You are on page 1of 6

Introduction Management Information Systems Management Information System -deals with planning for, development, management, and use

of information technology tools to help people perform all tasks related to information processing and management. Information Technology -is any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization Information Age Knowledge worker - works with and produces information as a product utilizes information technology to work with information Key Organizational Resources Information People Information technology Telecommuting The use of communications technologies (such as the Internet) to work in a place other than a central location. Telecommuting in terms of : Opportunity Security

Information Technology -as a Key Resource Information Technology -is any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization Key Technology Categories Technology Hardware -consists of the physical devices that make up a computer (often referred as a computer system) Technology Software -is the set of instructions that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you 1. Central processing unit (CPU) -is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the functions of the computer or other processing device. The central processing unit carries out each instruction of the program in sequence, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. 2. Input Devices - any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. 3. Output Devices - any piece of a computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) . optical disc drives. is the only one directly accessible to the CPU.computer data storage. Storage refers to storage devices and their media not directly accessible by the CPU. Secondary storage .Control Unit (CU) . > Processor cache is an intermediate stage between ultra-fast registers and much slower main memory. Sub-layers of the Primary Storage > Processor registers are located inside the processor. it directs other parts of the system to do so. often referred to simply as memory. external memory or auxiliary/peripheral storage. It's introduced solely to increase performance of the computer. The control unit does not execute program instructions. often called storage or memory. etc. real storage or internal memory while storage devices have been referred to as secondary storage. 4.(or main memory or internal memory). memory has been called main memory. rather. The control unit does not execute program instructions. it directs other parts of the system to do so. with or without sign extension) . (secondary or tertiary storage) — typically hard disk drives. .implements in a 2’s complement binary number representation The ALU can perform simple operations such as provided below > Bitwise logic operations (AND. The control unit must communicate with both the arithmetic/logic unit and memory. Registers are the fastest of all forms of computer data storage. Any data actively operated on is also stored there in uniform manner. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer that conducts all arithmetical calculations (addition. NOT. Memory can refer to other forms of fast but temporary storage. The control unit must communicate with both the arithmetic/logic unit and memory. subtraction. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to access secondary storage and transfers the desired data using intermediate area in primary storage. memory usually refers to semiconductor storage random-access memory.contains circuitry that uses electrical signals to direct the entire computer system to carry out stored program instructions. differs from primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU. OR. Primary storage . XOR) > Integer arithmetic operations (addition. . Each register typically holds a word of data (often 32 or 64 bits). and other devices slower than RAM but more permanent.In contemporary usage. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required.Historically. and sometimes multiplication and division) > Bit-shifting operations (shifting or rotating a word by a specified number of bits to the left or right. rather. Memory/Storage Device .(also known as external memory or auxiliary storage).contains circuitry that uses electrical signals to direct the entire computer system to carry out stored program instructions. subtraction. refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data Memory or Storage? .is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations.) and logical activities (making decision by comparison of one item to another) .

Inventory management .from an organizational perspective payroll software. information-processing needs . Telecommunication Device – tool you use to send information from another person or computer in a network. and internal connecting devices which information travels from one piece of hardware to another Wired Connections – devices having connectors on the ends of cables that plug into ports on the system unit Wireless Connections – devices that can transfer and receive information in the form of waves. This is primarily useful for extraordinarily large data stores. this data is often copied to secondary storage before use. Ex. Payroll. and creating a slide presentation – that the user can usually do even if you don’t own a computer. It must be inserted or connected by a human operator before a computer can access it again. connector cables. Off-line storage . collaborative software such as videoconferencing.g. Connecting Hardware – includes such as hardware ports.is a computer data storage on a medium or a device that is not under the control of a processing unit. 5–60 seconds vs.Tertiary storage .tertiary memory. provides a third level of storage. 5. 6. The medium is recorded. Typical examples include tape libraries and optical jukeboxes. Typically it involves a robotic mechanism which will mount (insert) and dismount removable mass storage media into a storage device according to the system's demands. and then physically removed or disconnected. 1–10 milliseconds). usually in a secondary or tertiary storage device. Microsoft Word and Excel Vertical Market Software application software that is unique to a particular industry Horizontal Market Software .application software that is general enough to be suitable for use in a variety of industries Ex. accessed without human operators. creating a graph. and inventory management software are all examples of application software Categories of Application Software Personal Productive Software .helps the user to perform personal tasks – such as writing a memo. either infrared or radio waves Wired Connections (PORTS) • USB (Universal Serial Bus) • Firewire ports • PS/2 ports • Parallel ports Wireless Connections (Waves) • Infrared • Bluetooth • WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) TYPES OF SOFTWARE 1. Application Software . It is primarily used for archiving rarely accessed information since it is much slower than secondary storage (e.is the software that enables you to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks.

an environment in which an organization distributes computing power and locates it in functional business areas as well as on desktops of knowledge workers Shared Information . your competitive environment and your own internal operations – that gives you the ability to make effective.Allows the user to work with more than one piece of software at a time Utility Software . age Information data that have a particular meaning within a specific context Ex. Information. your competitors. System Software . current temperature. and Mobile Computing Decentralized Computing .a broad general term describing your ability to use technology to wirelessly connect to and use centrally located information and/or application software Information as a Key Resource Data. Upon deciding what to wear. the price of a movie rental.are raw facts that describe a particular phenomenon Ex.a system software that controls your application software and manages how your hardware devices work together Multitasking . the current temperature is information because it is pertinent to your decision at hand Business Intelligence is knowledge – knowledge about your customers. important.2. Shared Information.an environment in which an organization’s information is organized in or more central locations. allowing anyone to access and use it as he or she needs to Mobile Computing .refers to the relevance of information in a certain period of time .adds functionality to your operating system software Common utility software • Anti-virus software • Crash-proof software • Uninstaller software Disk optimization software Decentralized Computing.controls how your various technology tools work together as you use your application software to perform specific information-processing needs Categories of System Software Operating System Software . and Business Intelligence Data . your business partners. and often strategic business decisions Personal Dimensions of Information Time Dimension Location Dimension Form Dimension The Time Dimension .

suppliers. distributors. and other partners for the purpose of doing business Levels of an Organization • Strategic management – provides an organization with overall direction and guidance • Tactical management – develops the goals and strategies outlined by strategic management • Operational management – manages and directs the day-to-day operations and implementations of the goals and strategies • Non-management personnel – employees who perform daily activities Information Granularity .2 Aspects of Time Dimension • Having access to information when you need it • Having information that describes the time period you’re considering The Location Dimension the location dimension of information means having access to information no matter where you are access to information wherever you are Intranet . and directives that originate at one level and are passed to lower levels • Horizontal flow – flow of information between functional business units and work teams • Outward and Inward flow – consist of information that is communicated to the customers. goals. information utilized for/by non-management personnel What Information Describes • Internal information – describes specific operational aspects of an organization • External information – describes the environment surrounding the organization • Objective information – quantifiably describes the something that is known • Subjective information – attempts to describe something that is unknown .refers to the extent of detail within the information • Coarse granularity – highly summarized information. down. and inward/outward Information flows • Upward flow – describes the current state of the organization based on its daily transactions • Downward flow – strategies.an internal organizational Internet that is guarded against outside access by a special security feature called a firewall The Form Dimension refers to the relevance of information in terms of usage and content 2 Aspects of Form Dimension • Having information in a form that is most usable and understandable to the user • Information that deals with accuracy. intended for people found in the highest levels of the organization • Fine granularity – information that contains a great amount of detail. information that is free of errors Organizational Dimensions of Information Information Flows -Information in an organization flows in four directions: up. horizontally.

Information-literate knowledge worker • Can define what information they need • Know how and where to obtain information • Understand the information once they receive it ( can transform it into business intelligence ) • Can act appropriately based on the information to help the organization achieve the greatest advantage Your Ethical Responsibilities Ethics Principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people. Technology-literate knowledge worker A person who knows how and when to apply technology. Ethics are more subjective. But ethics are different from laws because laws either clearly require or prohibit action. The “when” aspect determines when and when not to apply technology. technology is still important because it can help to be more efficient and can help you dissect and better understand problems and opportunities. The “how” aspect includes knowing what technology to buy. and what technology infrastructure is required to get businesses connected to each other. Types of Knowledge Worker 1. but it’s really just a mind support tool set. your most valuable asset is not technology but rather your mind. Technology therefore is not a panacea. IT is simply a set of tools that help you work with and process information. Your ethics have consequences for you just as laws do.People as a Key Resource People . more of a matter of personal or cultural interpretation.the most important resource in any organization . Nonetheless. how to exploit the many benefits of application software.this is all about you and preparing yourself as a knowledge worker Information and Technology Literacy The Mind In business. . 2.