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Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and Japan for the avoidance of double taxation and prevention of fiscal

evasion with respect to taxes on income The Government of the Kingdom of Norway and the Government of Japan, Desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, Have agreed as follows: Article 1 This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States. Article 2 1.This Convention shall apply to the following taxes: (a)In Japan: (i)the income tax; (ii)the corporation tax; and (iii)the local inhabitant taxes (hereinafter referred to as "Japanese tax"). (b)In Norway: (i)the national tax on income; (ii)the county municipal tax on income; (iii)the municipal tax on income; (iv)the national contributions to the Tax Equalisation Fund; (v)the national tax relating to income from the exploration for and the exploitation of submarine petroleum resources and activities and work relating thereto, including pipeline transport of petroleum produced; and (vi)the national dues on remuneration to non-resident artistes (hereinafter referred to as "Norwegian tax").

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2.This Convention shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes, which are imposed after the date of signature of this Convention in addition to, or in place of, those referred to in paragraph 1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws within a reasonable period of time after such changes. Article 3 1.For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires: (a)the term "Japan", when used in a geographical sense, means all the territory of Japan, including its territorial sea, in which the laws relating to Japanese tax are in force, and all the area beyond its territorial sea, including the sea-bed and subsoil thereof, over which Japan has jurisdiction in accordance with international law and in which the laws relating to Japanese tax are in force; (b)the term "Norway" means the Kingdom of Norway, including any area outside the territorial waters of the Kingdom of Norway where the Kingdom of Norway, according to Norwegian legislation and in accordance with international law, may exercise her rights with respect to the sea-bed and subsoil and their natural resources; the term does not comprise Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian dependencies outside Europe; (c)the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean Norway or Japan, as the context requires; (d)the term "tax" means Norwegian tax or Japanese tax, as the context requires; (e)the term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons; (f)the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes; (g)the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State; (h)the term "nationals" means: (i)in the case of Japan, all individuals possessing the nationality of Japan and all juridical persons created or organized under the laws of Japan and all organizations without juridical personality treated for the purposes of Japanese tax as juridical persons created or organized under the laws of Japan; (ii)in the case of Norway, all individuals possessing the nationality of Norway and all legal persons, partnerships and associations deriving their status as such from the laws in force in Norway;

(i)the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State; and (j)the term "competent authority" means: (i)in the case of Japan, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative; (ii)in the case of Norway, the Minister of Finance and Customs or his authorized representative. 2.As regards the application of this Convention by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that Contracting State concerning the taxes to which this Convention applies. Article 4 1.For the purposes of this Convention, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the laws of that Contracting State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of head or main office, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature. 2.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then this case shall be determined in accordance with the following rules: (a)he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are closest (centre of vital interests); (b)if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has an habitual abode; (c)if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State of which he is a national; (d)if he is a national of both Contracting States or neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement. 3.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall determine by mutual agreement the Contracting State of which that person shall be deemed to be a resident for the purposes of this Convention. Article 5 1.For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

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2.The term "permanent establishment" includes especially: (a)a place of management; (b)a branch; (c)an office; (d)a factory; (e)a workshop; and (f)a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources. 3.A building site, a construction, assembly or installation project or supervisory or consultancy activities in connection therewith, constitute a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activities last more than twelve months. 4.Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include: (a)the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise; (b)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery; (c)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise; (d)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise; (e)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character; (f)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character. 5.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person -- other than an agent of an independent status to whom the provisions of paragraph 6 apply -- is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a

permanent establishment in that Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business, a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph. 6.An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that Contracting State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. 7.The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other Contracting State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other. Article 6 1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 2.The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the laws of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting immovable property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property. 3.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property. 4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services. Article 7 1.The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in that other Contracting State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment. 2.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to

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make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment. 3.In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere. 4.Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article. 5.No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise. 6.For the purposes of the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary. 7.Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article. Article 8 1.Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic carried on by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 2.The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency. 3.Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the use of containers used in international traffic and related equipment for the transport thereof shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 4.The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply mutatis mutandis to the enterprise tax in Japan and to the capital tax in Norway. Article 9 1.Where

(a)an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or (b)the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State, and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly. 2.Where a Contracting State includes, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1, in the profits of an enterprise of that Contracting State --- and taxes accordingly -profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other Contracting State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned Contracting State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other Contracting State may, where appropriate, make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other. Article 10 1.Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 2.However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends the tax so charged shall not exceed: (a)5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which owns at least 25 per cent of the voting shares of the company paying the dividends during the period of six months immediately before the end of the accounting period for which the distribution of profits takes place; (b)15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases. The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid. 3.The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debtclaims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the taxation laws of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

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4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 5.Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other Contracting State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other Contracting State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other Contracting State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in that other Contracting State. Article 11 1.Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 2.However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest. 3.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and derived by the Government of the other Contracting State, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof, the Central Bank of that other Contracting State or any financial institution wholly owned by that Government, or by any resident of the other Contracting State with respect to debt-claims guaranteed, insured or indirectly financed by the Government of that other Contracting State, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof, the Central Bank of that other Contracting State or any financial institution wholly owned by that Government shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State. 4.For the purposes of paragraph 3, the terms "the Central Bank" and "financial institution wholly owned by the Government" mean: (a)In the case of Japan: (i)the Bank of Japan; (ii)the Export-Import Bank of Japan; (iii)the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund; (iv)the Japan International Cooperation Agency; and

(v)such other financial institution the capital of which is wholly owned by the Government of Japan as may be agreed upon from time to time between the Governments of the two Contracting States. (b)In the case of Norway: (i)the Central Bank of Norway; (ii)the Norwegian Guarantee Institute for Export Credits; and (iii)such other financial institution the capital of which is wholly owned by the Government of Norway as may be agreed upon from time to time between the Governments of the two Contracting States. 5.The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. 6.The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 7.Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or a resident of that Contracting State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated. 8.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention. Article 12 1.Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

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2.However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties. 3.The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and films or tapes for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience. 4.Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or a resident of that Contracting State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated. 5.The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 of this Article shall likewise apply to proceeds arising from the alienation of any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and films or tapes for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, or secret formula or process, except when the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 13 are applicable to the gains to be derived from such proceeds. 6.The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 5 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties or proceeds, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties or proceeds arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties or proceeds are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 7.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties or proceeds, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention. Article 13 1.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2.Gains from the alienation of any property, other than immovable property, forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of any property, other than immovable property, pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or together with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base, may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 3.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic and any property, other than immovable property, pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 4.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of containers used in international traffic and related equipment for the transport thereof shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 5.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraph 5 of Article 12 and the preceding paragraphs of this Article and arising in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. Article 14 1.Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities or he is present in that other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any consecutive twelve-month period. If he has such a fixed base or remains in that other Contracting State for the aforesaid period or periods, the income may be taxed in that other Contracting State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base or is derived in that other Contracting State during the aforesaid period or periods. 2.The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants. Article 15 1.Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other Contracting State. 2.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the firstmentioned Contracting State, if:

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(a)the recipient is present in that other Contracting State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any consecutive twelve-month period; (b)the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of that other Contracting State; and (c)the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in that other Contracting State. 3.Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that Contracting State. Article 16 Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. Article 17 1.Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, and a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other Contracting State. Such income shall, however, be exempt from tax in that other Contracting State if such activities are exercised by an individual, being a resident of the first-mentioned Contracting State, pursuant to a special programme for cultural exchange agreed upon between the Governments of the two Contracting States and supported substantially from the public funds of either Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or from the funds of a statutory body or a nonprofit organization thereof. 2.Where income in respect of personal activities exercised in a Contracting State by an entertainer or sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person who is a resident of the other Contracting State, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised. Such income shall, however, be exempt from tax in that Contracting State if such income is derived from the activities exercised by an individual, being a resident of the other Contracting State, pursuant to a special programme for cultural exchange agreed upon between the Governments of the two Contracting States and supported substantially from the public funds of either Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof or from the funds of a statutory body or a nonprofit organization thereof, and accrues to another person who is a resident of that other Contracting State.

Article 18 Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. Article 19 1. (a)Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State, or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State, or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof, in the discharge of functions of a governmental nature, shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. (b)However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other Contracting State and the individual is a resident of that other Contracting State who: (i)is a national of that other Contracting State; or (ii)did not become a resident of that other Contracting State solely for the purpose of rendering the services. 2. (a)Any pension paid by, or out of funds to which contributions are made by, a Contracting State, or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State, or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. (b)However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State: (i)if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that other Contracting State, or (ii)if such pension is not subject to tax in the Contracting State paying such pension. 3.The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State, or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof. Article 20 Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State, provided that such payments are made to him from outside that first-mentioned Contracting State. Article 21

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1.The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding any other provisions of this Convention, apply to the activities or income provided for in this Article. 2. (a)A person who is a resident of a Contracting State and carries on activities offshore in the other Contracting State in connection with the exploration or exploitation of natural resources situated in the seabed and subsoil of that other Contracting State shall be deemed in relation to those activities to have a permanent establishment in that other Contracting State and to carry on business through that permanent establishment or to have a fixed base in that other Contracting State. (b)The provisions of sub-paragraph (a) shall not apply if such activities are carried on for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any consecutive twelve-month period. However for the purposes of this sub-paragraph: (i)activities carried on in that other Contracting State by an enterprise associated with another enterprise shall be regarded as carried on by the enterprise with which it is associated if those activities are connected with activities carried on in that other Contracting State by the last-mentioned enterprise; and (ii)an enterprise shall be deemed to be associated with another enterprise if one is controlled directly or indirectly by the other, or if both are controlled directly or indirectly by a third person or persons. (c)The provisions of sub-paragraph (a) shall not apply where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on transportation of supplies or personnel to a location, or between locations, where activities in connection with the exploration or exploitation of natural resources situated in the sea-bed and subsoil of the other Contracting State are being carried on, or where an enterprise of a Contracting State operates tugboats and other vessels auxiliary to such activities. In such case, profits from such transportation or operation of tugboats and other vessels shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the enterprise is a resident. 3. (a)Salaries, wages and similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment connected with the exploration or exploitation of natural resources situated in the sea-bed and subsoil of that other Contracting State may, to the extent that the employment is exercised offshore in that other Contracting State, be taxed in that other Contracting State provided that such employment is carried on for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any calendar year concerned. (b)The provisions of sub-paragraph (a) shall not apply to salaries, wages and similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised aboard a vessel or aircraft engaged in transportation of supplies or personnel to a location, or between locations, where activities in connection with the exploration or exploitation of natural resources situated in the sea-bed and subsoil of the other Contracting State are being carried on, or in respect of an employment exercised aboard tugboats and other vessels operated auxiliary to such activities. In such case, such remuneration may be taxed in the Contracting State of which the enterprise operating such aircraft, tugboats and other vessels is a resident. Article 22

1.Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. 2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply. 3.Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention and arising in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State. Article 23 1.Subject to the laws of Japan regarding the allowance as a credit against Japanese tax of tax payable in any country other than Japan: (a)Where a resident of Japan derives income from Norway which may be taxed in Norway in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, the amount of Norwegian tax payable in respect of that income shall be allowed as a credit against the Japanese tax imposed on that resident. The amount of credit, however, shall not exceed that part of the Japanese tax which is appropriate to that income. (b)Where the income derived from Norway is a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Norway to a company which is a resident of Japan and which owns not less than 25 per cent either of the voting shares of the company paying the dividend, or of the total shares issued by that company, the credit shall take into account the Norwegian tax payable by the company paying the dividend in respect of its income. 2.Subject to the provisions of the laws of Norway regarding the allowance as a credit against Norwegian tax of tax payable in a territory outside Norway: (a)Where a resident of Norway derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Japan, Norway shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid in Japan. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in Japan. (b)Where in accordance with any provision of this Convention income derived by a resident of Norway is exempt from tax in Norway, Norway may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income. Article 24

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1.Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other Contracting State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States. 2.The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other Contracting State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other Contracting State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents. 3.Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 8 of Article 11, or paragraph 7 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the firstmentioned Contracting State. 4.Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the firstmentioned Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the firstmentioned Contracting State are or may be subjected. 5.The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply to taxes of every kind and description. Article 25 1.Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic laws of those Contracting States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention. 2.The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at the satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic laws of the Contracting States.

3.The competent authorities of the Contracting State shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of this Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in this Convention. 4.The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs of this Article. Article 26 1.The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the provisions of this Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that Contracting State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities, including courts and administrative bodies, involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. 2.In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation: (a)to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State; (b)to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State; or (c)to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public). Article 27 1.Each of the Contracting States shall endeavour to collect such taxes imposed by the other Contracting State as will ensure that any exemption or reduced rate of tax granted under this Convention by that other Contracting State shall not be enjoyed by persons not entitled to such benefits. The Contracting State making such collections shall be responsible to the other Contracting State for the sums thus collected. 2.In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose upon either of the Contracting States the obligation to carry out administrative measures at variance with the regulations and practices of the Contracting State endeavouring to collect the tax or which would be contrary to the public policy (ordre pubic) of that Contracting State.

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Article 28 Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements. Article 29 1.This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Tokyo as soon as possible. 2.This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification and shall have effect as regards income for any taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which this Convention enters into force. 3.The Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income signed at Oslo on May 11, 1967 shall terminate and cease to have effect in respect of income to which this Convention applies under the provisions of paragraph 2. Article 30 This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely but either Contracting State may, on or before the thirtieth day of June of any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force, give to the other Contracting State, through the diplomatic channel, written notice of termination and, in such event, this Convention shall cease to have effect as regards income for any taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention. DONE in duplicate at Oslo on March 4, 1992 in the English language. For the Government of Helge (sign) the Kingdom of Norway Vindenes

For Teruyuki (sign)

the

Government

of

Japan Sawai

___________________________________________

PROTOCOL At the signing of the Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention"), the undersigned have agreed upon the following provisions which shall form an integral part of the Convention: 1.The provisions of Article 7 of the Convention shall apply to the payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment as well as receipt from a bare boat charter of ships or aircrafts. 2.With reference to Article 15 of the Convention, where a resident of Norway derives remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard an aircraft operated in international traffic by the joint Norwegian, Danish and Swedish air transport consortium Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), such remuneration shall be taxable only in Norway. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Protocol. DONE in duplicate at Oslo on March 4, 1992 in the English language. For Helge (sign) For Teruyuki (sign) the Government of Japan Sawai the Government of the Kingdom of Norway Vindenes

___________________________________________ Oslo, His Mr. Ambassador of Japan Oslo Excellency, Teruyuki March 4, 1992 Excellency Sawai

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I have the honour to refer to the Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income which was signed today, and to inform Your Excellency of the following understanding of the Royal Norwegian Government: 1.With reference to the joint Norwegian, Danish and Swedish air transport consortium Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS); The provisions of Article 8 and paragraph 3 of Article 13 shall be applied to profits derived from the operation of aircraft or gains derived from the alienation of aircraft by that consortium, but only to so much of the profits or gains so derived as is allocable to Det Norske Luftfartsselskap A/S (DNL), the Norwegian partner of the consortium in proportion to its share in that consortium. 2.With reference to Article 13; It is confirmed that the provisions of paragraph 5 of the Article shall apply to gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State and arising in the other Contracting State from the alienation of shares including those deriving all or the greater part of their value directly or indirectly from any right relating to assets to be produced by the exploration or exploitation of natural resources situated in the sea-bed and subsoil of that other Contracting State. 3.With reference to Article 16; The term "member of the board of directors of a company" includes in the case of Norway, a member of the "representantskap" or the "bedriftsforsamling". I should be appreciative if Your Excellency would confirm on behalf of Your Excellency's Government that this is also the understanding of the Government of Japan. I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to Your Excellency, the assurance of my highest consideration. Helge (sign) Vindenes

___________________________________________

Oslo, His Mr. Secretary

March Helge

4,

1992 Excellency Vindenes General

Ministry of the Kingdom of Norway Excellency,

of

Foreign

Affairs

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency's Note of today's date which reads as follows: " I have the honour to refer to the Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and Japan for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income which was signed today, and to inform Your Excellency of the following understanding of the Royal Norwegian Government: 1.With reference to the joint Norwegian, Danish and Swedish air transport consortium Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS); The provisions of Article 8 and paragraph 3 of Article 13 shall be applied to profits derived from the operation of aircraft or gains derived from the alienation of aircraft by that consortium, but only to so much of the profits or gains so derived as is allocable to Det Norske Luftfartsselskap A/S (DNL), the Norwegian partner of the consortium in proportion to its share in that consortium. 2.With reference to Article 13; It is confirmed that the provisions of paragraph 5 of the Article shall apply to gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State and arising in the other Contracting State from the alienation of shares including those deriving all or the greater part of their value directly or indirectly from any right relating to assets to be produced by the exploration or exploitation of natural resources situated in the sea-bed and subsoil of that other Contracting State. 3.With reference to Article 16; The term "member of the board of directors of a company" includes in the case of Norway, a member of the "representantskap" or the "bedriftsforsamling". I should be appreciative if Your Excellency would confirm on behalf of Your Excellency's Government that this is also the understanding of the Government of Japan. I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to Your Excellency, the assurance of my highest consideration." I have further the honour to inform on behalf of my Government that the foregoing is also the understanding of the Government of Japan. I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to Your Excellency, the assurance of my highest consideration." Teruyuki (sign) Sawai

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