You are on page 1of 28




Vol. XXIV, No. 1 March 2007

Rally to welcome members of the Lincoln Brigade returning to New York. This photograph is one of the many images in
“Facing Fascism: New York and the Spanish Civil War,” at the Museum of the City of New York. See page 3. (Photograph
from the Columbia University Rare Book & Manuscript Library, New York. )
Letter From the Editor
The 70th anniversary of the Lincoln Brigade provides a The Volunteer
backdrop for one of the most ambitious projects in ALBA’s Journal of the
history. Veterans of the
The national monument, soon to be unveiled in San Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Francisco, is a dream literally being made. The lawyers are an ALBA publication
fine tuning the contracts, craftspeople are designing the 799 Broadway, Rm. 227
words and images for the onyx, the steel is in transit. Your New York, NY 10003
generous response to our November appeal is heartening. (212) 674-5398
We have raised about $200,000, but we are still only two- Editorial Board
thirds of the way to the necessary target. If you’ve already Peter N. Carroll • Gina Herrmann
given, as Moe Fishman says, give again. We’re serious! Fraser Ottanelli • Abe Smorodin
Meanwhile, in New York, the opening of the exhibition Book Review Editor
“Facing Fascism” demonstrates the importance of building Shirley Mangini
something else: bridges to kindred groups, beginning with
Art Director-Graphic Designer
the Puffin Foundation and extending to the Instituto Richard Bermack
Cervantes, which are sponsoring this incredible project.
Editorial Assistance
New York University’s Tamiment Library, home to the
Nancy Van Zwalenburg
ALBA collection, opened its shelves to the curators of the
Museum of the City of New York; the King Juan Carlos I Submission of Manuscripts
Please send manuscripts by E-mail or on disk.
Center, led by James Fernandez, provides the setting for
numerous collateral programs that will go on all spring.
New York University Press is publishing the companion
volume of essays/catalogue for the show, edited by Peter N. political cartoons, photographs, works of literature and art.
Carroll and James Fernandez. You will also see the exciting exchanges between those
Just as important as this institutional collaboration is who went to Spain and those who stayed at home. There is
the fresh conceptual framework that distinguishes this ex- a freshness about this project: a dialogue between past and
hibition. During the 1930s, the public perceived the Spanish present that is the hallmark of ALBA’s mission.
Civil War through two competing dichotomies: democracy —Peter N. Carroll
vs fascism or radicalism vs order.
It would be difficult to identify another historical epi-
sode that has been more distorted by the lens of subsequent
events. The long decades of the Cold War produced a
Letters to the Editor
Dear Editor,
wholesale rewriting of history, in which domestic fascists Enclosed you will find a modest contribution for the
disappeared and those who defended the Spanish Republic proposed VALB monument in memory of my father, who,
were dismissed as un-American. Even after the Cold War as a member of El Club Obrero, contributed what he could
has ended, this view prevails in the mainstream media. to the cause of the Republic and brought me as an infant to
The new exhibition—and the published catalogue—at- events sponsored by that organization of which I have a
tempt to restore the original terms of debate. Here we find very distant and hazy memory.
the United States of the 1930s, much like the country today, He was a working man but learned his history and got
bitterly divided about the international situation. German- his political acumen as a result of that organization’s semi-
American bundists, pro-Mussolini Italian-Americans, nars and lectures.
leaders of the Roman Catholic hierarchy fought strenuously He was nicknamed “El Comandante” by his aunts and
for their versions of a better world, while other constituen- village crones as an infant because of his serious demeanor
cies adopted an agenda based on anti-racism, social justice, and studious gaze as he stared at the older ladies while in
an interventionist foreign policy. his mother’s arms. The nickname stuck and that is what he
You will see all this on the walls of the Museum of the was called by my uncles and their friends, all immigrants
City of New York: the struggles as they were fought in the from the fishing village of Sada, near La Coruna.
hearts and minds of ordinary New Yorkers, in newspapers, Continued on page 1
of those placed on the children’s refu-
gee ships which slipped out of Bilbao
Bay Area Reunion Honors Activist Legacy while that city was undergoing its
blitz. Her ship was the one diverted to

ith expectations of ment in downtown Madison, Leningrad. After the war, in 1948, the
unveiling the new monu- Wisconsin; and a granite stone at Soviets managed to repatriate her to
ment to the Abraham the Centro Asturiana in Tampa, Mexico, which her ever resourceful fa-
Lincoln Brigade later this year, Florida—the new monument is dra- ther had managed to reach, again,
friends, family, and vets will cel- matic in scale and presentation and thanks to help arranged by my father
ebrate the 70th anniversary of will be located at a major intersec- to get him on one of the last ships to
the Spanish Civil War on March tion of pedestrian traffic near San make it out of LeHavre. The Nazis
3 at a Saturday afternoon gath- Francisco’s historic Ferry Building. were already overrunning France.
ering in Oakland, California. According to Linda Lustig, trea- I share these tidbits for whatever
Russ Ellis, emeritus vice chan- surer of the Bay Area Friends and they may be worth. I know you proba-
cellor of the University of Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln bly have access to many more
California/Berkeley, will give the Brigade, which initiated the project, dramatic and important stories, but
keynote talk, “A Monument to the the current campaign to fund the often not about the “little people”
Activism of the Lincoln Brigade.” monument has reached $200,000, caught in the maelstrom of power pol-
Five years ago, Ellis was instrumen- about two-thirds of the anticipated itics and international intrigues, who
tal in launching the campaign for cost. “It’s important for our donors are often mute and inarticulate about
the monument and shaping its mes- to realize that we still have a way to their travails.
sage of the vets’ lifelong activism. go to complete the fund drive for Guillermo’s story is actually lon-
Constructed of open steelwork and this terrific monument,” she says. ger and more dramatic than what I’ve
onyx, the planned monument will The monument will not be the been able to just hint at. I learned
be 39 feet long and 8 feet high. The only cause for cheer at the gathering. about his adventures crossing the
translucent design allows visitors to There will also be a musical perfor- mountains in Spain to avoid main
see photographic images of the mance by Barbara Dane, Bruce roads, and subsequently what he and
Lincoln volunteers in Spain, as well Barthol, and Barrett Nelson, bringing his mates did in France prior to its fall,
as inscribed texts of poetry and up memories of the good fight and when I visited Mexico many years ago
prose that depict their experiences the feeling that younger generations when he was still alive. He always at-
as activists. will continue the struggle. tributed his luck and means to get
Although several smaller away to my father.
plaques commemorate the Lincoln Tax-deductible contributions for the Incidently, tired of WW II conven-
Brigade at various sites—the monument should be made out to tional wisdom stuff and its ignoring of
University of Washington campus ALBA and mailed to ALBA, 799 the implications of Spain’s Civil War
in Seattle; a wall plaque at City Broadway—Room 227, New York, NY or even mentioning it, I have been
College in New York; a stone monu- 10003. badgering PBS and William Baker to
produce or finance the production of
documentaries about the Spanish
Requetes. He was a block captain and Civil War, the American volunteers,
Continued from page 2
would have been murdered by the
Fascists. The funds arrived on
and the real position of the U.S. and
the Western Powers and their surrep-
I know he managed to get funds Christmas day in 1938 and shortly, he titious support of the Fascists. At least
to my uncle Guillermo Lecuona and two others broke out of the camp run the movie “To Die In Madrid” oc-
(mother’s side), who had been dis- in the dead of winter and made it to casionally. I never even get an
armed and placed in one of those Paris. He always remained amazed acknowledgment of my letters.
French concentration camps after he that French authorities actually deliv- Best of luck on the monument proj-
walked the distance to the border ered the wired funds. ect and my humble thanks for your
from Bilbao after its fall to the My cousin, his daughter, was one
Continued on page 2
THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 1
Dispatch from Madrid
The Re turn of E TA
By Miguel Ángel Nieto
There are more than 3,000 ETA the opposite. Both discourses are part

hen the president of the militants in Spanish prisons, and ETA of the game, and neither of them is rel-
Spanish government, José believed—Zapatero led ETA to be- evant to the kind of negotiation that
Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, lieve—that the negotiations would took the British government more
announced in mid-2006 that he had begin with full pardons for all those than 10 years, and which has scarcely
initiated contact with the Basque ter- convicts. This was the President’s first begun in Spain.
rorist organization, ETA, seeking error. Zapatero has heard the wake-up
a negotiated settlement, his British Second error: ETA considers inde- call. He is aware that to make any new
counterpart, Tony Blair, warned him pendence for the Basque country attempt at dialogue with ETA he must
that peace doesn’t win votes, point- non-negotiable (though a majority of achieve political consensus and have
ing to his own experience in Ulster. Basques do not want it), and in their the support of the opposition. The pity
But Zapatero is a bit dense at negotiations with the government, ap- is that the shift from peace process as
times, delighted with himself and parently it was not made clear that the the President’s personal goal to a state
thrilled with his own confabulations. constitutional principle of Spain as a campaign cost two lives in a country
So he spent the final months of last national unity is, as things now stand, that had gone three years without a
year patting himself on the back for non-negotiable. single victim of ETA terror.
the success of his negotiations with And the third error: Zapatero’s de- Translated by Tony Geist
the band of murderers and scorning termination to finish off ETA as a
those in the opposition who cautioned personal mission, not a State mission. Miguel Ángel Nieto is a prominent
him about playing with fire. In this context, the ETA bombing journalist in Madrid and director of the
Zapatero is also a bit perverse. He that took place on December 30, 2006, documentary film, Souls Without Borders.
insinuates that he can offer more than in Madrid’s Barajas airport must be
he can legally deliver. In this way he understood as a corrective to
led ETA to believe that the political
concessions he was willing to make to
Zapatero’s enthusiasm, but also as a
warning that the killers are in a hurry
Continued from page 1
the terrorist group were as great as the to leave 40 years of terrorism behind
murderers’ commitment to stop kill- them, and as a consequence, want im- work to keep the memory of these
ing. And the murderers, whose mediate results. brave and dedicated Americans alive.
numbers are dwindling as the police They are in a hurry because elec- Yours, sincerely,
close in on them, believed him. tions are just around the corner (in Edward Garcia
Zapatero is a bit ingenuous, and May) and their political arm, Herri
this is dangerous, for he believes that Batasuna, has been declared illegal Dear Editor,
the country’s legal framework is as and cannot run candidates. If its can- I was delighted to read the 2-page
flexible as his dreams of it. didates can’t run for office, ETA’s article in The Volunteer concerning vet
Fortunately, the Spanish legal frame- friends will be excluded from local artist Irving Norman of San Francisco.
work concerning terrorism is inflexible government, and consequently ETA One of his very large paintings was
and does not depend on presidential will have no legal source of funding. bought by the Museum of Modern Art
whims, as it did under Franco, but on And without funding they have no in San Francisco and now hangs in the
the Parliament. tools to maintain their dwindling sup- main gallery. It is an art work that I
In other words: when it came time port from the Basque people. hope many of the Bay Area residents
to set the terms for the concessions Zapatero’s socialist government and visitors will have a chance to view.
ETA could receive in exchange for lay- now says that, after the airport bomb- Sincerely,
ing down its arms, Zapatero in fact ing, the peace process has been Dave Smith
had nothing to offer. “liquidated.” And ETA maintains just Oakland, CA

2 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
The Faces of “Facing Fascism”
On March 23, 2007, the Museum of
the City of New York will inaugurate a
major exhibition titled “Facing Fascism:
New York and the Spanish Civil War.”
The show, over two years in the making, is
the most ambitious cultural/educational
event on which ALBA has collaborated.
Over 400 objects and artifacts from an as-
tounding array of collections—chief
among them, the ALBA collection at
Tamiment Library—are featured. The ex-
hibition has been sponsored by the Puffin
Foundation and the Instituto Cervantes of
New York and has enjoyed the collabora-
tion of NYU’s Tamiment Library and
King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center. The
exhibit will be at MCNY through August.
To accompany the exhibition, ALBA
has co-produced a pioneering volume of
original essays and archival illustrations
examining the U.S. response to the “Dart in the Heart” game at the Village Fair, Greenwich Village, circa June 1938.
Spanish Civil War. The book, Facing Columbia University Rare Book & Manuscript Library, New York.
Fascism: New York and the Spanish
Civil War, is edited by Peter N. Carroll was challenging. We wanted to convey fact that fascism was a potent political
and James Fernandez and is published by the enormity of the significance of the force with the potential to spread
New York University Press. conflict itself and the intense engage- throughout the world. While some
During the MCNY exhibition, ALBA ment of New Yorkers and other embraced this possibility and most
is also co-hosting a variety of free public Americans with the events in Spain. New Yorkers abhorred it, the realities
programs around New York City to draw We also wanted to reflect the breadth became increasingly difficult to ig-
attention to connections between the past of the exhibition, which does not focus nore. The Spanish Civil War became a
and present. (See page 6.) Among our of- exclusively on the volunteers or even touchstone in the process of
ferings is a revised version of our exhibit, on those who supported the Republic. Americans facing fascism.
They Still Draw Pictures: Children’s Rather, it’s about a truly global and di- From a curatorial perspective, what
Art of the Spanish Civil War, at the verse city coming face-to-face with a part of this exhibition has been the most
Cervantes Institute of New York. world historical event—facing fascism. interesting and/or challenging to you?
Sarah Henry and Tom Mellen are the Given the recent re-politicization of SH: Every exhibition is interesting
co-curators of the MCNY exhibition. As “fascism” in our own political dis- and challenging, but this one has been
the preparations for the exhibition entered course, the title also points to the especially so. The biggest challenge is
the homestretch, we asked them to discuss resonance of this war down to our to achieve an emotional tone and in-
their intentions: own times. tellectual impact for the exhibition
Ed: Please tell the readers of The Tom Mellen = TM: I hope the title, that equals the intensity of the experi-
Volunteer about the title of this “Facing Fascism,” conveys a sense that ence of the war at the time. We want
exhibition, "Facing Fascism and the the 1930s in New York constituted a the visitors to feel and to understand
Spanish Civil War." time and place when ordinary men the importance of this conflict, its res-
Sarah Henry = SH: Finding a title and women, as well as political activ- onance around the world, and the
that fit the ambitions of the exhibition ists and leaders, had to confront the
Continued on page 4
THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 3
Facing Fascism
Continued from page 3

passion with which the political com-
mitments of the participants were felt.
Inanimate objects and pictures can
convey some of this, but they some-
times speak loudest to those who are
already engaged in the story. For me,
the quest is for the perfect blend of
photographs, objects, video, audio, de-
sign, and words to connect
emotionally with the audience so that
understanding can follow.
TM: For me, there have been two
principal challenges. The first regards
the broad spectrum of people who are From the Columbia University Rare Book & Manuscript Library, New York , circa 1937.
likely to see the exhibition at the SH: I think it was coming to grips extraordinary. A captured banner
Museum of the City of New York, with the sheer reach of this issue and with a swastika powerfully dramatiz-
ranging from veterans of the Abraham the degree of political mobilization es the theme of “Facing Fascism,”
Lincoln Brigade to students who have across the political spectrum. When while an unassuming postcard from
never heard of the war and are not fa- you consider how much smaller the Harry Meloff, saying with a wink
miliar with the conflict’s basic issues. world supposedly is now in our glo- “Had to leave town in a hurry—un-
One ramification of this is that the ob- balized information age, the derstand?” points to the individual
jects need to communicate directly immediacy of the Spanish issue to un- dramas of hundreds of individual
and, whenever possible, in a dramatic told numbers of New Yorkers in the choices involved in going to Spain. A
visual fashion, so that the exhibition 1930s is all the more striking. beautiful hand-painted certificate
does not become too “text heavy.” TM: What I have found most sur- from the City of Valencia to the
Additionally, it is important for us to prising, very simply put, is that Confederated Hispanic Societies in
always remember that the exhibition ordinary people did such extraordi- New York speaks to the links between
is on New York and the Spanish Civil nary things. Now clearly ordinary the Spanish Republic and its support-
War, not the war alone, and to empha- people do extraordinary things every ers on this side of the Atlantic. Fliers
size the level of engagement, on both day around the globe, but nonetheless, from CCNY, Brooklyn College, and
sides of the conflict, that was manifest it is still astounding to me that New Columbia bring to life the student
here in New York. The second largest Yorkers invested so much effort, and movement and vividly invoke hallway
challenge for me, though this rests to a sometimes sacrificed their lives, on be- bulletin boards papered with political
large extent on the shoulders of the ex- half of an armed conflict being waged content. And the Ralph Wardlaw me-
hibition’s designer, Constantin Boym, so far away. morial issue of the City College
and the graphic design firm of Pure In terms of the objects that you “Teacher-Worker” dramatizes the po-
and Applied, is the fact that many of have identified for possible inclu- litical mood on campus as well as the
the items on display will be small and sion in the exhibition, what are some loss of promising young lives. The
flat. How do we create a viewer expe- of your personal favorites? What is it Columbia University collections
rience that has a physically dynamic that is so special about these objects? yielded extraordinary photographs of
dimension and is thus both accessible SH: It’s hard to choose favorites the “Village Fairs” organized by
and memorable? among the hundreds of items that Dorothy Parker. Dozens of individu-
As a New Yorker and as an speak so powerfully to the complexity als have loaned poignant objects,
American, what have you learned of the experiences of New Yorkers and including a nurse’s medical kit, a rifle
that has most surprised you while the Spanish Civil War. So much of the stamped with a hammer and sickle,
working on this exhibition? material from the ALBA collection is Continued on page 8

4 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
Tamiment Celebrates With Poster
Exhibition, Symposium, and Screening
By Michael Nash Tamiment Library, 10th floor Bobst Labayni (NYU), Peter Carroll (ALBA),

n Friday April 27, in conjunc- Library, from 4:00 to 9:00 P.M. This Michael Nash (Tamiment Library),
tion with ALBA’s annual program is being organized to raise and Andrew Lee (NYU). Each will
spring meeting, New York public awareness about the extraordi- discuss the recent literature about the
University and the Spanish Civil War and the
Abraham Lincoln Brigade International Brigades
Archives will celebrate within the context of the
the official opening of the Lincoln Brigade archive.
archive of the Abraham Our symposium is de-
Lincoln Brigade at the signed to raise the profile
Tamiment Library. After of the Lincoln Brigade col-
a three-year preserva- lection, encourage use, and
tion and cataloging provide a framework for
project supported by the discussion about needs
National Endowment and opportunities for re-
for the Humanities, the search. A number of our
ALBA collection is now speakers will explore the
fully accessible and relationship between the
available for research. increasingly tense political
To bring public atten- situation in Spain and the
tion to this extremely rich contested memory of the
collection, NYU is organiz- Spanish Civil War. During
ing a major exhibit of the symposium we will
Spanish Civil War poster view a new documentary
art in the Elmer Homes film on the Lincoln
Bobst Library’s first floor Brigade, Souls Without
gallery. The title of the Borders (2006), made by
show is “Art and Politics: Spanish journalist Miguel
Posters from the Spanish Angel Nieto and ALBA’s
Civil War, 1936-1939.” The Tony Geist. The sympo-
exhibition will illustrate sium will be at the Elmer
how public art became a Bobst Library on the New
crucial element of the York University campus, 70
Republican government’s Washington Square South
efforts to rally support for (West 4th Street between
its cause, impart political lessons, and nary value of the Lincoln Brigade Mercer and LaGuardia).
convey a vision of a better world and a archive— the most significant collec- For more information about these
more egalitarian society. This exhibi- tion of historical materials in the events, please email Michael.Nash@
tion, drawn from the Lincoln Brigade world documenting American partici- or call (212) 998-2428.
collection at the Tamiment Library, pation in the Spanish Civil War.
will be on view from April 25 through Speakers will include Noel Valis (Yale Michael Nash is the director of the
August 15, 2007. University), Gabriel Jackson, Judy Tamiment Library and an ALBA board
The second part of our celebration Montell (ALBA), Fraser Ottanelli member.
will be a half-day symposium at the (University of South Florida), Jo

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 5
ALBA’s Spring Calendar of Events
Saturday, March 3, 2:00 P.M. History); Peter N. Carroll, author of Carlos I of Spain Center, 53
Reunion: Bay Area Friends and The Odyssey of the Abraham Lincoln Washington Square South.
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade: Americans in the Spanish Civil Friday, April 20, 6:30 P.M.
Brigade honor “The Legacy of the War; Peter Glazer, award-winning Screening and Panel: Into the Fire:
Abraham Lincoln Brigade.” Featured writer and director of Woody Guthrie’s American Women in the Spanish Civil
speaker Russ Ellis; Songs of the American Song, Heart of Spain: A War, award-winning documentary.
Spanish Civil War with Barbara Musical of the Spanish Civil War. New There will be a Q & A with the film-
Dane, Bruce Barthol, and Barrett York Academy of Medicine, maker, Julia Newman, followed by a
Nelson. 2501 Harrison Street, Auditorium, 1216 Fifth Avenue (en- panel discussion. Presented by the
Oakland, CA. For ticket information, trance on 103rd Street). Women’s Studies Department,
call (510) 582-7699 or email hbrosi- Monday, March 26, 6:15 P.M. CUNY Graduate Center’s Elebash Book Presentation: Facing Hall, Fifth Avenue between 34th and
Monday, March 5, 6:15 P.M. Fascism: New York and the Spanish Civil 35th Streets.
Colloquium: Sarah Henry (Chief War (NYU Press, 2007), with Peter N. April 25 to August 15, 2007
Curator, Museum of the City of New Carroll (ALBA), James D. Fernandez Exhibition: “Art and Politics:
York), Tom Mellins (Project (NYU, Director, King Juan Carlos I of Posters from the Spanish Civil War,
Coordinator), and Beth Compa Spain Center), and several of the con- 1936-1939.” Drawing on the ALBA
(Researcher) on curating the Facing tributing authors. Auditorium, King collection at the Tamiment Library,
Fascism exhibition. With Miriam Juan Carlos I of Spain Center, 53 the exhibition presents prominent
Basilio (NYU) and James D. Washington Square South. graphics of the war. NYU’s Elmer
Fernandez (NYU). Auditorium, King April 1 to 30, 2007 Homes Bobst Library, 70 Washington
Juan Carlos I of Spain Center, 53 Exhibition: “They Still Draw Sqaure South, first floor gallery.
Washington Square South. Pictures: Children’s Art in Wartime Friday, April 27, 4:00 - 9:00 P.M.
Monday, March 19, 6:15 P.M. from the Spanish Civil War to Symposium & Screening: To cel-
Lecture: Juan Salas (NYU) on the Kosovo.” (See article page 7.)’, 62 ebrate the official opening of the
photographic unit of the 15th Center for Theatre and Dance, ALBA collection for research at the
International Brigade. Auditorium, Williams College, Williamstown, Tamiment Library of New York (See
King Juan Carlos I of Spain Center, MA. Updated details on the event article page 5.) For information, con-
53 Washington Square South. will be posted at tact; (212)
Friday, March 23 CFLang. 998-2428.
Exhibition Opening: “Facing Wednesday, April 4 Sunday, April 29, 1:30 P.M.
Fascism: New York and the Spanish Panel discussion on Spanish ALBA’s Annual Reunion and
Civil War,” Museum of the City of Civil War children’s art. Speakers in- Salute to the Veterans of the
New York, 1220 Fifth Avenue (at clude Anthony Geist and Marysa Abraham Lincoln Brigade, an origi-
103rd Street). (See article page 3.) Navarro. Adams Memorial Theatre, nal musical program at the Teatro
Saturday, March 24, 1:00 to 3:30 P.M. Williams College, Williamstown, Heckscher, Fifth Avenue between
Lecture and Panel Discussion: MA. 104th and 105th Streets. Program to
“Culture and Politics in a Time of Wednesday, April 11, 6:15 P.M. be followed by a reception at the
War” looks at New York City as a lo- Short Films: New York in the Museum of the City of New York and
cus of political discourse, cultural 1930s. A program of short films that a tour of the exhibition.
creativity, and engagement during a represent New York City in that tu- Tuesday, May 1
critical period in world history. multuous decade. Colloquium with Theatrical Reading: from
Speakers: Mike Wallace, Pulitizer- Thomas Bender (NYU history pro- Numantia (Cervantes and Rafael
Prize winning author of Gotham: A fessor) and Arthur Simon (professor Alberti), Alberti’s Noche de guerra en
History of New York City (Chair, the of film studies, Montclair State el Museo del Prado (A Night of War in
Gotham Center for New York City University). Auditorium, King Juan Continued on page 9

6 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
They Still Draw Pictures
2nd Children’s Drawings Exhibit Shows in Moscow, Begins U.S.Tour
Following the success of the origi- the exiled Spanish children, Francisco civil came to evict us. In all fairness I
nal exhibition of drawings done by Mansilla, President of the Niños, which must tell you that the landlord gave us
Spanish refugee children during the we are now publishing for the first time. a year to come up with the rent, but
civil war, which toured the U.S. from Zorilla: Let’s talk about the we weren’t able to.
2003-2005 with the title “They Still Children’s Colonies. We wound up in a dump that cost
Draw Pictures,” ALBA Board mem- Mansilla: If you don’t mind I think us 30 pesetas a month. It was in the
bers Tony Geist and Peter Carroll have we should start by talking a bit about Vistillas district, not far from our orig-
curated a second exhibit using facsim- my life in Madrid. I was born in 1926. inal house, in the Rastro [Madrid’s flea
iles of a similar set of drawings owned My family was very poor. Though we market]. The place was vile, with a
by the Avery Library of Columbia weren’t until the Crash of 1929. My fa- communal toilet in the courtyard. We
University. The new show has just ther was a calligrapher and worked in began to experience hunger, serious
completed a two-month run at the the Banco Hispano Americano. I re- hunger. We ate bread dipped in wine
Cervantes Institute in Moscow, Russia. member this quite clearly because my and sprinkled with sugar. The days
This exhibit was sponsored by the mother sent us to collect the money he we were lucky enough to have a hot
Asociación de Niños de la Guerra earned every day, five pesetas. That meal, we ate a pot of garbanzos or
(now called Centro Español de was enough for us to live on. Not well, beans, the cheapest there was. And
Moscú), a group of young Spaniards but we got by. Then two things hap- since my mother knew that this food
evacuated to the Soviet Union in 1937 pened: the Crash of Wall Street and, in had to be purified, or at least accord-
who never returned home, and was fa- its wake, typewriters. My father lost ing to the wisdom of that period, she
cilitated by José Zorilla, Cultural his job and we sank into poverty. gave us an enema every Saturday.
Attaché in the Spanish Embassy in There were five of us and the guardia Continued on page 10
The new exhibition now begins a
tour of the U.S., opening at Williams Children’s Show at Williams College
College in Williamstown, “They Still Draw Pictures: rated the exhibition, and Marysa
Massachusetts, for the month of April. Children’s Art in Wartime” will be Navarro (Dartmouth College), who ex-
The facsimile show will also be shown at Williams College from April perienced the Spanish Civil War as a
touring museums and galleries in 1 to April 30 at the ’62 Center for child.
Spain. Theatre and Dance. The exhibit pow- The collection of pictures draws
For information on booking the erfully describes the Spanish Civil from Spanish Civil War materials
show, see the ALBA website, www. War as seen through the eyes of chil- owned by the Avery Library of dren—before the war, during the war, Columbia University and the
facing evacuation, life in the colonies, Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives.
An Interview with a Spanish and after the war. Substantial draw- For more information on the inau-
Refugee ings from more recent conflicts gural event or the exhibition, please
Editor’s Note: Spain’s cultural attaché underscore the ongoing trauma suf- contact the organizers, Soledad Fox,
in Moscow, Jose Zorilla, has made films in fered by children in a contemporary, Department of
Spain and was an early supporter of geo-political framework. Romance Languages , or Jane Canova,
ALBA’s photograph exhibition, The Aura A panel discussion will take place, Administrative
of the Cause. His interest in the Spanish on Wednesday, April 4, at the Adams Director of the Center for Foreign
Civil War led him to coordinate the exhibi- Memorial Theatre, followed by a re- Languages, Literatures, and Cultures.
tion of children’s drawings. While the ception in the Mainstage Lobby. Updated details on the event will
exhibition was on display in Moscow, Speakers will include Anthony Geist be posted at
Zorilla conducted an interview with one of (University of Washington), who cu- CFLang.

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 7
Facing Fascism
Continued from page 4

letters, diaries, and hundreds of photo- and a handwritten list of union mem- being challenged to evaluate their re-
graphs, each of which speaks volumes bers and their donation amounts, lationship to the rest the world,
about the personal and political com- ranging from 25 cents to a dollar, writ- particularly in terms of responsibility,
mitments and choices made by ten on letterhead bearing the influence, and action. Second, as the
individual New Yorkers in confronting following name and address: Spanish Civil War progressed, the
the issues of the Spanish Civil War. Dressmakers Union, 2189-232 West stances of the American government
TM: Among the items in the exhi- 40th Street, NY, NY. and the majority of the American peo-
bition I find most compelling are the • A collection can marked “Save a ple seemed to grow increasingly
following: Spanish Republican Child” that was divergent. Some museum-goers may
• A photograph of wounded introduced as evidence in the draw parallels to our own time and
James Lardner, son of Ring Lardner, Rosenbergs’ trial. The can is the same the war in Iraq in this regard.
and his letter to his mother, written in as countless others, long forgotten and What are the main ideas
Barcelona and dated May 3, 1938, ex- discarded, but of course is redolent you hope each visitor takes away
plaining his reasons for joining the with associations, given its use in the from “Facing Fascism”?
Abraham Lincoln Brigade. I find the trial, and suggests volumes about how SH: Exhibitions are designed to
mix of reasons, from the lofty to the the war and American support of the have many layers so that they can be
mundane, expressed in the alternately Spanish Republic was viewed by accessible to a wide variety of visitors,
sincere, ironic, playful, and profound some. We have requested this object; approaching the subject matter from
tone that seems to be a hallmark of we do not yet know if we will be able different levels of interest, knowledge,
young adulthood, very moving, par- to borrow it. and points of view. We would like
ticularly in light of fact that he How is this exhibition relevant for even the novice visitor to leave the ex-
ultimately sacrificed his life for a today’s New Yorkers? Why should we hibition understanding three central
cause in which he believed. care today about how New Yorkers reacted points: 1) the significance of the strug-
• A letter from Secretary of State 70 years ago to a faraway foreign conflict? gle in Spain in the context of the
Cordell Hull to Episcopal Bishop SH: The story of New Yorkers’ en- world-wide events triggered by the
Francis J. McConnell in New York, in gagement in the Spanish Civil War Depression and the rise of fascism; 2)
which Hull contrasts his personal feel- resonates today as a reminder that be- the intense engagement of New
ings and official government policy. ing a global city doesn’t just mean Yorkers from across the political spec-
He states, “The heavy loss of life diversity in population—it puts New trum in the unfolding international
among non-combatants resulting from York in a special and complex relation- events of the 1930s; and 3) the extraor-
the bitter struggle now raging in Spain ship to the rest of the world. In fact, dinary accomplishments of ordinary
has caused me the deepest distress many New Yorkers of the 1930s saw people acting in extraordinary cir-
and you may be sure that I have given themselves as citizens of the world, as cumstances.
and shall continue to give all possible engaged and moved by events an TM: The main ideas Sarah men-
consideration to any suggested practi- ocean away as they were by the press- tioned have guided us throughout the
cable means of alleviating the present ing issues at home. Their level of preparation of the exhibition. I would
deplorable situation consistent with personal, passionate, political engage- just add that in terms of the last point,
the American Government’s funda- ment serves as a sounding board for I hope people will come away from
mental policy of non-interference in today’s New Yorkers as they consider the exhibition understanding that
internal affairs of other nations.” their relationship to the global events many of the people that they have just
• Two items reflecting New York- of our own time. learned about were very much like
based labor union support of aid to TM: The exhibition seems to me to their neighbors, doctors, nurses, the
Spain: a photograph of a group of be especially relevant to New Yorkers students now at City College and else-
women sewing beneath a sign stating today for two (among many) reasons. where—that the people in the
“Volunteer workers making garments First, it documents a moment, much exhibition are much like the New
for Spain; Trade Union Committee”; like our own, when Americans were Yorkers that they know.

8 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
Plane with banner flying over Coney Island beach, July 4, 1938. Tamiment Library, New York University, ALBA, VALB photographic

How has the experience been of col- ion volume. Public programs and Calendar of Events
laborating with ALBA, the Instituto prior exhibitions at the Tamiment Continued from page 6
Cervantes, and NYU (Tamiment, Library and the King Juan Carlos I of
ALBA, KJC) throughout the process? Spain Center have provided an intel- the Prado Museum) and Romances
SH: One of the most exciting lectual foundation for planning our de la Guerra de España (Romances
things about this project is its collab- exhibition. And most important has of the War in Spain). A panel dis-
orative nature. We’ve had the great been the collaborative nature of the cussion will follow. Martin E.
good fortune to have partners in sev- development of the exhibition itself, Segal Theatre, CUNY Graduate
eral extraordinary institutions—the drawing on the tremendous expertise Center, 365 Fifth Avenue/34th
Instituto Cervantes, ALBA, and of our team members as well as an ex- Street. For information call (212)
NYU—and all of the expertise and re- ceptionally generous and 817-1860 or go to http://web.gc.
sources that they bring to bear. knowledgeable scholarly advisory
Through the ALBA collection at the panel. May 2 – August 12, 2007
Tamiment Library, we have access to TM: My experience of collaborat- Exhibition: “They Still Draw
an astonishing array of material—far ing with ALBA, the Instituto Pictures: Children’s Art in
more than we could ever hope to in- Cervantes, and NYU has been excel- Wartime.” A new version of
clude. Instituto Cervantes has lent, with everyone involved showing ALBA’s traveling exhibition. (See
provided intellectual and practical ac- enormous support for our efforts, as article page 7.) Cervantes Institute,
cess to the Spanish side of the story. well as providing insightful commen- 211 East 49th Street (near Third
NYU Press is publishing the compan- tary and very helpful suggestions. Ave.).

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 9
Children's Drawing: Moscow
Continued from page 7

That was your lunch. What about Valencia. To Gandía, really. To be ex- the 20 of us, eight parents said yes,
dinner? act, to a town called Palma de Gandía. mine among them. My father didn’t
Oh, dinner! My mother sent us to We moved into a country house aban- belong to any political party, but he
the “white sheet cinema,” that is, to doned by fascist sympathizers. A big was close to the PSOE [Socialist
bed, with no dinner. This was our rou- house with lots of plants, in the mid- Party]. I remember the demonstrations
tine. So food became an obsession. I dle of an orange grove. There were in the 30s. When the Popular Front
remember my mother saying, “Don’t about 20 of us. won the election we shouted PSOE slo-
go outside, the tomato and cucumber Do you remember your teachers? gans. The PSOE of that day, naturally.
kids are out now.” Of course, two school marms: OK, back to my father and Moscow, he
Who were the “tomato and cucumber Conchita the Fair and Conchita the said yes, that I should go, that it was
kids”? Dark. I remember their enthusiasm for the paradise of the proletariat. And it
In those days tomatoes and cu- the cause of the Republic and for the was paradise until 1941, when the war
cumbers were totally beyond our future of a new Spain. I remember began. Then things became quite diffi-
means. In that context, if a kid could how they took us to the beach and to cult. And by the time we were adults,
eat a tomato or a cucumber with a lit- see some caves that had paintings in forget it. Anyway…
tle salt on it, this meant he was rich. them. And I remember how we used Was it difficult to adapt to Russia?
Did they do this to make you jealous? to throw oranges at each other. As for The Russians decided we should
No, but you know what people are food, need I say that we ate three continue our education in Spanish
like. They wanted everyone to see how squares a day? rather than in Russian, so our integra-
rich they were. So their mothers sent Did you draw pictures like these in tion into Russian society was quite
them to eat the famous cucumbers the exhibit? difficult. Even today I can’t say the
outside. Well, I always liked to draw and word for “onion”–luk. I have to point at
Then the war came. to make wall newspapers. Sure we it in the market. You can imagine the
Franco led the rebellion and the drew. We also wrote. I remember writ- Russian we learned in the streets. We
Republican government established ing poems. The idea was to keep us said things you weren’t supposed to
Colonies in Madrid. My mother took busy so we wouldn’t get up to mis- say. Curse words, of course. Naturally,
all five of us kids. That was too much chief. we heard Russians speaking Russian
so they gave each of us a physical to What do you feel when you see these all around us every day. And since we
see who needed the most help. The drawings? learned very little Russian in school,
doctors picked the weakest of us, and Sometimes I think I could have we repeated what we heard. I still re-
that was me. I was sent to the Colonia drawn them myself. Of course, that member the trouble I got in at school
Puerta de Hierro, in a wealthy neigh- was a long time ago. Who knows? I one day when I said that someone
borhood. I wore pajamas there for the don’t see sadness in them, though of “cunted” my towel from me! I didn’t
first time in my life and had three course they show sad things, bomb- know the word for “steal.”
meals a day. I’ll never forget my first ings and evacuation…but you know What hopes do you have for this
breakfast. Hot chocolate as thick as ce- what kids are like. Their vision is not exhibit?
ment, and wonderful toast with butter usually melancholy. They remind me That it will keep us alive. There
and marmalade. It was incredible. But of Picasso. I think Picasso was in- were 3,000 of us. Now there are 199.
even more incredible was then we had spired by kids in his painting. (Translated by Tony Geist)
lunch and then we had dinner. We When did your experience in the
lacked nothing. Steaks, ham, sausages. Colonias end?
The government of the Republic took In March of ’37. The possibility of
care of the kids. evacuation to Moscow came up and See Calendar for listing of
Then came the evacuation from they asked our parents. You know, exhibit events, page 6.
Madrid and we were taken to since we were minors they had to. Of

10 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
The Spanish Civil War, 70 Years Later
By Julián Casanova
Republic with the force of arms, came
Editor’s Note: Julián Casanova, a pro-
from above and from within, that is to
fessor of history at the University of
say, the military command and the
Zaragosa, presented the 8th annual
powerful ruling classes that never tol-
ALBA/Bill Susman Lecture at New York
erated it.
University’s King Juan Carlos I Center on
In July 1936 a large section of the
December 12, 2006. He is the author of
Spanish army took up arms against
several books, including Anarchism, the
the Republican regime. What was
Republic and Civil War in Spain: 1931-
planned was an uprising, with all the
1939 (2005) and La Iglesia de Franco,
violence necessary, and a quick victo-
Temas de Hoy (2001). The ALBA lecture
ry. However, things did not turn out
series, which honors Lincoln veteran Bill
that way, and the result of this upris-
Susman, founder of ALBA, has previously
ing was a long civil war lasting nearly
hosted such distinguished speakers as
three years.
Bernard Knox, Gabriel Jackson, Baltasar
The division of the army and po-
Garzón, Philip Levine, E. L. Doctorow,
lice forces thwarted the victory of the
Grace Paley, Antonio Muñoz Molina, and
military rebellion, as well as the
Francesc Torres.
achieving of their main objective: the that left behind almost 100,000 people

he elections held last rapid seizure of power. But by under- murdered during the Civil War. Over
Sunday clearly show me mining the Republican government’s 60,000 people were murdered on the
that I do not have the power to keep order, this coup d’état other side. And 50,000 people were
love of my people today,” wrote King transformed into open violence, such killed in the uncivil peace that followed
Alfonso XIII in a farewell note to the as never seen before, by the groups the Civil War. At the end of the war, in
Spanish people, before leaving the that supported and those that opposed 1939, half a million people languished
Royal Palace on the night of Tuesday it. It was July 1936 and thus began the in prisons and concentration camps.
14th April 1931. So began the Second civil war. There were various conflicts in-
Spanish Republic, with street cel- The Spanish Civil War is notorious volved in the Spanish Civil War. It was
ebrations and a festive atmosphere for the dehumanization of the adver- a war of classes, between different
in which revolutionary hopes were sary, for the terrible violence it conceptions of the social order, be-
combined with hunger for reform. generated. Lawless, arbitrary shootings tween Catholicism and
The Republic had vast problems in and massacres eliminated enemies, anti-clericalism, about the idea of na-
consolidating itself and had to con- real or presumed, on both sides. The tion and about ideas and creeds that
front firm challenges from above and Francoist policy of extermination of the then dominated the international
below. It went through two years of left was fervently approved by a large scene. The Civil War crystallized
relative stability, followed by another number of conservative people. world-wide battles between landown-
two years of political uncertainty and Meanwhile, where the army coup ers and workers, Church and State,
a final few months of disturbance and failed, many of the left saw this as the obscurantism and modernization,
insurrection. The first firm challenges, hour of revolution and of final judg- which were also being fought out else-
which were the most visible as they ment against the rich, and class hatred where between communism and
usually ended up as confrontations and vengeance spread like wild fire. fascism, while the debilitated democ-
with the police, came from below, first The Church suffered a cruel and vio- racies looked on.
as social protests and later as insurrec- lent persecution: almost 7,000 members From the outset, the Church and
tions from anarchists and socialists. of the clergy were murdered. most Catholics placed all their resourc-
However, the coup de grâce, the chal- The military created, from the first es, and there were a good many of
lenge that finally overthrew the moment of the coup, a climate of terror Continued on page 12

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 11
70 Years Later
Continued from page 11

them, at the disposal of the insurgent this agreement was conducted by a fact hit Spain through an open mili-
military. The military did not have to Non-Intervention Committee, set up in tary intervention was fascism.
ask the Church for its support, which London on September 9, under the In the closing years of Franco’s
it offered gladly, nor did the Church chairmanship of the Conservative Lord dictatorship, certain pro-Franco mili-
have to take its time in deciding. Both Plymouth, the parliamentary under- tary historians, such as Ramón and
parties were aware of the benefit of the secretary to the Foreign Office, and a Jesús Salas Larrazábal and Ricardo de
role played by the religious element, Non-Intervention Subcommittee made la Cierva, attempted to show that the
the military because they wanted or- up of representatives from the states Republicans and the military rebels
der, the Church because it was bordering Spain and the major arms had received the same amount of ma-
defending the faith. producers, including Germany, France, terial, that foreign participation was
The international situation was Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. not enough to tip the balance in favor
not conducive to peace and this affect- In practice, non-intervention was a of Franco, and that the idea that non-
ed the war, in its origin an internal complete “farce,” as it was termed by intervention had harmed the
conflict. International support on both people at the time, who saw that it put Republicans was made up by the
sides was vital in keeping the war go- the Republic at a disadvantage with Communists and the International
ing in the first few months. the military rebels. This policy put a Left who sympathised with the
When the war began, the demo- legal government and a group of mili- Republic.
cratic powers were attempting to tary rebels on the same footing. However, the foremost experts on
“appease” the fascists, especially the The war was not a Spanish domes- the financing of the war and its inter-
German Nazis. So the Spanish tic matter. It became internationalized, national dimension, from Viñas to
Republic had to wage war against an thereby increasing the brutality and Martín Aceña, and including Howson
army favored by the international situ- destruction. This was because Spanish and Moradiellos, have pointed out the
ation. Dictatorships under the rule of a territory became a testing ground for imbalance in favor of the Nationalist
single man and a single party had new weaponry that was being devel- cause not only in terms of war materi-
been substituted for democracy in oped during those rearmament years als but also in terms of logistic,
many countries; and, except in Russia, prior to a great war that was on the diplomatic and financial aid. The
all these parties were of the right. Six horizon. Republic had money from the sale of
of the continent’s democracies were in- Tens of thousands of foreigners gold reserves at its disposal, an amount
vaded by the Nazis the year after the fought in the Spanish Civil War. It very similar to that provided to Franco
Civil War ended. Spain, then, was no was, in fact, a European civil war, in foreign aid, but the problem lay in
exception in a continent ruled by the with the tacit sanction of the British the difficulties it had in legally pur-
authoritarian right. But this cannot ex- and French governments. A little over chasing arms from democratic
cuse a wide sector of Spanish society, 100,000 fought on Franco’s side: countries. As Howson has pointed out,
the political and union leaders, sol- 78,000 Italians, 19,000 Germans, gold and foreign currency were not
diers and churchmen, who did 10,000 Portuguese, plus over 1,000 enough because the embargo and re-
nothing to develop a civil culture of volunteers from other countries, not strictions imposed by the
respect for the law, for electoral re- counting the 70,000 Moroccans who Non-Intervention Agreement forced
sults, for freedom of expression and made up the Native Regulars. On the successive governments under Giral,
association and for civil rights. Republican side, the figures given by Caballero, and Negrín to fall into the
At the end of August 1936, the 27 Rémi Skoutelsky show nearly 35,000 clutches of arms dealers who demand-
European states, all except volunteers in the International ed exorbitant prices and commissions
Switzerland, whose constitution de- Brigades and 2,000 Soviets, of whom and blackmailed politicians and civil
creed its neutrality, had officially 600 were non-combatant advisors. servants. As a result, the Republic often
subscribed to the Non-Intervention in Contrary to the myth of the commu- had to buy overpriced and obsolete
Spain Agreement. The monitoring of nist and revolutionary threat, what in equipment, disarmed planes or bomb-

12 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
ers that had no bomb bays. Russia, tion camps were the brutal result. the last 40 years, have been conducting
Poland and other countries were con- Why did the military rebels win constant research in archives, press re-
tinually swindling the Republic. the war? They had the best trained positories, and libraries. Without these
The international intervention of troops in the Spanish army, economic documents and books, thousands and
Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy and power and the Catholic Church on thousands of them, we would know
the retraction, for the most part, of the their side, and with them, internation- very little about this period.
western democracies determined in a al sympathy blew their way. This was This is why it is so important to
major, if not decisive, way the evolu- Spain as portrayed in the poster by compile and preserve all the docu-
tion and duration of the conflict and Juan Antonio Morales, “Los ments and testimonies of this past.
its end result. Nacionales,” published by the The struggle for information and truth
Many Spaniards saw the war as a Republican government under-secre- and the refusal to forget must be, as
horror right from the start; others felt tary for propaganda: a general, a has been the case in recent years, the
they were in the wrong zone and tried bishop, and a capitalist with a swasti- distinguishing marks of our democra-
to escape. Some Republic figures did ka, a vulture and colonial troops in cy. But as well as disseminating the
not take sides in the war, forming a the background. They could not lose. horror that the war and the dictator-
“third Spain.” But millions of people Thus there is no simple answer as ship generated and making reparation
were forced to take sides, though some to why the climate of euphoria and to the victims that have been forgotten
got their hands dirtier than others. hope in 1931 was transformed into the for so long, we must make archives,
There is no simple answer to the ques- cruel, all-destructive war of 1936. The museums, and education in schools
tion of why such barbarity broke out. Republic lasted for eight years, five in and universities the three basic hubs
Spain began the 1930s with a Republic peace and three at war, and interpret- of the public memory policy. Beyond
and ended the decade under a right- ing them still arouses passionate the testimonial and dramatic recall of
wing, authoritarian dictatorship. opinions rather than historical debate. those who suffered political violence,
Whatever we may say of the violence The history of the civil war and future generations will learn history
that preceded the Civil War, it is clear the dictatorship is no longer the exclu- through the documents and photo-
that in Spanish history there is a be- sive preserve of historians, and there graphic and audiovisual material that
fore and after to the coup d’état of July are now hundreds of people who wish we manage to preserve and hand
1936. And then, for at least two de- to address this past in political terms down to them. This is the responsibili-
cades after 1939, there was no attempt and, in the case of the heirs of the vic- ty of the politicians who govern us
at positive reconstruction, as occurred tims of Francoism, ethical terms. and of those in the opposition who re-
in the countries of western Europe af- Trenches have begun to be opened in fuse to administer this past of death
ter 1945. search of the remains of murder vic- and terror. Because with no archives,
The two sides in the war had such tims who were never registered, and there is no history.
different ideas of how to organize the there are some magnificent documen- Franco’s victory was also a victory
state and society, and were so commit- taries that unearth the aspects of this for Hitler and Mussolini, and the
ted to their aims, that settlement was past that have been hushed up the Republic’s defeat a defeat for the de-
difficult. Nor did the international most. This is a new social dimension mocracies. Now, 70 years later, we
scene afford much room for negotia- for history, with testimony playing the have to teach the young that violence
tion. The new dictatorships had to face main role. But the most significant and intransigence are the worst legacy
movements of mass opposition, and to events of the civil war and the dicta- of that period. Only dialogue, political
control them required new instru- torship had already been investigated debate, democracy and freedom can
ments of terror. It was no longer previously, and the most important heal the wounds of the past, and help
enough to prohibit political parties, questions have now been answered. to create a better present.
censor the press or deny individual And this is the result of painstaking
rights. Murder, torture and concentra- work by dozens of historians who, over

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 13
New Zealand’s Spanish Civil War
By Mark Derby
spoke on the role of the Spanish Zealand nurses in Spain. As was fit-

he first-ever seminar on New Medical Aid Committee. ting in discussing an event that
Zealand and the Spanish Other highlights included author generated so much art and literature, a
Civil War, organized by the James McNeish telling the story of number of cultural events were held in
Trade Union History Project, took New Zealand war correspondent association with the seminar. The New
place last November at Turnbull Geoffrey Cox; literary expert Zealand Film Archive ran a short festi-
House in Wellington. Coinciding Lawrence Jones outlining the reactions val of films relating to the Spanish
with the 70th anniversary of the ar- of New Zealand writers to Spain; an- Civil War; Diana Burns organized an
rival of the International Brigade in archist poet Farrell Cleary speaking evening of music, poetry, and drama
Madrid, the conference was well at- on New Zealand connections to the based around the same theme, includ-
tended, with 95 participants from Spanish anarchists; and Rosamund ing an extract from the Hemingway
a wide variety of backgrounds, in- play Fifth Column; and a new edition of
cluding trade unionists, historians, Geoffrey Cox’s 1937 book, Defence of
anarchists, and interested members Madrid, was launched by Otago
of the public, including several from University Press.
Australia. The presentations exam- A memorial ceremony was held at
ined New Zealand’s foreign policy the Wellington Cenotaph for the New
in the late 1930s; the work of aid or- Zealand International Brigade and all
ganizations; the reaction to the war those who died fighting fascism in
of the Labour Party, the Communist Spain. Green Party MP Keith Locke
Party, and the trade unions; the addressed the crowd, followed by a
pro-Franco activities of the Catholic wreath laying and the singing of The
Church; New Zealand literary re- Internationale.
sponses to the war; and the stories Canterbury University Press is
of individual New Zealanders who now planning to publish the seminar
served as combatants, medical staff, presentations in edited and revised
and war correspondents in Spain. Droescher, daughter of civil war veter- form.
Two Australian keynote speakers ans Werner Droescher and Greville For further information, contact
addressed the seminar. Judith Keene Texidor, telling the story of her re- <>.
of the University of Sydney spoke on markable family and their
the Spanish Civil War and historical involvements in Spain and New
memory; Amirah Inglis, author of a Zealand. Dark Metropolis
number of books on the Australian A particular feature of this semi-
An exhibit of the paintings of
connection with the civil war, covered nar was the high level of audience
Lincoln vet Irving Norman, “Dark
the topic of Australians in the Spanish participation. This was evident at a
Metropolis: Irving Norman’s Social
Civil War. The two leading New panel discussion on New Zealanders
Surrealism,” is on display at the
Zealand researchers on the Spanish who had served in Spain, with audi-
Pasadena Museum of California
conflict also spoke. Michael ence members adding their own
Art from January 21 to April 15.
O’Shaughnessy gave a paper on New knowledge to the information present-
According to the museum flyer,
Zealanders in the International ed by the panel. This session
“Norman’s monumental paintings
Brigade, based on research he is cur- complemented talks already given on
reflect a troubled turbulent
rently undertaking for his thesis. individuals such as New Zealand
world.” For more information, see
Susan Skudder, whose 1986 thesis re- International Brigaders Tom Spiller or call (626)
mains the definitive work on New and surgeon Doug Jolly, as well as
Zealand and the Spanish Civil War, Anna Rogers’ paper on the New

14 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
Paris Conference on Spanish Civil War
By Robert Coale as IB participation in the French Spanish survivor of Mauthausen. One

n November 17 and 18, the Underground, Spanish republican unfortunate turn of events was that
historic Hôtel de Ville of prisoners in German concentration most of the surviving French
Paris was host to an interna- camps, IBers in the Cold War, and the International Brigade veterans were so
tional conference on the Spanish Civil issue of historic memory in Spain to- exhausted from the week-long anni-
War and the International Brigades. day. The presentations often led to versary commemorations in Spain a
The third conference of its type this lively question and answer periods. few weeks earlier that they were un-
year, following Bristol in July and Several Spanish Civil War activists able to attend the proceedings.
Salamanca in October, was initiated also participated, including Lise The papers are expected to be
by ACER, an association of veterans, London, former secretary to André published next year as a lasting record
family members and friends of the Marty; Cecile Rol-Tanguy, widow of of the memorable occasion.
French volunteers in the International Henri Rol-Tanguy, hero of the French ALBA board member Robert Coale
Brigades. Other national organiza- Resistance and former 14th IB political teaches Spanish literature at the
tions joined the project, providing commissar; and Ramón Santisteban, University of Paris.
a broad cross section of official par-
ticipation. The City of Paris, the Catalonia Honors 70th Anniversary
National Museum of the Resistance,
and the Museum of the Liberation By Angela Jackson war, the lectures concentrated on the

of Paris-Leclerc-Jean Moulin all par- ast November the associa- reasons for the conflict and the tragic
ticipated directly in the conference. tion ‘No Jubilem La Memòria’ events that took place in some parts of
This wide support is proof of the (NJLM) sponsored the fourth this region during the summer of
evolution of thought on the Spanish annual commemorative weekend
Civil War and the International focusing on the Spanish Civil War
Brigades over the last decade in in Catalonia. The program began in
France. In 1996, following the massive Marçà with a tribute to the Welsh
“homenaje” in Spain, the French gov- Brigader, Alun Menai Williams. A
ernment officially granted former moving BBC documentary was shown,
IBers the status of “veterans.” Then in presented by Anna Martí, telling the
2004, during the ceremonies to com- story of his return visit to this area in
memorate the 60th anniversary of the 2005 for the first time since the war.
Liberation of Paris, the city govern- The film was followed by the first
ment paid special tribute to the public viewing of extracts from inter- 1936. The subject of the anarchist as-
Spanish Republican volunteers who views recorded for the next NJLM sassinations in the town of Falset
fought in the Leclerc Division and documentary. Joan Maria Thomàs, during the first weeks of the war had
were the first to enter the occupied Professor of Contemporary History been shrouded in darkness until now.
capital. Now, two years later, Paris, from the University of Rovira I Virgili The talk given by Toni Orensanz on
whose lieutenant mayor is of Spanish (Tarragona), took the chair for a round his research into the killings carried
origin, played a key role in holding table discussion. It was a memorable out by the “Brigade of Death” was fol-
this international conference by mak- occasion; for the first time, local peo- lowed by a lively debate.
ing generous resources available to the ple, many of whom were women, NJLM collaborated with ADAR
organizers. spoke of their wartime experiences. (The Association of Aviators of the
The conference itself was varied To commemorate the start of the Republic) for the commemoration
and the papers presented covered held in El Molar the following day.
many aspects. In addition to the dif- Angela Jackson is the president of No After a tribute to the pilots who per-
ferent perspectives on the war, Jubilem La Memòria and author of British ished nearby and to the soldiers and
participants discussed such subjects Women and the Spanish Civil War.
Continued on page 20

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 15
Book Reviews
A Guide Through the Spanish during the first months of the war.
Sufficient attention is paid to the for-
Labyrinth eign volunteers who flocked to the
Republican cause and not only boost-
The Spanish Civil War. By Francisco J. ed the morale of the loyalist forces,
Romero Salvadó. Palgrave-Macmillan, of Republican rule when explaining but also helped prevent the premature
2005. the sources of the Civil War. His ac- defeat of the regime in October-
count gives the appropriate attention November 1936 during the rebel attack
By Gerald Blaney, Jr. to the conflict’s slightly more distant on Madrid.
The Spanish Civil War, despite its roots in the Liberal Monarchy (1874- Chapters Four through Six have a
occurrence in what was (and some- 1931). Many of the social, cultural, and more domestic focus, though without
times still is) considered a peripheral political problems afflicting the forgetting the impact of foreign inter-
country, aroused passions and ideals Republic had their origin in the rigid vention. Romero Salvadó’s account
like virtually no other conflict of the nature of the Alfonsine monarchy. guides the reader through the com-
20th century. Almost inevitably, this Moreover, many of the benchmarks of plexity of the war, which was not
has led to a vast historical literature the 1936 rebellion and later Franco re- simply between two monolithic sides,
that, as the author notes, rivals that of gime (particularly the role of the but rather involved many underlying
the more “important” events of the military and the Catholic Church in conflicts, both between the opposing
past century. This massive literary Spanish politics and society) had their camps and within them. The author
output has been periodically augment- genesis in the monarchy. The first integrates the latest historiographical
ed with every 10-year anniversary of chapter outlines these developments, literature into his narrative, introduc-
the conflict, adding hundreds, if not foreshadowing their significance for ing the reader to the most up-to-date
thousands, of titles to an already stag- the civil war. research on various issues surround-
gering bibliography. It is in this Chapter Two provides a balanced ing the conflict. One such issue is that
context that the value of Romero account of the pre-Civil War Republic. of the divisions that existed within the
Salvadó’s book becomes apparent. A potential danger of taking a longer Republican camp. The author points
Written as part of a series on 20th-cen- view of the causes of the war is that it out that while there were considerable
tury wars, The Spanish Civil War diminishes the responsibility of the tensions, we should be careful not to
provides its reader with a concise, Republicans for what occurred under exaggerate these divisions (nor over-
easy-to-read account of the Spanish their rule. Romero Salvadó avoids this look instances of unity). Indeed, if one
conflict, integrating the latest scholar- interpretive trap, outlining both the had to assign primacy to a single fac-
ship on the subject and guiding us Republicans’ mistakes and their vir- tor, Romero Salvadó argues that the
through what Gerald Brenan de- tues, as well as noting the considerable international dimension should be ac-
scribed as the “Spanish Labyrinth.” role played by semi- and anti- corded its proper place: namely the
One of the principal benefits of the Republican forces in the significant aid received by the rebels
book is its account of the pre- destabilization of the Republic and the as compared to the considerable hin-
Republican period. Romero Salvadó, a polarization of the political scene. drances placed on the Republic’s
leading expert on this period of Discussion of the war begins in efforts to secure military supplies. The
Spanish history, notes that many his- Chapter Three, which includes the author notes that despite the material
tories focus on the previous five years international dimension. Romero and organizational advantages en-
Salvadó gives a detailed, yet con- joyed by the rebels, it still took them
Gerald Blaney, Jr., is a researcher at the cise, account of the reactions of the 33 months to defeat the Republican
Cañada Blanch Centre for Contemporary European powers to the Spanish con- forces.
Spanish Studies at the London School of
flict, particularly to the role of Britain Continued on page 20
16 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
Spanish War for Young German years in western Germany were those
of the Legion Condor and the aces

Antifascists who bombed Madrid and Guernica
and later built up the West German
Madrid – du Wunderbare: Ein armed forces. The story of how
Amerikaner blättert in der Geschichte quotations had to tell, more or less Communists, Socialists, democratic
des Spanienkriegs. By Victor Grossman. chronologically, the story of Spain and Republicans, and anarchists joined to
GNN Verlag, 420 pp., Euro 19.
what followed for those involved. defend a freely elected government,
The main aim of my book, written and how the western democracies,
By Victor Grossman with the help and cooperation of fearing such an alliance, chose to sup-
Adding yet another book to the “Kämpfer und Freunde der port Franco, Mussolini, and Hitler
endless library on the Spanish War re- Spanischen Republik 1936-1939,” the instead, thus giving Nazi Germany
quires an explanation. Before any German equivalent of VALB, is to the go-ahead signal for World War II,
rationale, however, a description. My reach young Germans. In cities and contradicts too clearly the current
German-language paperback is enti- towns all over Germany neo-Nazis are obligatory analysis that Hitler fascism
tled Madrid du Wunderbare (the first marching up and down, weekend af- and Stalinist Communism, including
line of a German verse to “The Four ter weekend, to win support from the the later GDR, were closely related, if
Insurgent Generals”). unemployed, the disappointed, the not basically the same.
On the cover, instead of, say, an hopeless. Their basic message, often I felt that young people should
armed Thälmann Battalion volunteer, enough violent, is one of hatred to- learn the story of Spain so as to under-
Evelyn Hutchins from the USA leans wards foreigners, especially the most stand the present and support today’s
against her truck. Most U.S. vets and numerous, Turks and Arabs, and the battles. One problem was honesty. I
their friends will know the photo. My most conspicuous, Vietnamese and did not want to conceal the tragic sides
son suggested using it; a woman vol- Africans. Also, of course, against Jews. of Spain—not only the final defeat and
unteer is unexpected enough to attract They are increasingly getting elected the betrayals, but the complicated sto-
attention, while her nonchalant pos- into provincial parliaments and have ry of Barcelona in May 1937 and the
ture, winning smile, self-assurance, hopes of getting into the national tragedy of those heroes of Spain—
pride and friendliness made her a per- Bundestag in 2009. Kleber, Kolzov, Smushkevich, Rajk
fect symbol for what was great in the But also, weekend after weekend, and too many others—later killed in
International Brigade tradition. In the mostly youthful anti-fascists gather to Stalin’s purges. I wrote of them, and I
book I quote Evelyn Hutchins on how block their marches, expose their lies, used quotations of some men who lat-
skeptical decision-makers were about and alarm an often disinterested or er “switched sides”: Orwell, Regler,
sending a woman truck driver to apathetic citizenry. Too often it is the Kantorowicz. But since the book is
Spain. antifascists whom the cops attack and mainly for people with almost no
My book is an anthology of per- arrest. But the “Antifas” keep on fight- knowledge whatsoever about the sub-
sonal anecdotes, descriptions, and ing and sometimes shame the ject, I felt it unfair to overstress such
ideas of participants, mostly IB volun- authorities into some kind of action. issues, thus obscuring the heroic main
teers, from as many countries as I view these young people as de- message, expressed so clearly by U.S.
possible. I hunted up short quotations, scendants of the International Ambassador Bowers, who vainly
rarely over a page or two, using two Brigaders—antifascist, international- warned FDR that a betrayal of Spain
criteria. Each one had to be either ist, courageous. But with rare would lead to another world war.
sharply descriptive, dramatic, moving, exceptions, German schools teach To link up the many quotations,
suspenseful or, wherever possible, hu- nothing about Spain. The few tradi- the largest number those of volunteers
morous. And, taken together, the tions officially maintained over the Continued on page 20

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 17

Buy Spanish Civil War books on the WEB.
ALBA members receive a discount!
Books about the LINCOLN BRIGADE Poems about the Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War by Cary Nelson
By Francisco J. Romero Salvadó. Passing the Torch: The Abraham
Ghosts of Spain: Travels through a Country’s Hidden Lincoln Brigade and its Legacy of Hope
Past by Anthony Geist and Jose Moreno
by Giles Tremlett Another Hill
Dark Metropolis: Irving Norman’s Social Surrealism by Milton Wolff
edited by Ray Day and Scott A. Shields Our Fight—Writings by Veterans of the
The Good Fight Continues: World War II Letters from Abraham Lincoln Brigade: Spain 1936-1939
the Abraham Lincoln Brigade edited by Alvah Bessie & Albert Prago
edited by Peter N. Carroll, Michael Nash & Melvin Small Spain’s Cause Was Mine
The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction by Hank Rubin
by Helen Graham Comrades
Member of the Working Class by Harry Fisher
by Milton Wolff The Odyssey of the Abraham
Fighting Fascism in Europe. The World War II Letters of Lincoln Brigade
an American Veteran of the Spanish Civil War by Peter Carroll
by Lawrence Cane, edited by David E. Cane, Judy The Lincoln Brigade, a Picture History
Barrett Litoff, and David C. Smith by William Katz and Marc Crawford
The Front Lines of Social Change: Veterans of the
Abraham Lincoln Brigade EXHIBIT CATALOGS
by Richard Bermack They Still Draw Pictures: Children’s Art in Wartime
by Anthony Geist and Peter Carroll
The Wound and the Dream: Sixty Years of American
The Aura of the Cause, a photo album
edited by Cary Nelson
❑ Yes, I wish to become an ALBA
Associate, and I enclose a check for VIDEOS
Into the Fire: American Women in the Spanish Civil War
$30 made out to ALBA (includes a one Julia Newman
year subscription to The Volunteer).
Art in the Struggle for Freedom
Name ____________________________________ Abe Osheroff
Dreams and Nightmares
Address__________________________________ Abe Osheroff
The Good Fight
City________________ State ___Zip_________ Sills/Dore/Bruckner
❑ I’ve enclosed an additional donation of Forever Activists
_________. I wish ❑ do not wish ❑ to have this Judith Montell
donation acknowledged in The Volunteer. You Are History, You Are Legend
Judith Montell
Please mail to: ALBA, 799 Broadway, Room 227,
Professional Revolutionary: Life of Saul Wellman
New York, NY 10003
Judith Montell

18 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
Added to Memory’s Roster
Al Koslow the WPA-sponsored Workers teenager he organized high school stu-
(1909-2007) Laboratory Theater. dents to demand recreational facilities
An experienced truck driver, Steck at schools, led a strike against his un-
served in the Regiment de Tren. He cle who owned a sewing shop, and
was captured by the enemy in 1938 was part of a group of young men
and jailed at San Pedro de Cardena. who moved people who were evicted
He later collaborated as a researcher back into their residences.
for Carl Geiser’s book about that expe- As soon as he was old enough to
rience, Prisoners of the Good Fight. get a passport without parental per-
After Spain, Steck continued to mission, he enlisted in the Abraham
work in community theaters, served in Lincoln Brigade. He served as a tele-
the U.S. Army during World War II, phonist/observer with the John Brown
and turned to public school teaching artillery battery and was one of the
in the postwar years. last Americans to leave Spain in 1939.
After the war, Coleman moved to
Coleman Persily East Los Angeles and found work in
the shipyards. He later joined the mer-
(1916-2007) chant marine and served as an able
Brooklyn-born vet Al Koslow has bodied seaman until 1948, when he
died at the age of 97 in New York. He
became a life insurance agent with a
was an organizer of the unemployed
during the depression. In 1937 he went clientele that was primarily Mexican-
to Spain, where he saw combat on the American. He became involved in
Cordoba front. Seriously wounded in issues affecting the Mexican-American
1937, he attributed his survival to the community, organizing against police
surgical skills of Dr. Edward Barsky. brutality, and other local issues.
Koslow remained active in refugee
Coleman became active in
aid organizations and later served in
the U.S. Army in World War II. He is Democratic Party politics and was
survived by a daughter, Donna, of San elected president of the 40th Assembly
Jose, California. District California Democratic Club
representing East Los Angeles. During

Robert Steck this period Coleman organized to get
Edmund Roybal, the first Mexican-
(1912-2007) American City Councilman, elected.
Coleman moved to San Rafael in
Bob Steck, one of the last surviv- 1960 and helped organize the Canal
ing prisoners of war of the Spanish Lincoln vet Coleman “Chuck” Community Association. He also or-
Civil War, died at his home in Arizona Persily, a lifelong political activist, ganized the Tenants Association of
on January 30. died February 7 in Marin County, Marin and served as its chair. In this
Born in Rock Island, Illinois, Steck California, at the age of 90. role he organized strikes against high
discovered an interest in theater at St. Raised in New York City, Coleman raises in rents. He ran for San Rafael
Ambrose College and moved to New honed his organizing skills as a child City Council to get a forum to raise
York. There he wrote for New Theater on the streets of New York. At 12 he the issue of rent control. When asked
Magazine and linked his theatrical spoke to an estimated 20,000 people by his son what he would do if he was
work with political activism at Studio and led a march to City Hall demand- elected, he replied that he never
One’s Theater of Action, an offshoot of ing unemployment insurance. As a Continued on page 20

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 19
As a young man in early 1930’s battlefields and other civil war sites in
Memory's Roster New York City, my grandfather saw this region. The period spent here by
Continued from page 19
the economic inequities that affected the volunteers in the International
not only him, but also those around Brigades before the Battle of the Ebro
thought of that as a possibility. He en- him, and he acted. He helped to orga- is the subject of an illustrated book
joyed having a forum for his ideas and nize the first grocers’ union in New due to be published later this year,
responded favorably when the Peace York, bringing living wages and an first in Catalan, then in English.
and Freedom Party asked him to run equitable work week to thousands.
for state assembly. In January 1937, he sailed to Spain
After retirement, Coleman contin- to fight the good fight against tyranny.
ued to organize on behalf of people’s Surviving the battle of Jarama, as well
Spanish Labyrinth
Continued from page 16
issues. He was also active in the Bay as many others, he returned to the
Area Post of the VALB. He leaves his states in October 1937 after contracting The Epilogue provides a brief dis-
wife, Pearl, brother Bernie, and chil- an illness. He returned to New York, cussion of the aftermath of the war
dren Fred and Harold, as well as where he met and married Florence and how Franco maintained the divi-
grandchildren and great grandchil- Kreitzer in 1939. sions of the conflict to perpetuate his
dren. A memorial is planned for As World War II began, with my power for 36 years. Finally, and also of
March 10. grandmother pregnant with their first great use to the reader, one can find a
daughter, he left to continue the good selected bibliography after the
fight. After the war, he started and Endnotes that lists the most important
Irving Rappoport ended a business, worked hard, and works on the various topics dealt with
helped to raise his two daughters and, in the book. All in all, for its clarity,
later, me, instilling in us his love, ide- conciseness, the breadth of its sources
als, and humor. (including some primary ones) and
—Scott Louis Clancy the author’s clear command of these,
The Spanish Civil War is highly recom-
Catalonia mendable to readers of all levels of
Continued from page 15 familiarity with the Spanish conflict.

civilians in the communal grave, the
medical notes and papers of Dr. German Antifascists
Miguel Gras, a Catalan doctor serving Continued from page 17
with the Republican forces in the
Priorat, were featured, including those from countries whose language I can
of U.S. volunteer Yale Stuart. A digital best read, English and German, I add-
copy of these papers is now in the ed comments of my own telling how,
NJLM archive. though too young to fight, I got in-
The events were all well attended volved with a struggle whose
and there was plenty of opportunity significance and drama always moved
1910-2007 for discussion and for social interac- me, especially when I got to know vets
Irving “Rappy” Rappoport, hus- tion. like Bill Bailey, Milt Wolff, Walter
band to Florence Rappoport, died on Projects are now underway for Schuetrum, Abe Osheroff, Moe
January 17 at the age of 96. He is sur- the coming year. The NJLM travelling Fishman, and others from Germany,
vived by their two daughters, Susan exhibition, which includes photo- Ireland, and Britain.
and Nancy, and grandson, Scott. graphs taken by Harry Randall and If anyone out there can read
As their grandson, I learned that it his unit, will soon be completed. In German, I would love to know his or
is neither labels nor titles that make May, NJLM will be collaborating with her impressions.
the person. It is strength of character the International Brigade Memorial and
and concern for the greater good. Trust (UK) to organize a visit to the

20 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
National Monument Contributions
The following contributed to the The campaign for funds to install the National Monument is taking
fund to complete a national monument off. We have raised approximately $200,000, two-thirds of the
to the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in San necessary funds to perpetuate the memory of the men and women
Francisco, California.
who left their homes to defend the Spanish Republic.
BENEFACTOR ($10,000+): Angela
Barsky Mortarotti for the Estate of Vita
We need your support to complete a project that is important not
Barsky • only for remembering the lives of heroic individuals, but also for the
SPONSOR($5,000 - 9,999): David larger issues of our country’s historical memory. In the words of the
& Suzanne Cane in memory of Larry Lincoln volunteer and poet, Edwin Rolfe, “We must remember!”
Cane • If you’ve already contributed to this campaign, please consider an
SUPPORTER($1,000 - 4,999): additional gift.
•Anonymous • Murray Berg in memory
Checks should be made payable to ALBA and mailed to ALBA,
of Bob Taylor • Peter N. Carroll and
Jeannette Ferrary • Les Fein in memory
799 Broadway—Room 227, New York, NY 10003.
of Dick and Gene Fein • Mary Fishman
in memory of Edwin Rolfe • Claudia & Amatniek • Grace Anderson • Lloyd & in memory of Francisco Redondo Peréz
Vernon Johnson in honor of Dave Smith Sheila Andres in memory of Louise • Nine B. de Fels • Bunny Rosmarin
& Sophie Smith • Tom Kozar in memo- Campbell • Sigrid Hackenberg Almansa Dell in memory of Joseph Rosmarin •
ry of my father John Kozar • Jack Levine • Michael W. Apple • Pearl Golding Leo G. & Mary Dewey • S. Leonard
in memory of Arthur Landis • Linda & Baley in memory of Barney Baley • DiDonato in memory of Clarence
Steve Lustig • Rosalie Ross Sennett in Michael Batinski • Joe Barrett • Paul J. DiDonato (Camillo) • Thomas Doerner
memory of William Sennett • Richard Baicich in memory of Saul Wellman • • Jan Marie DuBois in memory of
(Specs) Simmons in memory of Leo Carol A. Beane • William Bemis & Robert Pike • James Edwards • Walter
Nitzberg and Stanley Postek • David Rebecca Freeman in memory of Jack Effron in memory of Jesse & Lee Effron
Smith • Freda Tanz in memory of my Freeman • John & Gay Beverley in • Saul & Felice Ehrlich in memory of
husband Alfred L. Tanz • Fredda Weiss memory of Dorothy Healey & Eduardo Morris Brier • Dolores M. Emspak and
Foundation in memory of Benjamin & Lozano • Dr. Maryellen Bieder in ap- Frank Emspak in memory of Alan
Nancy Weiss • preciation for John Murra • Joseph J. Merrick & Clement Markert • May
Bilota • Timuel D. Black in memory of Engler in memory of Sam Engler • Paul
FRIEND($500 - 999): Dr.John Milton Cohen • Robert Blumberg • & Adrienne Epstein in memory of Dick
Brademas • Larry Carsman • Joan & Jorgia Bordofsky in memory of Joseph Fein • Bradley S. Epps • Mr. & Mrs.
Barry Cohen in memory of Len Isaac Siegel • Adele & Sam Braude • Antonio Farina in honor of Adolfo
Levenson • Bob, Paul & Diane Jane Pacht Brickman & John M. Guillen • Michael Ferris • Solomon
Fitzgerald in memory of Dan Fitzgerald Brickman • Mark Brody • Ellen Broms Fisher • Rory Flanagan • Herb Freeman
• Dr.Meyer Gunther • Roger in memory of Harry Kleiman (aka Cohn in memory of Jack Freeman • Dr.
Lowenstein • Tim Parker in memory of Haber) & Irving Norman • Bonnie Burt P.A.Freeman • Willard C. Frank, Jr. in
Max Parker • Harry A. Parsons, M. in memory of Ben Konefsky (Kline) • memory of Robert G. Colodny •
A.M.S. • Bob Saldich • David T. Nina Byers • Stuart Carlson in memory Edward Garcia in memory of Eduardo
Smorodin in honor of Abe Smorodin • of Dave Thompson • Margery R. Garcia Rios • Lola & Isaiah Gellman •
Chapman in memory of Elaine & Harry Margo R. George • Stefan Gerber •
ASSOCIATE($100 - 499): • Corise Mensh • Burt Cohen in memory of Lou Isolina Gerona • Lewis E. Gibbons •
Baley Aaronson in memory of Bernard Gordon • Paul Cox • Richard M. Ayesha Gill • Dan Ginsburg in memory
Baley • Bernard Aisenberg • Marisol Cullinen in memory of George A. of Clara Ginsburg • Paul Gittelson in
Ballesteros Alcibar • Joan Cindi Cullinen, Jr. • Judy Cunningham • memory of Lester & Miriam Gittelson •
Amatniek in memory of Ernest Christina & Mark Dawson • C.M.Hardt Martha Glicklich • Sherna B. Gluck •

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 21
National Monument Contributions
Frances Goldin • Irving Gordon in Marguiles & Beth Z. Margulies in mem- of Mannie Mandel • Norma Skye in
memory of Alex & Sam Finkle • Anne ory of Max & Mae Margulies • Ruth memory of William Van Felix • Peter
M. Gordon in memory of Louis Gordon Maguire in memory of Bill Bailey & Smith in memory of Harold Smith •
• Luke H. Gordon in memory of Louis George Kaye • G. Steven Martin • Irene Leider Solomon in memory of Ben
H. Gordon • Nick Granich • Jay & Judy Linden P. Martineau • Richard Masur • Leider • Carolyn Sonfield • June Spero
Greenfield in memory of Hy Greenfield Gerri Matusewitch • Marc Mauer • • Helen & Harry Staley • Peter Stansky
• Michael J. Grossman in memory of David McNeil & Sally Scully • Daniel • Victoria Starr in memory of Milt
Henry Grossman • The Grubstake Merer • Alvin & Katy Meyer • Gerald Cohen • Helene Susman in memory of
Foundation Trust • Joanne Gunn in Meyer • Edwin M. Moser in memory of Bill Susman • Patricia Tanttila & Daniel
memory of Sidney Kaufman & Duncan Robert G. Colodny • Robert & Lee Yansura • Jerome Tobin in memory of
Keir, Jr. • Yolanda Hall in memory of Naiman • Marta & Ralph Nicholas • Helen Freeman Feinberg • Jean-Paul &
Chuck Hall • Kae Halonen & Sam Stark Rita E. Neri in memory of Dino Neri • Sara O. Trélaün • Taylor S. Trowbridge
in memory of Oiva Halonen • Robert Polly Nusser in memory of my dad • Len & Nancy Tsou in memory of
Hamburger, Jr., in memory of Jacob & Charlie Nusser • Craig Oettinger in Kenneth & Ruth Graeber • Abraham
Ruth Epstein • Richard W. Hannon • memory of John Tisa • Lester Paley • Goldbaum Ttee • Shirley L. Van Bourg
Timothy Harding & S. Dorothy Fox • Karl Patten in memory of Isabelle Patten • Evelyn Velson • Susan Wallis in rec-
Paul Harris in memory of Sydney Harris • Richard K. Pelz • Rachel & Ira ognition of Milton Wolff • Constancia
• Phyllis Hatfield in memory of Bob Perelson in memory of Moishe Brier • Warren in memory of Alvin Warren,
Reed • Amanda Hawes • Helen Nancy Phillips in memory of Paul Maury Colow, Arthur Munday and
Hershkoff • Priscilla Hinman in memory Wendorf • Walter J.Phillips Ttee • Anna Warren & Naomi Colow • Martin
of Loyal (Luke) Hinman • Wythe Holt in Edward Poll in memory of Harry Poll • J. Weiss in memory of Audrey A. Weiss
honor of Dave Smith • Helen J. Jaszi • Mollie Portner • Mildred C. Primakoff • • Jeri Wellman & Nick Bryan in memo-
Dr. Steven Jonas in memory of Dr. Marsha F. Raleigh • Eleanor T. Rempell ry of Gerald Weinberg & Saul Wellman
Edward K. Barsky, M.D. • Rita Judd • in memory of Irving Rempell • Retirees • Haskell Wexler • Richard Quentin
Henry S. Kahn, M.D., & Mickey Assn.of District Council 37 AFSCME • Young • Jeanne Zamonski in memory
Gillmor, CNM • Marjorie Kalins • Nina Rivkind in memory of Eugene of Ann Newman • Paul Zink • Lou &
Barbara Kaplan • Louis Landman in Raleigh (Rivkind) • Wayne Roberts in Edna Zucker in memory of Danny
memory of Isaac Katz • Gale J.Lederer memory of Ralph Fasanella • Eleanore Haskell & Harry Fisher and in honor of
• Glenn Lindfors in memory of Veikko C. Rody in memory of John Rody & Abe Osheroff •
Lindfors & Kenneth & Clarance Forrester Marvin Nelson • Arthur Z. Rosen •
• Peter Lotto • Bertha Lowitt • Susan Bernice Rosen • Judith Rosenbaum • DONORS($1-99): Alvin Abelack •
Klein & Henry Lowendorf in memory of Norman & Leslie Ross • R. & C. Roth in Irving Adler • Joseph & Esther Adler •
George Watt • Fran Krieger-Lowitz in memory of Maury Colow • Robert Roth Maria Alexandrino • Jose L. Aliseda •
memory of Sam Krieger • Bernard • Esther & Lewis P. Rowland in memory Donna Allender • Josefina Alvarez •
Kushner in memory of Bill Susman • of Harry Magdoff • Steve Salemson • Carl Anderson • Anonymous • Isak
John Lamperti • Jane Sherman Lehac in Ruth & Michael Samberg in memory of Arbus • Steve Arnold in memory of
memory of Ring Lardner, Jr. • William Larry O’Toole • Ann Schonfeld • George Cullinen • Gerald Aubrey •
B. & Emily Leider in memory of Ben Marvin E. Schulman in memory of Anita Danny Auerbach in memory of Paul
Leider • Samuel Lender in memory of Risdon • James O. Sehon • Ship’s Segal • Gail Baker in memory of Leo
George Chaikin & Lenny Lamb • Linda Clerks Association, Local 34, ILWU of Solodkin • David Balfour • Ruth
Gould Levine • Mark Levinson • San Francisco • Fred Siegel in memory Bardach in memory of John Perrone &
Barbara Lilley • Susan Linn & Cliff of Joseph Siegel • Henry & Morrie Charles Nusser • Eugene & Evelyn
Craine in memory of Sidney Linn • Fred Silvert • Myrtle D. Simon in memory of Baron in memory of Saul Wellman •
Lisker in memory of William Sennett • John L. Simon, M.D. • Rosalind Singer Phyllis & Ellis Bell • William Bemis &
Joe Luttrell • Fred Magdoff • Martin B. • Mildred Mandel Sirotkin in memory Rebecca Freeman • Larry Bendoski •

22 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
National Monument Contributions
Mae Benett in memory of Lou Gordon Goldman • Muriel Goldsmith • ry of Max Katz • Rhoda Karpatkin •
• Blythe Bennett in memory of David Leonard & Sandra W. Goldstein in Donald Keeler in memory of Addison
McKelvey White • Jean Bernstein • memory of Ben Goldstein • Paul Starr Keeler, Jr. • Helen Keenan in
Lourdes Berneria • Anne Bernstein & Goldstein in memory of Irving memory of Thomas M. Keenan • Karl
Conn Hallinan • Juliet R. Bernstein in Weissman • Bea Goodman in memory Klimnik in memory of Saralee Hamilton
memory of Steve Nelson • Jane Bjoze in of Ben Goodman • Nina Goldman • • Tom Kennedy in memory of Fox
memory of Jack Bjoze • Katherine Black Francisco Gonzalez • Dr. Leonard Co.2nd Bat 5th Marines • Marlin R.
in memory of Saul Wellman & Milt Gordon • Paul Gottlieb • Suzanne Keshishian • Ervine Kimerliing in mem-
Cohen • Jack Blecher • Charles Gottlieb • Matilda Graff in memory of ory of Irving Fishgold & Sam & Rose
Bloomer, Jr. • Judith Bly • Sander Bolis Saul Wellman • Geraldine S. Grant • Margulies • Manny Kirchheimer • Sol
• Vernon Bown • David N. Brainin • Green in memory of Martin Green • Kirsch • Nancy Kline in memory of
Lorie Brillinger in memory of Fritz & Joan Green in memory of George Watt Polly Eddy Kline • Rayna Knobler in
Priscilla Silber • Phyllis Campbell • • Mark Grunblatt in memory of Dr. memory of my parents Bernard &
Phyllis F. Calese in memory of Robert Jacques Grunblatt • Lewis Grupper • Marion Knobler • Maurice Knoepler •
S. Calese • Anita Castleman • Jane & Anna Haake in memory of Herman Dorothy & Chaim Koppelman • John
Bill Chaleff • Allan Chase • Norah Bottcher • Lliela Halperin • Ilsa Kraljic • Murray Kranz in memory of
Chase in memory of Nat Spero • Halperin in memory of Curley Mende Moshe Brier • Arnold Krammer in
Mildred Cherry • Judith Chiti • Joseph from his daughters • Erica Harth • Al memory of Edward “Frenchy” Robinson
Cobelo • Ray Conatser • Sally Connolly Heller in memory of Al Alexander • • Martha Kransdorf • Beatrice Krivetsky
• Douglas & Rosemary Corbin • Olivia Patricia Hendricks in memory of Pat • Bobbie Kunreuther in memory of Bob
Delgado de Torres in memory of Iman Hendricks • Howard Henry in memory Reed • Richard Layh in memory of
Delgado de Torres • John Diaz in mem- of Donald E. Henry • Sally Hartz • Herb Rathman • Nina Lazar in memory
ory of Charles Hall • Joseph & Lilliam Fredrick Hicks • Josephine Hill in mem- of Sammy “Manny” Nahman • Milton
Dimow • Tom Dooley • Alvin Dorfman ory of J.B.Klein, D.D.S. • Agatha Lessner • Robert Z. Lewis • Ben Libow
in memory of Irving Gold & George Hinman in memory of Luke Hinman • • Abbie Lipschutz in memory of Kurt
Cullinen • Earl L. Durham • Ed & Iris Samuel Hirsch in memory of Maury Weill • Peggy Lipschutz Marlene Litwin
Edinger • Beatrice Eisman • Elaine Colow • Isidore M. Hofferman • Ann F. • Stan Lofchie • Cecilia London in
Elinson • Rabbi Laurence Edwards • Hoffman • WmStuard House & memory of Harold London • Agustin
Miles & Amy Epstein • Alexandrina Kathleen B. Kolman in memory of Dr. Lucas • Nancy O. Lurie, PhD • Anne
Esparza • Susheela Farrell • Amy E. Isadore Kolman & Mary E. Kolman • McLaughlin • Wallace & Joan
Fifne & Chester W. Hartman • Solomon John G. Hovan in memory of Norman MacDonald • Geraldine McLaughlin in
Fisher • Herman Sinaiko & Susan Fisher Jardine Osborne • James & Rhonda memory of Harry Hakam • George &
• Michael Freinberg • Victor Fuentes • Howard • Ruth Hubbard • William J. Jean Mandler • Dr. & Mrs. Moses
Kit Gage • Edith Galina • Steve Gamer Hughes in memory of Bill Bailey • John Margolick • Julius Margolin • Peggy
in memory of Harry & Ruth Fisher • L. Hill • Shane Hunt in memory of my Leary Martin in memory of William
John J. Gee in memory of Alvah Bessie uncles Charles, Frank & Ed O’Flaherty • Alonzo Martin III • James Massarello •
• Linda Geiser • Earl R. Geldon • Cecelila Hurwich • Jay Hutchinson in Robert H. Mastin in honor of Joe Vogel
Harriet M. Gelfan • Paula Gellman • memory of Clarence Forester • Joan • Margaret & Arnold Matlin • Milton
Blanche Gibbons in memory of Sam Intrator • Gabriel Jackson in memory of Masur, M.D. • Eli Mayorkas • Ralph
Gibbons • Norman Gibons in memory Irving Weissman & Bill Susman • Henry Meyers • Mae K. Millstone in memory
of Samuel (Gebin) Gibons • Rhoda & & Judy Jacobs • Martin A. Jacobs • of Isadore (George) Millstone • Ruth R.
Sheldon E. Glickman in memory of Sheldon E. Jones in memory of Sheldon Misheloff • Ellinor Mitchell • Rudy
Charles & Helen Freeman Feinberg • S. Jones • E. Kaplan in memory of Moltto • Carmen Moreno-Nuño in
Hyman M.Gold • Alfred Goldberg • Ed George Watt • Judy Kaplan • Richard memory of Francisco Nuño • Barbara
Goldman • I. G. Goldman • Morris Kaplan • Anne Katz-Jacobson in memo- Morel • Herbert J. Morris • Shirley

THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007 23
National Monument Contributions
Nash • Vincent Navarro • Gaby Neely Ruymaker • Ann Salmirs • Manuel Uren • Alan Van Fleet • Jenny Vincent
• George Nelson • Barbara Neuberger Sanroma • Dr. Manuel Santizo • Doug • Spyros Vutetakis • Ada Wallach in
• David H. Newman • Rebecca Sarti in memory of my grandfather memory of my husband Harry Wallach
Newman & Gary Drucker in memory of Paolino Sarti • Donnie Schatzberg in • Frederick Warren in memory of Alvin
Sol Newman • M. Joseph Nichols • memory of Pete Rosales • Dr. Muriel Warren • Tony Watt in memory of my
Stanley Ofsevit & Tobe M. Nicholson • Scheinman in memory of Prof. Morris grandfather George Watt • Mance
Ann Niederkorn • Shaun O’Connell • Scheinman • Martin M. Scher • Joseph Webb in memory of Oiva Halonen •
Francis L. Olson • Irwin Oreskes • Scherr • Sherry Schnall in memory of Vincent Webb in memory of Oiva
Herbert Ostroff • Grace Paley • Bruce Larry Schnall • Marco Schnenck in Halonen • Fredrica W. Wechsler •
Palmer • Jack & Mary Paradise • Parkie memory of Stoksstiel • Fred Schoen • Vivian Weinstein in memory of Max
Parker in memory of DeWitt Webster Dr. Peter Schwab • Jenny Scobel • Katz • Marcia Weissberg • Gerald
Parker • Wendy Petersen in memory of Anne Scott • Richard Seeley • Anita Weisman • Vickie Wellman & Ian
my greatuncle Irving Fishgold • Faith Shapiro • Eugene Shapiro in memory of MacGregor • Spike Werner in honor of
Petric • Irene Piccona • Joan & Martin Shapiro • Shirley R. Shemel in Milton Wolff • Edna Whitehouse in
Lawrence Pinkham • Ruth Kinkson in memory of Bill Susman • David P. memory of Bill Sennett • C. Perry
memory of Fred Irving Soloway • Joya Shriver • Eugenia B. Shulman in memo- Winston • Ed & Jean Yellin in memory
& Ricardo Pocasangre in memory of ry of Jack Shulman • Shwide • Seymour of Peter Yellin • Ellen & Leonard
Howard Marcos • Yvette Pollack • Siegel in memory of the alumni of the Zablow in memory of Bertha & Sam
Betty Pollach in memory of Paul Hebrew Orphan Asylum vets • Lewis Adler & Ernie Amatniek • Emma Zakin
MacEachron • Bernice Price in memory Siegelbaum in memory of my father • Maria Zanetta • Michael Zimler •
of Rubin “Ruby” Schechter • Robert Lewis Siegelbaum • Sam Sills • Arlene *As of January 31, 2007. Later dona-
tions will appear in the next Volunteer.
Potter • Gloria & Bill Powers in memo- Silverman in memory of Esther Merer •
All donations for the national monu-
ry of Ben Gardner • Michael & Iza Jane Simon in memory of John “Doc” ment will be placed on ALBA’s
Predmore in memory of Bob Reed & Simon, M.D. • Dr. Sidney Silverman • permanent website.
Oiva Halonen • Paul Preuss • Elizabeth Robert Simha • Josephine Simon in
& Tom Price in memory of Jack memory of Harold Smith • Lisa Simon CONTRIBUTIONS
for other Educational Activities:
Shulman • Eric Protter • Edward J. Pulia & Peter Nobes • Nancy L. Singham in
• Jack Purdy in memory of Cisco memory of Saul Wellman • Katherine SUPPORTER: Jeffrey Heisler in
Houston • Paula Rabinowitz • John Sloan • Carole & Henry Slucki • Ted & memory of my sister Toni and my par-
Radich • Irving W. Rappoport • Pablo Cala Smorodin • Ada Solodkin in mem- ents Vivienne & Irving •
& Riki Garcia Rebel • Margery Resnick ory of Leo Solodkin • Henry & Beth ASSOCIATE: Lucille Banta •
• Vicki Rhea in memory of my mother Sommer in memory of Harry Nobel • Michael Sennett in memory of
Florence Cohen & my uncle Albert Elaine Spiro in memory of Elaine & William Sennett • Thomas Silverstein
Ziegler • Arthur Rhine • David Rickey Harry Mensh • David H. Spodick in in memory of Milt Felsen Valerie &
• Kathleen Robel in memory of Charles memory of Al Amery • Victory Boutis Paul Taylor in memory of Robert
Edward Robel • Justine Roberts • Springer in memory of George & Taylor •
Gerald H. Robinson • Francisco Margie Watt • Joan & Charles Staples • DONOR: Florence Ariessohn in
Rodriguez & Mary Ann Nikl • Lawrence Frances Steadman • Ruth Steele • honor of Abe Osheroff • Naomi
Rogers • Stanley Romaine • Louis & Naomi Stern • Robert Supansic • Paul Zalon Cooper in memory of Sol Zalon
Evelyn Schwartz in memory of Jack Susman • Leon Sverdlove • Cy L. • Francisco Gonzales • Walter
Freeman • Wolfgang H. Rosenberg • Swartz • Helen Tarail • Sara & William Gourlay • Donna Grozuczak in mem-
Cindy Rosenthal & Arthur N. Read • Tattam • Richard & Elizabeth Resh in ory of Irving & Freida Weissman • Erik
Michael Rosenthal • Florence Ross • memory of J. Haley • Mildred Kooyer • Joel Lewis • William Mosher
Robert & Charlotte Roth • Eileen & Ted Thompson • Alice Troester • Merry • Michael O’Connor • The Rolands in
Rowland in memory of Steve Nelson • Tucker • Murray Underwood in memo- memory of Louise Becker • Mack
Hank Rubin • Joe E. Rubino • Ethel S. ry of Jacob L.“Jack” Teiger • J.W. & Irma Shelly •

24 THE VOLUNTEER  March 2007
Preserving the past…
to change the present.
Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives
The Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives (ALBA) is an independent, nonprofit
educational organization devoted to enlightening the American people about
our country's progressive traditions and democratic political values. Over the past
twenty-five years ALBA has created the largest U.S. collection of historical sources
relating to the Spanish Civil War, including letters, diaries, public documents,
photographs, posters, newspapers, videos, and assorted memorabilia. This
unique archive is permanently housed at New York University's Tamiment Library,
where students, scholars, and researchers may learn about the struggle against
For more information go to:

❑ Yes, I wish to become an
ALBA Associate, and I enclose
a check for $30 made out to
ALBA (includes a one year
subscription to The Volunteer).

Name _ ______________________________

Address ____________________________

City________________ State ___Zip_________
❑ I’ve enclosed an additional donation of _____.
I wish ❑ do not wish ❑ to have this donation
acknowledged in The Volunteer.
Please mail to: ALBA, 799 Broadway, Room 227,
New York, NY 10003
March 3
Bay Area Reunion
The Legacy Of The Abraham Lincoln Brigade

March 23
New York
Exhibition Opens
Facing Fascism: NY & The Spanish Civil War

April 29
New York
70th Anniversary Reunion of the Lincoln Brigade
Scheduled Guest: Harry Belafonte

Support the National Monument!

The Volunteer Non Profit org
c/o Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives
799 Broadway, Rm. 227 US Postage
New York, NY 10003 Paid
San Francisco, CA
permit no. 1577

Related Interests