ASYNDETIC NOUN CLUSTERS AND RENDERING THEIR MEANING INTO UKRAINIAN

Present-day English abounds in asyndetic noun clusters which very often used in newspaper and scientific matter/texts. They word-groups consisting of are are two, three or more nouns (functionally equivalent to word-groups) like yarn production, yam production figures; the House of Commons debate; mother and child care. New Deal and Great Society programs.' Irrespective of the number of components in these clusters or their structure, they are always in subordinate relation to each other,they function as adjunct i.e., (attributive component) and head (nuleus). The former occupies the left-hand (initial) position and the latter- the right-hand (closing) position in the cluster. The c subordinate relation between the parts of the binary asyndetic substantival cluster can be graphically presented as follows: yarn —> production, the House of Commons -* debate, mother and child -> care, cotton yarn -> production, New Deal and Great Society -> pro- grams. In many such and the like noun clusters the head components have a compound noun or a word-group structure too: may Sahara

-> oilwells, US -> open tennis champions, Stormont -> a Social Democratic and Labour Party MP. asyndetic noun clusters may extended adjuncts and Many have extended/expanded heads as in exam Upper Clyde Shipbuilders -> shop stewards; Noise Advisory Council -> working group representative; the Suez Canal ples Zone base —> agreement negotiations. The semantic interrelation between the componental parts in asyndetic noun clusters is often quite complicated.
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The illustrative exam ples of asyndetic noun clusters on this and on the forthcom ing pages have been picked up in B ritish and A m erican papers: T he G uard ian, Financial T im es, US A Today, from the T im e m agazine and others. 225

. four-.as NNN. or NNNN. the House of Common's debateдебати в палаті громад. Some adjuncts of asyndetic noun clusters often have a composite structure. US foreign policyзовнішня політика США. componental word-group uncertain. Hence.S. word-groups. can extend the asyndetic noun cluster and change the starting point of their translation without changing in any way their asyndetic nature. the Scottish League Cup-tie. are / threecomponental only: Long Kesh concentration camp .policy політика US США. three-. These approaches are predetermined by the following main factors: the 1) by number of nouns making up the cluster. a s th es e below . Thus. payment imbalance нестійкість/незбалансованість платежів. the recent House of Commons debate недавні/останні дебати в палаті громад. a difficulty may arise as to how the asyndetic clusters should be treatedthe NN. etc.K. temporal and others by nature.+ AN+N). top-drawer family родина. anti-trade union act закон (спрямований) проти профспілок. their structural 2) by form and 3) by the meaning of the cluster as a whole. the US foreign policy. possessive pronoun or ordinal numeral. the more lexemes the cluster consists of. which can partly be seen from the following examples: wageincrease підвищення заробітної платні/зарплати. the House of Commons debate. school reform шкільна реформа/ реф орма школи.. . Long Kesh the like are to be treated as and single heads or single adjuncts. the w o rd-g ro up s. student groups студентські групи/групи студентів. Proceeding from this. 3) the meaning of some asyndetic substantival clusters with compound adjuncts can be rendered into Ukrainian in a descriptive way as well: nine-men defenceзахист із 9 гравців (спорт). which may make their identification as two-. the like U. two-thirds majorityбільшість у дві третіх голосів. economy regimeрежим економії. 226 . there may be different approaches to rendering the lexical meaning of asyndetic substantival clusters. etc.etc. The adjectival components. participle.A.So is the structural complexity of many asyndetic substantival clusters. currency reformгрошова реформа/реформа грошової системи.the US the (Nprop foreign policy statementabbrev. In other words.policy change зміна політики. The number of th translated asyndetic substantival wordus groups in present-day English is considerable. Having often a dual m eaning and nature. the 4) by presence or absence of the preceding adjective. therefore. are two-componental NN-type asyndetic substan tival clusters. the U. що вдягається у дорогу одіж. the more unlike the other ways of approach to its translating there may be. Hence. som e N m ay b e treated both as A+N-as and adjuncts N+N-components of asyndetic substantival clusters. per cent wage increase 10 підвищеннязарплати на 10% or десяти відсоткове підвищення зарплатні. beginning with the noun head which is characteristic of the NN-type asyndetic noun clusters: antiapartheid legislation законодавчі акти/закони про заборону апартеїду.by the se 3) mantic relations between the constituent parts of the asyndetic sub stantival cluster which may be local.H en ce. by the structureof the 2) adjunct and head (or both these components). Neither do they change the quantitative correlation of noun components in the clusters. This is of importanceso much for not the allotment of a substantival cluster. since they function as a Com pound o r single N N е a bbrevia te< p ro pe r-іс. a quick and correct rendering of meaning of any type of asyndetic substantival clusters mostly depends on the choice of the right component (or its part) from which the translation has to be started. Of similar nature are also the substantival clusters with pre fixed adjuncts which are translated. +NN). liberation movement визвольний рух/рух за визволення. 2) beginning with the adjunct (functioning as an adjective) or with the head (functioning as a noun): dinner-time break обідня перерва/перерва на обід. Besides. Each of these ways may be predetermined by one of the following three factors: the 1) by lexical meaning of the component parts. under-16 country match the матч сільських спортсменів віком до 16 років. non-smoker compartmentкупе для некурящих/ для некурців. lation of two trans componental asyndetic NN-structure clusters may start: 1) with the head noun: board membersчлени правління. (N It goes without saying that each lexeme in the asyndetic sub stantival clusters addsome new meaning to its general semantic s structure. the components North-West. as a rule. TRANSLATION OF TWO-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS There can be suggested some ways of faithful translation of asyndetic noun/substantival clusters into Ukrainian. They may consist of words belonging to different parts of speech which consti227 APPROACHES TO TRANSLATING ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS As has been pointed out.

beginning with the head noun after wh attributive com ich the ponent and the adjunct noun is translated in succession. the meaning of the A+NN-type substantival clusters can be rendered into Ukrainian by the lowing main approaches: fol 1) beginning with the initial adjective after which the head and noun its adjunct noun is translated in succession: English amateur champion англійський чемпіон-непрофесіонал.tute either a regular phrase/word-group or a hyphenated conglom eration of words. numerals. This structurethe word-group. Translation of the AN+N type asyndetic substantival clusters predominantly starts with the head noun. London Evening News лондонськавечірня газета «Івнінґ ньюз». London cab drivers.Royal Air Forceвійськовоповітряні сили Великої Британії. за яких м'яч команді не зараховується. 4) some asyndetic clusters of the type may be semantically condensed. after which the attributive component and then the adjunct noun is translated in succession: Republican Party candidate the кандидат у президенти від республіканської партії США.human resources planning планування людських резевів. Asyndetic substantival clusters of the NN-. 2) натівська військова база на Мальті. pronouns. They usually form with the N/NN components distinct sense units.e.tributive component of the head noun. British health service англійська служба охорони здоров'я/ служба охорони здоров'я Великої Британії. toxic action results the attributive components form close sense units of the AN+N structure with the head noun. toxic action results наслідки токсичної дії (інтоксикації)..e. junior hospital staff молодш ий медперсонал лікарні. Manchster -travel-to-work area район Манчестера. a result. more words are needed in the target lan guage to render their meaning. London district chairman голова лондонськогоокружної ради/голова окружної ради Лондона.The A+NN asyndetic substantival clusters may sometimes be translated in two ways: a) by preserving componental structure of the the English word-group. i.e. As has been already mentioned some attributive components in English are of dual nature. they are to be translated descriptive in a way: Royal Berkshire polo ground королівський стадіон для гри в поло в Беркширі. of As a result. speech sound). Royal Shakespeare company Королівська ш експірівська трупа. Local authority staff штати місцевих органів влади. participl bahuvrihi forma es. 3) військова база МАТО Мальті. public protest meeting загальні збори/мітіні протест у. tions. etc. 3) a considerable number of lexically transparent asyndetic substantival clusters of the A+NN-type are translated in reverse or228 der. struc ture are often preceded by adjectives. the Tory Government policy.m ajor autum n cam paign головна осіння кампанія London undergroud tunnels лондонські підземні тунелі. b) by transforming initial adjective into a the noun and changing the order of compo Maltese NATO base nents: 1) мальтійська військова база МАТО. and the semantic interrelation between its components predetermines the choicethe approach to translating it. they As can be conveyed either as relative adjectives or as nouns: Labour Government policy політика лейборист ського уряду/політика уряду лейбористів'. leading world jock провідні eys 1 (найкращі) жокеї світу. English as amateur champion. NNN-. звідки дістаються на роботу комунальним транспортом. As a result. London cab driversлондонські кебмени/таксисти. may which often predetermine the way of approach to the translation of clusters. i. Democratic Party member.rob Peter and pay Paul policy політика виплати одній категорії населення за рахунок пограбування іншої. used in the function of attributes. etc. in the substantival clusters final pressconference. dense fog patches пасма/латки густого туману. of asyndentic noun cluster. six-week summ er holiday півторамісячна літня відпустка. British Lion film фільм англійської кінокомпанії «Брітіш Лаен». The AN-type sense se unit functions as a syntactically and semantically single at-. This kind of word-groups are usually translated in a descriptive way too:the lame duck policyневдала/збанкрутіла політика.. striking mine workers the attributive (adjectival) components modify the head components NN forming with them word-groups of the A+NN struc In examples like a ture. For example.. на Much simpler is the approach to translating the AN+N-type of asyndetic noun clusters in which the initial adjective (A) and the fol lowing adjunct noun form a sen unit of their own.salary structure design проект реструктуризації/впорядкування зарплатні. (cf cannon ball. A number of AN+N-type asyndetic substantival clusters are 229 .. The choice of this approach of translating the A+NN-type asyndetic substantival clusters becomes possible due to the existence in Ukrainian of iden tical semantic units formed with somewhat different grammatical means: European Cup-winners Cup кубок еропейських володарів кубків. dead ball situationsситуації. 2) beginning with the adjective after which the following noun (ad junct) and then the head noun is translated in succession: conference final press заклю чна пресконф еренція. i.

Extensively exemplified in the newspaper and scientific mat- ter speech styles of present-day English are also A+AN+N-type asyndetic substantival clusters with preceding adjectivai.efficient public transport system рентабельна система комунального транспорту. each being predetermined by the semantic correlation between the componental elements in the target language asyndetic noun cluster. The descriptive way of conveying the sense of AN+AN-type asyndetic substantival clusters may often become necessary to avoid ambiguity or in order to explain some national specific notions asthe in examples Labour Party Young Socialist молоді соціалісти. To render their mean ing. different approaches are employed. Burnt Oak public library публічна бібліотека (в) Бернт-Оук. the Wednesday black beltпояс повного затемнення сонця в середу. яким обмежувалось право на страйки). proceeding in a reverse order of components to the sense unit with the adjunct noun and concluding with the initial adjective. The ap proach to their translating may consequently vary to some extent as well. the Burnt Oak public library may also be translated as Бернтоукська публічна бібліотека. which becomes a noun in Ukrainian: Scottish Labour Party resolution резолюція лейбористської партії Шотландії. proceeding to the adjunct (AN) unit and concluding with the adjunct noun: major Western states in terests інтереси провідних західних держав. 2) A similar approach should be employed when dealing with the N+AN or N+QN/N+VingN structure substantival clusters with the initial proper names components as in the following word-groups: Avior the Airline general manager генеральний директор авіокомпанії «Авіор ерлайнз».translated in a descriptive way too. First Aid Nursing Yeomanry корпус медсестер швидкої допомоги. The A component of the head sense unit is usually the starting point: Big Business multi-national firms багатонаціональні фірми великого бізнесу. Industrial Relations Act закон про взаємовідносини в промисловості (закон косерваторів. when the asyndetic noun cluster is used out of context: finance over haul bill законопроект про перевірку надходжень коштів на фінансування передвиборної кампанії претендентів на пост президента США. world public opinion світова громадська думка. or A+AN+N/AN configuration. 3) starting with the head noun (or sense unit). 2) starting with the initial adjective or participle. The asyndetic clusters with the N+AN structure of the componetns may be translated in the following ways: 1) beginning with the AN head sense unit: US military bases військові бази США. It becomes necessary when the asyndetic noun cluster is used to denote a specifically British/Ameri can feature. Shakespeare Memorial Theatre as шекспірівський меморіальний театр (у Стратфорді). Other approaches to rendering the meaning of similar type N+AN asyndetic substantival clusters are not excluded either. Old Age Pensioners Joint Committeeспільна комісія/ комітет пенсіонерів за віком. It goes without saying that the descriptive way of translating is preferred. UN General AssemblyГенеральна Асамблея ООН. 4) descriptive translating can also be resorted to when dealing with this type of asyndetic substantival clusters: International Social Security Association міжнародна Асоціація (з питань) соціального забезпечення. These may be of the N+AN. члени молодіжної організації лейбористської партії.NATO nuclear weaponsатомна зброя (країн) HATO. Two-componental AN+AN-type asyndetic substantival clus ters irrespective of the structural forms of A or components are pre N dominantly translated starting with the head AN sense unit. which needs an explanation in the target language: Civil disobedience campaign кампанія громадянської непокори (кампанія протесту населення Північної Ірландії проти дискримінаційної політики англійської уряду супроти/проти католицької меншини). Thus. living fire central heating центральне опалення методом постійного підтримання 231 230 . partic and ipial other modifiers in the function of attributes. proceeding to the head noun and concluding with the adjunct (AN) unit: thrilling second round replay захоплююча повторна гра другого кола.the ten-kilometre in ternational road raceміжнародні змагання з бігу на 10-кілометрову дистанцію. Two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters may often have other than AN+N or AN+NN-type structure of components. The asyndetic substantival clus can be ters conveyed beginning with the initial noun which turns the target in language into an adjective:the Opposition Liberal Partyопозиційна ліберальна партія. Among the approaches the following are most frequent: 1) starting with the head noun. New Times editorial staffредакційні працівники (журналу) «Нью-Таймз».the Chechen fighters activities виступи бойовиків (у) Чечні.

whose initial noun turns Ukrainian in into an adjective:Trade Union funds1 . Tory Government policy 1. sheet metal workers прокатники. The semantic relations between the head and the adjunct unit NN sense may require some other approach to their rendering into the target language as well: a mile event run змагання з бігу на (одну) милю. starting with the head noun and proceeding to the initial and then to the second noun. Here the word world may mean bothсвіт and світовий. it may sometimes be difficult to distin guish them at first sight as in case with the world in the cluster The Next World Esperanto Congress. 2. Among these is the 3-1-2 components approach.фонди/кошти 232 англійських тредюніонів. i. They split like the extended twocomponental asyndetic substantival clusters into two main sub groups as well.flat rate increase ріст/підвищення квартирноїплатні. Cf. 2. 2. (the Russian)Міг space station (російська) космічна станція «Мір» When the componental parts of asyndetic substantival clus ters are of compound or word-group/phrase structure.e. bothwhich form together an of NN sense unit: Suez Canal area район/ регіон Суецького каналу. Due to this they are often translated in a descriptive way: white collar steel industry strikeстрайк службовців сталеливарної промисловості (Великої Британії). Since the relative adjective and the noun in English has often the same orthographic form. Note. що розглядає суперечки між профспілками та підприємцями/роботодавцями. with two initial nouns forming a close sense unit having the function of an adjunct to the final head noun. their meaning is usually more complicated than that of simple components noun clusters. The second subgroup make up the N+NN-type clusters in which the final two nouns form the head component to the initial adjunct noun.міграцію робітників/робочої сили. Scotland Yard spokesman представник Скотланд-Ярду. розвиток міського центру. Some NN+N-type asyndetic substantival clusters can be translated in two ways: a) starting with the head noun or b) start with ing the NN-type sense unit.вогню/підігріву.. land improvement workersмеліоратори..: bullet proof shirts/jackets куленепробивні обшивки/ жилети.e. labour a disputes commission комісія. star ting with the head noun and proceeding to the second and to the noun: initial labour movement figures дані про. child guidance clinicдитяча консультація-поліклініка. West Coast dockers докери західного узбережжя (США). land improvement work меліорація. TRANSLATION OF THREE-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS Second place as to their occurrence in the newspaper and scientific/technical matter texts is occupied by the three-componental NNN-type asyndetic substantival clusters. It becomes inevita when ble some components are nationally/culturally biased words/ expressions denoting a specifically English national feature which must be explained: Clun Forest sheep кланфорестська порода овець (із короткою вовною). There are also NN+N-type clusters whose meaning can be ren dered in the reverse order to the components' arrangement. The first subgroup constitute the NN+N-type clus i. The mean of the NN+N-type ing subgroup of substantival clusters can be faith rendered into Ukrainian fully by employing several approaches. Race Relations Act закон про расові взаємовідносини/стосунки (обмежує в'їзд кольорових із колишніх колоній до Великої Британії'). In rarer cases expressing the meaning of the NN+N-type sub group of asyndetic substantival clusters can be performed consecu tively. Manchester City Council (муніципальна) рада міста Манчестера. чоловіча привілейована приватна середня школа в Лондоні. розвиток центру міста. Russia leather юхта. the adjunct. town centre development 1. in the order in which the components are arranged in the cluster. And yet some approachesto translating the threecomponental NN+N-type asyndetic substan tival clusters are more frequently employed than the others. i. i. A considerable number of the NN+N-type asyndetic substan tival clusters are translated in a descriptive way. Their choice is predetermined by the semantic interrelations existing be tween the component parts of the cluster and by the way in which the meaning is to be expressed in Ukrainian. 2. політика уряду торі/консерваторів.. Some NNN (and also the NN) substantival clusters can be translated with the help of a single word: coal face workers шахтарі. the target language peculiarities особливоті мови перекладу.e.Labour Party leadership керівництво лейбористської партії. Because of this translation of the cluster have two will faithful variants in Ukrainian: 1. the ones ters.e. профспілкові фонди/кошти. наступний з'їзд есперантистів світу. bread-line old age pensions 233 .. наступний всесвітній з'їзд есперантистів. science research council рада з наукових досліджень. Mill Hill School Міл-Пл-Скул. політика консервативного уряду.venture scout leaderкомандир загону бойскаутів старшого віку.

Rand Daily Mail newspaper ренденська газета «Дейлі мейл». in the 1-3-2 order: worid weight lifting championship світовий чемпіонат штангістів. the Hertfordshire County Council рада Гертфордширського графства. state 234 security police державна таємна поліція таємна поліція штату. Among other approaches to translating the three ponent com N+NN-type asyndetic substantival clusters the following are to be pointed out: 1) beginning with the initial adjunct noun of the N+NN-type sense unit:London trade Unions Лондонські трейдюніони/ проф спілки. 2. London delegate conference Лондонська конференція делегатів. Senate seat місце в сенаті СТА.пенсії людям похилого віку. or Attica state prison в'язниця «Аттіка» штату Нью Йорк. of course. Нью-Крос. Sheffield district committee комісія the 1. depending on the treatment of the adjunct component as or as noun adjective: AI-Anon family groups групи родин Ал-Анона.. у нью-кроський лейбористський клуб. Similarly with the substantival cluster The Notts County centre forward (центрфорвард команди «Нотс-Каунті») which despite its compli cated first component Notts Countymay be regarded as a threecomponental asyndetic substantival cluster. Нью-Крос Нью-Кросська лейбористська or парторганізація.to and the adjunct noun of the head: Attica state prison в'язниця «Аттіка» (штату Нью-Йорк) 2) in the3-1-2 order: в'язниця (штату or Нью-Йорк) «Аттіка». Two variants of translation may also be suggested for the noun clusterslike The Macclesfield Tory candidate кандидат 1.e. because of the mean ing expressed by the adjunct: Great Britain-Australia (clashes) (протиріччя між) Великою Британією та Австралією. 5) widely represented among the N +NN subgroup word-groups are substantival clusters whose meanings are rendered into ian Ukrain beginning with the NN-type sense unit and concluding with the initial noun (N) as in the word-groups Government reserve scheme a резервний проект уряду. The allotm ent of a substantival cluster to a componental type may sometimes be difficult because of its complicated structure and meaning. that the meaning ofbulk of the the N+NN subgroup of asyndetic substantival clusters is rendered starting with the head group or rather with its initial/ adjunct noun NN and proceeding in the reverse order to the initial/ad noun:friends junct meeting house будинок зустрічі друзів. i. it is difficult or almost impossible to identify the asyndetic substantival clusters The G reat Britain-Australia clashes like as a two-componental NN-type word-group. It should be emphasized once again that some of the N+NNmodel substantival clusters given above can be translated in two ways.e. торі від Маклесфілда. Glasgow autumn holiday осіннє свято в Ґлазґо/міста Глазго. Andersonstown police station поліцейське відділення/дільниця Андерсонстауна... as in the preceding NN+N sub group of asyndetic substatival clusters are word-groups whose mean235 .володарі преси/ газетні магнати. 4) beginning with the adjunct noun and proceeding to the head noun after which the second noun in the cluster is translated. in the 3-2-1 order: U. маклесфілдський кандидат консервативної партії. 2. 1. 6) in still other cases the meaning of N+NN subgroup of sub stantival clusters can be rendered into Ukrainian only in the order 3-1-2 of components arrangement: retail trade associationsспілки роздрібної «торгівлі. 2. The choice of the approach atofaithful translation. клуб лейбористів м. i. by the context in which the cluster func and tions. Rand Daily/Mail newspaper газета «Дейлі мейл» провінції Ренд (Південно-Африканська республіка).New Cross LabourClub 1. It is not surprising. яких вистачає тільки на хліб/на прожитковий мінімум. i. This assertion can be substantiated by a more extended translation of the cluster центральний нападник команди/футбольної команди «НотсКаунті»(Ноттінгемшир Каунті). Note: Club in this word-group may also mean party members . Translation of this and other (N+NN) subgroup of asynde tic substantival clusters is no less dependent on the semantic interrela tions existing between their componental parts than in the previous NN+N subgroup. 3) beginning with the head noun and preceding to the first adjunct noun. which could faithfully express an asyndetic substantival cluster's meaning can be prompted. by the style of the text under translation. Шеффілдського району.S. The last asyndetic noun cluster like some others of themay kind also be understood somewhat differently. namely. Thus.e. 2. therefore.Derry development Commission комісія з проблем розвитку міста Деррі. the millionaire press owners мільйонери . лейбористи м. 2) beginning with the head noun the initial adjunct noun to . шеффілдська районна комісія. 7) amply exemplified in this. Manchester housing estate житловий фонд Манчестера. аланонські групи родин/сімей. as «свято осені в Глазго».

e. The semantic 237 . 2. The three-componental NNN-type asyndetic substantival clus ters are also often preceded by adjectives. організатор профспілкового руху США. structural forms of them. 2. The nouns within the fourcomponental asyndetic noun clusters are semantically intercon nected. національна партія Авамі Бангладеш.ing can be faithfully rendered in a descriptive way only: a bullet rubber gun гвінтівка для стрільби гумовими кулями. though not without exceptions either: spe cial rides revision conference конференція з питань перегляду спеціальних правил дорожнього руху. the national cash register factoryдержавний завод касових апаратів. бангладеська національна партія Авамі.. numerals or bahuvrihi components in the function of attributes. i.five-storey Silver Seashore the Hotel п'ятиповерховий готель «Срібне узбережжя». кошик 1999 року на купівлю продуктів. Sometimes the attribute in the three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters modifies the head noun and forms a sense unit with it. When the initial attribute. the giant Fiat motor company Ганська машинобудівна компанія «Фіат». Irrespective of the semantic subgroup to which the clusters belong (the N+NN or the NN+N-type) their meaning is conveyed starting with the initial attribu tive component and then proceeding according to the rules employed to the N+NN and above the NN+N-types of three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters: the massive riot police operation масова операція поліції (по розгону демонстраці'І). translating of the clusters usually startssome from other component. when there exists no other way of convey sense ing its in Ukrainian: Manchester direct works building site житловий масив Манчестера. Such attributes often serve as a starting point for translation of the NN+AN clusters as well:Kent area general secretaryгенеральний секретар Кентської округи. does not refer to the whole NNN asyndetic substantival cluster but forms a close sense unit only with the initial noun. like in the three componental ones forming the N+NNN. September amateur stakes вересневі любительсьскі/непрофесійні призові скачки. 2. що споруджується методом конвеєрного будівництва. 3) кошик на святкові покупки 1999 року.Cossack salt merchants чумаки . Regular descriptive translating may also be employed when the meaning expressed by the asyndetic noun cluster is connected with a specific English (or Ukrainian) notion or when the semantic structure requires it. There may also be AN+NNN or AN+ANNN etc. Common Market grain prices на зерно ціни (країн) Спільного ринку.eclipse eye protection захист очей від сонця під час затемнення. Americantrade union organizer 1. Exceptions to either of the two above-given rules of ment of place components in translation are due the existence of some different to ways of expressing the same meaning in the target lan the guage: British trade union movement профспілковий рух Великої 1.S. inter ational invitation horse race an n міжнародні гостьові змагання скакунів. Американська організація охорони здоров'я. 1999 holiday shopping bag the святкова продуктова торбинка (кошик) на 1999 2) святковий рік. participles. however. NN+NN or NNN+N sense units within them. англійський профспілковий рух. Noise Advisory Council working group робоча група дорадчої ради по боротьбі з шумом. Британії. The three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters con sisting of two AN+AN+N component parts functioning as the extended adjunct and a head respectively (or as homogeneous adjuncts to a head single noun) are to be translated beginning with the headponent com irrespective of their structural form: Northern Ireland Civil Rights Associationспілка/союз боротьби за громадянські права Північної Ірландії. організація охорони здоров'я США. rent assessment committees комісії по встановленню/ визначенню плати за користування житлом приватного фонду. the «voluntary» wage-price regulation (так зване) «добровільне» регулювання зарплатні й цін. But: World class high jumping світове досягнення в стрибках у висоту. Upper Clyde shipyard stewardпредставник профспілки робітників судноверфі Верхнього Клайду. 236 U.остачальники солі. Ulster Defence Regiment англійське урядове військо Північній в Ірландії. 2. The Northern Ireland Labour Party лейбористська партія Північної Ірландії/крайове відділення лейбористської партії Ірландії. health . п TRANSLATION OF FOUR-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS The four-componental NNNN-type asyndetic substantival clus ters are less frequently used in newspaper or scientific and technical matter texts than the three-componental ones. Bangladesh National the Awami Party 1.maintenance organization 1. організатор американського профспілкового руху. the local government staff workers працівники місцевих органів самоврядування/влади.

pronoun or an N's compomay nent be translated y applying different approaches: b 1) starting with the attribute and proceeding in the same order of components in which the N+NNN. Copper Products Development Association відділ/ рада розробки виробів з міді. first Rugby League match the test перший відбірковий матч команд з регбі/ регбістів. participle. numeral. Similarly in many other noun clusters this type: a glass reinforced plastics of lifeboats construction зміцнена склопластиком конструкція рятувального човна.S. the most frequently resorted to being the following: 1) starting with the head noun and proceeding in reverse or der to the initial noun adjunct. лейбористський член парламенту від Салф ордВеста. 1-4-3-2: Darmouth Auto Castings Plants заводи відливків автомобільних 238 заготовок у Дартмауті or: Дартмаутські заводи відливків автомобільних заготовок. NN+NN or the NNN+N(N+NN+Ntype) asyndetic substantival clusters are translated: UK oil out figure a total put загальні/підсумкові цифри/дані видобутку нафти Об'єднаним Королівством (Великої Британії). а $40 a week wage increase offer пропозиція про підвищення зарплатні на 40 доларів за тиждень. 3) depending on the semantic interrelations between the of nouns the four-componental asyndetic substantival clusters their lation trans can also proceed in the 4-2-3-1 order of components: Houseof the Representatives Government Operations Committee комісія урядових заходів палати представників (при палаті представників). 2) some of the above-given semantic groups of the fourcomponental asyndetic substantival clusters are translated starting from the head noun and its preceding adjunct and proceeding to the initial and the following (second) noun: Sunday Express newspa leader the per writer автор передових статей/передовиць газети «Санді експрес». Kyiv career club open meeting відкриті зустрічі в Київському клубі трудовлаштування. the lobby committee secretary секретар комітету комісії лоббістів пан Гайлз. 2-4-1-3: the 40-nation Geneva Disarmament Conference Женевська конференція 40 країн з питань роззброєння. past participle +Nen(V num eral +N (QN). +N). This approach may sometimes depend on the meaning of separate noun components and on their structure as well as on their position within the frames of substantival clusters. there are different approaches to translating this structure type of asyndetic substantival clusters. The four-componental asyndetic substantival clusters having an initial adjective. Translating of the four-componental NNNN asyndetic sub -type stantival clusters may also be predetermined either by a semanti cally leading head component (a single noun or a NN. which happens rather often. But: Harwell atomic Energy Research Centre Гарвельський центр досліджень в галузі атомної енергії. 5) when the NNNN-type substantival clusters are semantically condensed. pronoun +N (IN) or have a word-group structure (NP or VP): presidential campaign U. 3-4-1-2: Gloucester County Cricket Clubкрикетна команда/клуб Глостерського графства. they are translated in a descriptive way: Mr. NP+NN+N. AN. The latter may in its turn be a single attributive noun or an adjective +N (AN). N+NN+Ntural types struc of asyndetic substantival clusters: the US Defence De partment officials decisionрішення представників міністераства оборони США. NprepN structure) as well as by the adjunct component. present participle+ N(VingN). 2) starting with the head or N component as in the asyndetic NN substantival clusters below: the British road service parcels depots склади посилок/пакетів дорожнього обслуговування Великої Британії. the language service inauguration dates дати початку перших передач (радіо «Свобода») окремими мовами (світу). As a result. finance legislation (Nabbr.jubilee men celebration dinner святковий обід з нагоди відзначення ювілейної річниці проф спілки залізничників (Великої Британії). This approach provides the expres sion of meaning of the NNN+N. UN Security Council meeting the agenda порядок денний засідання Ради Безпеки ООН/Організації Об'єднаних Націй.interrelations between the components usually predetermine the choice of an approach to translating the four componental asyndetic substantival clusters. 2-3-1-4: Salford West Labour MP Stan Orme Стен Орм. Hiles. Caterpillar Diesel tractors trials випробування дизельних тракторів (марки) «Катерпіллар». the continental China off-shore islands oil deposits поклади нафти (біля) прибережних островів континентального Китаю. NN+NN. because their components may also be of different word-group structure or contain a noun denot ing some specific English national features. 4) there are also some minute groups of the four-componental substantival clusters with less common approaches 4-1-3-2:Nobel like Peace Prize Winners лауреати Нобелівської Премії Миру. 239 . +AN+NN) заканодавство США про фінансування передвиборної президентської кампанії. the National Union of Railway.

чемпіон світу з бігу на милю. six-sevenand componental asyndetic substantival clusters belong to rare or rare rather word-groups in English newspaper or scientific and nical matter tech texts. Harry Jones Гаррі Джоунз. London District Woodworker Amalgamated Society committee комісія/комітет Лондонського окружного відділення об'єднаної профспілки теслярів.and seven-componental asyndetic sub stantival clusters is realized according to the same principles and ap as the proaches four. When the multi-componental asyndetic substantival cluster i s of appositional nature. five-componental asyndetic substantival cluster noun constituents its may form the NN+NN+N. however. 2. N+AN+NN+N-type. there should be identified first and foremost closer sense units within Thus. brakes зриви/провали в зборі fax податків. It usually starts with the head noun. To render the meaning of any multi-componental asyndetic noun cluster. 2. etc. translating of the five-componental NNNNN-type asyndetic substantival cluster may start with this N component:the London sheet metal workers section Лондонська філія профспілки робітників металопрокатних підприємств. Similarly with the cluster London County Council general purpose committee member член комісії із загальних питань Ради Лондонського графства. що поліпшують ліки/ самопочуття хворих на СНІД. Nevertheless the approach to their translating does not differ practically from that of the four-componental asyndetic sub stantival clusters. can be translated starting with the head noun: United Post Workers London district council postmen section chairman Mr. For example: Covent GardenOpera House orchestra performancehas the following closer or looser sense units: NN+NN+NN where Covent Garden a close sense is unit (proper noun) and functions as a single component. It should be added in conclusion. functioning as a relative adjective: the Post Office Workers London district council Лондонська окружна рада профспілки поштових працівників. Translating of the fivecomponental asyndetic substantival clusters can also be started the second with sense unit initiated by a noun.Rome-based Food and Agricul Organization ture Організація з питань сільского господарства і 241 . SIX-AND SEVEN-COMPONENTAL ASYNDETIC SUBSTANTIVAL CLUSTERS It must be noted from the very start that the five-. 1. translation may also start with some other component func as a tioning relative adjective in a sense unit preceding the apposi nouns: tional world-mile record holder Peter Snell. sense units. Translation this and the like asyndetic of substantival clusters should be started the headNN component: with виступ/гра оркестру (лондонського) оперного театру «Ковент Ґарден». that many asyndetic sub stantival clusters are difficult for our students to translate because they mostly do not take into account their condensed semantic nadue ture.and six-componental noun clusters (by way of pointing out the sense units within the clusters and finding the necessary noun or sense unit for the translation to start). Pointing out the sense units.and five-componental asyndetic substantival clusters. In such cases the multi-componental asyndetic substantival clusters. formed by the components usu ally helps find out the starting component and the correct way of trans the clusters. It must be borne lating in mind. 240 чемпіон світу з бігу на милю. When the initial component performs the function of a tive N rela adjective. rare occasions one may come across asyndetic On substanti clusters consisting of seven or more nouns. which are employed when dealing with the five. AN+NN+NN. which are not preceded by attributive adjuncts. however. each of which may faithfully render clusters' meaning: New Zealand world mile the record holder Peter Snell1. 3.TRANSLATION OF FIVE-. which is not revealed by direct ren of dering the lexical meaning of its noun components. Translation of the six. новозеландський світовий рекордсмен з бігу на милю Пітер Снелл. to which more words are usually needed to convey meaning in the their target language. that these multicomponental asyndetic substantival clusters may be translated by different approaches as well. Multicomponental asyndetic substantival clusters designat ing some specific English notion. Пітер Снелл. which is the apposition noun. are translated in a descriptive way:the City Cooper Square Community Develop ment Committee комісія (комітет) по переплануванню площі Купера лондонського Сіті. And not only multi-componetal asyndetic substantival clusters. рекордсмен світу з бігу на милю Пітер Снелл. NNN+NN. Very often two-componental asyndetic clusters can be noun semantically condensed: >4/DS drugs пілюлі. голова Лондонської окружної/районної філії листонош об'єднаної профспілки поштових працівників. These val semantically condensed noun word-groups are translated in accordance with thesame rules. in a them. or with its antecedent noun. However. світовий рекордсмен з бігу на милю Пітер Снелл. новозеландець Пітер Снелл. its translation starts either with the proper name.

7. 11. therefore. ANQN. universities. etc. «Шулявська» the Kyiv Shulyavs underground railway station 'ka . 2The principle of identifying the number of componental in parts asyndetic substantival clusters. numerals or adverbs. former col and lective state farms. 3. London building workersлондонські будівельники. 8. participles. Ways of extending two-componental asyndetic substanti val clusters by adding adjuncts to each component. Cf. Заньковецької Lviv Zan'kovets Opera and Ballet House київська станція метро 'ka . farmer firms. which may easily be transformed into asyndetic substantival clusters. participle. however. Approaches to rendering the meanings of the twocomponental NN substantival clusters preceded by an attributive adjective. Sometimes. ) . The correlation between the position N components and of their functional significance in asyndetic substantival clusters. 24 2 . pronoun. 13.and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters: World Health Organi zation (three words)Всесвітня організація охорони здоров'я (four words). The nature/kind of syntactic connection existing between the components of asyndetic substantival clusters. Ways of faithful expressing the meaning of the twocomponental asyndetic noun clusters with extended/expanded ad juncts or heads of the NP+NP (noun phrase+noun phrase) type. etc.: Newspaper texts/styles Oral speech the plant shop-stew ards the shop-stewards of the plant Labour housing policy the policy of the Labour Party the M idlands car factory trade union com m ittee in/concerning housing SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR SELF-TESTING AND CLASS DISCUSSION 1.etc. that in the ess proc of rendering far from all Ukrainian substantival word-groups should necessarily be transformed into English multi-componental asyndetic noun clusters. The structural forms of the adjunct and head components in asyndetic substantival clusters. 6. The structural peculiarities of the word-combinations referred to as asyndetic substantival/noun clusters. the crop farm ers хлібороби. The influence of semantic relations between the compo nents of the asyndetic substantival clusters over the choice of an approach to a faithful rendition of their meanings. Factors predetermining the approaches to equivalent ren dering of meanings of two-componental (NN) substantival clusters into Ukrainian. 5. The approaches to faithful translating of the four-. 4. old books sales the man букініст. Approaches to conveying the meanings of the twocomponentalNN asyndetic substantival clusters with attributesthe to adjunct and to the head component (ANAN. pronouns. numeral or adverb. which bore or bear honorary names like: Львівський театр опери та балету їм. колективне сільскогосподарське підприємство (КСП) «Пролісок» Prolisok the (Snowdrop CollectiveAgriculturalEnterprise etc. Харківський педагогічний університет їм. than in English: Turin public prosecutor the прокурор Туріна. and fivemore componental asyndetic substantival clusters with and with out the preceding attributes to their component nouns. 9.виробництва продуктів харчування (зі штаб-квартирою в Римі). 15. Here the number of components all in Ukrainian equivalents is larger than in their English originals. In spoken English and in belles-lettres texts preference is given -to prepo sitional word-groups. the meaning of asyndetic substantival clusters can be rendered in Ukrainian by fewer words. institutes. plants and factories. must bear it in mind. NN 12. Exception must be made only when dealing with the names of various former Soviet and today's Ukrainian public bodies.. cooperatives. publishing houses. offices and enterprises. Сковороди Kharkiv Skovoroda Teachers Training University. 10. The consecutive order of translation in the threecomponental asyndetic substantival clusters of the N+NN and NN+N types. the land improvement work меліорація. government work offices урядові установи з питань працевлаштування населення. 14. that the use of threeand more componental asyndetic substantival clusters is mostly re stricted to the newspaper and scientific or technical matter texts. Our students must be repeatedly warned. The way of rendering the meaning of semantically con243 the trade union com m ittee of the M idlands car factory All translators.). The approach to rendering the meaning of the threecomponental NNN asyndetic noun clusters preceded by attributive adjectives. though rarely. Semantically condensed may also be many three.

International Copyright Protection. and order advocates. the first NBA championship (U. the public sector 34. Labour backbenchers. two-seater «city cars». Scottish Electrical Workers Union. British postalservice processes. 1. 2.10. meagre salary increase. Trafalgar Square rally. civil defence organization. varieties. London Evening 28.densed two-. The structure of the word-combinations preferred in spo ken English and in belles-lettres works instead of the multicomponental asyndetic substantival clusters. television network. and more componental asyndetic substantival clusters. cast. law 39. the modest «Santa Claus» rally. 9. government draft. pay claim.15. 20. EngineeringUnions officials.42. job 6. 12. Brit. 20. 47. an island penal colony. an in-house video 13. start. 36. protest dem onstration. food prices. our spring musical program.23. Krasnodar Territory. 58. good Ryder Cup 19. B) 1. school leavers. music fans. wage strike.16. 22.15. 40.45.21. 12. night shift. 21. 19. the Middle East process.11. current wages 28. 16. Notts County vs 49. an oblast capital. Sunday after noon concerts. 14.24.35. party. Light music and drama programme. political committee secre 10.30.S. 18. 26. (to 43.30. oil paintings. forestry products. 16. 3. 4. Exercise II. 11.). social insurance expendi 13. gun licence. 5. German 23. off-shore oil deposits. tourist class double 17. the next Cabinet 21. 5. a police department lawyer. 46.29. Republican party leaders. 7. (the) House 33. a former CIA official. Royal Court Theatre. the supertanker collision drama. A) 1. 11. Republican leaders. economy regime. the main passenger section. plan and production discipline. 6. price-earnings ratio. Essex Action Commit8. local government jobs. car thieves. 29. d 7. White House intern. Suggest the possible ways of conveying their meaning into Ukrainian. Define the structural form of the components in the two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters below.55. EXERCISES FOR CLASS AND HOME TRANSLATION Exercise I. 16. 50. contract killings. consumer demand.9. Management development. three-. 20. tary. nuclear power stations. Labour Party conference. Moscow-based industry analyst. 24. the Windows operating systems. Booksellers and Publishers Association. the promising soccer club.59. witness testimony. 2. 17. a favourite harbour 37.57. 4. 9. conference. London docks. 17.3. Midlands unemployment. Sunday Express sellers. local education 23. authorities. 4. «keep wages down» lobby. the IMF visit Kyiv). 25. 26. reform. negotiations.60. partnership. Scotland Yard detectives. national protest day. a Commercial production pervisor and su technician. three-party coalition government.13. the Sea Owl 61. submarines (USA).3. the National Bank activity.Edinburgh Stuent Unions. publications control board.10. ture. second hand cloths and accessories. Analyse the three-componental asyndetic substantival clusters below. the latest weather fore 7. debt trap. electricity cuts. 27. intensive-type crop 31. 53. 33. 18. major ocean routes. a school foot pitch. 52. a Health Sector Stream. 32. 18. rooms.14. 27. skills analysis. opportunities. Tory failings. Labour group. 15. wage cuts. most City of London economists. pop 12.2. International Motor Show. specialist. 38. a 56. government 54.8. 22. larger-than-local sports projects. 35. slave sailers (ships). meeting. the latest suneclipse. 28. government and European Union decisions.19. 26. animal husbandry. 2. livestock products.24. the five-party Cabinet Consultative Committee.5. Bolton match. Ukraine-British business 4. sugar steamers. Standard. 36. 27. a 44-hour week. lightweight metal. first-ever press 8. a welfare-reform plan. 25. 5. 25. oil countries. 37. 32. British woman doctor. Point out the closer NN-type sense units in them and the starting components for their translation into Ukrainian. a team-con tract method. the Scottish tartan Society. 51. local sports clubs. 7. bond prices. 41. high quality 8. common profit aims. the Osaca Summit. 245 . solid engine. Research and Development Society. Decimal Currency Board (Gr.A.) a solid fuel system. 6.the maximum end results.14. Andrew Jackson Park and Museum. primary school teachers. car 31. the two-way trade exchanges. John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library. crop yields.22. promotion limitations. the Guardian International subscribers.48. bomb. Find the starting component for translating into Ukrainian the following two-componental asyndetic substantival clusters with the attribute to the adjunct or to the head noun/nucleus: 244 A) 1. non-smoker carriage. a questionand answer interview. a «Buy America» (American cars) campaign. 2.44. a Bachelor of Music Education Degree. Exercise III. 34. ball 5.

S. 18. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. a health insurance 32. 31. 9. Pittsburgh steel works. Mersyside car workers. Point out the starting and the proceeding com ponents to achieve a faithful translation of the clusters into Ukrainian. South Carolina State Museum. South Wales steel 12.S. Local 22. large.A) the business development division. 5. Common Market fisheries policy. Exercise IV. Trade Union Congress 19.Stockport 10. New York State Governor.cale US air raids. gramme. world light-weight title. a marrow transplant. The preschool child care establishment. Medicare partВ premi ms. 247 . 18.S. Commonwealth sugar agreement. 26. the U. sugar crop disaster (in Cuba). the 23. the 4. the world disarmament 4. ership election. (Ukraine's) 1999 privatization tion. 246 14. Guide Association. the Upper Clyde 25. 23. 24.. U. the Fire Brigades Union. summer holidays vacancies. 8. 21. 18. Point out the sense units in the threecomponental asyndetic substantival clusters below and render descriptively their meanings into Ukrainian. the Air Force 34. motor vehicle castings. Thames Television interviewer. the 1998 World 26. u University of Toronto graduate student. club. the exchange rate level. the Detroit motor show. the North-West Economic Planning Council (Gr. the 2. the London building workers 11.S. 16. the APEC (Asia-Pacific 25. ment. the Kyiv Dynamo soccer 27. Leeds Anti-Racialism Committee. a $542 million stand-by 39. New York State governor. 1. U. Scots shipyards 21.29. the Tory Industrial Relations Act. Supreme Court decision. Model: Former world heavyweight champion колишній чемпіон світу у важкій вазі (1 -4-2-3). appeal court judges. Youth Hostels Association. the Oxford Strategic Leadership gramme. Shipbuilders shop-stewards. U. 28. 9. 13. Brit. the Saxony data-protection commis sioner.5. (Rural) Finance and Enterprise Support Project.3. China familirization programme. the snap opinion 27. 20. efforts. United Nations Environment pro gramme. 26. Civil War veterans. Singer's Sewing Machine factory. 14. the London Stock Exchange. 16. onship. 29. 11. the world bagpipe champi 2. the world cricket team. Command. 28.). Ireland Civil Rights Association. conference. the Internationalbass guitarist section. the voucher insurance company. upperclass mass murderer.20. the Tory selection procedure. State circuit 12. a local CBS television station. 10. car bomb explosion. Royal Vehicle factories. Salary structure design. Cossack salt merchants. Shevchenko prize winners. 20. school milk cuts (in Great Brit 17. Analyse the sem antic Interrelation between ~ ІНв ^oTTtpo*rT8fft8l fJSnS Of tfie AWN^MNANll-. 3. 22. the 4. League management committee. the Air Force General Staff. the Natural Resourses Defence Council. 15. the Ford joint shop-stewards committee. crime figures rise. retail food prices. water conservancy constructions. demonstration.33. Organization. a Ryder Cup golf series. 7. 14. V-E Day celebrations. defence. 6. 24. 10. the Verdugo pro Hills Archery club (Cal. s 16. a health insurance pro 19. City of London police 15. the 38. front line positions. post 6. Exercise V. 30. conference. 10. trade union movement. 15. 13. baboon bone26. 17.23. Tory lead 19. National Health 2. 24. Labour Shadow Home Secretary. 13. sheep skin vests. 9. programme. joint sites. 12. Commons committee room. Ashridge (settlement) executive velopment de programmes. the 23. 33. Government Officers Union. South-East (a London district) Sports 17. bombs conference programme. U. the oblast government administration.tee. 29. 21. Westminster Defence Minister. Jbkoda sports coupe. British Steel Corporation shopnies.14. British Ocean Steamship compa 25. 30. Kyiv teachers and students 29. stewards. Service hospitals. 37. arrangement. 38. White House press secretary. 37. State Social Security Department (USA). general secretary. Council. International amateur golf tournament. 12. the Girl 19. 7. the internal trade union 11. 28. 7. additional television news programmes. London Business School. 16. 35. Labour Party conference week. Labour majority group. 40. force. 6. 40. Park 15. world stockmarket capitaliza 39. French television network facilities. 24. trade unionists. the black-soil zone crop yields. the World Trade 36. stewards. the Hong Kong web developer. New Zealand Golf Association. plants. 8. Public Sector Man 31 agement Institute (UK) 32. International ski federation rules. school sports facilities. first trade union country club -4-2The (1 3-5) перший переферійний профспілковий клуб. successful world championship 22. the House of 21. Itar-Tass news agency. 18. Administration official. office employees. 27. 5. vehicle repair industry. Manchester City Council. the morning and evening rush time. 13. Buckinghamshire County Museum. ain). land improvement measures. court. 22.42. Economic Co-operation) liberalization commitments. the UJS. customer service laboratories. 8. 3. Nottingham autumn stakes. the US Negro servicemen.20. 36. 41. Derbyshire and West Midlands police force. the entire trade union move 9. world without 25. Senate seat. 1. ager. polls. 35. 34. England team man 17. depot mass meetings. B) 1.**^li5r'fypeS 6T~~ asyndetic noun clusters below.

the Nobel Peace Prize Winner. the Poverty Action Group. leading Southampton Dock 18.the UK oil output 5. Exercise VII. the Caspian pipeline Consortium deal. Carbide Pesticides Plant.West Midlands 8. George Wash 17.guerrilla suicide car 9. China Policy Study 10. Shimpei Nukaya. 4. the Air Traffic Control 20. the estate grain elevator company. Coventry tool room rate agreement. and office trade union committees. 18. The daytime and evening bus service. the 24. 14.» A) 1. the State Duma Culture Committee (Rus 16. 21. the New Castle second division football match. Essex Gold Cup supporters club trophy.the Manhatten Express bus service. former world mile record holder. reer club open meeting. welfare reform plan. Suggest the possible approaches to translating the four-componental asyndetic noun clusters below. 7. Refugee Relief Agency (UNRRA).15. B) 1. Resolution425. 41. the University of Chicago 25. 23. 15. announced by the Lexor Electronics.40. Mr. poets award.22. (the Department of Transport's) Air Accidents Investiga Branch. 8.ank Town 6. reform plan. in 4. Economic Planning Agency director-general.6. 27. Europa World Year Book. the United Nations 2. New YorkCity Transit Authorities. Prior to translating the sentences below into Ukrainian point out the sense units in their asyndetic substantival clusters and find the starting component for a faithful conveying of their meaning into Ukrainian. Bristol engines division. Festival winners.the Perkins Dieel 3. products. Child 9. 16. Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation 21. care reform. Petroleum Equipment Manufacturers Federa 16. French world record race champion. international labour organization criteria. deputy 17. 1. strict data pro 28. Harvard Business School professor. the Post Office Engineering Union. 2. the BBC Radio «Today» programme. 34. the Voice of America Language service inauguration dates. London port ship-repair workers. the 9. At Scottish career offices there were. Deputy Chief Constable Les Sharp. New-Castle Youth Employment Office. the Medicare health 14. the captive gas station attendant. bestsellers list. district trades union council. 11.11.000 school leavers. 1. European and 29. a true health 33. the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Associations Ex 12. the U. House polls results. Knockout cup semi-final. 22.19. the Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat. the Retail Food Trades Wages Council. trade unionist. world club champion. Point out the sense units and the starting components to translate correctly each five.18. The United Nations Security Council Reso 26. velopment block grant programme. the world speedway team championship final. 12. State Development Research Centre. Shevchenko Literature Prize winners. 17. tection laws. 4. shire Passenger Transport Executive. ecutive. ington Bridge bus station.10. the table. Infrastructure Task Force. a sia). Several magistrates are staying from the civic luncheon being given by the Labour-con city trolled magistrates. Exercise VI.Cup final. Indian Union 20. World Number One amateur tennis player Emerson. Marine Corps War Memorial. 8.21. Pacific Stock Exchange tech nology index. Mountain State arts crafts Fair. the New York Times 24.S. Clyde.S. the U. Exercise VIII. a moderate welfare 39. 5. The three-man UN mission leaves London today after four days of talks with the British Government. United Nations Security Council 15. Offer one or two Ukrainian variants (where possible) for each English wordgroup. Cup Champions. Model: the BBC TV feature Death in the Prison Yard (3-2-1-4) художній телефільм Бі-Бі-Сі «Смерть на тюремному подвір'ї. lution. 13. the nuclear weapons test ban 3. a marginal income tax reform. Group. Natal University Sports 6. the Radio City Music Hall box office. aster. Law School Kyiv ca 26. Birmingham regional Hospital Board meeting. 2. private W hite 31. only real jobs for more than 287 10. our fall (autumn) drama production. Northern Ireland Labour Party leaders. 38. Public support for the Coal Miners strike decision 248 249 . Boryspil Airport tion same-day tickets sales. 30.factory 3. September. cane sugar industry waste 19. 25. figures. a moderate 35. the U. 23. Staff. the South York 13. Ameri-can'Power Boat Association Gold 22. British European tions.and sixcomponental asyndetic substantival cluster below. the Rolls-Royce 2. insurance programme. Red Rock & Canyon National Conservation Area. all-Britain East-West trade agreements. 7.20. health maintenance organization. 27. Roy 11. s factory engine plant. 5. Two new miniature power units have been 3. treaty. 36. Durability Insurance Trust Fund. the nuclear power plant dis 37. the government law enforce ment assistance administration. b Hall Council. a Union dinner. the 10. the USA Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Airway cheap summer tourist flights.S. the speed-way Express 5. Information 12. (this year's) Cannes Film 19. 32. trade union branch 7. the US Cruise missile bases. The Northern Praries Wildlife Research Center. the Suez Canal Zone base agreement. the community de 13. bomb attack (Lebanon). European 14.the 4. British steel strip products.

Economic Plan Agency deputy director-general. she exposed. ning said growth in gross domestic product was on track to meet the more modest government target 2.Quality Control 27. The New YorkHerald Tribune 21.. The interest earned on Garden State 35. activities draft document in dealing with the multinational compa nies. 5. Shimpei Nukaya. to 14.in Luhansk region is growing. The fullof 32. 10. that crowd of outsiders who turned up their coat collars. «And there's a play on from the 13. «We'll never accept Govt pay policy». Київські видавництва художньої літератури «Веселка» та «Український письменник». Savings Bonds will not be included in gross income for Federal income tax purposes and will be exempt from the tax imposed by the New Jer sey Gross Income Tax Act. The committee studied a trade union 17. e redundancy dismissals. The Amalgamated En 23. One of the ways 34. The work rs have to fight 8. A General Assembly resolution 22. This is the name («Little General Assembly») given to the three-month United Nations World Trade and Development Conference which opens today. Department decision re250 garding proposed defect elimination expenses estimate was referred to Chief Design engineer. But Miss Mason who came. box Exercise IX. 18. 33. Howard Davies. Наслідки зимової студентської сесії 1999 року. sor 31. 7. Студенти Київської музичної академії ім. Mr.37. It has beentaken Boyko up till today to change most of the personnel in the oblast government administration. 11. Молочні продукти Білицького (Біличі) молокозаводу КиєвоСвятошинського району Київської області. Phyltis Adelsflugel had a flair for imaginative ways to seize the atten tion of her pupils. smoked.І. Науково-дослідні інститути академії наук України. New Jersey is making it easier for families to save is the Garden State Savings Bond Programme.) 15. year growth rate was distorted by artificially strong data in the first quarter. The Public Health Laboratory Service team is to try to track down the cause of what is commonly known as «gastric flu» by studying out breaks throughout Britain. 12. Hong Kong Polytechnic University profes of business studies. The satellite is some times heavier than 20. times been President of the Romford Constituency Labour Party and also of the Romford Trades Council. A council election opened in England and Wales yesterday. Harvard Business School and Columbia 19.» (A. provided for the establishment of a Unitedtions Emergency Force Na Special Account.. 13. The United States Army sion. 30. Читачі 251 . pit closures. 6. rail closures.5 per cent for the fiscal year. 4. W ashington correspondents say the deficit now stands two million at about dollars and continues to grow. University both have introduced more team projects in their management courses. Заочники Київського інституту бізнесу і технологій. 15 previous US spy satellite models. 16.. and took their occasional recreation not at the University Students Union Club but in a downtown billiard saloon. This is shown in an opinion poll pub lished yesterday. South Carolina kindergarten teacher 36. 9. Engineer Research and Develop Laboratories at Fort Bluoir are ment currently testing a multi-pur> pose tracked vehicle. Шостий Київський авторемонтний завод. Cronin)The British 29.25. Зустріч випускників 1940 року Боярської середньої школи Лисянського району. Get tickets at the Radio City Music Hall office (Bronx). 10. (Ibid. spotted. Призери фінального туру студентського конкурсу «Красуня міста Києва» 1999 року. New York Theatre Guild. 15. The frequency meter type will measure 7. from the Home Office Frozen Meat Investigation De partmentproved a restricted source of enlightenment. says Mr. Five members of the Windsor group hospital management committee at the Binfield Park Hospital for mentally handicapped children took part in the discus 26. 14. (A. П. Заліки п'ятикурсників за останню весняно-літню сесію. 8.Cronin) He had really belonged. Чайковського. «Hong Kong doesn't Min need high technology manufacturing». gineering Union South Essex District Committee is sending a egation to meet Members of del Parliament with a request for engineers flood the lobby when they to have finished work. He has three 12. Книжковий фонд Київського державного лінгвістичного університету. Новорічні та різдвяні свята харківських школярів. excerpts from actual student communica note books as well as tion excerpts from student and professional speeches. 28.6.. say miners. 2. The dispute at 24. 265 the frequency of repetitive wave form. W elding Department superintendant and Process Department superintendant. week of county 9. The book features short 11. Aircraft Corporation combined shop-stewards mittee expressed full com support for the NUM (National Union ofers). The USA continues to produce most MBA or Master of Business Administration graduates. 3. Різдвяні колядування учнів молодших класів міста Львова. On Friday the Foreign Secretary flies off to Wash for a ington NATO Ministers meeting. Transform the following Ukrainian noun wordgroups into English asyndetic substantival clusters: 1. Рішення Київської міської державної адміністрації. Fords factory is to be the subject of any inquiry headed by chairman the Motor Industry Joint Labour of Council.

Наслідки фінансової кризи осені 1997 року. 21. 17. 19. 20. 18. Читачі національної бібліотеки України ім. Комісія в справах обміну сільськогосподарською продукцією.Омельченко. 16.Державна комісія України в справах контролю авіаційних зв'язків із країнами Західної Европи та Близького Сходу. голова комісії Верховної Ради у справах боротьби з корупцією Г. Вернадського. 252 . Заходи стимулювання інвестицій у промисловості України. Агентство у справах контролю повітряних ліній України.15.

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