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The French Republic
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. 3.
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………4 MAP OF FRANCE……………………………………………………...5 GEOGRAPHY……………………………………………………….….6
Environment…………………………………………….………..7 Administrative Divisions…………………………………...........8 Government…………………………………………………........9 Law…………………………………………………………........10 Foreign Relations……………………………………………….11 Agriculture………………………………………………………13 Labour Market……………………………………………........13
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The French Republic
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KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS…………………………………...17 DEMOGRAPHICS…………………………………………………….2 0
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Language………………………………………………………...21 Religion…………………………………………………….........22 Health……………………………………………………………23 Education………………………………………………….........24 Painting…………………………………………………….........25 Architecture………………………………………………….….27 Literature………………………….…………………………….29 Philosophy…………………………………………………........31 Music…………………………………………………………….31 Cinema…………………………………………………………...3 3 Fashion…………………………………………………………..33 Media…………………………………………………………….34 Society……………………………………………………………35 Gastronomy……………………………………………………...3 6 Sports…………………………………………………………….37
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Paris – Capital…………………………………………………..38 Cannes…………………………………………………………...39
The French Republic
• • • • • • • 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
Marseille…………………………………………………………39 Lyon……………………………………………………………...40 Toulouse…………………………………………………………41 Nice………………………………………………………………41 Bordeaux………………………………………………………...43 Strasbourg……………………………………………………….43 Nantes……………………………………………………………44
TRADE………………………………………………………………...45 STANDARD OF LIVING……………………………………………46 COST OF LIVING……………………………………………………47 FRANCE – INDIA RELATIONS……………………………………51 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………….53
15. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………54 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………..5 5
The French Republic, commonly known as France, is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as l’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. It is the largest western European country and it possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 sq mi), just behind that of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 sq mi).
The French Republic Over the past 500 years, France has been a major power with strong cultural, economic, military and political influence in Europe and around the world. During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonised great parts of North America and Southeast Asia; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest colonial empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Caribbean and Pacific Islands. France has its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The French Republic is defined as indivisible, secular, democratic and social by its constitution. France is one of the world's most developed countries, it possesses the world's fifth largest economy measured by GDP, the ninth-largest economy measured by purchasing power parity and is Europe's second largest economy by nominal GDP. France is the wealthiest European (and the world's 4th) nation in aggregate household wealth. France enjoys a high standard of living as well as a high public education level, and has also one of the world's highest life expectancies. France has been listed as the world's "best overall health care" provider by the World Health Organization. It is the most visited country in the world, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annually. France has the world's third largest nominal military budget, the third largest military in NATO and EU's largest army. France also possesses the third largest nuclear weapons stockpile in the world – with around 300 active warheads as of 25 May 2010 (2010 -05-25) [update] – and the world's second largest diplomatic corps (second only to that of the United States). France is a founding member of the United Nations, one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, and a member of the Francophonie, the G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, and the Latin Union. It is also a founding and leading member state of the European Union and the largest one by area. In 2011, France was listed 20th on the Human Development Index and 24th on the Corruption Perceptions Index (2010).
MAP OF FRANCE
The French Republic GEOGRAPHY Metropolitan France is situated mostly between latitudes 41° and 51° N (Dunkirk 6 .
The climate of the Alps and other mountainous regions is mainly alpine.030 square kilometres (211. At 4. Although France is one of the most industrialised and developed countries. and thus lies within the northern temperate zone. colder winters and less rain.035. In the south-east a Mediterranean climate prevails. and Sint Maarten (bordering Saint-Martin). This situation results from the French government's 7 . The north and northwest have a temperate climate. the Loire. with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land). and Antarctica. These territories have varying forms of government ranging from overseas department to overseas collectivity. Metropolitan France also has extensive river systems such as the Seine.260.45% of the total land area on Earth.45 metres (15. the Caribbean. which divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue. France's overseas departments and collectivities share land borders with Brazil. Environment France was one of the first countries to create a Ministry of the Environment. the Pacific Ocean.810. Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast. Metropolitan France covers 547. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes.843 km2 (260. and Suriname (bordering French Guiana). is situated in the Alps on the border between France and Italy. is 674. latitude and altitude produce a varied climate in the rest of Metropolitan France. the Garonne. the Massif Central in the south-central and Pyrenees in the south-west.000 km2 (4. While Metropolitan France is located in Western Europe. Inland the climate becomes more continental with hot. approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world.782 ft) above sea level. However. France also has a number of territories in North America. behind such less populous nations as Canada.The French Republic is just north of 51°). in 1971. France's total land area.558 sq mi). on the western edge of Europe. Saudi Arabia or Australia. France possesses the second-largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the world. it is ranked only seventeenth by carbon dioxide emissions.209 sq mi). Mont Blanc.637 sq mi). the climate is predominantly oceanic with a high level of rainfall. having the largest area among European Union members. while a combination of maritime influences. stormy summers. South America. In the west. from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the south-east. the highest point in Western Europe. 0. the southern Indian Ocean. mild winters and cool to warm summers. and longitudes 6° W and 10° E. covering 11. with the number of days with temperatures below freezing over 150 per year and snow cover lasting for up to six months. and the Rhone.
which now accounts for 78% of France's electricity production and explains why France pollutes less than comparable countries. 22 are in metropolitan France (21 are on the continental part of metropolitan France. In 2009. Like all European Union members. There are 9 national parks and 46 natural parks in France. the French carbon dioxide emissions per capita level is lower than the Chinese one. French forests are also some of the most diversified of Europe. Forests account for 28. Administrative Divisions France is divided into 27 administrative regions. and five 8 .27% of the land area of France. France wants to convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone in a Marine Protected Area by 2020. in comparison the USA agreed to a cut of 4% of its emissions whereas China stated it wanted to "reduce its carbon intensity by 40–45% by the year 2020" (compared with 2005 levels). France is the second most wooded country of the EU. 6 months later. the plan for a carbon tax was abandoned for various reasons.3 billion Euros of revenue per year. one being that French companies would have a more difficult time competing with companies in neighboring countries who would not have to pay such steep taxes on carbon dioxide emissions. Instituting a carbon tax was also an unpopular political move for President Sarkozy. The carbon tax would have brought in 4. In 2010. one is the territorial collectivity of Corsica). France was even set to impose a carbon tax in 2009 at 17 Euros per tonne of carbon dioxide emitted. with more than 140 differents varieties of trees.The French Republic decision to invest in nuclear power in 1974 (after the 1973 oil crisis). However. France agreed to cut carbon emissions by at least 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2020. a study at Yale and Columbia universities ranked France the most environmentally conscious nation of the G20. which means with a GDP growth of 8% yearly an augmentation of 80% to 250% of the Chinese carbon emissions by 2020.
e. The 101 departments are subdivided into 341 arrondissements which are. Until 1940. 91. in turn.051 cantons. The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. However. the arrondissements were also territorial collectivities with an elected assembly. Three communes. It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. POLITICS Government The French Republic is a unitary semipresidential republic with strong democratic traditions. These cantons are then divided into 36. this was not always the case.588 intercommunal entities grouping 33. which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. Paris. the cantons were also territorial collectivities with their elected assemblies. The regions are further subdivided into 101 departments which are numbered (mainly alphabetically). departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities. currently Nicolas Sarkozy. Lyon and Marseille are also subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements. but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946. who is head of state and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years). Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. The regions. 9 .1% of all the communes).697 communes (i. This number is used in postal codes and vehicle number plates amongst others.414 of the 36. currently François Fillon. and the Government. led by the presidentappointed Prime Minister. There also exist 2. Historically.The French Republic are overseas regions.697 communes. subdivided into 4. meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic.
The Assembly has the power to dismiss the cabinet. law arises primarily from written statutes. The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms. that is. and the other right-wing. and its restriction is the 10 . The executive branch is currently composed mostly of the UMP. The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law). first president of the Court of Cassation. Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code (which was. largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV). Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms). The Senate's legislative powers are limited. in turn. Law France uses a civil legal system. wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule. As Guy Canivet. the National Assembly has the final say. and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September 2008. in the event of disagreement between the two chambers. and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. centred previously around the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and now its successor the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP).The French Republic The French parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and a Senate. judges are not to make law. French politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. centred around the French Socialist Party.
Private law includes. Laws sentencing racism. the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Indian Ocean Commission (COI). It is also a member of the G8. in particular. Foreign Relations France is a member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights. France received a request from the United Nations to pick a coat of arms that would represent it internationally. Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed. although same-sex marriage is illegal in France. In 2010. Amnesty International has condemned the law as a violation of freedom of expression. and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy. civil law and criminal law. Since 1999. France is tolerant of the LGBT community. It hosts the headquarters of the OECD. in practical terms. of which it was a founding member. Interpol. for instance. In 1953. In September two Muslim women were fined for wearing the niqab (an Islamic face-covering veil). French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law. seeking to build its own standing in continental Europe. administrative law and constitutional law. in particular. France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU. Since the 1960s. France sought to exclude the British from the organisation. However. That is. It is an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) and a leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one fully or partly French-speaking countries. UNESCO. civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted. though they appealed the fines. World Trade Organization (WTO). In the 1960s. French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union. criminal law and administrative law. sexism or antisemitism are old and important.The French Republic exception. Alliance Base and the International Bureau for Weights and Measures. laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press are as old as 1881. Thus the French emblem was adopted and is currently used on passports. 11 . French law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. France passed a law banning face veils in public. including those worn by Muslim women. any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality. Public law includes.
France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. second only to the USA.The French Republic Since 1904. it is ranked as the world's fifth largest and Europe's second largest economy by nominal GDP. and over the last few years. Air France. nuclear power and telecommunications. France ranks world's 4th and Europe's 1st in the Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany and the UK. the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. France joined 11 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999. The government is slowly corporatising the state sector and selling off holdings in France Télécom. In the early 1990s. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors. with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc (₣) in early 2002.5 million companies registered) with substantial (though declining) state enterprise and government intervention (see dirigisme). with majority ownership of railway. as a result of Nicolas Sarkozy's (much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right) pro-American politics. aircraft. France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus. France vigorously opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. and defence industries. the Centre Spatial Guyanais. France has a mixed economy which combines extensive private enterprise (nearly 2. as well as the insurance. and has its own national spaceport. links between both countries have strenghthened. banking. it excluded itself from the joint military command to avoid the American domination of its foreign and security policies. with 39 of the 500 biggest companies of the world in 2010. France has maintained an "Entente cordiale" with the United Kingdom. It has been gradually relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s.especially on a military level. France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies (Françafrique) and has supplied economic aid and troops for peace-keeping missions in the Ivory Coast and Chad. straining bilateral relations with the US and the UK. France has the second largest network of diplomatic missions in the world. However. 12 ECONOMY . but under President de Gaulle. A member of the G8 group of leading industrialised countries. France rejoined the NATO joint military command on 4 April 2009. electricity.
Labour Market 13 . France sold 33. In the same year. beef. Amsterdam and Bruxelles merged into Euronext. With 39 of the 500 biggest companies of the world in 2010.9 billion. behind the USA. and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe (representing alone 20% of the EU's agricultural production) and the world's third biggest exporter of agricultural products. but ahead of Germany and the UK. France was the third-largest recipient of foreign direct investment among OECD countries at $117. the French branch of the NYSE Euronext group is Europe's second largest stock exchange market. This same year. Euronext merged with the New York stock exchange to form NYSE Euronext. dairy. the world's largest stock exchange. banking and the insurance sector are an important part of France's economy. but champagne and Bordeaux wines are major exports. In 2000. Japan and China. In 2007. poultry. ranking France as the second most important outward direct investor in the OECD. French companies invested $220 billion outside of France. In 2008.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products. Large tracts of fertile land. being known worldwide. French companies have maintained key positions in the Insurance and Banking industries Agriculture France has historically been an important producer of agricultural products. and pork. but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007. in 2009 France was the world's sixthlargest exporter and the fourth-largest importer of manufactured goods. the application of modern technology. as it was created by Louis XV in 1724.The French Republic According to the World Trade Organization (WTO). France ranks 4th in the Fortune Global 500. Financial services. Rosé wines are primarily consumed within the country. The Paris stock exchange market (French: La Bourse de Paris) is an ancient institution. Wheat. Euronext Paris.5% of the active population is employed in agriculture. Agriculture is thus an important sector of France's economy : 3. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased for the last years. the stock exchanges of Paris. behind the London Stock Exchange. whereas the total agri-food industry made up 4. as well as an internationally recognized processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.2% of French GDP in 2005.
GDP per capita is determined by (i) productivity per hour worked. according to the OECD. reduce the taxes' level and the administrative burden. especially with the contrat nouvelle embauche and the contrat première embauche which both were eventually repealed. In June 2009. when the left mentions the lack of government policies fostering social justice.The French Republic The French GDP per capita is similar to the GDP per capita of other comparable European countries such as Germany and the United Kingdom. 77% in the US. and their theories led to the 35-hour workweek law in the 2000s (decade).3% in 2007. The current Government is experiencing the revenu de solidarité active to redress the negative effect of the revenu minimum d'insertion on work incentive. the employment rate was 31.4%. Afterwards. 79% in the UK. and (iii) the employment rate. Keynesian economists have different answers to the unemployment issue.5% in 2007. which in France is the highest of the G8 countries in 2005. in order to increase the size of the working population in the overall population. which turned out to be a failure in reducing unemployment. only 69% of the French population aged 15–64 years were in employment. between 2004 and 2008. Shorter working hours and the reluctance to reform the labour market are mentioned as weak spots of the French economy in the view of the right. Liberal economists have stressed repeatedly over the years that the main issue of the French economy is an issue of structural reforms. compared to 80% in Japan. the unemployment rate for France was 9. These low employment rates are explained by the high minimum wages which prevent low productivity workers – such as young people – from easily entering the labour market. and 71% in Germany. 14 . (ii) the number of hours worked. compared to 46. France has one of the lowest 15–64 years employment rates of the OECD countries: in 2004. for the 15–24 years old.2% in EU25. This gap is due to the very low employment rates at both age extremes: the employment rate of people aged 55–64 was 38. concerning the older workers. the Government made some supply-oriented reforms to combat unemployment but met with fierce resistance. restrictive legislation on work and incentives for premature retirement. and.6% in the EU15. compared to 37. The unemployment rate decreased from 9% in 2006 to 7% in 2008 but remains one of the highest in Europe. which is one the lowest of developed countries. ineffective university curricula that fail to prepare students adequately for the labour market.
Orléans. with 15. According to the Côte d'Azur Economic Development Agency. this World Heritage Site is noteworthy for the quality of its architectural heritage. such as Northern Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy during the summer. 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline and beaches. dedicated to Contemporary art. 18 golf courses. Lyon. "The Most Beautiful Villages of France").9 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours in France. Disneyland Paris is France's and indeed Europe's most popular theme park. Small and picturesque French villages of quality heritage (such as Collonges-la-Rouge or Locronan) are promoted through the association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (litt. An other major destination are the Châteaux of the Loire Valley. Other popular theme parks are the Futuroscope of Poitiers and the Parc Astérix. it benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year. This 81. Chinon. with 90% of all superyachts visiting the region's coast at least once in their lifetime. and Beaubourg. Angers. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world. France also attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St.405. Saumur. but in particular for its 15 .9 million foreign tourists in 2007.000 restaurants. have some of the world's largest and renowned museums. The "Remarkable Gardens" label is a list of the over two hundred gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture. or to Lourdes. and Tours.The French Republic Tourism With 81. France has 37 sites inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest (Paris being the foremost. Nantes. but also Toulouse. James. Bordeaux. the French Riviera (or Côte d'Azur). and especially Paris.1 million in 2006).5 million in 2006) and the United States (51. Each year the Côte d'Azur hosts 50% of the world's superyacht fleet. which is the most visited art museum in the world. and others). in southeastern France. including the Louvre. 14 ski resorts and 3. Blois. France. after the Parisian region. Strasbourg. in its historic towns such as Amboise.000 combined visitors to the resort's Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park in 2009. and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). mostly devoted to impressionism. ski resorts. is the second leading tourist destination in the country. The historical theme park Puy du Fou in Vendée is the second most visited park of France. but also the Musée d'Orsay. a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts a few million visitors a year. With more than 10 millions tourists a year. ahead of Spain (58. beaches and seaside resorts.
Musée Picasso (441. however. de Chambord.2 million). connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium. ranking it the most extensive network of the European continent. far more than contained petrol or LPG engines. MontSaint-Michel (1 million).473 kilometres (18. Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services and tramway services complementing bus services.8 million).The French Republic castles (châteaux). such as the Châteaux d'Amboise. Louvre Museum (5.314 mi) is the second most extensive in Western Europe after the German one.000). France possesses the Millau Viaduct. Spain.262 mi) of serviceable roadway in France.000). There is no annual registration fee or road tax. Musée d'Orsay (2. The Eurostar. d'Ussé.1%) and Citroën (13. connects with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. Monaco.000). which illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the French Renaissance.027. Switzerland. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Renault (27% of cars sold in France in 2003). Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe. It is operated by the SNCF. Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had diesel engines. the Eurostar and TGV.000). Puy de Dôme (500. The most popular tourist sites include: (according to a 2003 ranking visitors per year): Eiffel Tower (6.000). Peugeot (20.2 million). French roads also handle substantial international traffic. except Andorra. Carcassonne (362. motorway usage is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. Palace of Versailles (2. The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country.183 kilometres (638. 16 . Sainte-Chapelle (683. along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle.7 million). Centre Pompidou (1. There are approximately 1. Transport The railway network of France. Château de Chambord (711. which as of 2008[update] stretches 29.1 million).000). de Villandry and Chenonceau. Andorra. which travels at 320 km/h (199 mph) in commercial use. Arc de Triomphe (1. and high-speed trains include the Thalys.2 million).5%). Germany and Italy.
There are 475 airports in France.794 1.261 kilometres (7. handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world.619 mi) of waterways traverse France including the Canal du Midi which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean through the Garonne river.075 2.737 1.094 2. and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie. Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport located in the vicinity of Paris is the largest and busiest airport in the country. the largest of which is in Marseille. 12. KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS GDP (Purchase Power Parity) (Billion $) Country France 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1.891 2. Air France is the national carrier airline.373 1.661 1.540 1. which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.128 2.145 GDP – Per Capita (PPP) (US $) 17 .448 1. although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.The French Republic the world's tallest bridge. There are ten major ports in France.
1 2004 2.400 25.8 2003 2.7 2006 1.1 2010 1.5 18 .600 28.100 Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices) (%) Country France 1999 0.7 2002 1.5 2000 1.700 29.500 33.100 32.200 32.8 2009 0.600 33.600 31.The French Republic Country 1999 France 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 23.5 2007 1.700 27.5 2008 2.3 2005 1.300 24.
6 2010 19.5 2008 21.9 Exports (Billion $) 19 .The French Republic Investment (Gross Fixed) (%) Country France 2004 19.2 2005 19.9 2009 20.6 2006 20 2007 21.
2006 and Jan. population growth was on average +0.8 307.7 339. France's natural population growth (excluding immigration) was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union.68 in 1994. In the five years between Jan. 2011).3 529.7 473.7 DEMOGRAPHICS With an estimated population of 65. In 2010.8 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 320 303.8 346.8 577. its highest since the end of the baby boom in 1973. 20 .The French Republic Country 1999 2000 2002 France 304. from a nadir of 1.7 Imports (Billion $) Country France 1999 2000 2002 280.58% per year.4 490 2009 2010 307. The total fertility rate rose to 2. 2011.9 508.9 419.8 million people (as of 1 Jan. France is the 20th most populous country in the world.1 692 535. The natural growth (excess of births over deaths) rose to 302. In 2003.7 303. 27.3% of newborn in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and 23.01 in 2010.5 601.432 in 2006.7 325 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 419 443.9% had at least one parent born outside of Europe (parents born in overseas territories are considered as born in France).9 473.
and grammar of the French language. The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France.710 from Europe. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic. Lille (1. the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie. Bordeaux (1. although its recommendations carry no legal power.163.000 applications in 2005 (a 15% decrease from 2004). The European Union allows free movement between the member states.180). the official language of France is French. An estimated 1. In 2008. mostly to people from Morocco. Lyon (1. the Académie française is France's official authority on the usages. Language According to Article 2 of the Constitution. The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.305) and Strasbourg (641. a law with its origins in the 1789 revolution and reaffirmed in the constitution of 1958.250 were from Africa and 13. vocabulary. Algeria and Turkey. 90. France is the leading asylum destination in Western Europe with an estimated 50.7 millions (10% of population aged 18–50) and 5 millions for all ages (8% of population).313). in terms of metropolitan area population. Nantes (768. 2nd Generation aged 18–50 make up 3.6 million European pieds noirs returned to France as the country's North African possessions gained independence. Nice (999. Toulouse (1.472). Before this survey. are Paris (11. it was estimated that between three million and six million people are of North African ancestry while an estimated 2.000 persons. In 2004. Although it is illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and race. like the TeO ("Trajectories and origins") survey conducted jointly by INED and INSEE in 2008.5 millions for all ages (11% of population).5 million people are of Black African ancestry.8 million foreign-born immigrants and their direct descendants (born in France) lived in France representing 19% of the country's population.970).118. France granted citizenship to 137.1 million net immigrants came to France.757.369). The largest cities in France. Of them. More than 5 million are of European origin and about 4 million of Maghrebi origin.836. Since 1635.009.1 millions (12% of 18–50) and 6.The French Republic As of 2008. France put in place controls to curb Eastern European migration. While UK and Ireland did not impose restrictions.934). Marseille (1. a total of 140. Immigrants aged 18–50 count for 2. there exist 21 .678).853). some surveys. a Romance language derived from latin. It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population is descended at least partially from the different waves of immigration the country has received.618. Between 1921 and 1935 about 1.033 people immigrated to France. are allowed to do it. the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that 11. Besides French.
either as a mother tongue or a second language. Africa. On the other hand. since the emergence of the USA as a major power. France was historically regarded as the “eldest daughter” of the Roman Catholic Church. After the back and forth of Catholic royal and secular republican governments over the 19th century. French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English. French was introduced to America. laïcité was established with the Jules Ferry laws of the 1880s and the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. especially in Africa.The French Republic 77 vernacular minority languages of France. The dominant position of French language in international affairs has only been challenged recently by English. and the total number of French speakers is increasing. From the 17th century to the mid-20th century. South-East Asia. 8 in the French metropolitan territory of continental Europe and 69 in the French overseas territories. French religious policy is based on the concept of laïcité. while creoles. The French Revolution saw a radical shift in the status of the Church with the launch of a brutal de-Christianization campaign. a strict separation of Church and State under which public life is kept completely secular. notably in Africa. and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. and is a lingua franca in some regions. and the Caribbean. The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: it is nearly extinct in some former French colonies (Southeast Asia). Religion France is a secular country. French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe. As a result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between the 17th and 20th centuries. Polynesia. many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language. The French government does not keep statistics on religious 22 . It is estimated that between 300 million and 500 million people worldwide can speak French. and pidgins based on French have emerged in the French departments in the West Indies and the South Pacific (French Polynesia).
However. According to a January 2007 poll by the Catholic World News. In 2003. in 2009 this proportion was 64%. 3% identified as Protestant.7 million people of “possible Muslim faith” in France (6. One other study shows 32% of people in France declaring themselves to be atheists. 31% identified as being agnostics or atheists (another poll sets the proportion of atheists equal to 27%).The French Republic adherence. the French Ministry of the Interior 23 .5% did so in 2006. whilst 27% of the French went to Mass once a week or more in 1952. A survey by the Catholic newspaper La Croix found that whilst in 1965. 34% of French citizens responded that “they believe there is a god”. 81% of the French declared themselves to be Catholics. nor on ethnicity or on political affiliation. or life force”. only 5% of the French population attended church regularly (or 10% attend church services regularly among the respondents who did identify themselves as Catholics). though it is not as actively practiced today as it once was. and 5% adhered to other religions. According to the Pewforum "In France. Roman Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium. Meanwhile. The same survey found that Protestants accounted for 3% of the population. 4% identified as Muslim. proponents of a 2004 law banning the wearing of religious symbols in schools say it protects Muslim girls from being forced to wear a headscarf. Moreover. 1% identified as Jewish. some unofficial survey estimates exist. 10% identified as being from other religions or being without opinion. an independent estimate by the politologist Pierre Bréchon in 2009 concluded that the proportion of Catholics had fallen to 42% while the number of atheists and agnostics had risen to 50%.2% attended Mass at least once a month. whereas 27% answered that “they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force” and 33% that “they do not believe there is any sort of spirit. but the law also restricts those who want to wear headscarves – or any other “conspicuous” religious symbol. The poll showed 51% identified as being Catholics. 15. there were 3. 1% identified as Buddhist. god. with the remaining 28% stating that they had no religion. According to the more than one decade old 1999 French census returns. including large Christian crosses and Sikh turbans – as an expression of their faith" According to the most recent but in 2010 somewhat outdated Eurobarometer Poll 2005. and another 32% declaring themselves “sceptical about the existence of God but not an atheist”. Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. only 4. an increase from previous surveys.3% of the total population).
one of the highest of the European Union. the Unification Church. Children of God.22 physicians for every 1000 inhabitants in France. and therefore do not have the same status as religions in France. Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest peoples in developed countries. As of 2007. and is still the lowest of Europe. but it is now regarded by the authorities as one of the main public health issues and is fiercely fought.000 according to the World Jewish Congress and is the largest in Europe. rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France. while continuing to grow in other countries. France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity. approximately 140. both the North American Jewish Data bank and the Vitual Jew Library put the estimates closer to 480.The French Republic estimated the total number of Muslims to be between five and six million (8–10%). However.4%) of France are living with HIV/AIDS. Health The French healthcare system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997 and then again in 2000. obesity rate in France is the same that the American once was in the 1970s). and average health care spending per capita was US$4. AIDS or Cystic Fibrosis.719 in 2008. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France. Certain bodies of beliefs such as Scientology. 24 . or the Order of the Solar Temple are considered cults ("sectes" in French). The current Jewish community in France numbers around 600.000 as of 2010[update]. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women. Care is generally free for people affected by chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such as cancer. the French obesity rate is far below that of the USA (for instance. Nevertheless.000 inhabitants (0. due mostly to the replacement of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food in French eating habits. There are 3.
and higher education. CEO. coordinated by the OECD. or the École nationale d'administration for careers in the great corps of the State. Polytechnique and the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produces high-profile engineers. currently ranks France's education as the 25th best in the world. Primary and secondary education are predominantly public. HEC Paris for Economics. The Grandes écoles have been criticised for alleged elitism. Napoléon Bonaparte created the lycée. run by the Ministry of National Education. which is free. Higher education in France is divided between public universities and the prestigious and selective Grandes écoles. 25 . or politicians. Nowadays. The Programme for International Student Assessment. the schooling system in France is centralized. secular.The French Republic Education In 1802. and is composed of three stages. being neither significantly higher nor lower than the OECD average. and compulsory until the age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance in France is now compulsory until the age of 16). primary education. secondary education. Nevertheless it is Jules Ferry who is considered to be the father of the French modern school. nevertheless they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants. such as Science Po Paris for Political studies.
which have around a hundred national historical monuments at charge.). lived in Italy. Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists. promoting French culture in the world. or châteaux in French) and religious buildings (cathedrals. who both worked in France. and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition. The 43.The French Republic CULTURE France has been a center of cultural creation for centuries. It counts 1.180 buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences (many castles. etc. Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1959 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. Jean Fouquet. the most famous medieval French painter. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time. granting subsidies to artists. The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino. basilicas. supporting festivals and cultural events. The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory. memorials and gardens. The UNESCO inscribed 37 sites in France on the World Heritage List. 26 . churches. Painting The origins of French painting were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. The 17th century was the period where French painting became proeminent and individualized itself through classicism. but also statutes. The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation. and in 1666 he created the still-in-activity French Academy in Rome to have direct relations with Italian artists. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation. The most important cultural sites are run by the government. France receives the highest number of tourists per year. protecting historical monuments. Two of the most famous French artists of the time of Baroque era. for instance through the public agency Centre des monuments nationaux.200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annually. is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
3 million visitors in 2008). The most famous impressionist painters of the period were Camille Pissarro. as a more intimate imitation of old baroque style. as well as fauvist artists Henri Matisse. Gustave Courbet and Jean-François Millet. such as Mona Lisa. Claude Monet. Toulouse-Lautrec and Georges Seurat were also at the avant-guarde of artistic evolutions. These three state-owned museums welcome close to 17 million people a year. the most visited being the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0. France's influence over painting became even more important. also known as La Joconde. Modern works are presented in the Musée National d'Art Moderne. at first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix. Édouard Manet. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to painting works. Marc Chagall. François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard being the most representative in the country. to gather French paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements). the Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Gare d'Orsay. with the development of new styles of painting like Impressionism and Symbolism. Auguste Renoir. André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck. Second generation of impressionist-style painters Paul Cézanne. At the beginning of 20th century. the works of court-endorsed artists Antoine Watteau. While the Louvre Palace has been for a long time a museum. Cubism was developed by Georges Braque and Spanish painter Pablo Picasso. 27 . a style that eventually evolved into Naturalism. The French Revolution brought great changes. in a major reorganization of national art collections. Amedeo Modigliani and Wassily Kandinsky. Other foreign artists also settled and worked in or near Paris. At this time France had become a center of artistic creation. living in Paris. Edgar Degas. which hosts contemporary works. the first half of the 19th century being dominated by two successive movements. Paul Gauguin. and Realism with Camille Corot. Other national museums hosting paintings include the Grand Palais (1. like Vincent van Gogh. as Napoleon I favoured painters of neoclassic style as Jacques-Louis David and the highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined the style known as Academism.The French Republic French painters developped the rococo style in the 18th century. which moved in 1976 to the Centre Georges Pompidou. In the second part of the 19th century. A huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during the 18th century are displayed in the state-owned Musée du Louvre. but there are also many museums owned by cities.8 million entries in 2008).
as well as the Château de Lusignan. other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d'Amiens. but mainly in the Loire Valley. most French castles did not survive the passage of time. The Gothic architecture was the first French style of architecture to be copied in all Europe. which now consists of Spain and Portugal.The French Republic Architecture Technically speaking. Such residential castles were the Château de Chambord. 28 . Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas. fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers against their rivals. Gothic architecture's old name was French architecture (or Opus Francigenum). The end of the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. many residential palaces. The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to the French court. Aside from churches. for example. which used Mooresque architecture). This is why Richard the Lionheart's Château Gaillard was demolished. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse (largest romanesque church in Europe) and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey (largely destroyed during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars). the Château de Chenonceau. The term “Gothic” appeared later as a stylistic insult and was widely adopted. although that has not always been true. Baroque Architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. the most important one being the Palais des Papes in Avignon. Fortified cities were also common. France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe (with the exception of the Iberian Peninsula. When King Philip II took Rouen from King John. Gothic Architecture had been used for many religious palaces. were built. there is no standard type of "French" architecture. in France. baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Some French castles that survived are Chinon. However. inspired by the Italians. During the Middle Ages. he demolished the ducal castle to build a bigger one. Château d'Angers. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages. the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis). or the Château d'Amboise. the massive Château de Vincennes and the so called Cathar castles. Before the appearance of this architecture.
Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges. France's largest financial district is La Defense. as a result. Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy.The French Republic In the secular domain. On the military architectural side. Russia and Turkey. since 1977. with his famous dome. More recently. as they are visible from afar. At this time there was a strong Gothic resurgence across Europe and in France. the Americas. the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth. Les Invalides. where a significant number of skyscrapers are located. If extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built. Jules Hardouin Mansart was said to be the most influential French architect of the baroque era. In the late 19th century. and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English. 29 . Built during the French Empire the Arc de Triomphe and Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent this trend the best. In the 20th century. in Paris. the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. For instance. Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect. the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. After the Revolution. Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel or Paul Andreu. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building. Swiss Architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. For example. although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower. French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. such as Garabit viaduct. an example of the way this has been done is the Millau Viaduct. imitations of his works can be found all over Europe. Other massive buildings that are a challenge to integrate into their environment are large bridges. the urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous. Under Napoleon III. the term being taken from the Second French Empire. Baron Haussmann rebuilt Paris. new buildings had to be under 37 meters. The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers. or 121 feet.
when what is now known as modern France did not have a single. 30 . such as The Song of Roland and the various Chansons de geste. An important 16th century writer was François Rabelais. that are still considered as the masterpieces of France's classical period. and Molière. or Britannicus. French poetry during that century was embodied by Pierre de Ronsard and Joachim du Bellay. a novel that is considered to be one of the very first psychological novels of all times. His plays have been so popular and famous around the world that French language is sometimes dubbed as "the language of Molière" (la langue de Molière). just like English is considered as "the language of Shakespeare". considered as one of the "3 Great dramatists" of the France's golden age. The “Roman de Renart”. During the 17th century. Jean Racine (whose incredible mastery of the alexandrine and of the French language has been praised for centuries) created plays. Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. or Gargantua and Pantagruel in English. wrote dozens of plays.The French Republic Literature The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages. The authors of French mediaeval texts are unknown. His most famous work. Tartuffe. has remained famous and appreciated until now. Both writers founded the La Pléiade literary movement. Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves. who is deemed to be one of the greatest masters of comedy of the Western literature. The names of some authors from this period are known. He is. such as Tristan and Iseult and Lancelot and the Holy Grail. for example Chrétien de Troyes and Duke William IX of Aquitaine. Essais. and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. L'Avare. along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid). who wrote in Occitan. written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude tells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard ('the Fox') and is another example of early French writing. Le Malade imaginaire. created the literary genre of the essay. Molière. Much mediaeval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France. such as Phèdre. whose novel La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel. There were several languages and dialects and each writer used his own spelling and grammar. L'École des femmes. uniform language. the most famous being Le Misanthrope.
Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel Proust. Compare the Evolution of Nobel Prizes by country. Guy de Maupassant. Other major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte-Cristo). whose aim was to sum up all the knowledge of his century (in fields such as arts.. For all those reasons. “Cinderella”. Essay . Les Contemplations. he is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times". Louis-Ferdinand Céline. philosophy . Théophile Gautier and Stendhal(The Red and the Black. some being far more famous than others. During that same century. “Sleeping Beauty” and “Bluebeard”. that has remained immensely popular throughout the centuries). widely seen as one of the greatest novel ever written The Hunchback of Notre Dame. in order to fight ignorance and obscurantism. Denis Diderot's best-known works are Jacques the Fatalist and Rameau's Nephew. whose works are amongst the most well known in France and the world. At the turn of the 19th century symbolist poetry was an important movement in French literature..The French Republic Jean de La Fontaine is one of the most famous fabulist of that time. whose preface is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement). Elected to the Académie française in 1841. that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. sciences. Playwright (Cromwell. Some of his verses have entered the popular language to become proverbs. languages. As of 2010. Albert Camus. Victor Hugo excelled in all literary genres: novel (Les Misérables. Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea). The Charterhouse of Parma). He is however best known for being the main redactor of the Encyclopédie. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in 1903. Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart). Dante and Homer) (Odes et Ballades.. Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables. he took a stand against the death penalty with works such as The Last Day of a Condemned Man. as he wrote hundreds of fables. and Jean-Paul Sartre.. French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including “Puss in Boots”. 31 . such as The Ant and the Grasshopper.) and to present them to the people. he was also a policician and a human right activist. Paul Verlaine and Stéphane Mallarmé. La Légende des siècles. with poets such as Charles Baudelaire. Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince which has remained popular for decades with children and adults around the world. the last ones being considered as "poetic masterpieces"). French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nation. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine). Poetry (his verse have been compared to that of Shakespeare.
Music Although the musical creation in France dates back to the Middle Ages. he founded the Analytic geometry. and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers. as it was the very first writing that openly criticized the European divine right monarchies. that has been on the decline after the Greek and Roman eras. who employed several musicians and composers in the royal court. ou l'optimisme is one of the most studied French novel outside France. Du Contrat Social is believed to have been a crucial inspiration of the 1789 Revolution. developed the Cartesian doubt. and his statement Cogito ergo sum has remained famous until now. During the 18th century. A French university has been named after him. MichelRichard Delalande. that is. moral and philosophical books by Blaise Pascal deeply influenced the French aristocracy. Voltaire wrote many plays. The most renowned composers of this period include MarcAntoine Charpentier. His novel Candide. A notable mathematician. Les Confessions. his main works are the Discourse on Inequality. A renowned political philosopher. Jean-Baptiste Lully and Marin Marais. His most famous work is Meditations on First Philosophy. all of them composers at the court. and has been considered to be its magnum opus. He is however best known for being "the Father of Modern Philosophy". After the death of the "Roi Soleil". and that strongly affirmed the principle of the sovereignty of the people. Émile ou De l'éducation. it knew its golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV. At the same epoch. This work is also seen as one of the most important philosophical fictions ever created. 32 . Jean-Jacques Rousseau was Voltaire's main philosophical opponent at that time. French musical creation lost dynamism. The latter is one of the most important works of the Age of Enlightenment. and was one of the major rationalist philosophers of that time. but in the next century the music of JeanPhilippe Rameau reached some prestige. François Couperin. novels and letters that have remained famous. he revitalised Western Philosophy.The French Republic Philosophy René Descartes was a polymath of the 16th century. He founded the Cartesianist school. and Du Contrat social.
Charles Aznavour and Serge Gainsbourg. the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris. Laurent Garnier and Bob Sinclar. Other French artists with international careers have been popular in several countries. Georges Brassens.). Major music halls and venues in France include Le Zénith sites present in many cities and other places in Paris (Paris Olympia. Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music. Maurice Ohana. Gabriel Fauré. etc. Niagara. Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world. and later Martin Solveig and David Guetta. has also remained very popular. there are several events organized. bands such as Noir Désir. the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse and the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux. Later came precursors of modern classical music Érik Satie. Jacques Offenbach. Mano Negra. electronic duos Daft Punk. the most popular being the Eurockéennes and Rock en Seine. Georges Bizet. at the middle of the 20th century. at the end of the romantic movement. Among current musical events and institutions in France. Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity in the country. the Opéra National de Lyon. Élysée Montmartre. was first launched by the French government in 1982. Phoenix and Gojira have reached worldwide popularity. imitated by many foreign cities. Rita Mitsouko and more recently Superbus. and above all Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy. Charles Gounod. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade). Édouard Lalo. Francis Poulenc. being popular in the country the opéra bouffon. French pop music. As for music festivals. Although there are very few rock bands in France compared to English-speaking countries.The French Republic French classical music knew a revival in the 19th and 20th century. who invented new musical forms. electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel Jarre. Théâtre Mogador. Among the most important French artists of the century are Édith Piaf. This period was a golden age for operas. Léo Ferré. the opera-ballet and the opéra comique genres. More recently. Jules Massenet and Camille Saint-Saëns. French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. The Fête de la Musique. The most prestigious institutions are the state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier and Opéra Bastille). known as chanson française. at first with opera composers Hector Berlioz. many are dedicated to classical music and operas. for example female singers Mireille Mathieu and Mylène Farmer. 33 .
Fashion Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century. France has been a strong advocate of the cultural exception. is considered one of the world's fashion capitals. which is the highest percentage of national films revenues in developed countries (the U. and the principle of "cultural exception" won an overwhelming victory: 198 countries voted for it. this decision was confirmed in a voting in the UNESCO in 2005. France produced more films than any other European country. France therefore succeeded in convincing all the EU members to refuse to include culture and audiovisuals in the list of liberalized sectors of the WTO in 1993. only 2 countries. French films account for 34.3% of Germany and 69.S and Israel. a legally protected name.1%. But France's dominant position has been overthrown by American culture. and New York City. to compare with 77.S. the cultural center of the world. Moreover. Today. voted against it. Thus. in 2006. and not so long ago.7% in Spain and 8. and thus France tries to protect its culture. at 50. to compare with 13. More recently. and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. it is however the Western country (out of the United States) where the share of the American films in the total film revenues is the smallest. Milan.4% of Japan. The expression Haute couture is. and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the 1860s. France was for centuries. Although the French film market is dominated by Hollywood. arguably. the U. not included).3% in the UK. 34 . along with London.The French Republic Cinema France has historical and strong links with cinema. in France. It is two Frenchmen. Paris. Cannes Festival is one of the most important and famous film festivals in the world. Auguste and Louis Lumière (known as the Lumière Brothers) who created the cinema in 1895.8% of the total film revenues of France. guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style (French: la mode) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became.
new trends were established by Sonia Rykiel. In 2005 the national service Télévision Numérique Terrestre introduced digital television all over the territory. in addition to existing subsidies. In 1966. but in 2009 it had to give 600. French television was partly liberalized in the next two decade with the creation of several commercial channels. Thierry Mugler. The 1990s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. Media Compared to other developed countries. with Metro. allowing the creation of other channels.000 copies sold. but the highest circulation for weeklies is reached by TV magazines and by women’s magazines.000 copies sold daily. But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion (French: couture or haute couture) industry in the years 1860–1960 through the establishing of the great couturier houses such as Chanel. Claude Montana. while public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations. Like in most industrialized nations. However. Dior. 20 Minutes and Direct Plus distributed at more than 650. In 2008. as well as Paris Match. the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions. the designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms by launching a prêt-à-porter ("ready to wear") line and expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing. the government have launched a major initiative to help the sector reform to be financially independent. It was only in 1981 when the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory. and the 50 other regional papers have also high sales. In the past years. among them Marie Claire and ELLE. centrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point (more than 400. The most influential news magazine are left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur. mainly thanks to cable and satellite television. after years of centralized monopoly on radio and television. due to the popularity of broadcast media.000 copies respectively. The four existing national channels are now owned by state-owned consortium France Télévisions. dedicated to sports coverage. and Givenchy. but also L'Équipe. free dailies made a breakthrough. In 1974. with around 300. the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade. 35 . the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture. the widest circulations are reached by regional daily Ouest France with more than 750.000 copies). which have foreign versions.The French Republic the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. Best-selling daily national newspapers in France are Le Monde and right-wing Le Figaro. The sector of weekly magazines is stronger and diversified with more than 400 specialized weekly magazines published in the country. In the 1960s. With a greater focus on marketing and manufacturing. Influential weeklies also include investigative and satirical papers Le Canard Enchaîné and Charlie Hebdo. ending state monopoly on radio.000 euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis. but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations remained under state-control. Jean-Paul Gaultier and Christian Lacroix in the 1970s and 1980s. the French do not spend much time reading newspapers.
the national holiday. Safety and Risk and Climate. As for the national anthem La Marseillaise. and Franco-German TV channel TV5 Monde. fraternité" (Liberty. René Cassin. According to two Pew Research Center polls in 2006 and 2011 based on around 14 000 responses in 15 countries. brotherhood) also appeared during the French Revolution. held on 14 July 1790 to celebrate the storming of the Bastille. ahead of 193 other countries surveyed. National symbols strongly reflect the heritage of the Revolution. The Nation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has the second best international reputation. the International Living ranked France as "best country to live in". according to a survey taking in account 9 criteria of quality of life: Cost of Living.The French Republic Among these public media are Radio France Internationale. whereas 19 % have a negative view. France 2 and France 3 have the highest shares. as stated by the Constitution. The origins of Tricolored flag also date back to the Revolution. In 2006. in 1948. French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance (when asked about their opinion about Muslims. égalité. France has historical strong ties with Human Rights. Culture and Leisure. a Frenchman. it was written in 1792 as a war song for the French Army. all commemorate events from the period. only behind Germany. commemorate the Fête de la Fédération. which broadcasts programs in French all over the world. Since the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789.977 responses in 28 countries. while radio stations RTL. Environment. equality. the government created global news channel France 24. Infrastructure. Europe 1 and state-owned France Inter are the least listened to. The four official symbols of the Republic. Health. Marianne. Economy. 36 . Christians and Jews) and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not of religion. In January 2010. Long-established TV channels TF1 (privatized in 1987). Bastille Day. France is often nicknamed as "the country of Human Rights". as the cockade was the symbols adopted by the revolutionaries in 1789. was one of the main redactors of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which was adopted by the UN members in Paris. Furthermore. The official motto of the French Republic. Freedom. Society According to a 2010 BBC poll based on 29. for the fifth year running. France is globally seen as a positive influence in the world's affairs: 49 % have a positive view of the country's influence. "Liberté.
it is the most common image to symbolize France in the collective imagination and abroad. France's most renowned products are wines. Sports Popular sports played in France include football. and Beaujolais as well as a large variety of different cheeses. Gastronomy French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. Choucroute in Alsace. is an allegorical figure of liberty and of the Republic and also appeared at the time of the Revolution. although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country (by 2010. the North of the country prefers to use butter as the preferred fat for cooking. Bordeaux. Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French. Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France. France has hosted events such as the 1938 37 . Moreover. had by 2006 awarded 620 stars to French restaurants. provençal Tapenade. Although it is not an official symbol of the Republic. Beef bourguignon in the Bourgogne.The French Republic unofficial symbol. including Champagne. Bourgogne. used by French monarchs. A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster. then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity. Quiche in the Lorraine region. There are more than 400 different varieties. at that time more than any other country. A French publication. despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there). etc. Its origins date back to Antiquity. since the Latin word Gallus meant both "rooster" and "inhabitant of Gaul". whereas olive oil is more commonly used in the South. traditional recipes are different. used for some stamps and coins. Roquefort and Brie. French cuisine is extremely diverse and has exerted a major influence on other western cuisines. French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. such as Camembert. the Michelin guide. According to the regions. judo and tennis. each region of France has iconic traditional specialities : Cassoulet in the Southwest.
The city of Paris. in northern France. including the Paris Masters and the French Open. Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed “Les Bleus” in reference to the team’s shirt color as well as the national French tricolor flag. Since that 1900 Games. The Elite One Championship is the top tier of French rugby league. Rugby is also very popular. CITIES Paris – Capital Paris is the capital and largest city of France. After Athens was awarded the first Games. and have reached the semi-finals and final of the Rugby World Cup. it was a French aristocrat. within its 38 . 1968 in Grenoble and 1992 in Albertville). and hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup final in October 2007. and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. Paris hosted the second Games in 1900. Paris was also the first home of the International Olympic Committee. The Catalans Dragons currently play in Super League which is the top tier rugby league competition in Europe. again in Paris and three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix. France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games. particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. France has hosted the Olympics on four further occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics. Rugby league in France is a sport that is most popular in the south with cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse having a strong presence in the game. particularly at the turn of the 21st century. France also hosts the annual Tour de France. France is also famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race held in the Sarthe department. The football team is among the most successful in the world. Several major tennis tournaments take place in France. Toulouse Olympique play in the Co-operative Championship which is the 2nd tier of European rugby league. the most famous road bicycle race in the world. with one FIFA World Cup victory in 1998. in reference to the Greek origins of the ancient Olympics. Following from a strong domestic tournament the French rugby team has won sixteen Six Nations Championships. The national rugby team has competed at every Rugby World Cup. one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006. It is situated on the river Seine. and two European Championships in 1984 and 2000. and hosted the 2007 Rugby Union World Cup. at the end of the 19th century. who suggested the Games' revival. Stade de France in Paris is the largest stadium in France and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup final. before it moved to Lausanne.The French Republic and 1998 FIFA World Cups. including eight grand slams. Baron Pierre de Coubertin. The top national football club competition is the Ligue 1.
restaurants. Paris is considered one of the greenest and most liveable cities in Europe. and the largest in the entire world between the 16th and 19th centuries. It is also one of the most expensive.297 (January 2008).211. the International Chamber of Commerce or the informal Paris Club. the Paris agglomeration is Europe's biggest or second biggest city economy and the sixth largest in the world. media. On 3 November 2011 it played host to the G20 organisation of industrialised nations. has an estimated population of 2. and hotels. and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Cannes Cannes is one of the best-known cities of the French Riviera. a busy tourist destination and host of the annual Cannes Film Festival. produce more than a quarter of the gross domestic product of France.000 years. Paris is today one of the world's leading business and cultural centres. It is a Commune of France in the Alpes-Maritimes department. entertainment. According to 2008 estimates. science.9 billion) in 2009. The Paris region has the highest concentration of higher education students in the European Union. With about 42 million tourists annually in the city and its suburbs. education. The city and its region contain 3. Paris was the largest city in the Western world for about 1. fashion. prior to the 19th century.1 billion (US$768. hosted in several business districts. Paris and the Paris Region.089. Paris is the most visited city in the world. the highest such concentration in Europe. The city is also famous for its various luxury shops.800 historical monuments and four UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Marseille 39 . with €552. and is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. The Paris Region hosts the headquarters of 33 of the Fortune Global 500 companies.098 (January 2008). but the Paris metropolitan area has a population of 12. notably La Défense. the largest dedicated business district in Europe.The French Republic administrative limits (the 20 arrondissements) largely unchanged since 1860. is the first in Europe in terms of research and development capability and expenditure and is considered one of the best cities in the world for innovation. It hosts the headquarters of many international organizations such as UNESCO. and its influences in politics. the OECD.
situated between Paris and Marseille. that 40 . 1. Lyon was historically known as an important area for the production and weaving of silk and in modern times has developed a reputation as the capital of gastronomy in France. The city is known for its historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ranking it 3rd among French metropolitan areas after Paris and Lyon. its overall metropolitan area was estimated to have a population of 2.62 km2 (93 sq mi).000 or 1. with a population of 852. Marseille is the capital of the ProvenceAlpes-Côte d'Azur region. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns. It has a significant role in the history of cinema due to Auguste and Louis Lumière who invented the cinematographer in Lyon.095 people live in the Marseille metropolitan area.118. The city is also known for its famous light festival 'Fete des Lumieres' which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days. Its urban region represents half of the Rhône-Alpes region population with 2. The city of Lyon has 480.000 on an area of 1.The French Republic Marseille known in antiquity as Massalia is the second largest city in France. Lyon is located at 470 km (292 mi) from Paris. 280 km (174 mi) from Turin.420. as well as the capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department. after Paris.530. Marseille is France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and largest commercial port.422. The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1.204 km2 (465 sq mi). and 600 km (373 mi) from Barcelona.9 million inhabitants. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais. Located on the southeast coast of France. Lyon is the capital of this region.660 inhabitants. as well as the capital of the smaller Rhône département. 160 km (99 mi) from Geneva.132. Its inhabitants are called Marseillais.601.395 within its administrative limits on a land area of 240. 320 km (199 mi) from Marseille. Lyon Lyon is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region. Lyon forms the largest agglomeration (urban area) in France outside Paris with a population estimated to be 1.331.
the largest space centre in Europe. pharmaceutical. It lies on the banks of the River Garonne. and biotech industries. and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre (CST). With 1. Lyon is ranked 2nd in France as an economic centre and convention centre on some measures. with more than 97. is with Lille the third-largest university campus of France after Paris and Lyon. Toulouse Toulouse is a city in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. and Astrium Satellites. Lyon was in 2010 ranked 9th globally and 2nd in France for innovation. the Toulouse metropolitan area is the fifthlargest in France.000 students. Marseille (1. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games. has increased the profile of Lyon internationally through participation in European football championships. Olympique Lyonnais.102. Its world renowned university is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and. Lyon is a major centre for banking and also the chemical. Economically. It is also the Chef-lieu of the Haute-Garonne department. 590 km (366 mi) away from Paris and half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. and in recent years has focused on a growing local start-up sector. Lyon (1.16 million) Toulouse is one of the bases of the European aerospace industry. It is now the Chef-lieu of the Midi-Pyrénées region. Lyon also hosts the international headquarters of Interpol. the SPOT satellite system. also have a significant presence in Toulouse. after Paris (11. Thales Alenia Space.7 million) and Lille (1. and to thank her a statue was made and on the day it was put up the whole city was lit by candles put by the citizens at their window.8 million). the largest region in metropolitan France. EADS's satellite system subsidiary.8 million). 41 .The French Republic vallued Lyon the title of Capital of Lights (not to be mixed up with Paris the city of lights). Euronews and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Toulouse was the capital of the former province of Languedoc (provinces were abolished during the French Revolution). The local professional football team. The legend says that Virgin Mary saved the city from the black death.882 inhabitants as of 1 January 2006. Galileo positioning system. with the headquarters of Airbus. It ranked 38th globally in Mercer's 2010 liveability rankings.
The city’s main seaside promenade. Marseille. Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia. Nice is the capital of the Alpes Maritimes département and the second biggest city of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille. The clear air and soft light has been of particular appeal to some of Western culture’s most outstanding painters. including Musée Marc Chagall. after Paris.721 within its administrative limits on a land area of 71. with a population of 348. The climate and landscape are still what attracts most visitors today. Down the ages. written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. such as Marc Chagall. The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955. after Nike. The city is called Nice la Belle (Nissa La Bella in Niçard).The French Republic Nice Nice is the fifth most populous city in France. today Nice has become a truly cosmopolitan tourist destination. Around 350 BC. the picturesque Nicean surroundings have attracted not only those in search of relaxation. For years it was an Italian dominion. Culturally and architecturally enriched over time. 42 .000 on an area of 721 km2 (278 sq mi). It also has the second busiest airport in France after Paris and two convention centres dedicated to business tourism. Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Lyon and Toulouse. Their work is commemorated in many of the city’s museums. the goddess of victory. Terra Amata. which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice. but also those seeking inspiration. the town changed hands many times. Located on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea. The area of today’s Nice is believed to be among the oldest human settlements in Europe. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength. One of the archaeological sites. It has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it’s the second-most visited place in France after Paris. displays evidence of a very early use of fire. when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winter there. receiving 4 million tourists every year. then became part of France in 1860. For decades now. the Promenade des Anglais (‘the Walkway of the English’) owes its name to the earliest visitors to the resort.92 km2 (28 sq mi). The spectacular natural beauty of the Nice area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century. Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts Jules Chéret. Henri Matisse. which means Nice the Beautiful.
The Bordeaux metropolitan area has a population of 1.000 and constitutes the sixth-largest urban area in France. Strasbourg Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.8 °C (42. a national theatre. Bordeaux Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Located close to the border with Germany. such as museums. from May to October. while the wine economy in the metro area moves 14. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century. several business districts and some major cultural facilities. It is home to the world's main wine fair. Vinexpo.1 °F) during the day and 5. The summer/holiday season lasts for 6 months.4 °C (56.105. Its inhabitants are called Bordelais. Nice experiences a Mediterranean climate.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux is the world's major wine industry capital. as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. although in April and November sometimes there are temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F). it is the capital 43 . with average temperatures of 13. an opera house with a regional library and several concert halls and casinos.4 °F) at night in the period from December to February.The French Republic The city also has a university. Winters are mild. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. It is the capital of the Aquitaine region. It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice (Comté de Nice).
000 inhabitants. The city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine. the Grande Île (Grand Island). while its metropolitan area ranks 8th with over 800. and the ancient Duchy of Brittany. Strasbourg is fused into the Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history. The city and the region of Alsace are historically Germanspeaking.975 inhabitants and its urban community 467.The French Republic of the Bas-Rhin département. it was one of the major cities of the historic province of Brittany. Strasbourg's metropolitan area (aire urbaine) (only the part of the metropolitan area on French territory) is the ninth largest in France. With 638. In 2006.375 inhabitants. Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions. has been a bridge of unity between France and Germany for centuries. its European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and its European Audiovisual Observatory) and the Eurocorps. 50 km (31 mi) from the Atlantic coast. Germany. the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. and river communications. In terms of city rankings. Economically. Strasbourg's historic city centre. currently the largest in France. Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering. as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. explaining the city's Germanic name. Nantes is the capital city of the Pays de la Loire region and LoireAtlantique département. especially through the University of Strasbourg. as well as of road. located on the Loire River. The city is the 6th largest in France. such as the Council of Europe (with its European Court of Human Rights. Strasbourg has been ranked third in France and 18th globally for innovation. The transnational Eurodistrict StrasbourgOrtenau had a population of 884. Rennes and Carhaix. Nantes is a Breton city. Nantes Nantes is a city in western France. and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture. rail. The port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg. was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988. the city proper had 272. Together with Vannes.988 inhabitants in 2008. Culturally.670 inhabitants in 2006. 44 .
7%) Spain (8.8 billion including: • • • • • • • • • • • machinery and transportation equipment and aircraft plastics.2 billion in 2010 declining from $692 billion in 2008. Nantes was named a hub city for innovation in the Innovation Cities Index by innovation agency. Lyon and Strasbourg for innovation across multiple sectors of the economy.The French Republic In 2004. behind Paris. automobiles and electronic products.6% US (5. TRADE France's trade is one of the largest in the world.8%) Belgium (7.2%) To export trading partners : France Imports France’s imports totaled up to $532. In 2010. The city was ranked 36th globally from 289 cities and 4th overall in France. France’s exports totaled $456.3%) UK (7.3%) Italy (8. France main import commodities are: • • Machinery and equipmen Vehicles and Aircraft 45 . France exports and imports various raw materials. the Time magazine described Nantes as "the most liveable city in Europe".8%) Netherlands (4. The country ranks sixth in the world in terms of export volumes and 5th when it comes to imports. France Exports In 2010. 2thinknow. chemicals and pharmaceutical products iron and steel beverages Germany (14.
3%) Spain (6. The Hauts de Seine to the west of Paris. Most households exist on an average budget of 2.000 euros.8%) UK (5.9%) Belgium (11.000 and 40. show the annual salary for the majority of households in France is between 10.7%) Italy (8. some eight million people still live below the poverty line. But. while the top 10 per cent have at least 4. The lowest 10 per cent have a monthly budget of less than 1.100 euros more than 10 years ago. tops the table as the region with the highest standard of living while neighbouring Seine St Denis has the lowest.100 euros.380 euros a month .1%) US (4. The widest gap between rich and poor is found in the capital Paris and surrounding suburbs where the top 20 per cent of wealthiest households earn eight times more that the lowest 20 per cent. 46 . The latest figures for 2008 released by the national statistics agency. Insee. Despite a significant increase in the overall standard of living.3%) To main import partners: STANDARD OF LIVING The standard of living in France has doubled over the past 40 years although the gap between rich and poor has not changed over the last 10 years. defined as a monthly budget of 949 euros.950 euros a month to spend. the Insee figures do reveal a large disparity between the country's richest and poorest households.The French Republic • • • • • • • • • Crude oil Plastics and Chemicals Germany (17.9%) Netherlands (6. This region is also home to France's richest and poorest départements.
Industries are doing very well which mean that expatriates can easily find secure jobs.030 euros and Germany with 29. France also leads all other G8 countries. Tourism is also another main contributor in the country’s excellent financial status. A total of 57 billion dollars was placed in investments. behind the United States with 39. Overall. In terms of per capita GDP. the government does provide a lot of backup to business owners to give company benefits. More and more immigrants and skilled workers are needed to ensure constant effectiveness in trade and other business transactions. Alsace and the Loire Valley. have the smallest. France also has several investors helping it make 2nd place in outward transactions. but ahead of British households on 28. as it is easy to get lost in the sights and sounds of the French jet-set and haute couture lifestyle.180. Brittany. France is one of the G8 and its economy boasts a 6th place ranking worldwide. It is the number one tourist destination all over the globe. Productivity is good but the nation is currently experiencing low employment rate due to the aging population. In contrast. COST OF LIVING Living in France can be relatively cheaper compared to the United Kingdom. As many advisories provide.550 euros. the cost of living is dependent upon your lifestyle with the cost of going out an aspect that you need to consider. Trade and commerce continue to comprise the bulk of the economy. one household in 10 says they are forced to make economies on food.650 euros.The French Republic The highest concentration of low-income households is found on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. Worldwide France ranks third in terms of annual revenue with an average of 28. Although salaries for employees are not that high compared to other European nations. It is considered as a giant in terms of productivity ranking 4th in imports and 5th in exports. heating and leisure activities such as vacations. 47 .
France is one of the world’s largest exporters of beer. Dining out will definitely cost more but expatriates can also find a good deal of affordable meat. the cost of commodities is low compared to other big European cities. Pastries and wheat products comprise most of the goods for export. In Paris. fruits and vegetables in markets and nearby ports. herbs. France is the place where everyone on earth can find the best quality and newest designs. Almost every week there are runway shows and 48 . Locally made wine and beer are priced depending on quality but lower prices can be given if purchased directly at the brewery or winery or as wholesale. fish. There are thousands of great restaurants offering the best cuisines made only of the finest ingredients. There are virtually brand and designer labels everywhere. France imports and exports wine extensively. wine and bread.The French Republic Food and Drink Costs in France The cost of food and drinks in France is significantly lower compared to other European nations. clothes are typically expensive. An average individual spends around 100 euro every week on grocery items and food consumption. French cuisine is very easy to get by in varying prices for every individual. Beer and cider are also widely traded. But there are also meat products like beef and pork as well as fish such as salmon that are continually brought out to the United States. As far as drinks are concerned. Clothing and Accessories Costs in France Since Paris is the center of world fashion. milk.
Rental spaces are priced according to location. the global recession has hit the once red-hot property market in France. they are often found as many multiple specialist stores that cater to the market of thrifty shoppers.The French Republic magazine debuts are also featured monthly. dresses and other classy items are sold in all colors and varieties at varying prices as well. One-fourth of the French population lives in housing complexes subsidized by the government. there are also unique items created by designers that can be used for collection purposes. This is not uncommon since France has always been among the top three tourist destination countries. It is almost impossible to acquire land in the big cities today. there are a number of department stores offering different kinds of clothing and accessories. For expatriates looking for cheaper wares. As it is worldwide. Suits. Services Costs in France France has state-of-the-art technology that provides remarkable telephone and Internet 49 . Chinese-made products have also entered France by storm that may have caused some designers to increase significantly in prices and avoid sales and auctions that may make people think of their original creations as mere Chinese imitations. condition and quality. The cost of housing and rentals usually include insurance and utilities. Laws and regulations are also very stringent when it comes to expatriates owning French land. Rental in nearby communities can cost around 500 euro every month while downtown apartment and condominium rental costs reach an astounding 1500 to 2000 euro every month. In the outskirts of French cities. especially in the French Riviera as buyers drive harder bargains for the hard earned purchases. Housing Costs in France Cost of housing has increased drastically over the past years. Coats and jackets can range from 50 euro up to several thousands depending on the material. Fully furnished spaces will cost more as well. The living condition is not really good compared to modest housing structures in the city outskirts. Farm space is available in the provinces at expensive prices. There are though some low cost high quality manufacturers in this highly fragmented market. Fur coats are limited but still very much available for big spenders. In Paris. The influx of people coming in caused congestion a few years prior but the government is doing several housing measures and regulations that aim to limit the population excess.
Majority of the remaining population are working part-time jobs including students aged 15 to 17 years old. It can also depend on what part of France you’re thinking about. you’re from the UK. Public schools are subsidized by the French government as well since they value the literacy rate among the rising number of younger generations. like many of the members of the forum. If. Education and college grants are made available by the government.The French Republic services. the current rate of exchange is a killer. France is currently looking for more skilled engineers. as it is the highest and most expensive overall in the European Union in 2009. architects and teachers. offering high quality of services and being easily accessible at the same time. maintaining these employment costs has put pressure on the overall income of the French. The big one (especially right now) is where you’re coming from and what your source of income will be. On the downside. And. At roughly GBP 1 = 1 € everything is going to be expensive. Remote areas as well are well supported by these modern devices in addition water and electricity. employment rates have been rising in all members of the European Union. The French health care system is one of the best in the world. Males constitute most of the workforce although majority of French women including pregnant ones are also working full time. 2009 can summarize it: How expensive France (or anywhere) is will depend on a number of things. Expatriates can also apply for insurance quotes as well. you’re at the mercy of the exchange rates as they rise and fall. But the just how expensive it is to live in France? A post made in the France Expat Forum last January 3. Financial plans and insurance services are also provided to all working individuals. Employment Costs in France Overall. There are a number of excellent colleges and universities in France. If France becomes the country of your residence. The government can provide funding for immigrants provided that part of their future income will automatically be directed to specific government or community funding. Students aim to study arts and communication in Paris particularly because of its cultural and artistic heritage. Business 50 . you will be covered by the state social security system that also includes health insurance. Broadband networking is currently the trend and there are several WiFi hotspots almost anywhere in Paris. France has an employment rate of almost 90%.
which was completed by 1954.The French Republic investors are always welcome as well as those who are highly adept in trade and commerce. In the early 18th century. and Mahé (now in Kerala). and the French and Indians fought together and vanquished Anwaruddin in 1749. The French again had a success at the capture of Fort St. a French physician and traveler. establishing the Madras Presidency (covering the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). David in 1758 under Lally. The French succeeded in the 1746 Battle of Madras. Yanam. Both nations negotiated the peaceful transfer of Pondicherry and the other enclaves to India. History In the 17th century François Bernier (1625–1688). The French General Dupleix was allied to Murzapha Jung in the Deccan. France was actively involved in the powerplay in India. now in West Bengal. as well as maintaining a foothold in Chandernagore. in the conflict against Robert Clive. but were finally defeated at Masulipatam (1759) and Wandewash (1760). France was one of the major European nations apart from Great Britain to establish colonies in India. 51 . but failed in the Battle of Arcot in 1751 and finally surrendered in 1752. Karikal. and Chanda Sahib in the Carnatic. became for 12 years the personal physician of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. France established diplomatic relations with the newly-independent India in 1947. France ceded much of the Madras Presidency to the British but retained control of Pondicherry. Expatriates may have a hard time finding a well-paying job during the first few years until they find their niche and prove their expertise in a given field. FRANCE-INDIA RELATIONS France–India relations refers to bilateral relations between the French Republic and the Republic of India were established in 1947 and both nations have since established close cooperation in defence and commerce.
strategic & cultural cooperation on this occasion. expressing his desire to build an "ambitious relationship. especially the French Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft and the Scorpène class submarines. 2008.5 billion euros to 12 billion euros by 2012." Chirac saluted India as "a nation which has affirmed its personality on the world stage." In January 2008.The French Republic In 1998. Security Council as well as G-8. Development of Bilateral Relations Both states have aimed to increase bilateral trade from 6. India has purchased much military equipment from France. India and France have also signed agreements on social security for Indians living in France and joint cooperation on space research and technology. India has objected to France's military assistance to Pakistan. Both countries pledged for closer economic. both nations signed an agreement that would pave the way for the sale of French-made nuclear reactors to India on September 30. Strategic Cooperation France and India have extensive strategic co-operation. a deal worth $10bn was signed between AREVA and NPCIL for nuclear power plant in Jaitapur. During Sarkozy visit to India in Dec 2010. France is one of the largest suppliers of nuclear fuel to India. In July 2009 the French government invited Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to be their chief guest at the French Bastile day celebrations.approximately 1.N. In September 2008. and signed a "Framework Agreement for Civil Nuclear Co-operation" in January 2008 during French President Nicolas Sarkozy's visit to India. in 2007. the then-French President Jacques Chirac made a high-profile visit to India. 52 . However. This resulted in the Megha-Tropiques mission wherein a meteorological research satellite jointly developed by India's Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and France's Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales(CNES) was placed in orbit by ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C18) on October 12. Maharasthra. France was one of the few nations who did not condemn India's nuclear tests in 1998 and has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U. Sarkozy expressed a desire to be able to visit India each year. Sarkozy has also been the chief guest at India's Republic Day celebrations. French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited India and was the chief guest at India's Republic Day parade.300 Indian students study in France. France and India established a Consortrium of IndoFrench Universities to increase educational cooperation . with the military services of both nations conducting joint exercises. During the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to France after India's waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). with whom it is in conflict. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh made a major visit to France that led to the establishment of Indo-French trade in nuclear technology. trade expanded by 26%. 2011. France and India also maintain a discreet "strategic dialogue" that covers joint cooperation against terrorism.
872 (very high human development) and 25th on the Corruption Perceptions Index. France's economy has been growing continuously since the second quarter of 2009. tripling in value between 2000 and 2007. Between July and September the French economy returned to growth of 0. France's GDP growth has been stronger than expected. After the turn of the century. France has long been part of the world's wealthiest and most developed national economies. a factor which affected all Eurozone countries. Between January and March 2011. In 2010. • • As of 2010. In 2010. • • According to the IMF. As of September 2010. France is the world's 18th country by GDP per capita with $40.The French Republic CONCLUSION France is the world's fifth largest economy by nominal figures and the ninth largest economy by PPP figures. Personal debts are 12% of household assets.591 per inhabitant. only enduring four quarters of contraction.5% and the UK which grew by 0. wealth per adult grew very strongly in France.6 millions of Dollar millionaires (and the world's 4th wealthiest) nation in aggregate household wealth.6% in the same July to September period. below the growth rates of its neighbours Germany which grew by 0. in 2010.3%. 53 .9%. It is the second largest economy in Europe (behind its main economic partner Germany) in nominal figures and third largest economy in Europe in PPP figures (behind Germany and the United Kingdom). Much of the earlier rise can be attributed to appreciation of the euro against the dollar.1%. which is a relatively low ratio in developed economies. Credit Suisse's Global Wealth Report ranks France the wealthiest European with 2. at 0. It then fell back by 15% and has not yet regained its 2007 value. France is the world's 5th and Europe's 2nd largest national economy by nominal GDP. France was listed 14th on the UN Human Development Index with 0. one of the best figures in Europe but shrunk between April and June 2011 decreasing by -0. However France also experienced a rapid rise in house prices as a result of which real property now accounts for two thirds of household assets. France's economy entered the 2008-2009 recession later and left it earlier than most comparable economies.
Without their help and motivation it would have been impossible to complete my project. I would also like to thank our college computer lab for allowing me to having access to their computer.The French Republic ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take the opportunity to thank D’COSTA SIR for guiding me in completing this project on INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCENARIO OF FRANCE. BIBLIOGRAPHY 54 . Last but not the least I am grateful to all my family members and my friends for being at my side always.
com • www.com 55 .fr • www.wikipedia.google.france.expatform.The French Republic • www.com • www.
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