the glittering shops in this street specially for wedding ceremony accessories hair-braids feature prominently, as do amazingly intricate garlands made from tinsel and crisp new Rs.5 and Rs.10 notes. CONNAUGHT PLACE Delhis most popular shopping centre, C.P. was conceived to be the central shopping complex of Delhi at the time of construction of New Delhi. The resplendent splendour of the days gone by is amply visible in the large, airy showrooms supported by large circular pillars,offering a rare treat for window shoppers. A fine example of modernity blending with tradition. The famous underground Air-conditioned market is a shoppers paradise. Its large well decorated showrooms cater to Clothes, Footwear, Eateries, Travel, Airline & Sundry needs. The central park provides a haven for weary shoppers and tourists. Janpath is well known lane for all kinds of handicrafts. The famous showrooms at C.P. are of MOHAN LAL & SONS,JANSONS,LEVIS,LACOSTE,BATA AND LIBERTY.



India is one of the fastest growing aviation markets in the world. The Airport Authority of India (AAI) manages a total of 127 airports in the country, which include 13 international airports, 7 custom airports, 80 domestic airports and 28 civil enclaves. There are over 450 airports and 1091 registered aircrafts in the country. The genesis of civil aviation in India goes back to December 1912 when the first domestic air route between Karachi and Delhi became operational. In the early fifties, all airlines operating in the country were merged into either Indian Airlines or Air India. and, by virtue of the Air Corporations Act 1953, this monopoly continued for the next forty years. The Directorate General of Civil Aviation(DGCA) controlled every aspect of aviation, including granting flying licenses, pilots, certifying aircrafts for flight and issuing all rules and procedures governing Indian airports and airspace. Finally, the Airports Authority of India (AAI) was assigned the responsibility of managing all national and international airports and administering every aspect of air transport operation through the Air Traffic Control. History The first commercial flight in India was made on February 18, 1911, when a French pilot Monseigneur Piguet flew airmails from Allahabad to Naini, covering a distance of about 10 km in as many minutes. Tata Services became Tata Airlines and then Air-India and spread its wings as Air-India International. The domestic aviation scene, however, was chaotic. When the American Tenth Air Force in India disposed of its planes at throwaway prices, 11 domestic airlines sprang up, scrambling for traffic that could sustain only two or three. In 1953, the government nationalized the airlines, merged them, and created Indian Airlines. For the


next 25 years JRD Tata remained the chairman of Air-India and a director on the board of Indian Airlines. After JRD left, voracious unions mushroomed, spawned on the pork barrel jobs created by politicians. In 1999, A-I had 700 employees per plane; today it has 474 whereas other airlines have 350. For many years in India air travel was perceived to be an elitist activity. This view arose from the Maharajah syndrome where, due to the prohibitive cost of air travel, the only people who could afford it were the rich and powerful. In recent years, however, this image of Civil Aviation has undergone a change and aviation is now viewed in a different light - as an essential link not only for international travel and trade but also for providing connectivity to different parts of the country. Aviation is, by its very nature, a critical part of the infrastructure of the country and has important ramifications for the development of tourism and trade, the opening up of inaccessible areas of the country and for providing stimulus to business activity and economic growth. Until less than a decade ago, all aspects of aviation were firmly controlled by the Government. In the early fifties, all airlines operating in the country were merged into either Indian Airlines or Air India and, by virtue of the Air Corporations Act, 1953; this monopoly was perpetuated for the next forty years. The Directorate General of Civil Aviation controlled every aspect of flying including granting flying licenses, pilots, certifying aircrafts for flight and issuing all rules and procedures governing Indian airports and airspace. Finally, the Airports Authority of India was entrusted with the responsibility of managing all national and international air ports and administering every aspect of air transport operation through the Air Traffic Control. With the opening up of the Indian economy in the early Nineties, aviation saw some important changes. Most importantly, the Air Corporation Act was repealed to end the monopoly of the public sector and private airlines were reintroduced

The Indian aviation market is booming. The estimated growth of domestic passenger segment is at 50% per annum and growth for international passenger segment is 25%. The international cargo is likely to grow at a rate of 12%. During the period April-September, 2006, international and domestic passengers recorded a growth of 15.8 per cent and 44.6 per cent respectively, leading to an overall growth of 35.5 per cent. Moreover, the international and domestic cargo recorded growth of 13.8 per cent and 8.7 per cent respectively, resulting in an overall growth of 12.0 per cent. According to Ministry of Civil Aviation, India will need 1,500 to 2,000 passenger planes in next 10 years. Over 135 aircrafts have already been added in the last two years alone. By 2010, India's fleet strength will stand at 500-550. It is also estimated that the domestic market size will cross 60 million and the international traffic will reach 20 million in the same period. By 2020, Indian airports are estimated to handle 100 million passengers, including 60 million domestic passengers. The amount of cargo handled will fall in the range of 3.4 million tonnes per annum


AIRLINES: CURRENT FLEET AND ACQUISITION & INVESTMENT PLANS Airlines Current fleet Acquisition plans Investment in US $billion) 30 by 2012 79 by 2010 100 by 2012 38 by 2010 33 by 2008 2 2.7 4.5 1.9 2.4

Jet Airways 62 Air Deccan 43 Kingfisher 11 Spice Jet GoAir 6 4

Boom In Aviation Industry

1.Foreign equity allowed: Foreign equity up to 49 per cent and NRI (Non-Resident Indian) investment up to 100 per cent is permissible in domestic airlines without any government approval. However, the government policy bars foreign airlines from taking a stake in a domestic airline company. 2.Low entry barriers: Nowadays, venture capital of $10 million or less is enough to launch an airline. Private airlines are known to hire foreign pilots, get expatriates or retired personnel from the Air Force or PSU airlines in senior management positions. Further, they outsource such functions as ground handling, check-in, reservation, aircraft maintenance, catering, training, revenue accounting, IT infrastructure, loyalty and Programme management. 3.Attraction of foreign shores: Jet and Sahara have gone international by starting operations, first to SAARC countries, and then to South-East Asia, the UK, and the US. After five years of domestic operations, many domestic airlines too will be entitled to fly overseas by using unutilised bilateral entitlements to Indian carriers. 4.Rising income levels and demographic profile: Though India's GDP (per capita) at $3,100 is still very low as compared to the developed country standards, India is shining, at least in metro cities and urban centres, where IT and BPO industries have made the young generation prosperous. Demographically, India has the highest percentage of people in age group of 20-50 among its 50 million strong middle class, with high earning potential. All this contributes for the boost in domestic air travel, particularly from a low base of 18 million passengers. 5.Untapped potential of India's tourism: Currently India attracts 3.2 million tourists every year, while China gets 10 times the number. Tourist arrivals in India are expected to grow exponentially, especially due to the open sky policy between India and the SAARC countries and the increase in bilateral entitlements with European countries, and US. 65

6.Glamor of the airlines: No industry other than film-making industry is as glamorous as the airlines. Airline tycoons from the last century, like J. R. D. Tata and Howard Hughes, and Sir Richard Branson and Dr. Vijaya Mallya today, have been idolized. Airlines have an aura of glamour around them, and high net worth individuals can always toy with the idea of owning an airline.

Civil Aviation Policy in India

In the context of a multiplicity of airlines, airport operators (including private sector), and the possibility of oligopolistic practices, there is a need for an autonomous regulatory authority which could work as a watchdog, as well as a facilitator for the sector, prescribe and enforce minimum standards for all agencies, settle disputes with regard to abuse of monopoly and ensure level playing field for all agencies. The CAA was commissioned to maintain a competitive civil aviation environment which ensures safety and security in accordance with international standards, promotes efficient, cost-effective and orderly growth of air transport and contributes to social and economic development of the country. Objectives of Civil Aviation Ministry a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) To ensure aviation safety, security Effective regulation of air transport in the country in the liberalized environment Safe, efficient, reliable and widespread quality air transport services are provided at reasonable prices Flexibility to adapt to changing needs and circumstances To provide all players a level-playing field Encourage Private participation Encourage Trade, tourism and overall economic activity and growth Security of civil aviation operations is ensured through appropriate systems, policies, and practices

Private Sector Participation and the Civil Aviation Policy Private sector participation will be a major thrust area in the civil aviation sector for promoting investment, improving quality and efficiency and increasing competition. Competitive regulatory framework with minimal controls encourages entry and operation of private airlines/ airports. Encouragement of private sector investment in the construction, upgradation and operation of new and existing airports including cargo related infrastructure. Rationalization of various charges and price of ATF/AVGas will be undertaken to render operation of smaller aircraft viable so as to encourage major investment in feeder and regional air services by the private sector. Training Institutes for pilots, flight engineers, maintenance personnel, air-traffic controller, and security will be encouraged in private sector.


Private sector investment in non-aeronautical activities like shopping complex, golf course, Entertainment Park, aero-sports etc. near airports will be encouraged to increase revenue, improve viability of airports and to promote tourism. CAA will ensure that this is not at the cost of primary aeronautical functions, and is consistent with the security requirements. Government will gradually reduce its equity in PSUs in the sector. Government will encourage employee participation through issue of shares and ESOP

Recent Developments in Aviation Sector Modernization of airports Policy on merchant airports Growth in MRO segment: Airport security policy Augmentation of fleet by various airlines Foreign equity participation in air transport services Boom in Indian aviation sector is likely to generate more jobs

Passenger airlines The players

Indian Airlines
Indian Airlines was founded in 1953. Today, together with its fully owned subsidiary Alliance Air, it is one of the largest regional airline systems in Asia with a fleet of 62 aircraft(4 wide bodied Airbus A300s, 41 fly-by-wire Airbus A320s, 11 Boeing 737s, 2 Dornier D-228 aircraft and 4 ATR-42). It has many firsts to its credit, including introduction of the wide-bodied A300 aircraft on the domestic network, the fly-by-wire A320, Domestic Shuttle Service, Walk-in Flights and Flexi-fares. The airlines network spans from Kuwait in the west to Singapore in the East and covers 75 destinations - 57 within India and 20 abroad. The Indian Airlines international network covers Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar and Bahrain in West Asia, Thailand, Singapore, Yangon and Malaysia in South East Asia and Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Maldives in the South Asian sub-continent. Indian Airlines is presently fully owned by the Government of India and has total staff strength of around 18562 employees. Its annual turnover, together with that of its subsidiary Alliance Air, is well over Rs.4000 crores (around US$ 1 billion).


Indian Airlines flight operations centre around its four main hubs- the main metro cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. Together with its subsidiary Alliance Air, Indian Airlines carries a total of over 7.5 million passengers annually redemption.

Jet Airways
In May 1974, Naresh Goyal founded Jetair (Private) Limited with the objective of providing Sales and Marketing representation to foreign airlines in India. In 1991, as part of the ongoing diversification programme of his business activities, Naresh Goyal took advantage of the opening of the Indian economy and the enunciation of the Open Skies Policy by the Government of India, to set up Jet Airways (India) Private Limited, for the operation of scheduled air services on domestic sectors in India. Jet Airways has emerged as India's largest private domestic airline and has been acclaimed by frequent travellers as the most preferred carrier offering the highest quality of comfort, courtesy and standards of in flight and ground service and reliability of operations. It currently has a market share of 46.7% per cent and operates a fleet of Boeing and ATR72500 turbo-prop aircraft. Jet Airways has been voted India's 'Best Domestic Airline' consecutively and won several national and international awards, including the 'Market Development Award' for 2001 awarded by Air Transport World. Air Deccan Air Deccan is a unit of Deccan Aviation Private Limited, India's largest private heli-charter company. Formed in 1995, Deccan Aviation Private Limited has carved a niche for itself in the Indian aviation scene with its reputation for providing speedy and reliable heli-services for company charters, tourism, medical evacuation, off-shore logistics and a host of other services. The company has a modern fleet of ATR-42-320 aircraft, one of the finest and most efficient Turbo-Prop aircraft flying. ATR is a European joint venture between Alenia Aeronautica and EADS. The ATR 42 has become a reference aircraft amongst airlines around the world, by offering a safe, easy to maintain and comfortable aircraft operating on the regional market with the best economics on short haul sectors. To date, ATR has sold over 650 aircraft to more than 100 operators in 73 countries all around the world.


The company has adopted a 'lean-and-mean' approach to staffing and aims at maintaining a low aircraft-to-employee ratio. A good work culture coupled with a skilled workforce is the backbone of the company.

While most information about the Indian Carriers, other than the Government owned, is not in public domain, the available information does not tell us much. The Promoters and Key Management persons are not listed nor is their equity ownership pattern provided. Jet Airways' ownership is apparently fully foreign giving rise to the phrase: India based airlines in place of home country airlines. There is a large variation in the financial base of these airlines. While Jet Airways has an equity base of 141.92 crores, Deccan Airways has an equity base of a mere 30 crores.

Aviation Industry in India : Market Share

The D es A om tic viation M rket S re a ha
1 % 2 % 8% 8% 6 % 3 4% J airw ys et a Indian Air D ccan e Air Sa ra ha Kin gfisher Spicejet 21% 2 0% G oair O thers


Service Vs Price Graph


Market Equilibrium through the Cournot ModelThe Cournot model assumes that each firm takes the output of the other firm as given. If Indian Airlines output is assumed to stay the same, Jet will maximize profits by setting MR=MC. The result is shown. In the Cournot framework the equilibrium is at the intersection of the two reaction functions. These are just the profit-maximizing conditions rearranged.


The revenue of both a competitive firm and of a monopolist depends only on the firm's own output: for a competitive firm we assume that the firm's output does not affect the price, and for a monopolist there are no other firms in the market. For a duopolist, however, revenue depends on both its own output and the other firm's output.We conclude that the firms' outputs and the price are different in Cournot-Nash equilibrium than they are in a competitive equilibrium. As the demand curve slopes down, price exceeds marginal cost, so that, as for a monopoly, the total output produced by the firms is less than the competitive output. An implication is that, as for a monopoly, the Nash equilibrium outcome in a Cournot duopoly is not Pareto efficient.

Potential Market Entrants

Others are just as keen to get India's millions airborne.Following closely will be Go, promoted by textile scion Jehangir Wadia, And charter carrier Jagson Airlines plans to expand as a regional discounter next year. Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic and Britain's bmi are hungry for more direct routes from London to major Indian cities, which are restricted under existing agreements. Including these, the potential players in the market could be a double-digit figure, most of them looking at setting-up a low-cost airline, namely - Air-India Express (which will ply between India and the Middle East), AirOne and Visa (both floated by ex-Indian Airlines people), Alliance Air, Go (from the Wadias), Kingfisher (Mallya), Royal (ModiLuft's relaunched avatar), Skylark, Yamuna Air (Gill Brothers, UK-based NRIs), hotelier Lalit Suri, and the Interglobe group (which runs the travel bookings firm, Galileo). All this activity has spurred India's state-sector airlines to jump into the discount fray. AirIndia plans to launch Air-India Express, which will take over routes to the Middle East, where some 4 million Indians hold service jobs. Indian Airlines, meanwhile, is planning to turn money-losing affiliate Alliance Air into a cut-rate carrier. The new players face some serious hurdles. The biggest is infrastructure. Indian airports are dismal -- when cities are lucky enough to have one. Even cities with millions of inhabitants -- such as Dehra Dun, the capital of the new northern state of Uttaranchal -have no commercial airport. High fuel costs and other operating fees such as landing and parking charges, which account for up to 15 percent on an airline's expenditure, have kept air fares high and grounded most carriers which have entered the domestic aviation sector when it opened up nearly a decade ago

Challenges For Aviation Industry

The growth in the aviation sector and capacity expansion by carriers have posed challenges to aviation industry on several fronts. These include shortage of workers and professionals, safety concerns, declining returns and the lack of accompanying capacity and infrastructure. Moreover, stiff competition and rising fuel costs are also negatively 71

impacting the industry. 1. Employee shortage: There is clearly a shortage of trained and skilled manpower in the aviation sector as a consequence of which there is cut-throat competition for employees which, in turn, is driving wages to unsustainable levels. Moreover, the industry is unable to retain talented employees. 2. Regional connectivity: One of the biggest challenges facing the aviation sector in India Is to be able to provide regional connectivity. What is hampering the growth of regional connectivity is the lack of airports. 3.Rising fuel prices: As fuel prices have climbed, the inverse relationship between fuel prices and airline stock prices has been demonstrated. Moreover, the rising fuel prices have led to increase in the air fares. 4.Declining yields: LCCs and other entrants together now command a market share of around 46%. Legacy carriers are being forced to match LCC fares, during a time of escalating costs. Increasing growth prospects have attracted & are likely to attract more players, which will lead to more competition. All this has resulted in lower returns for all operators. 5. Gaps in infrastructure: Airport and air traffic control (ATC) infrastructure is inadequate to support growth. While a start has been made to upgrade the infrastructure, the results will be visible only after 2 - 3 years. 6. Trunk routes: It is also a matter of concern that the trunk routes, at present, are not fully exploited. One of the reasons for inability to realize the full potential of the trunk routes is the lack of genuine competition. The entry of new players would ensure that air fares are brought to realistic levels, as it will lead to better cost and revenue management, increased productivity and better services. This in turn would stimulate demand and lead to growth. 7. High input costs: Apart from the above-mentioned factors, the input costs are also high. Some of the reasons for high input costs are:Withholding tax on interest repayments on foreign currency loans for aircraft Acquisition. Increasing manpower costs due to shortage of technical personnel

Government Recommendations
Codesharing Codesharing is an important tool for airlines to minimise the costs of operating services. By selling seats on a flight operated by another carrier, codesharing enables an airline to make direct cost savings by rationalising services or establishing market presence on a route without actually operating on it. Thus, both airlines may be able to save on fuel, labour and other variable costs, as well as making more effective use of aircraft and other overheads. 72

Cabotage Restricting access by foreign carriers to the Indian domestic market gives the Indian carriers a solid base from which to extend into international aviation. The same applies to most other countries, with the exception of city economies such as Singapore and Hong Kong. Restricting cabotage rights for the carriage of passengers and freight to domestic airlines reduces competition on domestic routes. These restrictions help keep fares and freight rates higher than they otherwise might be, boosting domestic airline revenue at the expense of domestic consumers. Allowing foreign carriers some cabotage rights could improve competition in the domestic market. Integrating domestic and international services allows airlines to achieve: operational synergies and efficiencies by being able to switch capacity and aircraft between the domestic and international sectors; and network advantages such as economies of scope and traffic density as well as the marketing advantages of operating a combined domestic and international network. The opposition to this recommendation is the view that It is most likely that foreign carriers would engage in cherry picking i.e. carry domestic traffic on the most profitable routes. Incumbent airlines would need to counter any loss of profitability on routes affected by cabotage and this could mean a reduction in the number of services provided on these routes, or the reduction or withdrawal of services from less profitable routes, with consequential loss of amenity to passengers, including those making connections to other parts of the domestic network. Eliminate Regulatory Structure The regulatory structure inhibits competition in many ways. It can prevent or deter entry, constrain capacity, and limit the potential for airlines to win market share. A problem in assessing regulatory impacts is the structure of aviation markets. Economies of scope and traffic density favour large airlines operating many services. On the demand side, a single carrier operating a long thin route with multiple frequencies will attract better business than multiple carriers who each operate one service per week. Thus markets tend to be concentrated with a small numbers of carriers operating on most routes. It cannot be presumed that these airlines respond to normal commercial incentives. Instead of shareholder value, they may be managed for national prestige, employment enhancement, technology transfer, or defence, which might require government subsidies. Continued use of substantial government subsidies is an obstacle to efficient air services, and has important implications for competition in a less regulated international environment. Eliminate the fuel tax


A most regressive tax whose burden becomes larger as fuel costs increase (and airlines ability to pay diminishes). As an interim step cap tax revenue and determine a better way of obtaining (e.g., a per passenger levy). Eliminate category III restrictions Eliminate category III restrictions and provide essential air services subsidies where required (with costs shared by national/state/local authorities). Category III mandates that an operator deploy on routes in Category-II (North-Eastern region, Jammu & Kashmir, Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep) at least 10% of the capacity deployed on routes in Category-I and of the capacity thus required to be deployed on Category-II routes, at least 10% would be deployed on service or segments operated exclusively within the NorthEastern region, Jammu & Kashmir, Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep. In the interim, allow airlines to transfer category III obligations to a competitor or third party operator who could use a standard, appropriate fleet and be paid by the majors to meet their category III requirements.

Improve quality of and access to airports and hangars Privatize or municipalize. Develop a robust traffic management system that addresses relevant technical issues and meets strategic objectives through rigorous systems engineering and large-scale integration efforts such that rising air traffic demand is supported in a safe, secure and efficient manner. Today, Indian airlines have difficulty accessing hangars for maintenance. As a result, private operators have to do some maintenance abroad. Airline maintenance and overhaul should be an area where India could develop a major international business, leveraging its low labour costs and world-class engineering to service aircraft for other countries as well as its own. Tourism An efficient aviation sector is essential to support the tourism industry, which has immense employment opportunities and the tourism and airline industries with a joint proactive approach can foster tourism development and promotion in a big way. One of the prerequisites for developing tourism is 'easy access' to the tourist destinations, in terms of international and domestic connectivity and easy movement within the destination. An efficient aviation sector is essential to support tourism. Air connectivity is integral to the growth of tourism. Airlines and tourism are self dependent. The tourism market grows by itself with new connections and a popular destination attracts more flight operations. It is a win-win situation. Direct connections would also give further impetus to tourists arrival. Over 40 per cent of the passenger traffic is concentrated in two main international airports namely New Delhi 74

and Mumbai. The increase in connectivity has contributed to domestic and international tourist arrivals. The tourism and airline industries with a joint proactive approach can foster tourism development and promotion in a big way.

Industry Recommendations
Reduce labour costs All major carriers need to win significant concessions from their workers. Low labour outlays would consist of a mix of reduced wages, more flexible work rules and trimmed benefits including pension. Simplify flight operations Low-cost carriers use just a few types of aircraft, a strategy that cuts training and maintenance expenses. Larger airlines who fly internationally, to more remote destinations require varied fleets of large and small planes. However, they can and should work toward streamlining the types of planes they fly. Another way to simplify operations is modifying the hub-and-spoke model, which uses designated headquarter airports for transfers. Traditionally, the big airlines have sent many of their flights through hub airports at peak business-travel hours. That way, since carriers typically charge heaps more for business fares, they can get more revenues per flight. But many experts argue that it's time to give up on that model - especially as low-cost carriers increase service along heavily travelled routes. Experts like the idea of so-called rolling hub operations, where flights are scheduled throughout the day so that an airline's assets - from employees to planes to hangars - can be used more efficiently. In a traditional hub system, planes and workers spend more time waiting for connecting flights to come in at peak operating times. With rolling hubs, travellers may end up waiting a little longer to get a connecting flight, but planes end up in the air for more hours of the day. Offer more transparent pricing The legacy carriers have long had an exotic, almost incomprehensible pricing system. However, these days, with the Internet allowing travellers to shop for the cheapest tickets easily, and low-cost airlines offering uncomplicated set prices, traditional carriers have to follow suit or risk losing more and more passengers.


Get smart on fuel With oil near $50 a barrel, airlines must be smarter about how they incorporate its price into their costs. Discount carriers such as Southwest hedge as much as 80% of their jet-fuel costs. Essentially, that means that they lock in prices on future fuel when the price drops. Small wonder Southwest is one of the few success stories in the airline business. Stop chasing market share Airlines need to be savvier about capacity. At the start of 2004, many planned to add more flights amid signs of an improved economy. When it became clear that demand wasn't as strong as originally forecast, most carriers still wouldn't retrench from their plans for fear of losing out if the market snapped back. Rather than scrambling to add seats in fear of missing out on the party, airlines would do well to take a more cautious approach and focus on efficiency and margins. From bailouts to government partnership Although the Indian airline industry was largely deregulated in 1990, plenty of lingering rules and regulations have made it nearly impossible for carriers to be efficient. Many believe that restrictions on foreign ownership and labour laws have kept the industry from innovating. So instead of lobbying for protective measures like bailouts, airlines need to work with government to tackle longer-term projects like building more runways, running airports more efficiently, and reining in labour costs. A new model for premium pricing Most of the industry's improvement efforts have focused on whittling down costs. However, boosting revenues also needs to be a priority. After all, people are willing to pay more if they believe they're getting more value. Legacy carriers still offer certain advantages, especially to the business traveller including airport lounges and more comfortable seating

SWOT Analysis
Strengths: 1. Growing tourism: Due to growth in tourism, there has been an increase in number of the international and domestic passengers. The estimated growth of domestic passenger segment is at 50% per annum and growth for international passenger segment is 25% 2. Rising income levels: Due to the rise in income levels, the disposable income is also 76

higher which are expected to enhance the number of flyers. Weaknesses: 1.Under penetrated Market : The total passenger traffic was only 50 million as on 31st Dec 2005 amounting to only 0.05 trips per annum as compared to developed nations like United States have 2.02 trips per annum. 2.Untapped Air Cargo Market: Air cargo market has not yet been fully taped in the Indian markets and is expected that in the coming years large number of players will have dedicated fleets. 3. Infrastructural constraints: The infrastructure development has not kept pace with the growth in aviation services sector leading to a bottleneck. Huge investment requirement for physical infrastructure for airports. Opportunities: 1.Expecting investments: investment of about US $30 billion will be made. 2.Expected Market Size: Average growth of aviation sector is about 25%-30% and the expected market size is projected to grow upto100 million by 2010. Threats: 1.Huge investments are expected to take place in aviation sector in near future. It is estimated that by 2012. 2.Shortage of trained Pilots: There is a shortage of trained pilots, co-pilots and ground staff which is severely limiting growth prospects. 3.Shortage of Airports: There is a shortage of airport facilities, parking bays,air traffic control facilities and takeoff and landing slots. 4. High prices: Though enough number of low cost carriers are already existing in the industry, majority of the population is still not able to fly to other destinations.

Future Trends : Passenger Forecast


Future Trends : Proposed Addition



1. The following websites were referred to: a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

2. A constant track of the following dailies and magazines was kept to see the developments related to and affecting the Commonwealth Games 2010 to be held in Delhi. a. The Times of India b. Hindustan Times c. India Today d. Business Today e. The Traveller

3. Reports published by the Commonwealth Games Organization and the

Commonwealth Games Organizing Committee of India , Delhi Tourism and Transport Development Corporation, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, Aviation Ministry of India.